Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Article Title: Mapping Alterations Induced by Long-Term Axenic Cultivation of Leishmania amazonensis Promastigotes With a Multiplatform Metabolomic Fingerprint Approach
Figure Lengend Snippet: Biochemical map of potential metabolic alterations occurred during axenization of L. amazonensis . Metabolites are represented by colored rectangles. Metabolites identified via metabolomic analysis are highlighted with a red contouring. The colored rectangles localized above/under metabolites represent the relative difference of abundance by comparing R10, R40, and R60 to R0 (left to right, respectively). Arrows represent reactions with enzymes, co-enzymes, metabolites or derivatives, indicated by their respective names or initials. Period-dash-period arrows indicate the occurrence of multiple reactions. Small dashes indicate interconnection of metabolic data between different metabolic pathways. The colors of arrows identify their respective pathways: 1. Black for energetic pathways (glycolytic and gluconeogenesis); 2. Yellow-green for pentose shunt (starting in G6P); 3. Light blue for amino acids biosynthesis; 4. Purple for fatty acids biosynthesis (receiving NADPH from pentose shunt and from malic enzyme reaction); 5. Light brown for β-alanine degradation (starting with ureidopropionate and culminating in α-keto-glutarate); 6. Dark brown for arginase and bright yellow for trypanothione (both pathways are connected in the production of putrescine); 7. Red for SAM or AdoMet pathway (interconnected to the Kennedy pathway, producer of phosphatidiletanolamine, phosphatidilcholine and phosphatidilserine); 8. Dark blue for glycine, serine and threonine biosynthesis. G6P, Glucose 6 phosphate; F6P, Fructose 6 phosphate; Fructose 1,6 bp, Fructose 6 bi-phosphate; PFK, phosphofructokinase; TPI, Triose phosphate isomerase; G3P, Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate; 3PG, 3-phosphoglycerate; PEP, Phosphoenolpyruvate; UMP, Uridine monophosphate; UDP-GlcNac, Uridine diphosphate N- acetylglucosamine; HMG-CoA-Synthase, Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase; NADPH, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate; ACP, Acyl carrier protein; TrypSyn, Trypanothione synthase; TrypRed, Trypanothione reductase; Gly, Glycine; Glu, Glutamine; ATP, Adenosine triphosphate; GS, Glutamine synthetase; SAH, S-adenosylhomocysteine; SAM, S-adennosylmethionine; PSS, phosphatidylserine synthase; PSD, Phosphatidylserine decarboxylase; CMP, Cytidine monophosphate; CK, Choline kinase; Pcyt1, Pyruvate carboxylase t1; CPT, Carnitine palmitoyltransferase; PLA, Phospholipase A; CTP, Phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase; ADP, Adenosine diphosphate; DAG, Diacylglycerol; PAF, Platelet-activating fator; PPi, Cytosolic pyrophosphate; PCP, Pyrrolidone carboxyl peptidase.
Article Snippet: Evaluation of Cellular Oxidative Stress During SIVP Process To evaluate the cellular oxidative stress, promastigotes from R0 and R60 were cultivated in M199 medium (Gibco) supplemented with 10% of fetal bovine serum (Gibco) and cultivated at 26°C.
Techniques: Cycling Probe Technology, Proximity Ligation Assay