fluconazole  (Thermo Fisher)


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    Structured Review

    Thermo Fisher fluconazole
    Diploid and Tetraploid C.albicans are sensitive to antifungals. A) Diploid colony forming units (CFUs) following 24-hr exposure to 1μg/mL or 10μg/mL <t>fluconazole</t> (‘FLU’, light and dark purple bars) and 0.25μg/mL or 2.5μg/mL caspofungin (‘CAS’, light and dark green bars) treatments. Bars represent the mean of 3 independent experiments (black symbols), and the error bars indicate +/− SEM. The dashed line and shaded box represent the mean and +/− SEM of the no-drug treatment. Asterisks indicate drug treatments that differ significantly from the no-drug treatment (* P
    Fluconazole, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 98/100, based on 19 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/fluconazole/product/Thermo Fisher
    Average 98 stars, based on 19 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    fluconazole - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    98/100 stars

    Images

    1) Product Images from "The Magnitude of Candida albicans Stress-Induced Genome Instability Results from an Interaction Between Ploidy and Antifungal Drugs"

    Article Title: The Magnitude of Candida albicans Stress-Induced Genome Instability Results from an Interaction Between Ploidy and Antifungal Drugs

    Journal: G3: Genes|Genomes|Genetics

    doi: 10.1534/g3.119.400752

    Diploid and Tetraploid C.albicans are sensitive to antifungals. A) Diploid colony forming units (CFUs) following 24-hr exposure to 1μg/mL or 10μg/mL fluconazole (‘FLU’, light and dark purple bars) and 0.25μg/mL or 2.5μg/mL caspofungin (‘CAS’, light and dark green bars) treatments. Bars represent the mean of 3 independent experiments (black symbols), and the error bars indicate +/− SEM. The dashed line and shaded box represent the mean and +/− SEM of the no-drug treatment. Asterisks indicate drug treatments that differ significantly from the no-drug treatment (* P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Diploid and Tetraploid C.albicans are sensitive to antifungals. A) Diploid colony forming units (CFUs) following 24-hr exposure to 1μg/mL or 10μg/mL fluconazole (‘FLU’, light and dark purple bars) and 0.25μg/mL or 2.5μg/mL caspofungin (‘CAS’, light and dark green bars) treatments. Bars represent the mean of 3 independent experiments (black symbols), and the error bars indicate +/− SEM. The dashed line and shaded box represent the mean and +/− SEM of the no-drug treatment. Asterisks indicate drug treatments that differ significantly from the no-drug treatment (* P

    Techniques Used:

    Ploidy and antifungal drug-specific impacts on LOH in C. albicans . A) Diploid GAL1 LOH rates following 24-hr exposure to 1μg/mL or 10μg/mL fluconazole (‘FLU’, light and dark purple bars); 0.25μg/mL or 2.5μg/mL caspofungin (‘CAS’, light and dark green bars); and 100 μg/mL calcofluor white (’CW’, gray bar) treatments. Bars represent the mean of 3 independent experiments (black symbols), and the error bars indicate +/− SEM. The dashed line and shaded box represent the mean and +/− SEM of the no-drug treatment. Asterisks indicate drug treatments that differ significantly from the no-drug treatment (* P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Ploidy and antifungal drug-specific impacts on LOH in C. albicans . A) Diploid GAL1 LOH rates following 24-hr exposure to 1μg/mL or 10μg/mL fluconazole (‘FLU’, light and dark purple bars); 0.25μg/mL or 2.5μg/mL caspofungin (‘CAS’, light and dark green bars); and 100 μg/mL calcofluor white (’CW’, gray bar) treatments. Bars represent the mean of 3 independent experiments (black symbols), and the error bars indicate +/− SEM. The dashed line and shaded box represent the mean and +/− SEM of the no-drug treatment. Asterisks indicate drug treatments that differ significantly from the no-drug treatment (* P

    Techniques Used:

    2) Product Images from "Characterization of a novel antibiofilm effect of nitric oxide-releasing aspirin (NCX-4040) on Candida albicans isolates from denture stomatitis patients"

    Article Title: Characterization of a novel antibiofilm effect of nitric oxide-releasing aspirin (NCX-4040) on Candida albicans isolates from denture stomatitis patients

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0176755

    NO-ASA increases the antifungal effect of fluconazole in resistant strains. Bars represent mean ± SD of inhibition zone diameters. Discs contained 25 μg fluconazole, alone or in combination with 25 μg nitric oxide-releasing aspirin or 25 μg ASA. Controls containing only vehicle (DMSO), aspirin (ASA), or NCX-4040 NO-ASA showed no inhibition zone diameters (not shown). *p
    Figure Legend Snippet: NO-ASA increases the antifungal effect of fluconazole in resistant strains. Bars represent mean ± SD of inhibition zone diameters. Discs contained 25 μg fluconazole, alone or in combination with 25 μg nitric oxide-releasing aspirin or 25 μg ASA. Controls containing only vehicle (DMSO), aspirin (ASA), or NCX-4040 NO-ASA showed no inhibition zone diameters (not shown). *p

    Techniques Used: Inhibition

    NO-ASA inhibits C . albicans planktonic morphogenesis. Upper Panel : light microscopy photographs showing representative filamentous cells (hyphae or pseudohyphae) for the 17p strain after 3 h or 12 h of incubation with DMSO (A, E) ; 800 μM fluconazole (B, F) or 500 μM aspirin (C, G). Cells treated with 500 μM NO-ASA (D, H) showed mainly budding yeast cells and scarce filamentous cells (arrow in H). Lower panel : Bars represent mean ± SD of percentage of filamentous cells as compared to untreated controls for each strain assayed after 3 hours of incubation (untreated control bars were omitted for clarity). ****p
    Figure Legend Snippet: NO-ASA inhibits C . albicans planktonic morphogenesis. Upper Panel : light microscopy photographs showing representative filamentous cells (hyphae or pseudohyphae) for the 17p strain after 3 h or 12 h of incubation with DMSO (A, E) ; 800 μM fluconazole (B, F) or 500 μM aspirin (C, G). Cells treated with 500 μM NO-ASA (D, H) showed mainly budding yeast cells and scarce filamentous cells (arrow in H). Lower panel : Bars represent mean ± SD of percentage of filamentous cells as compared to untreated controls for each strain assayed after 3 hours of incubation (untreated control bars were omitted for clarity). ****p

    Techniques Used: Light Microscopy, Incubation

    NO-ASA inhibits the adhesion of C . albicans to abiotic surfaces. Bars represent mean ± SD of percentage of cells adhered to the bottom of wells as compared controls for each strain assayed. Due fluconazole 800 μM did not affect adhesion as compared to untreated strains it was used as control for the analysis. **p
    Figure Legend Snippet: NO-ASA inhibits the adhesion of C . albicans to abiotic surfaces. Bars represent mean ± SD of percentage of cells adhered to the bottom of wells as compared controls for each strain assayed. Due fluconazole 800 μM did not affect adhesion as compared to untreated strains it was used as control for the analysis. **p

    Techniques Used:

    3) Product Images from "Repurposing Approach Identifies Auranofin with Broad Spectrum Antifungal Activity That Targets Mia40-Erv1 Pathway"

    Article Title: Repurposing Approach Identifies Auranofin with Broad Spectrum Antifungal Activity That Targets Mia40-Erv1 Pathway

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2017.00004

    Effect of auranofin on Candida biofilms. (A) C. albicans ATCC 10231 biofilm was treated with indicated concentrations of auranofin, fluconazole, and flucytosine for 24 h. The percent metabolic activity of fungal cells in biofilms, after treatment, was determined using the XTT reduction assay. Results are presented as means ± SD ( n = 3). Statistical analysis was calculated using the two-tailed Student's t -test. P -values ( ** P ≤ 0.01) are considered as significant. Auranofin was compared both to controls and antifungal drugs ( ** ). (B) C. albicans ATCC 10231 biofilm was formed on FBS-coated glass cover slips and treated with indicated drugs for 24 h and stained with concanavalin A– conjugated with FITC dye and imaged by Leica confocal laser scanning microscopy.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of auranofin on Candida biofilms. (A) C. albicans ATCC 10231 biofilm was treated with indicated concentrations of auranofin, fluconazole, and flucytosine for 24 h. The percent metabolic activity of fungal cells in biofilms, after treatment, was determined using the XTT reduction assay. Results are presented as means ± SD ( n = 3). Statistical analysis was calculated using the two-tailed Student's t -test. P -values ( ** P ≤ 0.01) are considered as significant. Auranofin was compared both to controls and antifungal drugs ( ** ). (B) C. albicans ATCC 10231 biofilm was formed on FBS-coated glass cover slips and treated with indicated drugs for 24 h and stained with concanavalin A– conjugated with FITC dye and imaged by Leica confocal laser scanning microscopy.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Two Tailed Test, Staining, Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy

    Efficacy of auranofin in C. neoformans -infected C. elegans . L4-stage worms were infected with C. neoformans and treated with auranofin, fluconazole, and flucytosine, at a concentration of 8 μg/mL. After 24 h, worms were lysed and plated onto YPD plates to determine the CFU per worm. Each dot represents average fungal load in each worm per well. The results are presented as means ± SD ( n = 3). Statistical analysis was calculated using the two-tailed Student's t -test. P -value ( ** P ≤ 0.01) are considered as significant.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Efficacy of auranofin in C. neoformans -infected C. elegans . L4-stage worms were infected with C. neoformans and treated with auranofin, fluconazole, and flucytosine, at a concentration of 8 μg/mL. After 24 h, worms were lysed and plated onto YPD plates to determine the CFU per worm. Each dot represents average fungal load in each worm per well. The results are presented as means ± SD ( n = 3). Statistical analysis was calculated using the two-tailed Student's t -test. P -value ( ** P ≤ 0.01) are considered as significant.

    Techniques Used: Infection, Concentration Assay, Two Tailed Test

    Killing kinetics of auranofin . An overnight culture of C. albicans ATCC 10231 and C. neoformans NR-41291 were treated with 5 × and 10 × MIC of auranofin and fluconazole (in triplicate) in RPMI-MOPS and incubated at 35°C. Samples were collected at indicated time points and plated onto YPD plates. Plates were incubated for 24–48 h prior to counting the colony forming units (CFU).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Killing kinetics of auranofin . An overnight culture of C. albicans ATCC 10231 and C. neoformans NR-41291 were treated with 5 × and 10 × MIC of auranofin and fluconazole (in triplicate) in RPMI-MOPS and incubated at 35°C. Samples were collected at indicated time points and plated onto YPD plates. Plates were incubated for 24–48 h prior to counting the colony forming units (CFU).

    Techniques Used: Incubation

    4) Product Images from "Ebselen exerts antifungal activity by regulating glutathione (GSH) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in fungal cells"

    Article Title: Ebselen exerts antifungal activity by regulating glutathione (GSH) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in fungal cells

    Journal: Biochimica et biophysica acta

    doi: 10.1016/j.bbagen.2016.09.029

    Killing kinetics of ebselen. An overnight culture of C. albicans ATCC 10231 and C. neoformans NR-41291 were treated with 5 × of ebselen, fluconazole, flucytosine and amphotericin (in triplicate) in RPMI-MOPS and incubated at 35°C. Samples were collected at indicated time points and plated onto YPD plates. Plates were incubated for 24–48 h prior to counting the colony forming units (CFU).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Killing kinetics of ebselen. An overnight culture of C. albicans ATCC 10231 and C. neoformans NR-41291 were treated with 5 × of ebselen, fluconazole, flucytosine and amphotericin (in triplicate) in RPMI-MOPS and incubated at 35°C. Samples were collected at indicated time points and plated onto YPD plates. Plates were incubated for 24–48 h prior to counting the colony forming units (CFU).

    Techniques Used: Incubation

    5) Product Images from "Fluconazole Resistance among Oral Candida Isolates from People Living with HIV/AIDS in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital"

    Article Title: Fluconazole Resistance among Oral Candida Isolates from People Living with HIV/AIDS in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital

    Journal: Journal of Fungi

    doi: 10.3390/jof3040069

    Prevalence of prior fluconazole use and history of OPC in fluconazole-resistant isolates.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Prevalence of prior fluconazole use and history of OPC in fluconazole-resistant isolates.

    Techniques Used:

    Fluconazole sensitivity of Candida isolates in PLWHA.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Fluconazole sensitivity of Candida isolates in PLWHA.

    Techniques Used:

    6) Product Images from "A chromosome 4 trisomy contributes to increased fluconazole resistance in a clinical isolate of Candida albicans"

    Article Title: A chromosome 4 trisomy contributes to increased fluconazole resistance in a clinical isolate of Candida albicans

    Journal: Microbiology

    doi: 10.1099/mic.0.000478

    Analysis of the role of CDR11 and QDR1 , encoding putative drug efflux pumps, in fluconazole resistance. (a) RNA-Seq expression of select SC5314 and P60002 transcripts. P60002 overexpressed three genes implicated in fluconazole resistance relative to SC5314: UPC2 , CDR11 and QDR1 . (b) Ectopic expression of the P60002 alleles of CDR11 and QDR1 in SC5314 increased transcript levels to a similar extent to those present in P60002. (c) Analysis of drug resistance in SC5314 strains ectopically expressing P60002 alleles of CDR11 or QDR1. Cells were plated onto YPD and allowed to grow in the presence of a 25 µg fluconazole disc. Plates were photographed after 2 days. (d) Quantitative analysis of fluconazole resistance in SC5314, P60002 or SC5314-derived strains expressing P60002 alleles of CDR11 and QDR1 .
    Figure Legend Snippet: Analysis of the role of CDR11 and QDR1 , encoding putative drug efflux pumps, in fluconazole resistance. (a) RNA-Seq expression of select SC5314 and P60002 transcripts. P60002 overexpressed three genes implicated in fluconazole resistance relative to SC5314: UPC2 , CDR11 and QDR1 . (b) Ectopic expression of the P60002 alleles of CDR11 and QDR1 in SC5314 increased transcript levels to a similar extent to those present in P60002. (c) Analysis of drug resistance in SC5314 strains ectopically expressing P60002 alleles of CDR11 or QDR1. Cells were plated onto YPD and allowed to grow in the presence of a 25 µg fluconazole disc. Plates were photographed after 2 days. (d) Quantitative analysis of fluconazole resistance in SC5314, P60002 or SC5314-derived strains expressing P60002 alleles of CDR11 and QDR1 .

    Techniques Used: RNA Sequencing Assay, Expressing, Derivative Assay

    Fluconazole resistance in clinical isolate P60002. C. albicans strains SC5314 and P60002 were plated onto YPD medium and allowed to grow in the presence of a 25 µg fluconazole-containing disc. Both strains are diploid, but whereas SC5314 is euploid, P60002 is trisomic for Chr4 (red) and Chr6 (blue).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Fluconazole resistance in clinical isolate P60002. C. albicans strains SC5314 and P60002 were plated onto YPD medium and allowed to grow in the presence of a 25 µg fluconazole-containing disc. Both strains are diploid, but whereas SC5314 is euploid, P60002 is trisomic for Chr4 (red) and Chr6 (blue).

    Techniques Used:

    Chr4 trisomy contributes to increased fluconazole resistance in P60002. (a) Single colonies of P60002 were serially passaged for 18 days to induce loss of Chr4 and/or Chr6 trisomies. Forty-nine isolates were genotyped by ddRAD-Seq to assess chromosome copy number. (b) Schematic showing P60002-derived isolates that were disomic or trisomic for Chr4 and/or Chr6 combined for both D0 and D18 time points. (c) Analysis of fluconazole resistance in P60002-derived isolates that were disomic or trisomic for Chr4 and Chr6. The dashed circle indicates an area where cells grew more slowly when lacking the Chr4 trisomy. (d) Analysis of fluconazole resistance in SC5314 or in an aneuploid SC5314 derivative that harbours a Chr4 trisomy. (e) Fluconazole resistance in SC5314 and P60002 strains that were disomic or are trisomic for Chr4 and/or Chr6. Drug resistance for SC5314 isolates that were trisomic for Chr4 was collected from six independent aneuploid strains. (f) Optical density of broth microdilution assays across a range of fluconazole concentrations for P60002- and SC5314-derived strains that were disomic or trisomic for Chr4 or Chr6 (values determined after 24 h). Each strain–ploidy combination is represented by three biological replicates. (g) Doubling times for different karyotypic forms of P60002 when grown in liquid YPD or SCD medium. (h) Measurement of rhodamine 123 accumulation in P60002 or derivatives to assay MDR efflux pump activity. All plate images in the figure were taken after 2 days.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Chr4 trisomy contributes to increased fluconazole resistance in P60002. (a) Single colonies of P60002 were serially passaged for 18 days to induce loss of Chr4 and/or Chr6 trisomies. Forty-nine isolates were genotyped by ddRAD-Seq to assess chromosome copy number. (b) Schematic showing P60002-derived isolates that were disomic or trisomic for Chr4 and/or Chr6 combined for both D0 and D18 time points. (c) Analysis of fluconazole resistance in P60002-derived isolates that were disomic or trisomic for Chr4 and Chr6. The dashed circle indicates an area where cells grew more slowly when lacking the Chr4 trisomy. (d) Analysis of fluconazole resistance in SC5314 or in an aneuploid SC5314 derivative that harbours a Chr4 trisomy. (e) Fluconazole resistance in SC5314 and P60002 strains that were disomic or are trisomic for Chr4 and/or Chr6. Drug resistance for SC5314 isolates that were trisomic for Chr4 was collected from six independent aneuploid strains. (f) Optical density of broth microdilution assays across a range of fluconazole concentrations for P60002- and SC5314-derived strains that were disomic or trisomic for Chr4 or Chr6 (values determined after 24 h). Each strain–ploidy combination is represented by three biological replicates. (g) Doubling times for different karyotypic forms of P60002 when grown in liquid YPD or SCD medium. (h) Measurement of rhodamine 123 accumulation in P60002 or derivatives to assay MDR efflux pump activity. All plate images in the figure were taken after 2 days.

    Techniques Used: Derivative Assay, Activity Assay

    7) Product Images from "Identification of a Phenylthiazole Small Molecule with Dual Antifungal and Antibiofilm Activity Against Candida albicans and Candida auris"

    Article Title: Identification of a Phenylthiazole Small Molecule with Dual Antifungal and Antibiofilm Activity Against Candida albicans and Candida auris

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-55379-1

    Toxicity of compound 1 and efficacy of compound 1 and 5-Fluorocytosine in C . elegans infected with C . albicans or C . auris . ( a ) Adult (L4-stage) worms were exposed to compound 1 at four different concentrations and viability was recorded daily for four days. Adult (L4-stage) worms were infected with the highly-virulent, fluconazole-resistant strains ( b ) C . albicans P60002 or ( c ) C . auris strain 390 for 90 minutes at 25 °C. Worms were washed and then treated with compound 1 (either at 5 µg/mL or 10 µg/mL), 5-Fluorocytosine (5-FC, 5 µg/mL) or left untreated. Survival of worms was monitored daily and recorded. Data are presented as a Kaplan-Meier survival curve.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Toxicity of compound 1 and efficacy of compound 1 and 5-Fluorocytosine in C . elegans infected with C . albicans or C . auris . ( a ) Adult (L4-stage) worms were exposed to compound 1 at four different concentrations and viability was recorded daily for four days. Adult (L4-stage) worms were infected with the highly-virulent, fluconazole-resistant strains ( b ) C . albicans P60002 or ( c ) C . auris strain 390 for 90 minutes at 25 °C. Worms were washed and then treated with compound 1 (either at 5 µg/mL or 10 µg/mL), 5-Fluorocytosine (5-FC, 5 µg/mL) or left untreated. Survival of worms was monitored daily and recorded. Data are presented as a Kaplan-Meier survival curve.

    Techniques Used: Infection

    8) Product Images from "Tissue and species differences in the glucuronidation of glabridin with UDP-glucuronosyltransferases"

    Article Title: Tissue and species differences in the glucuronidation of glabridin with UDP-glucuronosyltransferases

    Journal: Chemico-biological interactions

    doi: 10.1016/j.cbi.2015.03.001

    Inhibitory effects of nilotinib (1 µM), magnolol (1 µM), fluconazole (1 mM) and mycophenolic acid (10 µM) on GA (2 µM) glucuronidation (formation of M2) in HIM. Incubation without chemical inhibitors is set as the control. Data columns and error bars represent the means and S.D. values of triplicate determinations.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Inhibitory effects of nilotinib (1 µM), magnolol (1 µM), fluconazole (1 mM) and mycophenolic acid (10 µM) on GA (2 µM) glucuronidation (formation of M2) in HIM. Incubation without chemical inhibitors is set as the control. Data columns and error bars represent the means and S.D. values of triplicate determinations.

    Techniques Used: Incubation

    9) Product Images from "Improvement of experimental testing and network training conditions with genome-wide microarrays for more accurate predictions of drug gene targets"

    Article Title: Improvement of experimental testing and network training conditions with genome-wide microarrays for more accurate predictions of drug gene targets

    Journal: BMC Systems Biology

    doi: 10.1186/1752-0509-8-7

    Summary of FL enzymatic and transcription factor gene targets. Genes affected by fluconazole (FL) investigated in this study are enzymes along the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway (circles) and transcription factors directly regulated by sterol and heme levels (squares). ERG11 , the gene that codes for lanosterol C-14-α demethylase, is the primary target of FL. CYP450 C-22 sterol desaturase, ERG5 (circle), is also a target of FL and its enzymatic activity is inhibited upon FL binding. FL’s nitrogen interacts with the heme groups of both Erg11p and Erg5p disrupting normal ergosterol synthesis and affecting downstream enzymatic reactions, including those performed by Δ[ 24 ]-sterol C-methyltransferase, Erg6p (circle). FL disruption of sterol biosynthesis additionally affects UPC2 (square), the gene that encodes for a sterol regulatory binding protein responsible for increased transcription of ERG genes upon sterol depletion. FL induces defective respiration due to its disruption of heme and oxygen levels. Therefore, HAP1 (square), a transcription factor responsible for regulating ERG11 expression under hypoxic conditions, is also targeted.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Summary of FL enzymatic and transcription factor gene targets. Genes affected by fluconazole (FL) investigated in this study are enzymes along the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway (circles) and transcription factors directly regulated by sterol and heme levels (squares). ERG11 , the gene that codes for lanosterol C-14-α demethylase, is the primary target of FL. CYP450 C-22 sterol desaturase, ERG5 (circle), is also a target of FL and its enzymatic activity is inhibited upon FL binding. FL’s nitrogen interacts with the heme groups of both Erg11p and Erg5p disrupting normal ergosterol synthesis and affecting downstream enzymatic reactions, including those performed by Δ[ 24 ]-sterol C-methyltransferase, Erg6p (circle). FL disruption of sterol biosynthesis additionally affects UPC2 (square), the gene that encodes for a sterol regulatory binding protein responsible for increased transcription of ERG genes upon sterol depletion. FL induces defective respiration due to its disruption of heme and oxygen levels. Therefore, HAP1 (square), a transcription factor responsible for regulating ERG11 expression under hypoxic conditions, is also targeted.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Binding Assay, Expressing

    Experimental methodology for fluconazole treatment experiments. (A) Wild-type yeast cells (BY4741) were treated with fluconazole (FL) at various exposure times and concentrations under constant growth conditions. (B) RNA purification, amplification and hybridization to Affymetrix YG S98 GeneChips were carried out and raw signal data was RMA-normalized and processed with SSEM-Lasso to determine residuals and subsequent ranks for all genes in the network. Two replicates for each condition were performed from two separate FL treatment experiments. (C) Gene set analysis detected gene perturbations of multiple, related genes across an increasing SSEM-Lasso rank threshold, resulting in a sensitivity vs. rank threshold curve (ROC curve) for each experimental condition. Area under each ROC curve was calculated, averaged for each duplicate experiment and reported as AUC%. AUC% values > 0.5 (50%) indicated greater FL perturbation on the gene set. Gene set analyses were conducted for target pathway, FL-interacters (blue), and orthogonal pathways (purple). (D) Single gene analysis predicted FL perturbation on gene targets, ERG11 , ERG6 , UPC2 and HAP1 , for every FL treatment condition. Target gene ranks were compared to the average ranks of six orthogonal genes. Low ranked genes were considered more accurately perturbed by FL. Ranks were averaged for two replicate experiments.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Experimental methodology for fluconazole treatment experiments. (A) Wild-type yeast cells (BY4741) were treated with fluconazole (FL) at various exposure times and concentrations under constant growth conditions. (B) RNA purification, amplification and hybridization to Affymetrix YG S98 GeneChips were carried out and raw signal data was RMA-normalized and processed with SSEM-Lasso to determine residuals and subsequent ranks for all genes in the network. Two replicates for each condition were performed from two separate FL treatment experiments. (C) Gene set analysis detected gene perturbations of multiple, related genes across an increasing SSEM-Lasso rank threshold, resulting in a sensitivity vs. rank threshold curve (ROC curve) for each experimental condition. Area under each ROC curve was calculated, averaged for each duplicate experiment and reported as AUC%. AUC% values > 0.5 (50%) indicated greater FL perturbation on the gene set. Gene set analyses were conducted for target pathway, FL-interacters (blue), and orthogonal pathways (purple). (D) Single gene analysis predicted FL perturbation on gene targets, ERG11 , ERG6 , UPC2 and HAP1 , for every FL treatment condition. Target gene ranks were compared to the average ranks of six orthogonal genes. Low ranked genes were considered more accurately perturbed by FL. Ranks were averaged for two replicate experiments.

    Techniques Used: Purification, Amplification, Hybridization

    Network training methodology for fluconazole treatment experiments. S. cerevisiae expression data from 5 microarray experiments were individually added to the original training compendium from Cosgrove et al. Separate SSEM-Lasso runs were performed on each of the modified training compendiums resulting in unique changes to the gene interaction network. Subsequent changes to gene ranks were reported, along with percentile values to evaluate how much “better” or “worse” a gene ranked with a given, modified training compendium.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Network training methodology for fluconazole treatment experiments. S. cerevisiae expression data from 5 microarray experiments were individually added to the original training compendium from Cosgrove et al. Separate SSEM-Lasso runs were performed on each of the modified training compendiums resulting in unique changes to the gene interaction network. Subsequent changes to gene ranks were reported, along with percentile values to evaluate how much “better” or “worse” a gene ranked with a given, modified training compendium.

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Microarray, Modification

    10) Product Images from "Dynamic Interaction between Fluconazole and Amphotericin B against Cryptococcus gattii"

    Article Title: Dynamic Interaction between Fluconazole and Amphotericin B against Cryptococcus gattii

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.06098-11

    Time-kill curves of fluconazole and amphotericin B alone or in combination against 14 C. gattii strains. (A) Time-kill curve performed with fluconazole at 1× MIC (●), 2× the MIC (■), and 4× the MIC (▲). (B) Time-kill curve performed with amphotericin B (MIC). (C) Time-kill curve performed with antifungal combinations: FLC (1.0 μg/ml) + AMB (MIC) (♦), FLC (4.0 μg/ml) + AMB (MIC) (■), and FLC (16.0 μg/ml) + AMB (MIC) (▲). AMB, amphotericin B; FLC, fluconazole.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Time-kill curves of fluconazole and amphotericin B alone or in combination against 14 C. gattii strains. (A) Time-kill curve performed with fluconazole at 1× MIC (●), 2× the MIC (■), and 4× the MIC (▲). (B) Time-kill curve performed with amphotericin B (MIC). (C) Time-kill curve performed with antifungal combinations: FLC (1.0 μg/ml) + AMB (MIC) (♦), FLC (4.0 μg/ml) + AMB (MIC) (■), and FLC (16.0 μg/ml) + AMB (MIC) (▲). AMB, amphotericin B; FLC, fluconazole.

    Techniques Used:

    Schematic representation of the reduction in ergosterol content after treatment with fluconazole and its influence on amphotericin B activity. (A) Without fluconazole, the action of amphotericin B depends on the constitutive levels of ergosterol of each strain. (B) Fluconazole at 2 to 4 μg/ml leads to an increasing loss of the ergosterol content and starts to impair the action of amphotericin B but with no visually interference on the fungus killing. (C) Fluconazole at ≥4 μg/ml leads to lower ergosterol levels, and fewer sites for amphotericin B remain, probably leading to the antagonistic interaction.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Schematic representation of the reduction in ergosterol content after treatment with fluconazole and its influence on amphotericin B activity. (A) Without fluconazole, the action of amphotericin B depends on the constitutive levels of ergosterol of each strain. (B) Fluconazole at 2 to 4 μg/ml leads to an increasing loss of the ergosterol content and starts to impair the action of amphotericin B but with no visually interference on the fungus killing. (C) Fluconazole at ≥4 μg/ml leads to lower ergosterol levels, and fewer sites for amphotericin B remain, probably leading to the antagonistic interaction.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay

    11) Product Images from "Synergistic Activity of the N-Terminal Peptide of Human Lactoferrin and Fluconazole against Candida Species"

    Article Title: Synergistic Activity of the N-Terminal Peptide of Human Lactoferrin and Fluconazole against Candida Species

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.47.1.262-267.2003

    Effect of the combination of a noncandidacidal concentration of hLF(1-11) and fluconazole or either of these agents alone on the mitochondrial activity of fluconazole-resistant C. albicans . Briefly, rhodamine 123-labeled fluconazole-resistant C. albicans cells were exposed to 1 μM hLF(1-11) and/or 100 μg of fluconazole/ml for 10 min at 37°C, and then the median fluorescence intensity (MFI) of this probe was assessed by FACS analysis. In addition, the effect of 5 mM sodium azide on the stimulation of mitochondrial activity was determined. Data are means plus SD from at least three independent experiments. ∗, significant difference ( P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of the combination of a noncandidacidal concentration of hLF(1-11) and fluconazole or either of these agents alone on the mitochondrial activity of fluconazole-resistant C. albicans . Briefly, rhodamine 123-labeled fluconazole-resistant C. albicans cells were exposed to 1 μM hLF(1-11) and/or 100 μg of fluconazole/ml for 10 min at 37°C, and then the median fluorescence intensity (MFI) of this probe was assessed by FACS analysis. In addition, the effect of 5 mM sodium azide on the stimulation of mitochondrial activity was determined. Data are means plus SD from at least three independent experiments. ∗, significant difference ( P

    Techniques Used: Concentration Assay, Activity Assay, Labeling, Fluorescence, FACS

    12) Product Images from "Optimized Chitosan/Anion Polyelectrolyte Complex Based Inserts for Vaginal Delivery of Fluconazole: In Vitro/In Vivo Evaluation"

    Article Title: Optimized Chitosan/Anion Polyelectrolyte Complex Based Inserts for Vaginal Delivery of Fluconazole: In Vitro/In Vivo Evaluation

    Journal: Pharmaceutics

    doi: 10.3390/pharmaceutics10040227

    Histological examination of Candida infected vaginal tissue treated by unloaded vaginal insert, fluconazole PEC based vaginal insert and fluconazole solution. ( A ) Control normal vaginal tissue; ( B ) Control Candida infected, non-treated vaginal tissue; ( C ) Candida infected vaginal tissue treated by unloaded vaginal insert; ( D ) Candida infected vaginal tissue treated by fluconazole solution; ( E ) Candida infected vaginal tissue treated by fluconazole vaginal insert. Stars represent inflammatory cells; Black arrows represent normal epithelium; Dotted arrows represent hyperplastic or damaged epithelium.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Histological examination of Candida infected vaginal tissue treated by unloaded vaginal insert, fluconazole PEC based vaginal insert and fluconazole solution. ( A ) Control normal vaginal tissue; ( B ) Control Candida infected, non-treated vaginal tissue; ( C ) Candida infected vaginal tissue treated by unloaded vaginal insert; ( D ) Candida infected vaginal tissue treated by fluconazole solution; ( E ) Candida infected vaginal tissue treated by fluconazole vaginal insert. Stars represent inflammatory cells; Black arrows represent normal epithelium; Dotted arrows represent hyperplastic or damaged epithelium.

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Fluconazole release from chitosan/anion polyelectrolyte based lyophilized vaginal inserts in phosphate buffer PH 4.5 (Data is represented as mean ± SD, n = 3).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Fluconazole release from chitosan/anion polyelectrolyte based lyophilized vaginal inserts in phosphate buffer PH 4.5 (Data is represented as mean ± SD, n = 3).

    Techniques Used:

    Scanning electron micrographs of ( A ) Unloaded 5:5 CH/Alg PEC—based insert ( B ) Fluconazole 5:5 CH/Alg PEC ( C ) Unloaded 5:5 CH/XG PEC—based insert ( D ) Fluconazole 5:5 CH/XG PEC ( E ) Unloaded 5:5 CH/Carb PEC—based insert ( F ) Fluconazole 5:5 CH/Carp PEC (×200).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Scanning electron micrographs of ( A ) Unloaded 5:5 CH/Alg PEC—based insert ( B ) Fluconazole 5:5 CH/Alg PEC ( C ) Unloaded 5:5 CH/XG PEC—based insert ( D ) Fluconazole 5:5 CH/XG PEC ( E ) Unloaded 5:5 CH/Carb PEC—based insert ( F ) Fluconazole 5:5 CH/Carp PEC (×200).

    Techniques Used:

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermograms of fluconazole, chitosan, anion, their physical mixture (PM) and fluconazole CH/anion polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) ( A ) Na alginate (Alg) ( B ) Carpobol (Carp) ( C ) Xanthan gum (XG).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermograms of fluconazole, chitosan, anion, their physical mixture (PM) and fluconazole CH/anion polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) ( A ) Na alginate (Alg) ( B ) Carpobol (Carp) ( C ) Xanthan gum (XG).

    Techniques Used:

    Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectra of fluconazole, chitosan, anion, their physical mixture (PM) and fluconazole CH/anion PEC ( A ) Na alginate (Alg) ( B ) Carpobol (Carp) ( C ) Xanthan gum (XG).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectra of fluconazole, chitosan, anion, their physical mixture (PM) and fluconazole CH/anion PEC ( A ) Na alginate (Alg) ( B ) Carpobol (Carp) ( C ) Xanthan gum (XG).

    Techniques Used:

    Response 3-D plots for effect of anion type (X 1 ) and anion ratio (X 2 ) on ( A ) mucoadhesion ( B ) release efficiency after 6 h (R 6h ); ( C ) time for 63.2% release (T d ) from fluconazole chitosan/anion based vaginal inserts.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Response 3-D plots for effect of anion type (X 1 ) and anion ratio (X 2 ) on ( A ) mucoadhesion ( B ) release efficiency after 6 h (R 6h ); ( C ) time for 63.2% release (T d ) from fluconazole chitosan/anion based vaginal inserts.

    Techniques Used:

    13) Product Images from "Antagonism of Fluconazole and a Proton Pump Inhibitor against Candida albicans"

    Article Title: Antagonism of Fluconazole and a Proton Pump Inhibitor against Candida albicans

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.02043-15

    Effect of omeprazole (Ome), fluconazole (Flu), and their combination on the growth of C. albicans . (A) Effect of omeprazole on C. albicans growth. Results shown are representative of three biologically independent experiments, each comprising four technical
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of omeprazole (Ome), fluconazole (Flu), and their combination on the growth of C. albicans . (A) Effect of omeprazole on C. albicans growth. Results shown are representative of three biologically independent experiments, each comprising four technical

    Techniques Used:

    Effect of omeprazole (Ome), fluconazole (Flu), and their combination on the pH in intracellular compartments of C. albicans . (A and B) Cytosolic pH of cells exposed to vehicle alone, fluconazole, omeprazole, and their combination. (A) Calibration curve
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of omeprazole (Ome), fluconazole (Flu), and their combination on the pH in intracellular compartments of C. albicans . (A and B) Cytosolic pH of cells exposed to vehicle alone, fluconazole, omeprazole, and their combination. (A) Calibration curve

    Techniques Used:

    14) Product Images from "Optimized Chitosan/Anion Polyelectrolyte Complex Based Inserts for Vaginal Delivery of Fluconazole: In Vitro/In Vivo Evaluation"

    Article Title: Optimized Chitosan/Anion Polyelectrolyte Complex Based Inserts for Vaginal Delivery of Fluconazole: In Vitro/In Vivo Evaluation

    Journal: Pharmaceutics

    doi: 10.3390/pharmaceutics10040227

    Fluconazole release from chitosan/anion polyelectrolyte based lyophilized vaginal inserts in phosphate buffer PH 4.5 (Data is represented as mean ± SD, n = 3).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Fluconazole release from chitosan/anion polyelectrolyte based lyophilized vaginal inserts in phosphate buffer PH 4.5 (Data is represented as mean ± SD, n = 3).

    Techniques Used:

    Scanning electron micrographs of ( A ) Unloaded 5:5 CH/Alg PEC—based insert ( B ) Fluconazole 5:5 CH/Alg PEC ( C ) Unloaded 5:5 CH/XG PEC—based insert ( D ) Fluconazole 5:5 CH/XG PEC ( E ) Unloaded 5:5 CH/Carb PEC—based insert ( F ) Fluconazole 5:5 CH/Carp PEC (×200).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Scanning electron micrographs of ( A ) Unloaded 5:5 CH/Alg PEC—based insert ( B ) Fluconazole 5:5 CH/Alg PEC ( C ) Unloaded 5:5 CH/XG PEC—based insert ( D ) Fluconazole 5:5 CH/XG PEC ( E ) Unloaded 5:5 CH/Carb PEC—based insert ( F ) Fluconazole 5:5 CH/Carp PEC (×200).

    Techniques Used:

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermograms of fluconazole, chitosan, anion, their physical mixture (PM) and fluconazole CH/anion polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) ( A ) Na alginate (Alg) ( B ) Carpobol (Carp) ( C ) Xanthan gum (XG).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermograms of fluconazole, chitosan, anion, their physical mixture (PM) and fluconazole CH/anion polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) ( A ) Na alginate (Alg) ( B ) Carpobol (Carp) ( C ) Xanthan gum (XG).

    Techniques Used:

    Histological examination of Candida infected vaginal tissue treated by unloaded vaginal insert, fluconazole PEC based vaginal insert and fluconazole solution. ( A ) Control normal vaginal tissue; ( B ) Control Candida infected, non-treated vaginal tissue; ( C ) Candida infected vaginal tissue treated by unloaded vaginal insert; ( D ) Candida infected vaginal tissue treated by fluconazole solution; ( E ) Candida infected vaginal tissue treated by fluconazole vaginal insert. Stars represent inflammatory cells; Black arrows represent normal epithelium; Dotted arrows represent hyperplastic or damaged epithelium.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Histological examination of Candida infected vaginal tissue treated by unloaded vaginal insert, fluconazole PEC based vaginal insert and fluconazole solution. ( A ) Control normal vaginal tissue; ( B ) Control Candida infected, non-treated vaginal tissue; ( C ) Candida infected vaginal tissue treated by unloaded vaginal insert; ( D ) Candida infected vaginal tissue treated by fluconazole solution; ( E ) Candida infected vaginal tissue treated by fluconazole vaginal insert. Stars represent inflammatory cells; Black arrows represent normal epithelium; Dotted arrows represent hyperplastic or damaged epithelium.

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectra of fluconazole, chitosan, anion, their physical mixture (PM) and fluconazole CH/anion PEC ( A ) Na alginate (Alg) ( B ) Carpobol (Carp) ( C ) Xanthan gum (XG).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectra of fluconazole, chitosan, anion, their physical mixture (PM) and fluconazole CH/anion PEC ( A ) Na alginate (Alg) ( B ) Carpobol (Carp) ( C ) Xanthan gum (XG).

    Techniques Used:

    15) Product Images from "Prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis among pregnant women in the Ho municipality, Ghana: species identification and antifungal susceptibility of Candida isolates"

    Article Title: Prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis among pregnant women in the Ho municipality, Ghana: species identification and antifungal susceptibility of Candida isolates

    Journal: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth

    doi: 10.1186/s12884-020-02963-3

    Photograph of Antifungal susceptibility testing of Fluconazole (25 μg), Nystatin (100 units), and Voriconazole (1 μg) showing zone of inhibition on Muellar Hinton agar supplemented with 2% glucose and 0.5 μl of methylene blue after 24 h of aerobic incubation at 37 °C
    Figure Legend Snippet: Photograph of Antifungal susceptibility testing of Fluconazole (25 μg), Nystatin (100 units), and Voriconazole (1 μg) showing zone of inhibition on Muellar Hinton agar supplemented with 2% glucose and 0.5 μl of methylene blue after 24 h of aerobic incubation at 37 °C

    Techniques Used: Inhibition, Incubation

    A graph showing the general In vitro antifungal susceptibility pattern of Candida isolates to Fluconazole (25 μg), Nystatin (100 units) and Voriconazole (1 μg) ( n = 54)
    Figure Legend Snippet: A graph showing the general In vitro antifungal susceptibility pattern of Candida isolates to Fluconazole (25 μg), Nystatin (100 units) and Voriconazole (1 μg) ( n = 54)

    Techniques Used: In Vitro

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    Article Snippet: .. Fungal colonies were first diluted in nutrient broth with glucose (Oxoid), the fluid was then distributed on SAB-CHL-GEN (Oxoid), and the mixture was incubated at 30°C for 120 h. The utilized test disks included 1 μg voriconazole (catalog number CT1807B; Oxoid), 25 μg fluconazole (CT1806B; Oxoid), 8 μg itraconazole (Neo-Sensitabs, catalog number 81812N; Rosco Diagnostica A/S, Taastrup, Denmark), 50 μg clotrimazole (catalog number 092815029; Liofilchem, Roseto degli Abruzzi, Italy), 5 μg posaconazole (catalog number 020916054; Liofilchem), 100 IU nystatin (catalog number CT0073B; Oxoid), 20 μg amphotericin B (catalog number 051916048; Liofilchem), and 30 μg terbinafine (catalog number 87412N; Neo-Sensitabs). .. Zones of inhibition surrounding the disks of ≤30 mm were defined as unsusceptible, but in most of the resistant fungal isolates, overgrowth of the disks was seen.

    other:

    Article Title: Oral Prevalence of Candida Species in Patients Undergoing Systemic Glucocorticoid Therapy and the Antifungal Sensitivity of the Isolates
    Article Snippet: Antifungal susceptibility of Candida species-specific was interpreted by clinical breakpoints (CBPs) based on the CLSI M60; when CBPs were not available, epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) that were used to differentiate wild-type (WT) from non-WT isolates based on the CLSI M59 and the previous study were applied., .

    Article Title: Evaluation of in vitro activity of manogepix against multidrug-resistant and pan-resistant Candida auris from the New York Outbreak
    Article Snippet: Antifungal susceptibility testing The antifungals tested were FLC, VRC, ITC, ISA, POS, AFG, CAS, MFG, AMB and 5FC.

    Article Title: Evidence for the agricultural origin of antimicrobial resistance in a fungal pathogen of humans
    Article Snippet: Antifungal susceptibility testing by Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) One hundred-seventy-two environmental A. fumigatus isolates , and 48 clinical isolates were tested for antifungal susceptibility under conditions described in the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute broth microdilution method .

    Flow Cytometry:

    Article Title: Antifungal susceptibility testing of Aspergillus niger on silicon microwells by intensity-based reflectometric interference spectroscopy
    Article Snippet: .. Therefore, in recent years, research has focused on the development of novel methods for phenotypic antifungal susceptibility testing such as flow cytometry , , colorimetric redox indicators – , isothermal microcalorimetry , , and porous aluminum oxide assays . .. Furthermore, microfluidic systems for single cell susceptibility testing and diagnostic applications have been developed recently.

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    Thermo Fisher zona occludens 1
    Protective effects of propionate against LPS-induced barrier disruption. a Assessment of the paracellular permeability of hCMEC/D3 monolayers to 70 kDa FITC–dextran following treatment for 24 h with 65 μM acetate, 1 μM butyrate or 1 μM propionate, with or without inclusion of 50 ng/ml LPS for the last 12 h of incubation; data are mean ± SEM, n = 3 independent experiments. b Trans-endothelial electrical resistance of hCMEC/D3 monolayers following treatment for 24 h with 65 μM acetate, 1 μM butyrate or 1 μM propionate, with or without inclusion of 50 ng/ml LPS for the last 12 h of incubation; data are mean ± SEM, n = 3 independent experiments. c Confocal microscopic analysis of expression of the tight junction components claudin-5, occludin and zona <t>occludens-1</t> (ZO-1) in hCMEC/D3 cells following treatment for 24 h with 1 μM propionate, with or without inclusion of 50 ng/ml LPS for the last 12 h of incubation. Scale bar (10 μm) applies to all images. Images are representative of at least three independent experiments. d Expression of CD14 mRNA in control and propionate-treated (1 μM; 24 h) hCMEC/D3 cells according to microarray data (data are mean ± SEM, n = 3). e Surface expression of CD14 protein on control and propionate-treated hCMEC/D3 cells (grey line, unstained cells, black line secondary antibody control, red line FFAR3); data are representative of three independent experiments. f Median fluorescence intensity of surface expression of CD14 protein on control and propionate-treated hCMEC/D3 cells; dashed line indicates isotype control fluorescence intensity; data are mean ± SEM, n = 3 independent experiments
    Zona Occludens 1, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 11 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    91
    Thermo Fisher antifungal drugs fluconazole
    Trends of susceptibility (including susceptible or wild-type rate, and MIC 50 , MIC 90 , and GM MIC values) of 507 C. tropicalis isolates to four azoles (A) , <t>fluconazole;</t> (B) , voriconazole; (C) , itraconazole; (D) , posaconazole, over 5 years. S, susceptible; SDD, susceptible dose-dependent; R, resistant; WT, wild-type; NWT, non-wild-type; MIC, minimum inhibitory concentration; GM, geometric mean.
    Antifungal Drugs Fluconazole, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    antifungal drugs fluconazole - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
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    Protective effects of propionate against LPS-induced barrier disruption. a Assessment of the paracellular permeability of hCMEC/D3 monolayers to 70 kDa FITC–dextran following treatment for 24 h with 65 μM acetate, 1 μM butyrate or 1 μM propionate, with or without inclusion of 50 ng/ml LPS for the last 12 h of incubation; data are mean ± SEM, n = 3 independent experiments. b Trans-endothelial electrical resistance of hCMEC/D3 monolayers following treatment for 24 h with 65 μM acetate, 1 μM butyrate or 1 μM propionate, with or without inclusion of 50 ng/ml LPS for the last 12 h of incubation; data are mean ± SEM, n = 3 independent experiments. c Confocal microscopic analysis of expression of the tight junction components claudin-5, occludin and zona occludens-1 (ZO-1) in hCMEC/D3 cells following treatment for 24 h with 1 μM propionate, with or without inclusion of 50 ng/ml LPS for the last 12 h of incubation. Scale bar (10 μm) applies to all images. Images are representative of at least three independent experiments. d Expression of CD14 mRNA in control and propionate-treated (1 μM; 24 h) hCMEC/D3 cells according to microarray data (data are mean ± SEM, n = 3). e Surface expression of CD14 protein on control and propionate-treated hCMEC/D3 cells (grey line, unstained cells, black line secondary antibody control, red line FFAR3); data are representative of three independent experiments. f Median fluorescence intensity of surface expression of CD14 protein on control and propionate-treated hCMEC/D3 cells; dashed line indicates isotype control fluorescence intensity; data are mean ± SEM, n = 3 independent experiments

    Journal: Microbiome

    Article Title: Microbiome–host systems interactions: protective effects of propionate upon the blood–brain barrier

    doi: 10.1186/s40168-018-0439-y

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Protective effects of propionate against LPS-induced barrier disruption. a Assessment of the paracellular permeability of hCMEC/D3 monolayers to 70 kDa FITC–dextran following treatment for 24 h with 65 μM acetate, 1 μM butyrate or 1 μM propionate, with or without inclusion of 50 ng/ml LPS for the last 12 h of incubation; data are mean ± SEM, n = 3 independent experiments. b Trans-endothelial electrical resistance of hCMEC/D3 monolayers following treatment for 24 h with 65 μM acetate, 1 μM butyrate or 1 μM propionate, with or without inclusion of 50 ng/ml LPS for the last 12 h of incubation; data are mean ± SEM, n = 3 independent experiments. c Confocal microscopic analysis of expression of the tight junction components claudin-5, occludin and zona occludens-1 (ZO-1) in hCMEC/D3 cells following treatment for 24 h with 1 μM propionate, with or without inclusion of 50 ng/ml LPS for the last 12 h of incubation. Scale bar (10 μm) applies to all images. Images are representative of at least three independent experiments. d Expression of CD14 mRNA in control and propionate-treated (1 μM; 24 h) hCMEC/D3 cells according to microarray data (data are mean ± SEM, n = 3). e Surface expression of CD14 protein on control and propionate-treated hCMEC/D3 cells (grey line, unstained cells, black line secondary antibody control, red line FFAR3); data are representative of three independent experiments. f Median fluorescence intensity of surface expression of CD14 protein on control and propionate-treated hCMEC/D3 cells; dashed line indicates isotype control fluorescence intensity; data are mean ± SEM, n = 3 independent experiments

    Article Snippet: hCMEC/D3 cells were cultured on Lab-Tek™ Permanox™ 8-well chamber slides coated with calf skin collagen (Sigma-Aldrich, UK), prior to immunostaining according to standard protocols [ , ] and using primary antibodies directed against Nrf2 (1:500, Novus Biologicals Ltd., Abingdon, UK), occludin (1:200, Thermo-Fisher Scientific, UK), claudin-5 (1:200, Thermo-Fisher Scientific, UK) and zona occludens-1 (ZO-1; 1:100, Thermo-Fisher Scientific, UK).

    Techniques: Permeability, Incubation, Expressing, Microarray, Fluorescence

    Protective effects of propionate against LPS-induced barrier disruption. a Assessment of the paracellular permeability of hCMEC/D3 monolayers to 70 kDa FITC–dextran following treatment for 24 h with 65 μM acetate, 1 μM butyrate or 1 μM propionate, with or without inclusion of 50 ng/ml LPS for the last 12 h of incubation; data are mean ± SEM, n = 3 independent experiments. b Trans-endothelial electrical resistance of hCMEC/D3 monolayers following treatment for 24 h with 65 μM acetate, 1 μM butyrate or 1 μM propionate, with or without inclusion of 50 ng/ml LPS for the last 12 h of incubation; data are mean ± SEM, n = 3 independent experiments. c Confocal microscopic analysis of expression of the tight junction components claudin-5, occludin and zona occludens-1 (ZO-1) in hCMEC/D3 cells following treatment for 24 h with 1 μM propionate, with or without inclusion of 50 ng/ml LPS for the last 12 h of incubation. Scale bar (10 μm) applies to all images. Images are representative of at least three independent experiments. d Expression of CD14 mRNA in control and propionate-treated (1 μM; 24 h) hCMEC/D3 cells according to microarray data (data are mean ± SEM, n = 3). e Surface expression of CD14 protein on control and propionate-treated hCMEC/D3 cells (grey line, unstained cells, black line secondary antibody control, red line FFAR3); data are representative of three independent experiments. f Median fluorescence intensity of surface expression of CD14 protein on control and propionate-treated hCMEC/D3 cells; dashed line indicates isotype control fluorescence intensity; data are mean ± SEM, n = 3 independent experiments

    Journal: Microbiome

    Article Title: Microbiome–host systems interactions: protective effects of propionate upon the blood–brain barrier

    doi: 10.1186/s40168-018-0439-y

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Protective effects of propionate against LPS-induced barrier disruption. a Assessment of the paracellular permeability of hCMEC/D3 monolayers to 70 kDa FITC–dextran following treatment for 24 h with 65 μM acetate, 1 μM butyrate or 1 μM propionate, with or without inclusion of 50 ng/ml LPS for the last 12 h of incubation; data are mean ± SEM, n = 3 independent experiments. b Trans-endothelial electrical resistance of hCMEC/D3 monolayers following treatment for 24 h with 65 μM acetate, 1 μM butyrate or 1 μM propionate, with or without inclusion of 50 ng/ml LPS for the last 12 h of incubation; data are mean ± SEM, n = 3 independent experiments. c Confocal microscopic analysis of expression of the tight junction components claudin-5, occludin and zona occludens-1 (ZO-1) in hCMEC/D3 cells following treatment for 24 h with 1 μM propionate, with or without inclusion of 50 ng/ml LPS for the last 12 h of incubation. Scale bar (10 μm) applies to all images. Images are representative of at least three independent experiments. d Expression of CD14 mRNA in control and propionate-treated (1 μM; 24 h) hCMEC/D3 cells according to microarray data (data are mean ± SEM, n = 3). e Surface expression of CD14 protein on control and propionate-treated hCMEC/D3 cells (grey line, unstained cells, black line secondary antibody control, red line FFAR3); data are representative of three independent experiments. f Median fluorescence intensity of surface expression of CD14 protein on control and propionate-treated hCMEC/D3 cells; dashed line indicates isotype control fluorescence intensity; data are mean ± SEM, n = 3 independent experiments

    Article Snippet: Immunofluorescence analysis hCMEC/D3 cells were cultured on Lab-Tek™ Permanox™ 8-well chamber slides coated with calf skin collagen (Sigma-Aldrich, UK), prior to immunostaining according to standard protocols [ , ] and using primary antibodies directed against Nrf2 (1:500, Novus Biologicals Ltd., Abingdon, UK), occludin (1:200, Thermo-Fisher Scientific, UK), claudin-5 (1:200, Thermo-Fisher Scientific, UK) and zona occludens-1 (ZO-1; 1:100, Thermo-Fisher Scientific, UK).

    Techniques: Permeability, Incubation, Expressing, Microarray, Fluorescence

    Immunohistochemistry of corneas harvested from the CM, CB, and NC groups. Paraffin section slides of both groups were stained for PCNA ( A – D ), Iba-1 ( E , F ), or ZO-1 ( G , H ) and with DAPI. Cells stained with antibodies and DAPI were counted and compared for each group. The representative immunohistochemically stained pictures of PCNA are shown in ( I ) and ( J ), which were stained at the corneal center of the CB and CM groups, 3 days after induction of chemical burn, respectively. The representative images of Iba-1 are shown in ( K ) and ( L ) of CB and CM groups in the limbal area one day after induction of chemical burn, respectively. The representative pictures of ZO-1 on the third day are shown in M and N of the central epithelium of the CB and CM groups, respectively. The epithelium layer is marked by a black arrowhead. PCNA, proliferating nuclear antigen; Iba-1, ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule-1; ZO-1, zona occludens-1; scale bar, 100 μm.

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Topical cell-free conditioned media harvested from adipose tissue-derived stem cells promote recovery from corneal epithelial defects caused by chemical burns

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-69020-z

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Immunohistochemistry of corneas harvested from the CM, CB, and NC groups. Paraffin section slides of both groups were stained for PCNA ( A – D ), Iba-1 ( E , F ), or ZO-1 ( G , H ) and with DAPI. Cells stained with antibodies and DAPI were counted and compared for each group. The representative immunohistochemically stained pictures of PCNA are shown in ( I ) and ( J ), which were stained at the corneal center of the CB and CM groups, 3 days after induction of chemical burn, respectively. The representative images of Iba-1 are shown in ( K ) and ( L ) of CB and CM groups in the limbal area one day after induction of chemical burn, respectively. The representative pictures of ZO-1 on the third day are shown in M and N of the central epithelium of the CB and CM groups, respectively. The epithelium layer is marked by a black arrowhead. PCNA, proliferating nuclear antigen; Iba-1, ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule-1; ZO-1, zona occludens-1; scale bar, 100 μm.

    Article Snippet: Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA; BD Biosciences), ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule-1 (Iba-1; Wako, Richmond, USA), zona occludens-1 (ZO-1; Thermo Fisher Scientific), and arginase-1 (Novus Biologicals, Centennial, USA) were used as the primary antibodies.

    Techniques: Immunohistochemistry, Paraffin Section, Staining, Binding Assay

    Trends of susceptibility (including susceptible or wild-type rate, and MIC 50 , MIC 90 , and GM MIC values) of 507 C. tropicalis isolates to four azoles (A) , fluconazole; (B) , voriconazole; (C) , itraconazole; (D) , posaconazole, over 5 years. S, susceptible; SDD, susceptible dose-dependent; R, resistant; WT, wild-type; NWT, non-wild-type; MIC, minimum inhibitory concentration; GM, geometric mean.

    Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

    Article Title: Notable Increasing Trend in Azole Non-susceptible Candida tropicalis Causing Invasive Candidiasis in China (August 2009 to July 2014): Molecular Epidemiology and Clinical Azole Consumption

    doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.00464

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Trends of susceptibility (including susceptible or wild-type rate, and MIC 50 , MIC 90 , and GM MIC values) of 507 C. tropicalis isolates to four azoles (A) , fluconazole; (B) , voriconazole; (C) , itraconazole; (D) , posaconazole, over 5 years. S, susceptible; SDD, susceptible dose-dependent; R, resistant; WT, wild-type; NWT, non-wild-type; MIC, minimum inhibitory concentration; GM, geometric mean.

    Article Snippet: Antifungal susceptibility testing The in vitro susceptibility of isolates to nine antifungal drugs—fluconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, caspofungin, micafungin, anidulafungin, amphotericin B, and 5-flucytosine—was determined using Sensititre YeastOne™ YO10 methodology (Thermo Scientific, Cleveland, Ohio, USA), following the manufacturer's instructions.

    Techniques: Concentration Assay

    Geographic distribution of the 10 surveillance centers involved in this study, number of isolates collected, and change of fluconazole non-susceptible rate from the first to the last surveillance year in each center .

    Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

    Article Title: Notable Increasing Trend in Azole Non-susceptible Candida tropicalis Causing Invasive Candidiasis in China (August 2009 to July 2014): Molecular Epidemiology and Clinical Azole Consumption

    doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.00464

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Geographic distribution of the 10 surveillance centers involved in this study, number of isolates collected, and change of fluconazole non-susceptible rate from the first to the last surveillance year in each center .

    Article Snippet: Antifungal susceptibility testing The in vitro susceptibility of isolates to nine antifungal drugs—fluconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, caspofungin, micafungin, anidulafungin, amphotericin B, and 5-flucytosine—was determined using Sensititre YeastOne™ YO10 methodology (Thermo Scientific, Cleveland, Ohio, USA), following the manufacturer's instructions.

    Techniques:

    The minimum spanning tree (MST) draw by three-locus microsatellite genotyping results of 507 C. tropicalis isolates . Panel (A) and four genotype clusters associated with fluconazole non-susceptible phenotypes (B–E) . Each circle corresponds to a microsatellite genotype, and the size of circle represents number of isolates for each genotype. Different colors in the circle represents different fluconazole susceptibility categories. The lines between circles indicate the similarity between profiles.

    Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

    Article Title: Notable Increasing Trend in Azole Non-susceptible Candida tropicalis Causing Invasive Candidiasis in China (August 2009 to July 2014): Molecular Epidemiology and Clinical Azole Consumption

    doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.00464

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The minimum spanning tree (MST) draw by three-locus microsatellite genotyping results of 507 C. tropicalis isolates . Panel (A) and four genotype clusters associated with fluconazole non-susceptible phenotypes (B–E) . Each circle corresponds to a microsatellite genotype, and the size of circle represents number of isolates for each genotype. Different colors in the circle represents different fluconazole susceptibility categories. The lines between circles indicate the similarity between profiles.

    Article Snippet: Antifungal susceptibility testing The in vitro susceptibility of isolates to nine antifungal drugs—fluconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, caspofungin, micafungin, anidulafungin, amphotericin B, and 5-flucytosine—was determined using Sensititre YeastOne™ YO10 methodology (Thermo Scientific, Cleveland, Ohio, USA), following the manufacturer's instructions.

    Techniques: Microscale Thermophoresis

    Trends of fluconazole and voriconazole susceptibilities and clinical consumption of these two drugs over the 5-year surveillance period .

    Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

    Article Title: Notable Increasing Trend in Azole Non-susceptible Candida tropicalis Causing Invasive Candidiasis in China (August 2009 to July 2014): Molecular Epidemiology and Clinical Azole Consumption

    doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.00464

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Trends of fluconazole and voriconazole susceptibilities and clinical consumption of these two drugs over the 5-year surveillance period .

    Article Snippet: Antifungal susceptibility testing The in vitro susceptibility of isolates to nine antifungal drugs—fluconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, caspofungin, micafungin, anidulafungin, amphotericin B, and 5-flucytosine—was determined using Sensititre YeastOne™ YO10 methodology (Thermo Scientific, Cleveland, Ohio, USA), following the manufacturer's instructions.

    Techniques: