Structured Review

Shimadzu Corporation ketamine
A typical total ion current chromatogram derived from the extracted mice urine. The total run time was 14 min. <t>Ketamine</t> and its metabolites appeared around 10–11 min following the order of NK, deNK and K. No detected level was observed in both male and female control groups. NK, norketamine; deNK, dehydronorketamine; K, ketamine.
Ketamine, supplied by Shimadzu Corporation, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 184 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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1) Product Images from "Evaluation of urinary bladder fibrogenesis in a mouse model of long-term ketamine injection"

Article Title: Evaluation of urinary bladder fibrogenesis in a mouse model of long-term ketamine injection

Journal: Molecular Medicine Reports

doi: 10.3892/mmr.2016.5482

A typical total ion current chromatogram derived from the extracted mice urine. The total run time was 14 min. Ketamine and its metabolites appeared around 10–11 min following the order of NK, deNK and K. No detected level was observed in both male and female control groups. NK, norketamine; deNK, dehydronorketamine; K, ketamine.
Figure Legend Snippet: A typical total ion current chromatogram derived from the extracted mice urine. The total run time was 14 min. Ketamine and its metabolites appeared around 10–11 min following the order of NK, deNK and K. No detected level was observed in both male and female control groups. NK, norketamine; deNK, dehydronorketamine; K, ketamine.

Techniques Used: Derivative Assay, Mouse Assay

Changes in the body weight of the mice. The weight growth of the ketamine-treated mice was significantly less compared with that of controls after the 2 week treatment. The data are presented by the mean ± standard error of the mean ( ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: Changes in the body weight of the mice. The weight growth of the ketamine-treated mice was significantly less compared with that of controls after the 2 week treatment. The data are presented by the mean ± standard error of the mean ( ** P

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

Masson's trichrome staining images of the mice bladders. The ketamine-injected mice exhibited no significant difference in the distribution of collagen proteins compared with the controls. Images of the bladder tissue were captured by microscopy (magnification, ×40).
Figure Legend Snippet: Masson's trichrome staining images of the mice bladders. The ketamine-injected mice exhibited no significant difference in the distribution of collagen proteins compared with the controls. Images of the bladder tissue were captured by microscopy (magnification, ×40).

Techniques Used: Staining, Mouse Assay, Injection, Microscopy

HE staining images of the mice bladders. The ketamine-injected mice exhibited denser blood vessel distribution compared with the controls in (A) male and (B) female mice. The black arrows point the blood vessels. Images of the HE stained bladder tissues were captured by microscopy (magnification, ×400). HE, hematoxylin and eosin.
Figure Legend Snippet: HE staining images of the mice bladders. The ketamine-injected mice exhibited denser blood vessel distribution compared with the controls in (A) male and (B) female mice. The black arrows point the blood vessels. Images of the HE stained bladder tissues were captured by microscopy (magnification, ×400). HE, hematoxylin and eosin.

Techniques Used: Staining, Mouse Assay, Injection, Microscopy

Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction of two upregulated collagen genes. The mRNA samples extracted from four control and three ketamine group mice were assessed. The relative expression value of a gene was normalized against the expression of Actb from mice mRNA at week 20. The data are presented by the mean ± standard error of the mean.
Figure Legend Snippet: Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction of two upregulated collagen genes. The mRNA samples extracted from four control and three ketamine group mice were assessed. The relative expression value of a gene was normalized against the expression of Actb from mice mRNA at week 20. The data are presented by the mean ± standard error of the mean.

Techniques Used: Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Mouse Assay, Expressing

2) Product Images from "Efficacy of the Bunium persicum (Boiss) Essential Oil against Acute Toxoplasmosis in Mice Model"

Article Title: Efficacy of the Bunium persicum (Boiss) Essential Oil against Acute Toxoplasmosis in Mice Model

Journal: Iranian Journal of Parasitology

doi:

Prophylactic effects of Bunium persicum (Boiss) essential oil on the time/mean time of death of infected mice with acute toxoplasmosis
Figure Legend Snippet: Prophylactic effects of Bunium persicum (Boiss) essential oil on the time/mean time of death of infected mice with acute toxoplasmosis

Techniques Used: Infection, Mouse Assay

Flow chart of in vivo efficacy of the Bunium persicum (Boiss) essential oil against acute toxoplasmosis in mice
Figure Legend Snippet: Flow chart of in vivo efficacy of the Bunium persicum (Boiss) essential oil against acute toxoplasmosis in mice

Techniques Used: Flow Cytometry, In Vivo, Mouse Assay

Therapeutic effects of Bunium persicum (Boiss) essential oil on the time/mean time of death of infected mice with acute toxoplasmosis
Figure Legend Snippet: Therapeutic effects of Bunium persicum (Boiss) essential oil on the time/mean time of death of infected mice with acute toxoplasmosis

Techniques Used: Infection, Mouse Assay

3) Product Images from "Differential Detection of Potentially Hazardous Fusarium Species in Wheat Grains by an Electronic Nose"

Article Title: Differential Detection of Potentially Hazardous Fusarium Species in Wheat Grains by an Electronic Nose

Journal: PLoS ONE

doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0021026

Temperature-dependency of abundancies. Comparison of total volatile abundances of four Fusaria species and controls as obtained from the GC/MS measurements taken at two different sampling temperatures.
Figure Legend Snippet: Temperature-dependency of abundancies. Comparison of total volatile abundances of four Fusaria species and controls as obtained from the GC/MS measurements taken at two different sampling temperatures.

Techniques Used: Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, Sampling

4) Product Images from "Exogenous melatonin improves glutathione content, redox state and increases essential oil production in two Salvia species under drought stress"

Article Title: Exogenous melatonin improves glutathione content, redox state and increases essential oil production in two Salvia species under drought stress

Journal: Scientific Reports

doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-63986-6

Heatmap representation of the interactive effects of drought stress and melatonin application on total glutathione (GT), glutathione reductase (GR), reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), GSH/GSSG, catalase (CAT) activity (µ mole min −1 mg protein), peroxidase (POD) activity (µ mole min −1 mg protein), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity (µ mole min −1 mg protein) of Salvia nemorosa L., and Salvia reuterana Boiss. Three-way ANOVA test: Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different by the LSD Multiple Range test at P ≤ 0.05. Purple and yellow represent increased and decreased values, respectively.
Figure Legend Snippet: Heatmap representation of the interactive effects of drought stress and melatonin application on total glutathione (GT), glutathione reductase (GR), reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), GSH/GSSG, catalase (CAT) activity (µ mole min −1 mg protein), peroxidase (POD) activity (µ mole min −1 mg protein), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity (µ mole min −1 mg protein) of Salvia nemorosa L., and Salvia reuterana Boiss. Three-way ANOVA test: Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different by the LSD Multiple Range test at P ≤ 0.05. Purple and yellow represent increased and decreased values, respectively.

Techniques Used: Activity Assay

Hierarchical cluster analysis of exogenous melatonin in two Salvia species under reduced irrigation regimes, based on enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant properties and essential oil yield. S1: Salvia nemorosa L., and S2: Salvia reuterana Boiss. D 1 : irrigation at 80% Fc, D 2 : irrigation at 60% FC, D 3 : irrigation at 40% Fc, M 1 (0 µM melatonin), M 2 (50 µM melatonin). M 3 (100 µM melatonin), M 4 (150 µM melatonin) and M5 (200 µM melatonin).
Figure Legend Snippet: Hierarchical cluster analysis of exogenous melatonin in two Salvia species under reduced irrigation regimes, based on enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant properties and essential oil yield. S1: Salvia nemorosa L., and S2: Salvia reuterana Boiss. D 1 : irrigation at 80% Fc, D 2 : irrigation at 60% FC, D 3 : irrigation at 40% Fc, M 1 (0 µM melatonin), M 2 (50 µM melatonin). M 3 (100 µM melatonin), M 4 (150 µM melatonin) and M5 (200 µM melatonin).

Techniques Used:

Heatmap representation of the interactive effect of drought stress and melatonin application on H 2 O 2 content (nmol g −1 ), lipid peroxidation indicated by malondialdehyde (MDA) (nmol g −1 ), electrolyte leakage (EL%), Fv/Fm ratio, essential oil content (EOC %), and essential oil yield (EOY) (g plant −1 ) of Salvia nemorosa L., and Salvia reuterana Boiss. Three-way ANOVA test: Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different by the LSD Multiple Range test at P ≤ 0.05. Purple and yellow represent increased and decreased values, respectively.
Figure Legend Snippet: Heatmap representation of the interactive effect of drought stress and melatonin application on H 2 O 2 content (nmol g −1 ), lipid peroxidation indicated by malondialdehyde (MDA) (nmol g −1 ), electrolyte leakage (EL%), Fv/Fm ratio, essential oil content (EOC %), and essential oil yield (EOY) (g plant −1 ) of Salvia nemorosa L., and Salvia reuterana Boiss. Three-way ANOVA test: Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different by the LSD Multiple Range test at P ≤ 0.05. Purple and yellow represent increased and decreased values, respectively.

Techniques Used: Multiple Displacement Amplification

5) Product Images from "(3S,6E)-Nerolidol-mediated rendezvous of Cyclocephalini beetles, Cyclocephala paraguayensis, in bottle gourd flowers"

Article Title: (3S,6E)-Nerolidol-mediated rendezvous of Cyclocephalini beetles, Cyclocephala paraguayensis, in bottle gourd flowers

Journal: bioRxiv

doi: 10.1101/2020.06.09.142059

GC-EAD analysis of floral scents extract of Lagenaria siceraria by using male and female antenna of Cyclocephalini beetle, Cyclocephala paraguayensis , as sensing elements. “FID” flame-ionization detection.
Figure Legend Snippet: GC-EAD analysis of floral scents extract of Lagenaria siceraria by using male and female antenna of Cyclocephalini beetle, Cyclocephala paraguayensis , as sensing elements. “FID” flame-ionization detection.

Techniques Used:

6) Product Images from "Microbial Populations Associated with Treatment of an Industrial Dye Effluent in an Anaerobic Baffled Reactor"

Article Title: Microbial Populations Associated with Treatment of an Industrial Dye Effluent in an Anaerobic Baffled Reactor

Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

doi: 10.1128/AEM.67.7.3226-3235.2001

ABR performance. (A) Compartment COD levels before addition of the dye waste (days 40 and 55) and just after addition (day 70). (B) TOC levels in compartments 1, 4, and 8 after addition of the dye waste. (C) Profile of color removal in the ABR compartments measured by using absorbance at 500 nm for samples taken on day 100.
Figure Legend Snippet: ABR performance. (A) Compartment COD levels before addition of the dye waste (days 40 and 55) and just after addition (day 70). (B) TOC levels in compartments 1, 4, and 8 after addition of the dye waste. (C) Profile of color removal in the ABR compartments measured by using absorbance at 500 nm for samples taken on day 100.

Techniques Used:

7) Product Images from "Microbial Populations Associated with Treatment of an Industrial Dye Effluent in an Anaerobic Baffled Reactor"

Article Title: Microbial Populations Associated with Treatment of an Industrial Dye Effluent in an Anaerobic Baffled Reactor

Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

doi: 10.1128/AEM.67.7.3226-3235.2001

ABR performance. (A) Compartment COD levels before addition of the dye waste (days 40 and 55) and just after addition (day 70). (B) TOC levels in compartments 1, 4, and 8 after addition of the dye waste. (C) Profile of color removal in the ABR compartments measured by using absorbance at 500 nm for samples taken on day 100.
Figure Legend Snippet: ABR performance. (A) Compartment COD levels before addition of the dye waste (days 40 and 55) and just after addition (day 70). (B) TOC levels in compartments 1, 4, and 8 after addition of the dye waste. (C) Profile of color removal in the ABR compartments measured by using absorbance at 500 nm for samples taken on day 100.

Techniques Used:

8) Product Images from "Curdione Plays an Important Role in the Inhibitory Effect of Curcuma aromatica on CYP3A4 in Caco-2 Cells"

Article Title: Curdione Plays an Important Role in the Inhibitory Effect of Curcuma aromatica on CYP3A4 in Caco-2 Cells

Journal: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM

doi: 10.1093/ecam/nep229

Effects of MeOH extract, hexane fraction, curcumin and curdione on CYP3A4 protein and mRNA expression levels. Components were applied to the apical compartment and incubated for 72 hours. Then cell lysate or total RNA was prepared for western blot or real-time PCR. (a) Representative western immunoblot for CYP3A4 and quantitative analysis of CYP3A4 immunoprotein. The western immunoblot band intensities were normalized with that of GAPDH. Results are means ± SD from triplicate experiments. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of MeOH extract, hexane fraction, curcumin and curdione on CYP3A4 protein and mRNA expression levels. Components were applied to the apical compartment and incubated for 72 hours. Then cell lysate or total RNA was prepared for western blot or real-time PCR. (a) Representative western immunoblot for CYP3A4 and quantitative analysis of CYP3A4 immunoprotein. The western immunoblot band intensities were normalized with that of GAPDH. Results are means ± SD from triplicate experiments. ** P

Techniques Used: Expressing, Incubation, Western Blot, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction

Inhibition of nifedipine oxidation by components from C. aromatica (MeOH extract: 0.1 mg ml −1 ; haxane fraction: 0.1 mg ml −1 ; curdione: 20 μ M; curcumin: 4 μ M). Components were applied to the apical compartment and incubated for 72 hours. After removing components, nifedipine (200 μ M) was added to the apical compartment and incubated for 4 hours. The amount of oxidized nifedipine in the basolateral compartment was measured. Results are means ± SD from triplicate experiments. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: Inhibition of nifedipine oxidation by components from C. aromatica (MeOH extract: 0.1 mg ml −1 ; haxane fraction: 0.1 mg ml −1 ; curdione: 20 μ M; curcumin: 4 μ M). Components were applied to the apical compartment and incubated for 72 hours. After removing components, nifedipine (200 μ M) was added to the apical compartment and incubated for 4 hours. The amount of oxidized nifedipine in the basolateral compartment was measured. Results are means ± SD from triplicate experiments. ** P

Techniques Used: Inhibition, Incubation

Chemical structure of curcumin and curdione.
Figure Legend Snippet: Chemical structure of curcumin and curdione.

Techniques Used:

Effects of MeOH extract, hexane fraction and curdione on CYP3A4 protein expression in CHX-treated Caco-2 cells. The western immunoblot band intensities were normalized with that of GAPDH. Results are means ± SD from triplicate experiments. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of MeOH extract, hexane fraction and curdione on CYP3A4 protein expression in CHX-treated Caco-2 cells. The western immunoblot band intensities were normalized with that of GAPDH. Results are means ± SD from triplicate experiments. ** P

Techniques Used: Expressing, Western Blot

9) Product Images from "Phytochemical analysis and in-vitro anti-African swine fever virus activity of extracts and fractions of Ancistrocladus uncinatus, Hutch and Dalziel (Ancistrocladaceae)"

Article Title: Phytochemical analysis and in-vitro anti-African swine fever virus activity of extracts and fractions of Ancistrocladus uncinatus, Hutch and Dalziel (Ancistrocladaceae)

Journal: BMC Veterinary Research

doi: 10.1186/1746-6148-9-120

Dose-Effect Curves and Cytotoxicity patterns of A. uncinatus.
Figure Legend Snippet: Dose-Effect Curves and Cytotoxicity patterns of A. uncinatus.

Techniques Used:

Expression fraction of Acetone extracts of A. uncinatus on TLC plates using three different expression methods. a-c are chromatograms of Hexane (Hex), Di-Chloro Methane (DCM), Acetone (Ace) and methanolic (MeOH) extracts respectively. CEF = Chloroform-Ethyl acetate-Formic acid; BEA = Benzene-Ethanol-Ammonia (BEA), and EMW = Ethyl acetate-methanol–water.
Figure Legend Snippet: Expression fraction of Acetone extracts of A. uncinatus on TLC plates using three different expression methods. a-c are chromatograms of Hexane (Hex), Di-Chloro Methane (DCM), Acetone (Ace) and methanolic (MeOH) extracts respectively. CEF = Chloroform-Ethyl acetate-Formic acid; BEA = Benzene-Ethanol-Ammonia (BEA), and EMW = Ethyl acetate-methanol–water.

Techniques Used: Expressing, Thin Layer Chromatography

Agarose gel electrophoresis of conventional PCR assay used to asses the effect of A. uncinatus on ASF virus.
Figure Legend Snippet: Agarose gel electrophoresis of conventional PCR assay used to asses the effect of A. uncinatus on ASF virus.

Techniques Used: Agarose Gel Electrophoresis, Polymerase Chain Reaction

10) Product Images from "(3S,6E)-Nerolidol-mediated rendezvous of Cyclocephalini beetles, Cyclocephala paraguayensis, in bottle gourd flowers"

Article Title: (3S,6E)-Nerolidol-mediated rendezvous of Cyclocephalini beetles, Cyclocephala paraguayensis, in bottle gourd flowers

Journal: bioRxiv

doi: 10.1101/2020.06.09.142059

GC-EAD analysis of floral scents extract of Lagenaria siceraria by using male and female antenna of Cyclocephalini beetle, Cyclocephala paraguayensis , as sensing elements. “FID” flame-ionization detection.
Figure Legend Snippet: GC-EAD analysis of floral scents extract of Lagenaria siceraria by using male and female antenna of Cyclocephalini beetle, Cyclocephala paraguayensis , as sensing elements. “FID” flame-ionization detection.

Techniques Used:

11) Product Images from "Partial purification and characterization of an antimicrobial activity from the wood extract of mangrove plant Ceriops decandra"

Article Title: Partial purification and characterization of an antimicrobial activity from the wood extract of mangrove plant Ceriops decandra

Journal: EXCLI Journal

doi: 10.17179/excli2015-741

MIC value determination of CD-3PM fraction by microdilution assay
Figure Legend Snippet: MIC value determination of CD-3PM fraction by microdilution assay

Techniques Used: Microdilution Assay

Analytical HPLC (C-18, 5 µm, 4.6 × 250 mm) chromatogram of CD-3PM fraction isolated from the wood of C. decandra . Spectral data was recorded at 220 nm.
Figure Legend Snippet: Analytical HPLC (C-18, 5 µm, 4.6 × 250 mm) chromatogram of CD-3PM fraction isolated from the wood of C. decandra . Spectral data was recorded at 220 nm.

Techniques Used: High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Isolation

12) Product Images from "Impact of exposure to tobacco smoke, arsenic, and phthalates on locally advanced cervical cancer treatment—preliminary results"

Article Title: Impact of exposure to tobacco smoke, arsenic, and phthalates on locally advanced cervical cancer treatment—preliminary results

Journal: PeerJ

doi: 10.7717/peerj.2448

Association between %MEHP and response to cervical cancer treatment. Adjusted for initial size of the tumor, urine cotinine, creatinine, and age %MEHP = 100 × (MEHP/(MEHP + MEOHP + MEHHP)) on a molar basis.
Figure Legend Snippet: Association between %MEHP and response to cervical cancer treatment. Adjusted for initial size of the tumor, urine cotinine, creatinine, and age %MEHP = 100 × (MEHP/(MEHP + MEOHP + MEHHP)) on a molar basis.

Techniques Used:

13) Product Images from "A self-adjusting platinum surface for acetone hydrogenation"

Article Title: A self-adjusting platinum surface for acetone hydrogenation

Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

doi: 10.1073/pnas.1917110117

Normalized response profiles for an argon tracer (black line), acetone (red dotted line), and isopropanol (blue dashed line) during ( A ) desorption and ( B ) SSITKA transients. Reaction conditions: 10 mg 7.7 wt % Pt/α-Al 2 O 3 , 353 K, 1 atm, 20 cm 3 (STP)/min total flow rate.
Figure Legend Snippet: Normalized response profiles for an argon tracer (black line), acetone (red dotted line), and isopropanol (blue dashed line) during ( A ) desorption and ( B ) SSITKA transients. Reaction conditions: 10 mg 7.7 wt % Pt/α-Al 2 O 3 , 353 K, 1 atm, 20 cm 3 (STP)/min total flow rate.

Techniques Used:

14) Product Images from "GC-MS Fingerprinting Combined with Chemometric Methods Reveals Key Bioactive Components in Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma"

Article Title: GC-MS Fingerprinting Combined with Chemometric Methods Reveals Key Bioactive Components in Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma

Journal: International Journal of Molecular Sciences

doi: 10.3390/ijms18071342

Representative gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) fingerprint of acorus tatarinowii rhizoma (ATR): ( A ) total ion chromatogram (TIC) of ATR at 3–13 min; ( B )TIC of ATR at 13–24 min; ( C ) TIC of ATR at 24–35 min. Eighty volatile components were detected by GC-MS.
Figure Legend Snippet: Representative gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) fingerprint of acorus tatarinowii rhizoma (ATR): ( A ) total ion chromatogram (TIC) of ATR at 3–13 min; ( B )TIC of ATR at 13–24 min; ( C ) TIC of ATR at 24–35 min. Eighty volatile components were detected by GC-MS.

Techniques Used: Gas Chromatography, Mass Spectrometry, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

15) Product Images from "Legionella pneumophila CsrA regulates a metabolic switch from amino acid to glycerolipid metabolism"

Article Title: Legionella pneumophila CsrA regulates a metabolic switch from amino acid to glycerolipid metabolism

Journal: Open Biology

doi: 10.1098/rsob.170149

CsrA has regulatory impact on serine uptake and metabolism of L. pneumophila . ( a ) 13 C excess (mol%) and ( b ) relative isotopologue distributions (%) in key metabolites from L. pneumophila wild-type and its csrA mutant grown in CE MDM supplemented with 6 mM [U- 13 C 3 ]serine as tracer. Bacteria were harvested at the exponential (E) and post-exponential (PE) growth phase. 13 C excess values (mol%) in protein-derived amino acids, diaminopimelic acid (DAP), polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), mannose (Man), glucosamine (GlcN) and muramic acid (Mur) were determined by isotopologue profiling. Isotopologue distributions were determined for selected metabolites (Ala, Glu, His and Man). Shown are the relative fraction (in%) of isotopologues (M+1 to M+6). Error bars indicate standard deviations from six values (2 × biological replicates, 3 × technical GC/MS). Statistical significance is depicted as p -value (* p
Figure Legend Snippet: CsrA has regulatory impact on serine uptake and metabolism of L. pneumophila . ( a ) 13 C excess (mol%) and ( b ) relative isotopologue distributions (%) in key metabolites from L. pneumophila wild-type and its csrA mutant grown in CE MDM supplemented with 6 mM [U- 13 C 3 ]serine as tracer. Bacteria were harvested at the exponential (E) and post-exponential (PE) growth phase. 13 C excess values (mol%) in protein-derived amino acids, diaminopimelic acid (DAP), polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), mannose (Man), glucosamine (GlcN) and muramic acid (Mur) were determined by isotopologue profiling. Isotopologue distributions were determined for selected metabolites (Ala, Glu, His and Man). Shown are the relative fraction (in%) of isotopologues (M+1 to M+6). Error bars indicate standard deviations from six values (2 × biological replicates, 3 × technical GC/MS). Statistical significance is depicted as p -value (* p

Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Derivative Assay, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

The carbon flux from glucose into the PPP and ED pathways as well as in the biosynthesis of sugars is higher in the csrA mutant. ( a ) 13 C excess (mol%) and ( b ) relative isotopologue distributions (%) in key metabolites from L. pneumophila wild-type and its csrA mutant grown in CE MDM supplemented with 11 mM [U- 13 C 6 ]glucose as tracers. Bacteria were harvested at the exponential (E) and post-exponential (PE) growth phase. 13 C excess values (mol%) in protein-derived amino acids, diaminopimelic acid (DAP), polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), mannose (Man), glucosamine (GlcN) and muramic acid (Mur) were determined by isotopologue profiling. Isotopologue distributions were determined for selected metabolites (Ala, Glu, His and Man). Shown are the relative fractions (in%) of isotopologues (M+1 to M+6). For a better illustration, metabolites with 13 C excess values lower than 30% are shown in the figure inset. Error bars indicate standard deviations calculated from six values (two biological and three technical GC/MS replicates). Statistical significance is given as p -value (* p
Figure Legend Snippet: The carbon flux from glucose into the PPP and ED pathways as well as in the biosynthesis of sugars is higher in the csrA mutant. ( a ) 13 C excess (mol%) and ( b ) relative isotopologue distributions (%) in key metabolites from L. pneumophila wild-type and its csrA mutant grown in CE MDM supplemented with 11 mM [U- 13 C 6 ]glucose as tracers. Bacteria were harvested at the exponential (E) and post-exponential (PE) growth phase. 13 C excess values (mol%) in protein-derived amino acids, diaminopimelic acid (DAP), polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), mannose (Man), glucosamine (GlcN) and muramic acid (Mur) were determined by isotopologue profiling. Isotopologue distributions were determined for selected metabolites (Ala, Glu, His and Man). Shown are the relative fractions (in%) of isotopologues (M+1 to M+6). For a better illustration, metabolites with 13 C excess values lower than 30% are shown in the figure inset. Error bars indicate standard deviations calculated from six values (two biological and three technical GC/MS replicates). Statistical significance is given as p -value (* p

Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Derivative Assay, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

CsrA represses glycerol metabolism in E phase. ( a ) 13 C excess (mol%) and ( b ) relative isotopologue distributions (%) in key metabolites from L. pneumophila wild-type and its csrA mutant grown in CE MDM supplemented with 50 mM [U- 13 C 3 ]glycerol as tracer. Bacteria were harvested at the exponential (E) and post-exponential (PE) growth phase. 13 C excess values (mol%) in protein-derived amino acids, diaminopimelic acid (DAP), polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), mannose (Man), glucosamine (GlcN) and muramic acid (Mur) were determined by isotopologue profiling. Isotopologue distributions were determined for selected metabolites (Ala, Glu, His and Man). Shown are the relative fractions (in%) of isotopologues (M+1 to M+6). For a better illustration, metabolites with 13 C excess values lower than 15% are shown in the figure inset. Error bars indicate standard deviations calculated from six values (two biological and three technical GC/MS replicates). Statistical significance is given as p -value (* p
Figure Legend Snippet: CsrA represses glycerol metabolism in E phase. ( a ) 13 C excess (mol%) and ( b ) relative isotopologue distributions (%) in key metabolites from L. pneumophila wild-type and its csrA mutant grown in CE MDM supplemented with 50 mM [U- 13 C 3 ]glycerol as tracer. Bacteria were harvested at the exponential (E) and post-exponential (PE) growth phase. 13 C excess values (mol%) in protein-derived amino acids, diaminopimelic acid (DAP), polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), mannose (Man), glucosamine (GlcN) and muramic acid (Mur) were determined by isotopologue profiling. Isotopologue distributions were determined for selected metabolites (Ala, Glu, His and Man). Shown are the relative fractions (in%) of isotopologues (M+1 to M+6). For a better illustration, metabolites with 13 C excess values lower than 15% are shown in the figure inset. Error bars indicate standard deviations calculated from six values (two biological and three technical GC/MS replicates). Statistical significance is given as p -value (* p

Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Derivative Assay, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

Palmitic acid predominantly serves as carbon source for the PHB biosynthesis in the wt. ( a ) 13 C excess (mol%) and ( b ) relative isotopologue distributions (%) in key metabolites from L. pneumophila wild-type and its csrA mutant grown in CE MDM supplemented with 0.8 mM [1,2,3,4- 13 C 4 ]palmitic acid as tracers. Bacteria were harvested at the exponential (E) and post-exponential (PE) growth phase. 13 C excess values (mol%) in protein-derived amino acids, diaminopimelic acid (DAP), polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), lactate (LACT) and stearic acid (STE) were determined by isotopologue profiling. Isotopologue distributions were determined for selected metabolites (Glu and PHB). Shown are the relative fractions (in%) of isotopologues (M+1 to M+6). For a better illustration, metabolites with 13 C excess values of lower than 1% are shown in the figure inset. Error bars indicate standard deviations calculated from six values (two biological and three technical GC/MS replicates). Statistical significance is given as p -value (* p
Figure Legend Snippet: Palmitic acid predominantly serves as carbon source for the PHB biosynthesis in the wt. ( a ) 13 C excess (mol%) and ( b ) relative isotopologue distributions (%) in key metabolites from L. pneumophila wild-type and its csrA mutant grown in CE MDM supplemented with 0.8 mM [1,2,3,4- 13 C 4 ]palmitic acid as tracers. Bacteria were harvested at the exponential (E) and post-exponential (PE) growth phase. 13 C excess values (mol%) in protein-derived amino acids, diaminopimelic acid (DAP), polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), lactate (LACT) and stearic acid (STE) were determined by isotopologue profiling. Isotopologue distributions were determined for selected metabolites (Glu and PHB). Shown are the relative fractions (in%) of isotopologues (M+1 to M+6). For a better illustration, metabolites with 13 C excess values of lower than 1% are shown in the figure inset. Error bars indicate standard deviations calculated from six values (two biological and three technical GC/MS replicates). Statistical significance is given as p -value (* p

Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Derivative Assay, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

16) Product Images from "Glycosylceramide modifies the flavor and metabolic characteristics of sake yeast"

Article Title: Glycosylceramide modifies the flavor and metabolic characteristics of sake yeast

Journal: PeerJ

doi: 10.7717/peerj.4768

Heatmap of extracellular metabolite concentrations in the culture of yeast incubated with or without soy glycosylceramide. Sake yeasts were incubated in synthetic medium containing 40 μg/ml soy glycosylceramide and nonidet P-40 (final concentration 0.0015% v/v) at 15 °C for one week. Metabolites of the cultures were derivatized with methoxyamine and MSTFA, analyzed using GC-FID and normalized using ribitol. A heatmap of metabolites was created with Metaboanalyst.
Figure Legend Snippet: Heatmap of extracellular metabolite concentrations in the culture of yeast incubated with or without soy glycosylceramide. Sake yeasts were incubated in synthetic medium containing 40 μg/ml soy glycosylceramide and nonidet P-40 (final concentration 0.0015% v/v) at 15 °C for one week. Metabolites of the cultures were derivatized with methoxyamine and MSTFA, analyzed using GC-FID and normalized using ribitol. A heatmap of metabolites was created with Metaboanalyst.

Techniques Used: Incubation, Concentration Assay

17) Product Images from "Purification and Properties of a Polyester Polyurethane-Degrading Enzyme from Comamonas acidovorans TB-35"

Article Title: Purification and Properties of a Polyester Polyurethane-Degrading Enzyme from Comamonas acidovorans TB-35

Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

doi:

Effect of deoxy-BIGCHAP on the activity of the PUR esterase. The substrates used were PUR (○) and p -nitrophenyl acetate (•). The PUR degradation activity was estimated as the amount of diethylene glycol derived from PUR, and the p -nitrophenyl acetate degradation activity was estimated as the amount of p -nitrophenol derived from p -nitrophenyl acetate. The reaction conditions for each substrate are described in Materials and Methods.
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of deoxy-BIGCHAP on the activity of the PUR esterase. The substrates used were PUR (○) and p -nitrophenyl acetate (•). The PUR degradation activity was estimated as the amount of diethylene glycol derived from PUR, and the p -nitrophenyl acetate degradation activity was estimated as the amount of p -nitrophenol derived from p -nitrophenyl acetate. The reaction conditions for each substrate are described in Materials and Methods.

Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Derivative Assay

18) Product Images from "Integrated in situ gas stripping–salting-out process for high-titer acetone–butanol–ethanol production from sweet sorghum bagasse"

Article Title: Integrated in situ gas stripping–salting-out process for high-titer acetone–butanol–ethanol production from sweet sorghum bagasse

Journal: Biotechnology for Biofuels

doi: 10.1186/s13068-018-1137-5

Fed-batch fermentation coupled with intermittent gas stripping for in situ ABE recovery. SSB was used as the raw material and the carrier for cells immobilization. The gas stripping unit was turned on and off for each 12 h of period. a Fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis of the alkaline pretreated SSB. The concentrated enzymatic hydrolysate was used as the substrate for ABE production; b kinetics of solvents, acids and reducing sugar concentration remained in the bioreactor; c time course of ABE concentration in condensate of gas stripping unit. 36–46 mL of condensates was generated after each gas stripping period (36.2, 46.1, 41.2, 39.7, 41.1, and 44.5 mL were obtained after 60, 84, 108, 132, 156, and 180 h of inoculation, respectively)
Figure Legend Snippet: Fed-batch fermentation coupled with intermittent gas stripping for in situ ABE recovery. SSB was used as the raw material and the carrier for cells immobilization. The gas stripping unit was turned on and off for each 12 h of period. a Fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis of the alkaline pretreated SSB. The concentrated enzymatic hydrolysate was used as the substrate for ABE production; b kinetics of solvents, acids and reducing sugar concentration remained in the bioreactor; c time course of ABE concentration in condensate of gas stripping unit. 36–46 mL of condensates was generated after each gas stripping period (36.2, 46.1, 41.2, 39.7, 41.1, and 44.5 mL were obtained after 60, 84, 108, 132, 156, and 180 h of inoculation, respectively)

Techniques Used: Stripping Membranes, In Situ, Raw Material, Concentration Assay, Generated

19) Product Images from "Characterization of Arabidopsis thaliana Pinoresinol Reductase, a New Type of Enzyme Involved in Lignan Biosynthesis *"

Article Title: Characterization of Arabidopsis thaliana Pinoresinol Reductase, a New Type of Enzyme Involved in Lignan Biosynthesis *

Journal: The Journal of Biological Chemistry

doi: 10.1074/jbc.M801131200

The expressions of At1g32100 and At4g13660 genes in root and stem of A. thaliana . Transcript levels are represented as absolute values after being normalized to the 18 S ribosomal RNA levels. Quantification of the cDNA levels of each gene was performed
Figure Legend Snippet: The expressions of At1g32100 and At4g13660 genes in root and stem of A. thaliana . Transcript levels are represented as absolute values after being normalized to the 18 S ribosomal RNA levels. Quantification of the cDNA levels of each gene was performed

Techniques Used:

Reactions catalyzed by PLRs from F. intermedia (PLR-Fi1), T. plicata (PLR-Tp1 and PLR-Tp2), L. album (PLR-La1), L. perenne (PLR-Lp1), and L. usitatissimum (PLR-Lu1) and PrRs from A. thaliana (AtPrR1 and AtPrR2).
Figure Legend Snippet: Reactions catalyzed by PLRs from F. intermedia (PLR-Fi1), T. plicata (PLR-Tp1 and PLR-Tp2), L. album (PLR-La1), L. perenne (PLR-Lp1), and L. usitatissimum (PLR-Lu1) and PrRs from A. thaliana (AtPrR1 and AtPrR2).

Techniques Used:

20) Product Images from "The Antagonistic Effect of Mycotoxins Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone on Metabolic Profiling in Serum and Liver of Mice"

Article Title: The Antagonistic Effect of Mycotoxins Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone on Metabolic Profiling in Serum and Liver of Mice

Journal: Toxins

doi: 10.3390/toxins9010028

Non-supervised Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Five-week-old mice were treated with 2 mg/kg DON, 20 mg/kg ZEN, or combined DON and ZEN, with final concentration 2 mg/kg DON, 20 mg/kg ZEN, for 21 days. PCA representation of major sources of metabolites variability through a non-targeted analysis by GC-MS to monitor metabolic changes during the ( a ) serum ( R 2 X = 0.37, Q 2 = 0.23) and ( b ) liver invasion ( R 2 X = 0.38, Q 2 = 0.20). Data points represent four technical replicates from two independent experiments (biological replicates; n = 7–10) injected randomly into the GC-MS. The signals corresponding to different treatments were compared after treatment of log transformation and Pareto scaling.
Figure Legend Snippet: Non-supervised Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Five-week-old mice were treated with 2 mg/kg DON, 20 mg/kg ZEN, or combined DON and ZEN, with final concentration 2 mg/kg DON, 20 mg/kg ZEN, for 21 days. PCA representation of major sources of metabolites variability through a non-targeted analysis by GC-MS to monitor metabolic changes during the ( a ) serum ( R 2 X = 0.37, Q 2 = 0.23) and ( b ) liver invasion ( R 2 X = 0.38, Q 2 = 0.20). Data points represent four technical replicates from two independent experiments (biological replicates; n = 7–10) injected randomly into the GC-MS. The signals corresponding to different treatments were compared after treatment of log transformation and Pareto scaling.

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Concentration Assay, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, Injection, Transformation Assay

21) Product Images from "Antigenotoxic and Antioxidant Activity of Methanol Stem Bark Extract of Napoleona Vogelii Hook Planch (Lecythidaceae) In Cyclophosphamide-Induced Genotoxicity"

Article Title: Antigenotoxic and Antioxidant Activity of Methanol Stem Bark Extract of Napoleona Vogelii Hook Planch (Lecythidaceae) In Cyclophosphamide-Induced Genotoxicity

Journal: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences

doi: 10.3889/oamjms.2017.210

A) Effect of N. vogelii on plasma GSH level in cyclophosphamide-treated rats; B) Effect of N. vogelii on SOD level in cyclophosphamide-treated rats;C) Effect of N. vogelii on CAT level in cyclophosphamide-treated rats; D) Effect of N. vogelii on GST level in cyclophosphamide-treated rats; E: Effect of N. vogelii on MDA level in cyclophosphamide-treated rats. Results are mean ± SEM. a p
Figure Legend Snippet: A) Effect of N. vogelii on plasma GSH level in cyclophosphamide-treated rats; B) Effect of N. vogelii on SOD level in cyclophosphamide-treated rats;C) Effect of N. vogelii on CAT level in cyclophosphamide-treated rats; D) Effect of N. vogelii on GST level in cyclophosphamide-treated rats; E: Effect of N. vogelii on MDA level in cyclophosphamide-treated rats. Results are mean ± SEM. a p

Techniques Used: Multiple Displacement Amplification

GC-MS chromatogram of the methanol stem bark extract of N. vogelii
Figure Legend Snippet: GC-MS chromatogram of the methanol stem bark extract of N. vogelii

Techniques Used: Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

22) Product Images from "Characterization of Arabidopsis thaliana Pinoresinol Reductase, a New Type of Enzyme Involved in Lignan Biosynthesis *"

Article Title: Characterization of Arabidopsis thaliana Pinoresinol Reductase, a New Type of Enzyme Involved in Lignan Biosynthesis *

Journal: The Journal of Biological Chemistry

doi: 10.1074/jbc.M801131200

Chiral LC-MS chromatograms of lariciresinol ( B–G )( m / z 359) and (±)-[9,9,9′,9′- 2 H 4 ]lariciresinols ( A )( m / z 363). A , racemic (±)-[9,9,9′,9′- 2 H 4 ]lariciresinols. B , lariciresinol isolated from the
Figure Legend Snippet: Chiral LC-MS chromatograms of lariciresinol ( B–G )( m / z 359) and (±)-[9,9,9′,9′- 2 H 4 ]lariciresinols ( A )( m / z 363). A , racemic (±)-[9,9,9′,9′- 2 H 4 ]lariciresinols. B , lariciresinol isolated from the

Techniques Used: Liquid Chromatography with Mass Spectroscopy, Isolation

23) Product Images from "Targeting Colorectal Cancer Proliferation, Stemness and Metastatic Potential Using Brassicaceae Extracts Enriched in Isothiocyanates: A 3D Cell Model-Based Study"

Article Title: Targeting Colorectal Cancer Proliferation, Stemness and Metastatic Potential Using Brassicaceae Extracts Enriched in Isothiocyanates: A 3D Cell Model-Based Study

Journal: Nutrients

doi: 10.3390/nu9040368

GC-MS chromatographic profiles of potential bioactive compounds present in Brassicaceae extracts obtained by supercritical CO 2 extraction. ( A ) Chromatographic profile of watercress extract; ( B ) Chromatographic profile of broccoli extract; legend: (1) PEITC; (2) 3-Butenyl isothiocyanate; (3) β-PEITC; (4) SFN; (5) I-(+)-Ascorbic acid 2,6-dihexadecanoate; (6) Ethyl Linoleolate; (7) Tetracontane; (8) 1-Eicosanol; (*) compounds without correspondence in the GC-MS library. (Note: Watercress and broccoli extracts were analyzed at a concentration of 7.3 mM PEITC and 3.4 mM SFN, respectively, which were determined by HPLC-DAD, as described previously [ 17 ]).
Figure Legend Snippet: GC-MS chromatographic profiles of potential bioactive compounds present in Brassicaceae extracts obtained by supercritical CO 2 extraction. ( A ) Chromatographic profile of watercress extract; ( B ) Chromatographic profile of broccoli extract; legend: (1) PEITC; (2) 3-Butenyl isothiocyanate; (3) β-PEITC; (4) SFN; (5) I-(+)-Ascorbic acid 2,6-dihexadecanoate; (6) Ethyl Linoleolate; (7) Tetracontane; (8) 1-Eicosanol; (*) compounds without correspondence in the GC-MS library. (Note: Watercress and broccoli extracts were analyzed at a concentration of 7.3 mM PEITC and 3.4 mM SFN, respectively, which were determined by HPLC-DAD, as described previously [ 17 ]).

Techniques Used: Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, Concentration Assay, High Performance Liquid Chromatography

24) Product Images from "(3S,6E)-Nerolidol-mediated rendezvous of Cyclocephalini beetles, Cyclocephala paraguayensis, in bottle gourd flowers"

Article Title: (3S,6E)-Nerolidol-mediated rendezvous of Cyclocephalini beetles, Cyclocephala paraguayensis, in bottle gourd flowers

Journal: bioRxiv

doi: 10.1101/2020.06.09.142059

Analysis of bottle gourd flowers, Lagenaria siceraria , extract, and synthetic isomers of nerolidol by gas chromatography equipped with a chiral column. a) Z and E -nerolidol (left to right) isomers of nerolidol (a mix of isomers); b) Z -nerolidol isomers; c) Synthetic ( 3R,6E )-nerolidol (gift from Dr. Robert Hanus, Czech Republic); d) ( E )-nerolidol from Sigma-Aldrich; e) Mix of 40 ng from each ( 3R,6E )-nerolidol and ( 3S,6E )-nerolidol; f) Natural extract from VOCs of L. siceraria flowers; g) Coinjection of “e” and “f” chromatogram extracts.
Figure Legend Snippet: Analysis of bottle gourd flowers, Lagenaria siceraria , extract, and synthetic isomers of nerolidol by gas chromatography equipped with a chiral column. a) Z and E -nerolidol (left to right) isomers of nerolidol (a mix of isomers); b) Z -nerolidol isomers; c) Synthetic ( 3R,6E )-nerolidol (gift from Dr. Robert Hanus, Czech Republic); d) ( E )-nerolidol from Sigma-Aldrich; e) Mix of 40 ng from each ( 3R,6E )-nerolidol and ( 3S,6E )-nerolidol; f) Natural extract from VOCs of L. siceraria flowers; g) Coinjection of “e” and “f” chromatogram extracts.

Techniques Used: Gas Chromatography

25) Product Images from "(3S,6E)-Nerolidol-mediated rendezvous of Cyclocephalini beetles, Cyclocephala paraguayensis, in bottle gourd flowers"

Article Title: (3S,6E)-Nerolidol-mediated rendezvous of Cyclocephalini beetles, Cyclocephala paraguayensis, in bottle gourd flowers

Journal: bioRxiv

doi: 10.1101/2020.06.09.142059

Analysis of bottle gourd flowers, Lagenaria siceraria , extract, and synthetic isomers of nerolidol by gas chromatography equipped with a chiral column. a) Z and E -nerolidol (left to right) isomers of nerolidol (a mix of isomers); b) Z -nerolidol isomers; c) Synthetic ( 3R,6E )-nerolidol (gift from Dr. Robert Hanus, Czech Republic); d) ( E )-nerolidol from Sigma-Aldrich; e) Mix of 40 ng from each ( 3R,6E )-nerolidol and ( 3S,6E )-nerolidol; f) Natural extract from VOCs of L. siceraria flowers; g) Coinjection of “e” and “f” chromatogram extracts.
Figure Legend Snippet: Analysis of bottle gourd flowers, Lagenaria siceraria , extract, and synthetic isomers of nerolidol by gas chromatography equipped with a chiral column. a) Z and E -nerolidol (left to right) isomers of nerolidol (a mix of isomers); b) Z -nerolidol isomers; c) Synthetic ( 3R,6E )-nerolidol (gift from Dr. Robert Hanus, Czech Republic); d) ( E )-nerolidol from Sigma-Aldrich; e) Mix of 40 ng from each ( 3R,6E )-nerolidol and ( 3S,6E )-nerolidol; f) Natural extract from VOCs of L. siceraria flowers; g) Coinjection of “e” and “f” chromatogram extracts.

Techniques Used: Gas Chromatography

Mean number of Cyclocephalini beetle, Cyclocephala paraguayensis , caught per replicate in field experiments conducted in Cassilândia, MS, Brazil. Treatments: Nerolidol (a mix of isomers) = mixture of four isomers of nerolidol; (3 S , 6 E )-nerolidol = synthetic nerolidol, which is identical to the stereoisomer of nerolidol produced by L. siceraria flowers. A) Mean number of adults of C. paraguayensis caught per replicate of nerolidol-baited traps and controls. *Treatment is significantly different at P
Figure Legend Snippet: Mean number of Cyclocephalini beetle, Cyclocephala paraguayensis , caught per replicate in field experiments conducted in Cassilândia, MS, Brazil. Treatments: Nerolidol (a mix of isomers) = mixture of four isomers of nerolidol; (3 S , 6 E )-nerolidol = synthetic nerolidol, which is identical to the stereoisomer of nerolidol produced by L. siceraria flowers. A) Mean number of adults of C. paraguayensis caught per replicate of nerolidol-baited traps and controls. *Treatment is significantly different at P

Techniques Used: Produced

GC-EAD analysis of floral scents extract of Lagenaria siceraria by using male and female antenna of Cyclocephalini beetle, Cyclocephala paraguayensis , as sensing elements. “FID” flame-ionization detection.
Figure Legend Snippet: GC-EAD analysis of floral scents extract of Lagenaria siceraria by using male and female antenna of Cyclocephalini beetle, Cyclocephala paraguayensis , as sensing elements. “FID” flame-ionization detection.

Techniques Used:

Sexual and feeding behavior of Cyclocephalini beetle, Cyclocephala paraguayensis , in bottle gourd flowers, Lagenaria siceraria . A) Aggregating and mating on flowers at night; B) C. paraguayensis inside senescent flowers in the next morning of beetle’s attraction; C) Non-damaged L. siceraria flower in the field; D) Stereoscopic cut view of a non-damaged L. siceraria flower; E) L. siceraria flower damaged by C. paraguayensis in the field; F) Stereoscopic cut view of a damaged flower showing beetle gnawing and excrement signal as a result of feeding activity; G) Fresh pollen grain of L. siceraria ; H) Pollen grains of L. siceraria extracted from C. paraguayensis gut (black triangles indicate the pollen grains).
Figure Legend Snippet: Sexual and feeding behavior of Cyclocephalini beetle, Cyclocephala paraguayensis , in bottle gourd flowers, Lagenaria siceraria . A) Aggregating and mating on flowers at night; B) C. paraguayensis inside senescent flowers in the next morning of beetle’s attraction; C) Non-damaged L. siceraria flower in the field; D) Stereoscopic cut view of a non-damaged L. siceraria flower; E) L. siceraria flower damaged by C. paraguayensis in the field; F) Stereoscopic cut view of a damaged flower showing beetle gnawing and excrement signal as a result of feeding activity; G) Fresh pollen grain of L. siceraria ; H) Pollen grains of L. siceraria extracted from C. paraguayensis gut (black triangles indicate the pollen grains).

Techniques Used: Activity Assay

26) Product Images from "Active porous transition towards spatiotemporal control of molecular flow in a crystal membrane"

Article Title: Active porous transition towards spatiotemporal control of molecular flow in a crystal membrane

Journal: Nature Communications

doi: 10.1038/ncomms9934

Gas permeation on a single-crystal membrane. ( a ) Schematic explanation for single-crystal membrane and orientations of the embedded crystals in a hole of an Al plate. Gas permeability ( P ) in α (white bars) and in α ' phase (black bars) through open surface ( b ) and closed surface ( c ) of the crystal at 293 K and Δp of 150 kPa. (Inset figure in b : correlation between open surface area in α ' phase ( S ) and flow rate of H 2 gas normalized by crystal thicknesses ( F H2 ).) The permeability of H 2 and CO 2 in the α ' phase become higher than those in the α phase due to the slight change in channel structure caused by molecular distortion (see Supplementary Fig. 7 ).
Figure Legend Snippet: Gas permeation on a single-crystal membrane. ( a ) Schematic explanation for single-crystal membrane and orientations of the embedded crystals in a hole of an Al plate. Gas permeability ( P ) in α (white bars) and in α ' phase (black bars) through open surface ( b ) and closed surface ( c ) of the crystal at 293 K and Δp of 150 kPa. (Inset figure in b : correlation between open surface area in α ' phase ( S ) and flow rate of H 2 gas normalized by crystal thicknesses ( F H2 ).) The permeability of H 2 and CO 2 in the α ' phase become higher than those in the α phase due to the slight change in channel structure caused by molecular distortion (see Supplementary Fig. 7 ).

Techniques Used: Permeability, Flow Cytometry

27) Product Images from "Age-related Attenuation of Isoflurane Preconditioning in Human Atrial Cardiomyocytes"

Article Title: Age-related Attenuation of Isoflurane Preconditioning in Human Atrial Cardiomyocytes

Journal: Anesthesiology

doi: 10.1097/ALN.0b013e318167af2d

Isoflurane protects human atrial myocytes from stress-induced cell death via sarcolemmal adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel. Mid-aged (MA; A ) and old-aged (OA; B ) myocyte death was measured in time control (TC), after 30 min of oxidative
Figure Legend Snippet: Isoflurane protects human atrial myocytes from stress-induced cell death via sarcolemmal adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel. Mid-aged (MA; A ) and old-aged (OA; B ) myocyte death was measured in time control (TC), after 30 min of oxidative

Techniques Used:

Isoflurane Preserves Mitochondrial Oxygen Consumption in Human Atrial Myocardium
Figure Legend Snippet: Isoflurane Preserves Mitochondrial Oxygen Consumption in Human Atrial Myocardium

Techniques Used:

Treatment with isoflurane enhances sensitivity of human atrial sarcolemmal adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel to pinacidil in mid-aged (MA) and old-aged (OA). Whole cell recordings of sarcolemmal adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium
Figure Legend Snippet: Treatment with isoflurane enhances sensitivity of human atrial sarcolemmal adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel to pinacidil in mid-aged (MA) and old-aged (OA). Whole cell recordings of sarcolemmal adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium

Techniques Used:

28) Product Images from "Isolation and Characterization of Dehalobacter sp. Strain TeCB1 Including Identification of TcbA: A Novel Tetra- and Trichlorobenzene Reductive Dehalogenase"

Article Title: Isolation and Characterization of Dehalobacter sp. Strain TeCB1 Including Identification of TcbA: A Novel Tetra- and Trichlorobenzene Reductive Dehalogenase

Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.00558

(A) Native-PAGE gel with molecular weight marker (left lane), silver stain samples (center lane) and lettered segments indicating gel slices excised and subjected to dechlorinating activity assays (right lane) (Sections on the right side of the gel indicate how a full lane was excise for LC/MS/MS analysis). Dechlorinating activity assay using eluted proteins from unstained excised gel slices with either 1,2,4,5-TeCB (B) or 1,2,4-TCB (C) , in both cases the shown concentrations correspond to the dechlorination end products. The positive control was performed using the crude protein extract.
Figure Legend Snippet: (A) Native-PAGE gel with molecular weight marker (left lane), silver stain samples (center lane) and lettered segments indicating gel slices excised and subjected to dechlorinating activity assays (right lane) (Sections on the right side of the gel indicate how a full lane was excise for LC/MS/MS analysis). Dechlorinating activity assay using eluted proteins from unstained excised gel slices with either 1,2,4,5-TeCB (B) or 1,2,4-TCB (C) , in both cases the shown concentrations correspond to the dechlorination end products. The positive control was performed using the crude protein extract.

Techniques Used: Clear Native PAGE, Molecular Weight, Marker, Silver Staining, Activity Assay, Liquid Chromatography with Mass Spectroscopy, Mass Spectrometry, Positive Control

Reductive dechlorination of 1,2,4,5-TeCB by different OHRB, including: Dehalobacter sp. strain TeCB1 and Dehalobacter sp. strains 12DCB1, 13DCB1, 14DCB1 ( Nelson et al., 2014 ), and Dehalococcoides mccartyi CBDB1 ( Adrian et al., 2000 ). Note, chlorobenzene production by strain TeCB1 is co-metabolic.
Figure Legend Snippet: Reductive dechlorination of 1,2,4,5-TeCB by different OHRB, including: Dehalobacter sp. strain TeCB1 and Dehalobacter sp. strains 12DCB1, 13DCB1, 14DCB1 ( Nelson et al., 2014 ), and Dehalococcoides mccartyi CBDB1 ( Adrian et al., 2000 ). Note, chlorobenzene production by strain TeCB1 is co-metabolic.

Techniques Used:

(A) Product accumulation in reductive dechlorination of 1,2,4,5-TeCB by a mixed culture supplied with hydrogen and acetate 1,2,4,5-TeCB was added as a crystalline form in excess and was not quantified. Dechlorination products (■) 1,3-DCB, (▲) 1,4-DCB, (◆) 1,2,4-TCB. No dechlorination was observed in the abiotic control. (B) Growth during the reductive dechlorination of 1,2,4,5-TeCB in the mixed culture. (✳) Total bacteria and ( ) Dehalobacter . Error bars represent standard deviation ( n = 3). Error bars are not visible when the standard deviation is less than size of the datum point.
Figure Legend Snippet: (A) Product accumulation in reductive dechlorination of 1,2,4,5-TeCB by a mixed culture supplied with hydrogen and acetate 1,2,4,5-TeCB was added as a crystalline form in excess and was not quantified. Dechlorination products (■) 1,3-DCB, (▲) 1,4-DCB, (◆) 1,2,4-TCB. No dechlorination was observed in the abiotic control. (B) Growth during the reductive dechlorination of 1,2,4,5-TeCB in the mixed culture. (✳) Total bacteria and ( ) Dehalobacter . Error bars represent standard deviation ( n = 3). Error bars are not visible when the standard deviation is less than size of the datum point.

Techniques Used: Standard Deviation

29) Product Images from "Glycosylceramide modifies the flavor and metabolic characteristics of sake yeast"

Article Title: Glycosylceramide modifies the flavor and metabolic characteristics of sake yeast

Journal: PeerJ

doi: 10.7717/peerj.4768

Heatmap of extracellular metabolite concentrations in the culture of yeast incubated with or without soy glycosylceramide. Sake yeasts were incubated in synthetic medium containing 40 μg/ml soy glycosylceramide and nonidet P-40 (final concentration 0.0015% v/v) at 15 °C for one week. Metabolites of the cultures were derivatized with methoxyamine and MSTFA, analyzed using GC-FID and normalized using ribitol. A heatmap of metabolites was created with Metaboanalyst.
Figure Legend Snippet: Heatmap of extracellular metabolite concentrations in the culture of yeast incubated with or without soy glycosylceramide. Sake yeasts were incubated in synthetic medium containing 40 μg/ml soy glycosylceramide and nonidet P-40 (final concentration 0.0015% v/v) at 15 °C for one week. Metabolites of the cultures were derivatized with methoxyamine and MSTFA, analyzed using GC-FID and normalized using ribitol. A heatmap of metabolites was created with Metaboanalyst.

Techniques Used: Incubation, Concentration Assay

Ethanol concentrations (%(vol/vol)) of the culture of sake yeast added with or without soy glycosylceramide. Sake yeasts were incubated in synthetic medium with or without 40 μg/ml soy glycosylceramide and nonidet P-40 (final 0.0015% v/v) at 15 °C for one week. The ethanol concentration of fermented culture was analyzed using a contact combustion system with an alcohol densitometer. The results are the mean values with standard errors of triplicate independent experiments. The statistical significance of the difference between the averages was assessed using the unpaired one-tailed Student’s t -test (***, p
Figure Legend Snippet: Ethanol concentrations (%(vol/vol)) of the culture of sake yeast added with or without soy glycosylceramide. Sake yeasts were incubated in synthetic medium with or without 40 μg/ml soy glycosylceramide and nonidet P-40 (final 0.0015% v/v) at 15 °C for one week. The ethanol concentration of fermented culture was analyzed using a contact combustion system with an alcohol densitometer. The results are the mean values with standard errors of triplicate independent experiments. The statistical significance of the difference between the averages was assessed using the unpaired one-tailed Student’s t -test (***, p

Techniques Used: Incubation, Concentration Assay, One-tailed Test

Pathway analysis of extracellular metabolites of sake yeast incubated with or without soy glycosylceramide. The normalized values of metabolites (glycerol, succinate/glycine, malic acid, glucose, leucine, glutamate, valine, methionine, pyruvate, and threonine), which were significantly different ( p
Figure Legend Snippet: Pathway analysis of extracellular metabolites of sake yeast incubated with or without soy glycosylceramide. The normalized values of metabolites (glycerol, succinate/glycine, malic acid, glucose, leucine, glutamate, valine, methionine, pyruvate, and threonine), which were significantly different ( p

Techniques Used: Incubation

Heatmap of volatile compounds in the culture of sake yeast incubated with or without glycosylceramide. Sake yeasts were incubated in synthetic medium containing 40 μg/ml A. oryzae (A1 and A2), soy (S), G. frondosa (G) glycosylceramide or their vehicle control ethanol (E1 and E2) and nonidet P-40 (final concentration 0.0015% v/v) at 15 °C for one week. Volatile compounds were analyzed using headspace gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A heatmap of volatile compounds was created with Metaboanalyst.
Figure Legend Snippet: Heatmap of volatile compounds in the culture of sake yeast incubated with or without glycosylceramide. Sake yeasts were incubated in synthetic medium containing 40 μg/ml A. oryzae (A1 and A2), soy (S), G. frondosa (G) glycosylceramide or their vehicle control ethanol (E1 and E2) and nonidet P-40 (final concentration 0.0015% v/v) at 15 °C for one week. Volatile compounds were analyzed using headspace gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A heatmap of volatile compounds was created with Metaboanalyst.

Techniques Used: Incubation, Concentration Assay, Gas Chromatography, Mass Spectrometry, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

30) Product Images from "Fatty Acid, Lipid Classes and Phospholipid Molecular Species Composition of the Marine Clam Meretrix lyrata (Sowerby 1851) from Cua Lo Beach, Nghe An Province, Vietnam"

Article Title: Fatty Acid, Lipid Classes and Phospholipid Molecular Species Composition of the Marine Clam Meretrix lyrata (Sowerby 1851) from Cua Lo Beach, Nghe An Province, Vietnam

Journal: Molecules

doi: 10.3390/molecules24050895

HPLC–HRMS ( a ) and fragmentation of PE 36:1( b —MS + , c —MS − , d —MS 2− ).
Figure Legend Snippet: HPLC–HRMS ( a ) and fragmentation of PE 36:1( b —MS + , c —MS − , d —MS 2− ).

Techniques Used: High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Mass Spectrometry

Fragmentation of PC (38:6): a —HPLC-HRMS, b —MS + ; c —MS − of fragmentation 850.5490 and 790.5301; d , e —MS 2− of fragmentation 850.5490 and 790.5301.
Figure Legend Snippet: Fragmentation of PC (38:6): a —HPLC-HRMS, b —MS + ; c —MS − of fragmentation 850.5490 and 790.5301; d , e —MS 2− of fragmentation 850.5490 and 790.5301.

Techniques Used: High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Mass Spectrometry

31) Product Images from "Integrated in situ gas stripping–salting-out process for high-titer acetone–butanol–ethanol production from sweet sorghum bagasse"

Article Title: Integrated in situ gas stripping–salting-out process for high-titer acetone–butanol–ethanol production from sweet sorghum bagasse

Journal: Biotechnology for Biofuels

doi: 10.1186/s13068-018-1137-5

Fed-batch fermentation coupled with intermittent gas stripping for in situ ABE recovery. SSB was used as the raw material and the carrier for cells immobilization. The gas stripping unit was turned on and off for each 12 h of period. a Fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis of the alkaline pretreated SSB. The concentrated enzymatic hydrolysate was used as the substrate for ABE production; b kinetics of solvents, acids and reducing sugar concentration remained in the bioreactor; c time course of ABE concentration in condensate of gas stripping unit. 36–46 mL of condensates was generated after each gas stripping period (36.2, 46.1, 41.2, 39.7, 41.1, and 44.5 mL were obtained after 60, 84, 108, 132, 156, and 180 h of inoculation, respectively)
Figure Legend Snippet: Fed-batch fermentation coupled with intermittent gas stripping for in situ ABE recovery. SSB was used as the raw material and the carrier for cells immobilization. The gas stripping unit was turned on and off for each 12 h of period. a Fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis of the alkaline pretreated SSB. The concentrated enzymatic hydrolysate was used as the substrate for ABE production; b kinetics of solvents, acids and reducing sugar concentration remained in the bioreactor; c time course of ABE concentration in condensate of gas stripping unit. 36–46 mL of condensates was generated after each gas stripping period (36.2, 46.1, 41.2, 39.7, 41.1, and 44.5 mL were obtained after 60, 84, 108, 132, 156, and 180 h of inoculation, respectively)

Techniques Used: Stripping Membranes, In Situ, Raw Material, Concentration Assay, Generated

32) Product Images from "Carbon Abatement and Emissions Associated with the Gasification of Walnut Shells for Bioenergy and Biochar Production"

Article Title: Carbon Abatement and Emissions Associated with the Gasification of Walnut Shells for Bioenergy and Biochar Production

Journal: PLoS ONE

doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0150837

Direct CO2 and N2 O emissions from soils
Figure Legend Snippet: Direct CO2 and N2 O emissions from soils

Techniques Used:

33) Product Images from "Engineering of the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis for Chitin-Dependent Hydrogen Production"

Article Title: Engineering of the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis for Chitin-Dependent Hydrogen Production

Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

doi: 10.1128/AEM.00280-17

Expression levels of ChiA, Dac, GlmA, and GlmD in engineered T. kodakarensis strains. All strains were grown in ASW-VMT-Mdx-CO medium. Western blot analysis of ChiA was performed using culture supernatants (CS). Culture supernatant corresponding to a volume of 150 μl was loaded on each lane. Western blot analyses of Dac, GlmA, and GlmD were performed using cell extracts (CE). An equal amount (10 μg) of protein was loaded on each lane. A plus sign indicates overexpression of the enzyme performed by promoter replacement, and a minus sign indicates that there is no promoter replacement. Numbers in parentheses indicate band intensities (percent) relative to those of KU216 cultivated under the same medium condition (which is defined as 100%).
Figure Legend Snippet: Expression levels of ChiA, Dac, GlmA, and GlmD in engineered T. kodakarensis strains. All strains were grown in ASW-VMT-Mdx-CO medium. Western blot analysis of ChiA was performed using culture supernatants (CS). Culture supernatant corresponding to a volume of 150 μl was loaded on each lane. Western blot analyses of Dac, GlmA, and GlmD were performed using cell extracts (CE). An equal amount (10 μg) of protein was loaded on each lane. A plus sign indicates overexpression of the enzyme performed by promoter replacement, and a minus sign indicates that there is no promoter replacement. Numbers in parentheses indicate band intensities (percent) relative to those of KU216 cultivated under the same medium condition (which is defined as 100%).

Techniques Used: Expressing, Western Blot, Over Expression

TLC analysis of supernatants after cultivation of engineered T. kodakarensis strains in ASW-VMT-SC medium. Chitin degradation products in culture supernatant were analyzed at different time points until 90 h. Lane M, standard GlcNAc oligomers ranging from DP1 to DP5, or standard GlcN oligomers ranging from DP1 to DP4. DP indicates the degree of polymerization. Culture supernatants of KC04ΔtM1 cells displayed increased accumulation of (GlcNAc) 2 with very little accumulation of GlcN.
Figure Legend Snippet: TLC analysis of supernatants after cultivation of engineered T. kodakarensis strains in ASW-VMT-SC medium. Chitin degradation products in culture supernatant were analyzed at different time points until 90 h. Lane M, standard GlcNAc oligomers ranging from DP1 to DP5, or standard GlcN oligomers ranging from DP1 to DP4. DP indicates the degree of polymerization. Culture supernatants of KC04ΔtM1 cells displayed increased accumulation of (GlcNAc) 2 with very little accumulation of GlcN.

Techniques Used: Thin Layer Chromatography

Degradation of swollen chitin by engineered strains of T. kodakarensis . Cultivations were performed in ASW-VMT-SC medium at 85°C, and degradation of swollen chitin was observed at different time points until 90 h. An increased capacity to degrade swollen chitin was observed in strain KC04ΔtM1.
Figure Legend Snippet: Degradation of swollen chitin by engineered strains of T. kodakarensis . Cultivations were performed in ASW-VMT-SC medium at 85°C, and degradation of swollen chitin was observed at different time points until 90 h. An increased capacity to degrade swollen chitin was observed in strain KC04ΔtM1.

Techniques Used:

Quantification of acetate and ammonium concentrations in culture supernatants of engineered strains of T. kodakarensis growing on swollen chitin. Cultivations were performed in ASW-VMT-SC medium at 85 °C for 72 h, and culture supernatants prepared were analyzed. Results shown were determined by subtracting acetate or ammonium concentrations present in culture medium without inoculation. Error bars represent standard deviations of three independent measurements. KC04ΔtM1 showed increased production of both acetate and ammonium.
Figure Legend Snippet: Quantification of acetate and ammonium concentrations in culture supernatants of engineered strains of T. kodakarensis growing on swollen chitin. Cultivations were performed in ASW-VMT-SC medium at 85 °C for 72 h, and culture supernatants prepared were analyzed. Results shown were determined by subtracting acetate or ammonium concentrations present in culture medium without inoculation. Error bars represent standard deviations of three independent measurements. KC04ΔtM1 showed increased production of both acetate and ammonium.

Techniques Used:

34) Product Images from "VITAMIN E IN HUMAN MILK AND ITS RELATION TO THE NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENT OF THE TERM NEWBORN"

Article Title: VITAMIN E IN HUMAN MILK AND ITS RELATION TO THE NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENT OF THE TERM NEWBORN

Journal: Revista Paulista de Pediatria

doi: 10.1590/1984-0462/;2017;35;2;00015

Average concentration of alpha-tocopherol in breast milk in different periods of lactation.
Figure Legend Snippet: Average concentration of alpha-tocopherol in breast milk in different periods of lactation.

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

35) Product Images from "Development of an Efficient Bacterial Consortium for the Potential Remediation of Hydrocarbons from Contaminated Sites"

Article Title: Development of an Efficient Bacterial Consortium for the Potential Remediation of Hydrocarbons from Contaminated Sites

Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2016.01092

(A) Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GCMS) chromatograph of abiotic control. (B) GCMS chromatograph of crude oil treated for 5 weeks with consortium 10.
Figure Legend Snippet: (A) Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GCMS) chromatograph of abiotic control. (B) GCMS chromatograph of crude oil treated for 5 weeks with consortium 10.

Techniques Used: Gas Chromatography, Mass Spectrometry

36) Product Images from "Boron-doped diamond semiconductor electrodes: Efficient photoelectrochemical CO2 reduction through surface modification"

Article Title: Boron-doped diamond semiconductor electrodes: Efficient photoelectrochemical CO2 reduction through surface modification

Journal: Scientific Reports

doi: 10.1038/srep38010

Stability and recyclability of the optimal photoelectrode. ( a ) Amount of isotopic 13 CO and normal 12 CO produced over time by the 0.1 Ag-BDD L electrode in 25 mM Na 2 SO 4 at −1.1 V vs. RHE. The amount of isotopic 13 CO increased with irradiation time and reached 94.17% after 5 h. ( b ) XPS analysis of the 0.1 Ag-BDD L electrode before and after photoelectrolysis at −1.1 V vs. RHE for 5 h in 25 mM Na 2 SO 4 under 222 nm irradiation. The Ag 3d photoelectron peaks suggest the metallic state of Ag is not changed during the photoelectrochemical reaction. ( c ) Recyclability of the 0.1 Ag-BDD L electrode in CO 2 -purged 25 mM Na 2 SO 4 at −1.1 V. In each run, the electrolyte was purged with N 2 and then CO 2 for 1 h. The amount of CO produced decreased as the number of runs increased. ( d ) The amount of hydrogen produced in the consecutive runs indicates that hydrogen evolution increased with run number.
Figure Legend Snippet: Stability and recyclability of the optimal photoelectrode. ( a ) Amount of isotopic 13 CO and normal 12 CO produced over time by the 0.1 Ag-BDD L electrode in 25 mM Na 2 SO 4 at −1.1 V vs. RHE. The amount of isotopic 13 CO increased with irradiation time and reached 94.17% after 5 h. ( b ) XPS analysis of the 0.1 Ag-BDD L electrode before and after photoelectrolysis at −1.1 V vs. RHE for 5 h in 25 mM Na 2 SO 4 under 222 nm irradiation. The Ag 3d photoelectron peaks suggest the metallic state of Ag is not changed during the photoelectrochemical reaction. ( c ) Recyclability of the 0.1 Ag-BDD L electrode in CO 2 -purged 25 mM Na 2 SO 4 at −1.1 V. In each run, the electrolyte was purged with N 2 and then CO 2 for 1 h. The amount of CO produced decreased as the number of runs increased. ( d ) The amount of hydrogen produced in the consecutive runs indicates that hydrogen evolution increased with run number.

Techniques Used: Produced, Irradiation

37) Product Images from "Attenuation of quorum-sensing-dependent virulence factors and biofilm formation by medicinal plants against antibiotic resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa"

Article Title: Attenuation of quorum-sensing-dependent virulence factors and biofilm formation by medicinal plants against antibiotic resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Journal: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine

doi: 10.1016/j.jtcme.2017.05.008

Inhibition of biofilms formation in bacterial pathogens: P. aeruginosa PAO1 treated with T. bellerica extract and untreated control ( p
Figure Legend Snippet: Inhibition of biofilms formation in bacterial pathogens: P. aeruginosa PAO1 treated with T. bellerica extract and untreated control ( p

Techniques Used: Inhibition

GC–MS chromatogram of methanol extract of T. bellerica .
Figure Legend Snippet: GC–MS chromatogram of methanol extract of T. bellerica .

Techniques Used: Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

Fluorescence microscopic images of P. aeruginosa PAO1 and P. Aeruginosa CI-01 biofilms. The cells were stained with acridine orange dye. A) Thick biofilm formation in the non-treated sample of P. aeruginosa PAO1. B) Decreased biofilm formation in P. aeruginosa PAO1 treated with T. bellerica at the concentration of 0.5 mg/ml. C) Thick biofilm formation in the non-treated sample of P. aeruginosa CI-01. D) Decreased biofilm formation in P. aeruginosa CI-01 treated with T. bellerica at the concentration of 0.5 mg/ml compared to the control after 24 h of incubation.
Figure Legend Snippet: Fluorescence microscopic images of P. aeruginosa PAO1 and P. Aeruginosa CI-01 biofilms. The cells were stained with acridine orange dye. A) Thick biofilm formation in the non-treated sample of P. aeruginosa PAO1. B) Decreased biofilm formation in P. aeruginosa PAO1 treated with T. bellerica at the concentration of 0.5 mg/ml. C) Thick biofilm formation in the non-treated sample of P. aeruginosa CI-01. D) Decreased biofilm formation in P. aeruginosa CI-01 treated with T. bellerica at the concentration of 0.5 mg/ml compared to the control after 24 h of incubation.

Techniques Used: Fluorescence, Staining, Concentration Assay, Incubation

Scanning electron microscopy images of P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilm. A) Control shows biofilm formation after 24 h of incubation. B) The methanol extract of T. bellerica inhibited the biofilm formation at a concentration of 0.5 mg/ml.
Figure Legend Snippet: Scanning electron microscopy images of P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilm. A) Control shows biofilm formation after 24 h of incubation. B) The methanol extract of T. bellerica inhibited the biofilm formation at a concentration of 0.5 mg/ml.

Techniques Used: Electron Microscopy, Incubation, Concentration Assay

The quantitative assessment of violacein inhibition and cell growth of C. violaceum CV12472 treated with T. bellerica plant extract. The data represent the mean values of three independent experiments ( p
Figure Legend Snippet: The quantitative assessment of violacein inhibition and cell growth of C. violaceum CV12472 treated with T. bellerica plant extract. The data represent the mean values of three independent experiments ( p

Techniques Used: Inhibition

The quantitative assessment of pyocyanin inhibition and cell growth: pyocyanin inhibition and cell growth of P. aeruginosa PAO1 treated with T. bellerica plant extract and the data represent the mean values of three independent experiments ( p
Figure Legend Snippet: The quantitative assessment of pyocyanin inhibition and cell growth: pyocyanin inhibition and cell growth of P. aeruginosa PAO1 treated with T. bellerica plant extract and the data represent the mean values of three independent experiments ( p

Techniques Used: Inhibition

Effect of T. bellerica in EPS production by P. aeruginosa PAO1 and P. aeruginosa CI-01: The T. bellerica inhibited the production of EPS at concentrations ranging from 0.0625 to 0.5 mg/ml ( p
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of T. bellerica in EPS production by P. aeruginosa PAO1 and P. aeruginosa CI-01: The T. bellerica inhibited the production of EPS at concentrations ranging from 0.0625 to 0.5 mg/ml ( p

Techniques Used:

The quantitative assessment of pyocyanin inhibition and cell growth: T. bellerica plant extract inhibited the pyocyanin production and cell growth of P. aeruginosa CI-01 and the data represent the mean values of three independent experiments ( p
Figure Legend Snippet: The quantitative assessment of pyocyanin inhibition and cell growth: T. bellerica plant extract inhibited the pyocyanin production and cell growth of P. aeruginosa CI-01 and the data represent the mean values of three independent experiments ( p

Techniques Used: Inhibition

38) Product Images from "The leaves of Crataeva nurvala Buch-Ham. modulate locomotor and anxiety behaviors possibly through GABAergic system"

Article Title: The leaves of Crataeva nurvala Buch-Ham. modulate locomotor and anxiety behaviors possibly through GABAergic system

Journal: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine

doi: 10.1186/s12906-018-2338-y

Total ionic chromatogram of MECN from GC/MS-MS
Figure Legend Snippet: Total ionic chromatogram of MECN from GC/MS-MS

Techniques Used: Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, Mass Spectrometry

39) Product Images from "A role for coenzyme M (2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid) in a bacterial pathway of aliphatic epoxide carboxylation"

Article Title: A role for coenzyme M (2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid) in a bacterial pathway of aliphatic epoxide carboxylation

Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

doi:

Spectral identification of epoxypropane-thiol adduct. ( A ) 1 H NMR spectrum of the epoxypropane–cofactor adduct isolated from component I. ( B ) 1 H NMR spectrum of the product of component I-catalyzed reaction of CoM with epoxypropane. (C) 1 H NMR spectrum of chemically synthesized 2-hydroxypropyl–CoM. There are five signals ( a–e ) that correspond to protons on the carbon atoms as indicated in C . The triplet resonances at 2.91 and 3.16 ppm correspond to methylene groups ( a ) and ( b ), each integrating to two protons. The protons of methylene group ( c ) are not chemically equivalent and are therefore split into two quartets with resonances centered at 2.64 and 2.75 ppm, each multiplet integrating to one proton. The sextet at 3.98 ppm corresponds to the proton on carbon ( d ) and integrates to one proton. The protons of methyl group ( e ) are split to a doublet at 1.23 ppm that integrates to three protons. The resonance at 1.89 ppm in the isolated epoxypropane–cofactor adduct spectrum ( A ) is caused by acetate remaining in the sample.
Figure Legend Snippet: Spectral identification of epoxypropane-thiol adduct. ( A ) 1 H NMR spectrum of the epoxypropane–cofactor adduct isolated from component I. ( B ) 1 H NMR spectrum of the product of component I-catalyzed reaction of CoM with epoxypropane. (C) 1 H NMR spectrum of chemically synthesized 2-hydroxypropyl–CoM. There are five signals ( a–e ) that correspond to protons on the carbon atoms as indicated in C . The triplet resonances at 2.91 and 3.16 ppm correspond to methylene groups ( a ) and ( b ), each integrating to two protons. The protons of methylene group ( c ) are not chemically equivalent and are therefore split into two quartets with resonances centered at 2.64 and 2.75 ppm, each multiplet integrating to one proton. The sextet at 3.98 ppm corresponds to the proton on carbon ( d ) and integrates to one proton. The protons of methyl group ( e ) are split to a doublet at 1.23 ppm that integrates to three protons. The resonance at 1.89 ppm in the isolated epoxypropane–cofactor adduct spectrum ( A ) is caused by acetate remaining in the sample.

Techniques Used: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Isolation, Synthesized

Stimulation of epoxide carboxylase activity by commercially obtained CoM. Assays were performed in duplicate in sealed 9-ml vials containing purified components (5 μg of component I, 250 μg of component II, 40 μg of component III, and 25 μg of component IV) in 50 mM Tris⋅HCl (pH 8.2). □, assays containing as-isolated component I; ○, assays containing component I preincubated with epoxypropane followed by gel filtration chromatography.
Figure Legend Snippet: Stimulation of epoxide carboxylase activity by commercially obtained CoM. Assays were performed in duplicate in sealed 9-ml vials containing purified components (5 μg of component I, 250 μg of component II, 40 μg of component III, and 25 μg of component IV) in 50 mM Tris⋅HCl (pH 8.2). □, assays containing as-isolated component I; ○, assays containing component I preincubated with epoxypropane followed by gel filtration chromatography.

Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Purification, Isolation, Filtration, Chromatography

40) Product Images from "Variation of Herbivore-Induced Volatile Terpenes among Arabidopsis Ecotypes Depends on Allelic Differences and Subcellular Targeting of Two Terpene Synthases, TPS02 and TPS03 1Variation of Herbivore-Induced Volatile Terpenes among Arabidopsis Ecotypes Depends on Allelic Differences and Subcellular Targeting of Two Terpene Synthases, TPS02 and TPS03 1 [W]Variation of Herbivore-Induced Volatile Terpenes among Arabidopsis Ecotypes Depends on Allelic Differences and Subcellular Targeting of Two Terpene Synthases, TPS02 and TPS03 1 [W] [OA]"

Article Title: Variation of Herbivore-Induced Volatile Terpenes among Arabidopsis Ecotypes Depends on Allelic Differences and Subcellular Targeting of Two Terpene Synthases, TPS02 and TPS03 1Variation of Herbivore-Induced Volatile Terpenes among Arabidopsis Ecotypes Depends on Allelic Differences and Subcellular Targeting of Two Terpene Synthases, TPS02 and TPS03 1 [W]Variation of Herbivore-Induced Volatile Terpenes among Arabidopsis Ecotypes Depends on Allelic Differences and Subcellular Targeting of Two Terpene Synthases, TPS02 and TPS03 1 [W] [OA]

Journal: Plant Physiology

doi: 10.1104/pp.110.154864

Molecular nature of the TPS02 and TPS03 alleles in accessions Col-0 and Ws. A, Schematic representation of the structures of TPS02 and TPS03 . Exons are represented by the gray boxes, and flanking regions and introns are represented by the lines between
Figure Legend Snippet: Molecular nature of the TPS02 and TPS03 alleles in accessions Col-0 and Ws. A, Schematic representation of the structures of TPS02 and TPS03 . Exons are represented by the gray boxes, and flanking regions and introns are represented by the lines between

Techniques Used:

Confocal laser scanning microscopy of stably expressed Ws TPS02 and Col-0 TPS03 peptide-GFP fusion proteins. Microscopic images were taken from the hypocotyls of 2-week old seedlings. The first column (A, E, and I) shows light microscopic images of hypocotyl
Figure Legend Snippet: Confocal laser scanning microscopy of stably expressed Ws TPS02 and Col-0 TPS03 peptide-GFP fusion proteins. Microscopic images were taken from the hypocotyls of 2-week old seedlings. The first column (A, E, and I) shows light microscopic images of hypocotyl

Techniques Used: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, Stable Transfection

Recombinant TPS02 and TPS03 Proteins Both Produce ( E )- β -Ocimene and ( E,E )- α -Farnesene in Vitro
Figure Legend Snippet: Recombinant TPS02 and TPS03 Proteins Both Produce ( E )- β -Ocimene and ( E,E )- α -Farnesene in Vitro

Techniques Used: Recombinant, In Vitro

Semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis of TPS02 and TPS03 transcript levels in Col-0 and Ws tissues. Actin8 transcripts were analyzed as a control. Results are representative for at least three independent experiments. A, TPS02 and TPS03 transcript analysis
Figure Legend Snippet: Semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis of TPS02 and TPS03 transcript levels in Col-0 and Ws tissues. Actin8 transcripts were analyzed as a control. Results are representative for at least three independent experiments. A, TPS02 and TPS03 transcript analysis

Techniques Used: Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction

Coronalon-induced expression of TPS03 and volatile emission in detached leaves of Col-0 wild-type plants and the TPS03 T-DNA insertion line SALK_132694. A, Position of the T-DNA insertion in the TPS03 gene. Gray boxes represent exons, and flanking regions
Figure Legend Snippet: Coronalon-induced expression of TPS03 and volatile emission in detached leaves of Col-0 wild-type plants and the TPS03 T-DNA insertion line SALK_132694. A, Position of the T-DNA insertion in the TPS03 gene. Gray boxes represent exons, and flanking regions

Techniques Used: Expressing

GC-MS analysis of monoterpene and sesquiterpene products of recombinant Ws TPS02 and Col-0 TPS03 enzymes. Recombinant proteins were expressed in E. coli , extracted, partially purified, and applied for TPS assays using the substrates GPP and FPP. A, Total
Figure Legend Snippet: GC-MS analysis of monoterpene and sesquiterpene products of recombinant Ws TPS02 and Col-0 TPS03 enzymes. Recombinant proteins were expressed in E. coli , extracted, partially purified, and applied for TPS assays using the substrates GPP and FPP. A, Total

Techniques Used: Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, Recombinant, Purification

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    Shimadzu Corporation 3 methyl butanoic acid
    Volatile compound profiles of Thai fermented sausages inoculated with/without LAB starter cultures; (a) <t>3‐methyl‐butanal,</t> (b) 3‐methyl‐butanoic acid, and (c) 3‐methyl‐butanol
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    Shimadzu Corporation permethrin
    Locomotor activity of T. infestans nymphs topically treated with eugenol or exposed to <t>permethrin.</t> a Nymphs were topically treated with acetone alone (control, empty squares) or a solution of eugenol in acetone (filled squares). b Nymphs were exposed to a filter paper impregnated with acetone alone (empty squares) or a solution of permethrin in acetone (filled triangles). Each symbol represents the mean of four independent replicates. Means in each time interval were analyzed using ANOVA. Symbols marked with an asterisk are significantly different from both untreated and acetone controls ( P
    Permethrin, supplied by Shimadzu Corporation, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 5 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Shimadzu Corporation gc ms analysis gc ms analyses
    Miltiradiene production in yeast and agro-infiltrated Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. A) Yeast expression assays . (a) <t>GC-MS</t> profile of a hexane fraction obtained by silica gel flash chromatography containing the purified products (peak 1 and 2) from yeast transformed with SfCPS and SfKSL . (b) GC-MS profile of non-transformed yeast strain AM104. B) N . benthamiana transient co-expression : (a) GC-MS profile of N . benthamiana leaves infiltrated with SfCPS and SfKSL (showing peaks 1 and 2). (b) GC-MS profile of N . benthamiana leaves infiltrated with empty vector as a control. C) Mass spectrum for: (a) miltiradiene (peak 1); (b) abietatriene (peak 2).
    Gc Ms Analysis Gc Ms Analyses, supplied by Shimadzu Corporation, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 89/100, based on 17 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Shimadzu Corporation sphingolipid dispersions
    Formation of Hex in aqueous dispersions of SPH ( A ) and SPC ( B ) under the action of MPO/H 2 O 2 /Cl − system. <t>1—sphingolipid</t> dispersion; 2—sphingolipid dispersion/0.3 mM H 2 O 2 ; 3—sphingolipid dispersion/MPO; 4—sphingolipid dispersion/MPO/0.3 mM H 2 O 2 ; 5—sphingolipid dispersion/MPO/0.6 mM H 2 O 2 ; 6—sphingolipid dispersion/MPO/1.0 mM H 2 O 2 ; 7—sphingolipid dispersion/MPO/1.2 mM H 2 O 2 . The reactions were conducted in 50 mM PBS, 140 mM NaCl, pH 4, T = 37°C, t = 60 minutes. The sphingolipid concentration in the system thus obtained was 5 mM, and that of MPO was 1.5 U/mL. Error bars indicate SD of the means ( n ≥ 3).
    Sphingolipid Dispersions, supplied by Shimadzu Corporation, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 89/100, based on 10 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Image Search Results


    Volatile compound profiles of Thai fermented sausages inoculated with/without LAB starter cultures; (a) 3‐methyl‐butanal, (b) 3‐methyl‐butanoic acid, and (c) 3‐methyl‐butanol

    Journal: Food Science & Nutrition

    Article Title: Modeling of starter cultures growth for improved Thai sausage fermentation and cost estimating for sausage preparation and transportation. Modeling of starter cultures growth for improved Thai sausage fermentation and cost estimating for sausage preparation and transportation

    doi: 10.1002/fsn3.708

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Volatile compound profiles of Thai fermented sausages inoculated with/without LAB starter cultures; (a) 3‐methyl‐butanal, (b) 3‐methyl‐butanoic acid, and (c) 3‐methyl‐butanol

    Article Snippet: 2.3.8 Volatile compound analysis The volatile compounds such as 3‐methyl‐butanal, 3‐methyl‐butanol and 3‐methyl‐butanoic acid were analyzed by gas chromatography (Shimadzu GC 14‐A, Kyoto, Japan) equipped with a flame ionization detector (FID) using a DB‐624 capillary column (J & W Scientific, 60 m, 0.32 mm i.d., film thickness 1.8 μm).

    Techniques:

    Locomotor activity of T. infestans nymphs topically treated with eugenol or exposed to permethrin. a Nymphs were topically treated with acetone alone (control, empty squares) or a solution of eugenol in acetone (filled squares). b Nymphs were exposed to a filter paper impregnated with acetone alone (empty squares) or a solution of permethrin in acetone (filled triangles). Each symbol represents the mean of four independent replicates. Means in each time interval were analyzed using ANOVA. Symbols marked with an asterisk are significantly different from both untreated and acetone controls ( P

    Journal: Parasites & Vectors

    Article Title: Eugenol-hyperactivated nymphs of Triatoma infestans become intoxicated faster than non-hyperactivated nymphs when exposed to a permethrin-treated surface

    doi: 10.1186/s13071-018-3146-4

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Locomotor activity of T. infestans nymphs topically treated with eugenol or exposed to permethrin. a Nymphs were topically treated with acetone alone (control, empty squares) or a solution of eugenol in acetone (filled squares). b Nymphs were exposed to a filter paper impregnated with acetone alone (empty squares) or a solution of permethrin in acetone (filled triangles). Each symbol represents the mean of four independent replicates. Means in each time interval were analyzed using ANOVA. Symbols marked with an asterisk are significantly different from both untreated and acetone controls ( P

    Article Snippet: GC-MS analysis for determining the quantity of permethrin picked up The analysis of permethrin was performed using a GC-2010 instrument coupled with a QP2010 mass spectrometer detector (Shimadzu, Kyoto, Japan) in the electron impact mode (70 eV).

    Techniques: Activity Assay

    Experimental arena used for simultaneous exposure of T. infestans nymphs to eugenol (vapors) and permethrin (contact): eugenol-impregnated piece of rectangular filter paper with six square lapels ( a ), T. infestans nymphs ( b ), glass ring ( c ), filter paper impregnated with permethrin ( d ), and glass square ( e )

    Journal: Parasites & Vectors

    Article Title: Eugenol-hyperactivated nymphs of Triatoma infestans become intoxicated faster than non-hyperactivated nymphs when exposed to a permethrin-treated surface

    doi: 10.1186/s13071-018-3146-4

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Experimental arena used for simultaneous exposure of T. infestans nymphs to eugenol (vapors) and permethrin (contact): eugenol-impregnated piece of rectangular filter paper with six square lapels ( a ), T. infestans nymphs ( b ), glass ring ( c ), filter paper impregnated with permethrin ( d ), and glass square ( e )

    Article Snippet: GC-MS analysis for determining the quantity of permethrin picked up The analysis of permethrin was performed using a GC-2010 instrument coupled with a QP2010 mass spectrometer detector (Shimadzu, Kyoto, Japan) in the electron impact mode (70 eV).

    Techniques:

    Permethrin picked-up by hyperactivated T. infestans from an impregnated filter paper. Nymphs were topically pre-treated with acetone alone (empty bar) or a solution of eugenol in acetone (filled bar), then exposed to a filter paper treated with permethrin (1840 mg/m 2 ). Each bar represents the mean of five independent replicates. Vertical lines represent the SE. Bars marked with different letters are significantly different (Student’s t-test, P

    Journal: Parasites & Vectors

    Article Title: Eugenol-hyperactivated nymphs of Triatoma infestans become intoxicated faster than non-hyperactivated nymphs when exposed to a permethrin-treated surface

    doi: 10.1186/s13071-018-3146-4

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Permethrin picked-up by hyperactivated T. infestans from an impregnated filter paper. Nymphs were topically pre-treated with acetone alone (empty bar) or a solution of eugenol in acetone (filled bar), then exposed to a filter paper treated with permethrin (1840 mg/m 2 ). Each bar represents the mean of five independent replicates. Vertical lines represent the SE. Bars marked with different letters are significantly different (Student’s t-test, P

    Article Snippet: GC-MS analysis for determining the quantity of permethrin picked up The analysis of permethrin was performed using a GC-2010 instrument coupled with a QP2010 mass spectrometer detector (Shimadzu, Kyoto, Japan) in the electron impact mode (70 eV).

    Techniques:

    Miltiradiene production in yeast and agro-infiltrated Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. A) Yeast expression assays . (a) GC-MS profile of a hexane fraction obtained by silica gel flash chromatography containing the purified products (peak 1 and 2) from yeast transformed with SfCPS and SfKSL . (b) GC-MS profile of non-transformed yeast strain AM104. B) N . benthamiana transient co-expression : (a) GC-MS profile of N . benthamiana leaves infiltrated with SfCPS and SfKSL (showing peaks 1 and 2). (b) GC-MS profile of N . benthamiana leaves infiltrated with empty vector as a control. C) Mass spectrum for: (a) miltiradiene (peak 1); (b) abietatriene (peak 2).

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Towards Elucidating Carnosic Acid Biosynthesis in Lamiaceae: Functional Characterization of the Three First Steps of the Pathway in Salvia fruticosa and Rosmarinus officinalis

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0124106

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Miltiradiene production in yeast and agro-infiltrated Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. A) Yeast expression assays . (a) GC-MS profile of a hexane fraction obtained by silica gel flash chromatography containing the purified products (peak 1 and 2) from yeast transformed with SfCPS and SfKSL . (b) GC-MS profile of non-transformed yeast strain AM104. B) N . benthamiana transient co-expression : (a) GC-MS profile of N . benthamiana leaves infiltrated with SfCPS and SfKSL (showing peaks 1 and 2). (b) GC-MS profile of N . benthamiana leaves infiltrated with empty vector as a control. C) Mass spectrum for: (a) miltiradiene (peak 1); (b) abietatriene (peak 2).

    Article Snippet: GC-MS analysis GC-MS analyses for the E . coli , yeast and N . benthamiana extracts were carried out using a Shimadzu GC/MS-QP2010 system (Shimadzu, Germany) connected to a model QP-2010 electron impact (EI) mass spectrometer.

    Techniques: Expressing, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, Chromatography, Purification, Transformation Assay, Plasmid Preparation

    The functional characterization of SfCPS and SfKSL in E . coli . A) SfCPS characterization . (a) GC-MS profile (275 m/z extracted ion chromatograms) of the dephosphorylated product of mature SfCPS incubated with GGDP. (b) GC-MS of the control reaction- substrate GGDP omitted. (c) Mass spectrum of the product peak- copalol. B) SfKSL characterization . (a) GC-MS profile (272 m/z extracted ion chromatograms of the product (miltiradiene) of coupled reaction of SfCPS and SfKSL with GGDP as substrate, b) GC-MS profile of the enzymatic assay with SfCPS omitted. c) Mass spectrum of the reaction product—miltiradiene.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Towards Elucidating Carnosic Acid Biosynthesis in Lamiaceae: Functional Characterization of the Three First Steps of the Pathway in Salvia fruticosa and Rosmarinus officinalis

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0124106

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The functional characterization of SfCPS and SfKSL in E . coli . A) SfCPS characterization . (a) GC-MS profile (275 m/z extracted ion chromatograms) of the dephosphorylated product of mature SfCPS incubated with GGDP. (b) GC-MS of the control reaction- substrate GGDP omitted. (c) Mass spectrum of the product peak- copalol. B) SfKSL characterization . (a) GC-MS profile (272 m/z extracted ion chromatograms of the product (miltiradiene) of coupled reaction of SfCPS and SfKSL with GGDP as substrate, b) GC-MS profile of the enzymatic assay with SfCPS omitted. c) Mass spectrum of the reaction product—miltiradiene.

    Article Snippet: GC-MS analysis GC-MS analyses for the E . coli , yeast and N . benthamiana extracts were carried out using a Shimadzu GC/MS-QP2010 system (Shimadzu, Germany) connected to a model QP-2010 electron impact (EI) mass spectrometer.

    Techniques: Functional Assay, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, Incubation, Enzymatic Assay

    Heterologous expression of ferruginol synthase genes in yeast (S . cerevisiae) . A) GC-MS chromatograms of novel products secreted into culture media of yeast co-expressing SfCPS , SfKSL and either SfFS or the empty vector (EV) pWTDH3myc. B), GC-MS chromatograms of novel products secreted into culture media of yeast co-expressing RoCPS1m , RoKSL1f and either RoFS1 , RoFS2 and empty vector (EV) pWTDH3myc. F, peak corresponding to ferruginol. C), Mass spectrum of peak F.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Towards Elucidating Carnosic Acid Biosynthesis in Lamiaceae: Functional Characterization of the Three First Steps of the Pathway in Salvia fruticosa and Rosmarinus officinalis

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0124106

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Heterologous expression of ferruginol synthase genes in yeast (S . cerevisiae) . A) GC-MS chromatograms of novel products secreted into culture media of yeast co-expressing SfCPS , SfKSL and either SfFS or the empty vector (EV) pWTDH3myc. B), GC-MS chromatograms of novel products secreted into culture media of yeast co-expressing RoCPS1m , RoKSL1f and either RoFS1 , RoFS2 and empty vector (EV) pWTDH3myc. F, peak corresponding to ferruginol. C), Mass spectrum of peak F.

    Article Snippet: GC-MS analysis GC-MS analyses for the E . coli , yeast and N . benthamiana extracts were carried out using a Shimadzu GC/MS-QP2010 system (Shimadzu, Germany) connected to a model QP-2010 electron impact (EI) mass spectrometer.

    Techniques: Expressing, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, Plasmid Preparation

    Formation of Hex in aqueous dispersions of SPH ( A ) and SPC ( B ) under the action of MPO/H 2 O 2 /Cl − system. 1—sphingolipid dispersion; 2—sphingolipid dispersion/0.3 mM H 2 O 2 ; 3—sphingolipid dispersion/MPO; 4—sphingolipid dispersion/MPO/0.3 mM H 2 O 2 ; 5—sphingolipid dispersion/MPO/0.6 mM H 2 O 2 ; 6—sphingolipid dispersion/MPO/1.0 mM H 2 O 2 ; 7—sphingolipid dispersion/MPO/1.2 mM H 2 O 2 . The reactions were conducted in 50 mM PBS, 140 mM NaCl, pH 4, T = 37°C, t = 60 minutes. The sphingolipid concentration in the system thus obtained was 5 mM, and that of MPO was 1.5 U/mL. Error bars indicate SD of the means ( n ≥ 3).

    Journal: Lipid insights

    Article Title: Free-radical Destruction of Sphingolipids Resulting in 2-hexadecenal Formation

    doi: 10.4137/LPI.S24081

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Formation of Hex in aqueous dispersions of SPH ( A ) and SPC ( B ) under the action of MPO/H 2 O 2 /Cl − system. 1—sphingolipid dispersion; 2—sphingolipid dispersion/0.3 mM H 2 O 2 ; 3—sphingolipid dispersion/MPO; 4—sphingolipid dispersion/MPO/0.3 mM H 2 O 2 ; 5—sphingolipid dispersion/MPO/0.6 mM H 2 O 2 ; 6—sphingolipid dispersion/MPO/1.0 mM H 2 O 2 ; 7—sphingolipid dispersion/MPO/1.2 mM H 2 O 2 . The reactions were conducted in 50 mM PBS, 140 mM NaCl, pH 4, T = 37°C, t = 60 minutes. The sphingolipid concentration in the system thus obtained was 5 mM, and that of MPO was 1.5 U/mL. Error bars indicate SD of the means ( n ≥ 3).

    Article Snippet: GC-MS analysis of 2-hexadecenal formed in sphingolipid dispersions The Hex content of irradiated and HOCl-treated sphingolipid dispersions were determined using GC-MS on a Shimadzu GCMS-QP2010 instrument equipped with an Equity-5 capillary column (30 m, 0.25 mm I.D., 0.25 μm film thickness) in the electron impact ionization mode at 70 eV.

    Techniques: Concentration Assay

    Mass spectrum of Hex formed in γ-irradiated sphingolipid dispersions.

    Journal: Lipid insights

    Article Title: Free-radical Destruction of Sphingolipids Resulting in 2-hexadecenal Formation

    doi: 10.4137/LPI.S24081

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Mass spectrum of Hex formed in γ-irradiated sphingolipid dispersions.

    Article Snippet: GC-MS analysis of 2-hexadecenal formed in sphingolipid dispersions The Hex content of irradiated and HOCl-treated sphingolipid dispersions were determined using GC-MS on a Shimadzu GCMS-QP2010 instrument equipped with an Equity-5 capillary column (30 m, 0.25 mm I.D., 0.25 μm film thickness) in the electron impact ionization mode at 70 eV.

    Techniques: Irradiation