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SEM images of 48-h C. albicans HK1Sa. (A) Control C. albicans HK1Sa; (B) C. albicans HK1Sa biofilm exposed to 600-μg/ml amphotericin B for 4 h; (C) C. albicans HK1Sa biofilm exposed to 600-μg/ml <t>fluconazole</t> for 4 h. Note the wrinkled,
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1) Product Images from "In Vitro Method To Study Antifungal Perfusion in Candida Biofilms"

Article Title: In Vitro Method To Study Antifungal Perfusion in Candida Biofilms

Journal:

doi: 10.1128/JCM.43.2.818-825.2005

SEM images of 48-h C. albicans HK1Sa. (A) Control C. albicans HK1Sa; (B) C. albicans HK1Sa biofilm exposed to 600-μg/ml amphotericin B for 4 h; (C) C. albicans HK1Sa biofilm exposed to 600-μg/ml fluconazole for 4 h. Note the wrinkled,
Figure Legend Snippet: SEM images of 48-h C. albicans HK1Sa. (A) Control C. albicans HK1Sa; (B) C. albicans HK1Sa biofilm exposed to 600-μg/ml amphotericin B for 4 h; (C) C. albicans HK1Sa biofilm exposed to 600-μg/ml fluconazole for 4 h. Note the wrinkled,

Techniques Used:

Standard curves for the three antifungal agents, showing the relationship between drug concentration and the radius of growth inhibition of a lawn of C. parapsilosis on RPMI agar. 5FC, flucytosine; FL, fluconazole; AmB, amphotericin B.
Figure Legend Snippet: Standard curves for the three antifungal agents, showing the relationship between drug concentration and the radius of growth inhibition of a lawn of C. parapsilosis on RPMI agar. 5FC, flucytosine; FL, fluconazole; AmB, amphotericin B.

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay, Inhibition

Penetration of various concentrations (i.e., 150, 300, and 600 μg/ml) of the three antifungals, amphotericin B (a), fluconazole (b), and flucytosine (c), through 48-h-old C. albicans , C. parapsilosis , and C. krusei biofilms shown in terms of the
Figure Legend Snippet: Penetration of various concentrations (i.e., 150, 300, and 600 μg/ml) of the three antifungals, amphotericin B (a), fluconazole (b), and flucytosine (c), through 48-h-old C. albicans , C. parapsilosis , and C. krusei biofilms shown in terms of the

Techniques Used:

SEM images of 48-h C. krusei ATCC 6258. (A) Control C. krusei ATCC 6258; (B) C. krusei ATCC 6258 biofilm exposed to 600-μg/ml amphotericin B for 4 h; (C) C. krusei ATCC 6258 biofilm exposed to 600-μg/ml fluconazole for 4 h.
Figure Legend Snippet: SEM images of 48-h C. krusei ATCC 6258. (A) Control C. krusei ATCC 6258; (B) C. krusei ATCC 6258 biofilm exposed to 600-μg/ml amphotericin B for 4 h; (C) C. krusei ATCC 6258 biofilm exposed to 600-μg/ml fluconazole for 4 h.

Techniques Used:

SEM images of 48-h C. parapsilosis ATCC 22019. (A) Control; (B) C. parapsilosis ATCC 22019 biofilm exposed to 600-μg/ml amphotericin B for 4 h; (C) C. parapsilosis ATCC 22019 biofilm exposed to 600-μg/ml fluconazole for 4 h. Note the ruptured
Figure Legend Snippet: SEM images of 48-h C. parapsilosis ATCC 22019. (A) Control; (B) C. parapsilosis ATCC 22019 biofilm exposed to 600-μg/ml amphotericin B for 4 h; (C) C. parapsilosis ATCC 22019 biofilm exposed to 600-μg/ml fluconazole for 4 h. Note the ruptured

Techniques Used:

2) Product Images from "Prevalent mutator genotype identified in fungal pathogen Candida glabrata promotes multi-drug resistance"

Article Title: Prevalent mutator genotype identified in fungal pathogen Candida glabrata promotes multi-drug resistance

Journal: Nature Communications

doi: 10.1038/ncomms11128

Msh2 alterations identified in diverse clinical isolates cause a mutator phenotype and increased emergence of antifungal resistance. ( a ) The 357 clinical isolates obtained were classified according to their susceptibilities to fluconazole (FLC) and the echinocandins (ECH), and the percentage of isolates within each group demonstrating a nonsynonymous msh2 mutation were determined. P value was determined through χ 2 analysis (compared with susceptible group). ( b ) All isolates were categorized by institution. Isolates demonstrating an msh2 mutation/total isolates are shown for each susceptibility group. See Supplementary Data 1 for a list of all individual isolates analyzed. ( c ) Echinocandin- (caspofungin) resistant colony frequencies of various clinical isolates were measured. ( d ) Wild type or msh2Δ cells expressing an empty or MSH2 -containing plasmid were selected on caspofungin and 5-fluoroanthranilic acid. See Supplementary Table 4 for strains. Frequency data in c , d are mean±s.d. from three independent experiments; representative images are shown. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Msh2 alterations identified in diverse clinical isolates cause a mutator phenotype and increased emergence of antifungal resistance. ( a ) The 357 clinical isolates obtained were classified according to their susceptibilities to fluconazole (FLC) and the echinocandins (ECH), and the percentage of isolates within each group demonstrating a nonsynonymous msh2 mutation were determined. P value was determined through χ 2 analysis (compared with susceptible group). ( b ) All isolates were categorized by institution. Isolates demonstrating an msh2 mutation/total isolates are shown for each susceptibility group. See Supplementary Data 1 for a list of all individual isolates analyzed. ( c ) Echinocandin- (caspofungin) resistant colony frequencies of various clinical isolates were measured. ( d ) Wild type or msh2Δ cells expressing an empty or MSH2 -containing plasmid were selected on caspofungin and 5-fluoroanthranilic acid. See Supplementary Table 4 for strains. Frequency data in c , d are mean±s.d. from three independent experiments; representative images are shown. * P

Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Expressing, Plasmid Preparation

Deletion of MSH2 in C. glabrata leads to significantly more resistant colonies upon selection on multiple antifungal drugs. Wild type, msh2Δ and rad50Δ strains were selected on media containing caspofungin (an echinocandin), fluconazole (a triazole) and amphotericin B (a polyene) at concentrations from 16- to 32-fold greater than wild type MICs as described in Methods section. The plots show means of resistant colony frequencies from ≥3 independent experiments±s.d. See Supplementary Fig. 1 for resistant frequencies to voriconazole (triazole) and micafungin (echinocandin). ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: Deletion of MSH2 in C. glabrata leads to significantly more resistant colonies upon selection on multiple antifungal drugs. Wild type, msh2Δ and rad50Δ strains were selected on media containing caspofungin (an echinocandin), fluconazole (a triazole) and amphotericin B (a polyene) at concentrations from 16- to 32-fold greater than wild type MICs as described in Methods section. The plots show means of resistant colony frequencies from ≥3 independent experiments±s.d. See Supplementary Fig. 1 for resistant frequencies to voriconazole (triazole) and micafungin (echinocandin). ** P

Techniques Used: Selection

3) Product Images from "Ibuprofen Potentiates the In Vivo Antifungal Activity of Fluconazole against Candida albicans Murine Infection"

Article Title: Ibuprofen Potentiates the In Vivo Antifungal Activity of Fluconazole against Candida albicans Murine Infection

Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

doi: 10.1128/AAC.05056-14

C. albicans mouse kidney colonization. Representative example of kidney histology slides of PAS-stained paraffin sections of kidneys recovered from mice infected with a C. albicans -resistant ( Ca R) strain at day four postinfection and untreated (A) (×40 magnification), treated with 30 mg/kg/day of fluconazole (B to E) (×10, ×20, ×40 and ×20 magnification for the four panels, respectively), or treated with 30 mg/kg/day of fluconazole plus 20 mg/kg/day of ibuprofen (F and G) (×40 magnification). (E) Arrow shows a clear barrier to the progression of inflammatory leukocytes.
Figure Legend Snippet: C. albicans mouse kidney colonization. Representative example of kidney histology slides of PAS-stained paraffin sections of kidneys recovered from mice infected with a C. albicans -resistant ( Ca R) strain at day four postinfection and untreated (A) (×40 magnification), treated with 30 mg/kg/day of fluconazole (B to E) (×10, ×20, ×40 and ×20 magnification for the four panels, respectively), or treated with 30 mg/kg/day of fluconazole plus 20 mg/kg/day of ibuprofen (F and G) (×40 magnification). (E) Arrow shows a clear barrier to the progression of inflammatory leukocytes.

Techniques Used: Staining, Mouse Assay, Infection

In vivo antifungal potentiating effect between fluconazole and ibuprofen against C. albicans systemic infection. The log CFU per gram of kidney values are plotted as the mean and standard error. Ca S, susceptible strain; Ca R, resistant strain; FLC, fluconazole; Ibu, ibuprofen.
Figure Legend Snippet: In vivo antifungal potentiating effect between fluconazole and ibuprofen against C. albicans systemic infection. The log CFU per gram of kidney values are plotted as the mean and standard error. Ca S, susceptible strain; Ca R, resistant strain; FLC, fluconazole; Ibu, ibuprofen.

Techniques Used: In Vivo, Infection

Effect of the combined therapeutic fluconazole plus ibuprofen on mouse weight during systemic infection. Doses of drug are in milligrams per kilogram of body weight per day. Differences in weight loss between the first and the fourth day of infection are plotted as the mean values plus the respective standard errors. Ca S, susceptible strain; Ca R, resistant strain; FLC, fluconazole; Ibu, ibuprofen.
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of the combined therapeutic fluconazole plus ibuprofen on mouse weight during systemic infection. Doses of drug are in milligrams per kilogram of body weight per day. Differences in weight loss between the first and the fourth day of infection are plotted as the mean values plus the respective standard errors. Ca S, susceptible strain; Ca R, resistant strain; FLC, fluconazole; Ibu, ibuprofen.

Techniques Used: Infection

4) Product Images from "Antifungal Resistance to Fluconazole and Echinocandins Is Not Emerging in Yeast Isolates Causing Fungemia in a Spanish Tertiary Care Center"

Article Title: Antifungal Resistance to Fluconazole and Echinocandins Is Not Emerging in Yeast Isolates Causing Fungemia in a Spanish Tertiary Care Center

Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

doi: 10.1128/AAC.02670-14

Wards of admission of patients infected with fluconazole-resistant (a) or echinocandin-resistant (b) Candida species isolates. Medical wards included geriatrics, urology, internal medicine, nephrology, infectious diseases, and otorhinolaryngology.
Figure Legend Snippet: Wards of admission of patients infected with fluconazole-resistant (a) or echinocandin-resistant (b) Candida species isolates. Medical wards included geriatrics, urology, internal medicine, nephrology, infectious diseases, and otorhinolaryngology.

Techniques Used: Infection

5) Product Images from "Functional Genomic Analysis of Fluconazole Susceptibility in the Pathogenic Yeast Candida glabrata: Roles of Calcium Signaling and Mitochondria"

Article Title: Functional Genomic Analysis of Fluconazole Susceptibility in the Pathogenic Yeast Candida glabrata: Roles of Calcium Signaling and Mitochondria

Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

doi: 10.1128/AAC.48.5.1600-1613.2004

Fluconazole resistance of C. glabrata suv3 , mrpl4 , and she9 mutants is due to the loss of mitochondrial function. Various mutant strains and their fluconazole-resistant derivatives ( fluR ) were streaked on YPD and YPG plates, and growth was recorded after 2 days of incubation at 30°C. Fluconazole-resistant derivatives of each mutant refer to the mutant colonies selected on YPD plates supplemented with fluconazole.
Figure Legend Snippet: Fluconazole resistance of C. glabrata suv3 , mrpl4 , and she9 mutants is due to the loss of mitochondrial function. Various mutant strains and their fluconazole-resistant derivatives ( fluR ) were streaked on YPD and YPG plates, and growth was recorded after 2 days of incubation at 30°C. Fluconazole-resistant derivatives of each mutant refer to the mutant colonies selected on YPD plates supplemented with fluconazole.

Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Incubation

Fluconazole exposure in C. glabrata induces Ca 2+ influx via Cch1-Mid1 channel. 45 Ca 2+ accumulation in the wild type and the cch1 and mid1 mutants was measured after 4 h of treatment with either fluconazole (64 μg/ml) alone, FK506 (2 μg/ml) alone, fluconazole (64 μg/ml) plus FK506 (2 μg/ml), or DMSO (solvent) in YPD medium containing tracer amounts of 45 CaCl 2 . The bars represent the mean of two experiments (± the SD); each experiment was performed in triplicate; thus, the bars represent the mean of six assays.
Figure Legend Snippet: Fluconazole exposure in C. glabrata induces Ca 2+ influx via Cch1-Mid1 channel. 45 Ca 2+ accumulation in the wild type and the cch1 and mid1 mutants was measured after 4 h of treatment with either fluconazole (64 μg/ml) alone, FK506 (2 μg/ml) alone, fluconazole (64 μg/ml) plus FK506 (2 μg/ml), or DMSO (solvent) in YPD medium containing tracer amounts of 45 CaCl 2 . The bars represent the mean of two experiments (± the SD); each experiment was performed in triplicate; thus, the bars represent the mean of six assays.

Techniques Used:

C. glabrata cch1 and mid1 mutants lose viability upon prolonged fluconazole stress. (A) Growth of the C. glabrata cch1 and mid1 mutants is inhibited by fluconazole. Wild-type cch1 and mid1 mutant cells were grown at 30°C in minimal medium supplemented with or without various amounts of fluconazole (4 to 512 μg/ml), and absorbance at 600 nm was monitored after 24 h of fluconazole exposure. (B) Trypan blue exclusion assay for the viability assessment of the wild type and the cch1 and mid1 mutants in fluconazole. Cells were grown at 30°C in minimal medium supplemented with or without various amounts of fluconazole as indicated. After 24 h of fluconazole treatment, cells were stained with trypan blue for 5 to 10 min, and the number of stained (dead) and unstained (viable) cells was assessed microscopically. A minimum of 300 cells total (viable [unstained] and dead [stained] cells) were counted for each datum point. Cell survival data were plotted as the percentage of trypan blue exclusion and represent the mean of three experiments (± the standard deviation [SD]). (C) Viable cell count assay to assess the viability of wild typeand cch1 and mid1 mutants in fluconazole. Cells were grown at 30°C in minimal medium supplemented with or without various amounts of fluconazole as indicated. After 24 h of fluconazole treatment, the total number of cells was counted by using a hemocytometer, and the number of viable cells was determined by plating appropriate dilutions on YPD and YPG plates. CFU from YPG plates were counted as the final readout, although essentially the same number of CFU was obtained on both YPG and YPD plates if small colonies (petites, as determined by their inability to grow on glycerol) on YPD plates were excluded from the final viable cell counts. Cell survival data were plotted as the percentage of viability and represent the mean of three experiments (± the SD).
Figure Legend Snippet: C. glabrata cch1 and mid1 mutants lose viability upon prolonged fluconazole stress. (A) Growth of the C. glabrata cch1 and mid1 mutants is inhibited by fluconazole. Wild-type cch1 and mid1 mutant cells were grown at 30°C in minimal medium supplemented with or without various amounts of fluconazole (4 to 512 μg/ml), and absorbance at 600 nm was monitored after 24 h of fluconazole exposure. (B) Trypan blue exclusion assay for the viability assessment of the wild type and the cch1 and mid1 mutants in fluconazole. Cells were grown at 30°C in minimal medium supplemented with or without various amounts of fluconazole as indicated. After 24 h of fluconazole treatment, cells were stained with trypan blue for 5 to 10 min, and the number of stained (dead) and unstained (viable) cells was assessed microscopically. A minimum of 300 cells total (viable [unstained] and dead [stained] cells) were counted for each datum point. Cell survival data were plotted as the percentage of trypan blue exclusion and represent the mean of three experiments (± the standard deviation [SD]). (C) Viable cell count assay to assess the viability of wild typeand cch1 and mid1 mutants in fluconazole. Cells were grown at 30°C in minimal medium supplemented with or without various amounts of fluconazole as indicated. After 24 h of fluconazole treatment, the total number of cells was counted by using a hemocytometer, and the number of viable cells was determined by plating appropriate dilutions on YPD and YPG plates. CFU from YPG plates were counted as the final readout, although essentially the same number of CFU was obtained on both YPG and YPD plates if small colonies (petites, as determined by their inability to grow on glycerol) on YPD plates were excluded from the final viable cell counts. Cell survival data were plotted as the percentage of viability and represent the mean of three experiments (± the SD).

Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Trypan Blue Exclusion Assay, Staining, Standard Deviation, Cell Counting

Trypan blue exclusion assay to assess the viability of all fluconazole-susceptible mutants in fluconazole. Cells were grown in minimal medium containing 512 μg of fluconazole/ml for 24 h and stained with trypan blue. A minimum of 300 cells total (viable [unstained] and dead [stained] cells) were counted microscopically for each mutant. Cell survival data were plotted as the percentage of trypan blue exclusion and represent the mean of two experiments (± the SD).
Figure Legend Snippet: Trypan blue exclusion assay to assess the viability of all fluconazole-susceptible mutants in fluconazole. Cells were grown in minimal medium containing 512 μg of fluconazole/ml for 24 h and stained with trypan blue. A minimum of 300 cells total (viable [unstained] and dead [stained] cells) were counted microscopically for each mutant. Cell survival data were plotted as the percentage of trypan blue exclusion and represent the mean of two experiments (± the SD).

Techniques Used: Trypan Blue Exclusion Assay, Staining, Mutagenesis

Fluconazole and FK506 act synergistically and lead to cell death in wild-type C. glabrata cells. Cells were grown in minimal medium supplemented with either fluconazole (64 μg/ml) alone or fluconazole (64 μg/ml) plus FK506 (2 μg/ml) as indicated. After 24 h of drug treatment, the total number of cells was counted by using a hemocytometer, and CFU counts were determined by plating cells onto YPG plates. Cell survival data were plotted as the percentage of viable cells in each culture and represent the mean of two experiments (± the SD).
Figure Legend Snippet: Fluconazole and FK506 act synergistically and lead to cell death in wild-type C. glabrata cells. Cells were grown in minimal medium supplemented with either fluconazole (64 μg/ml) alone or fluconazole (64 μg/ml) plus FK506 (2 μg/ml) as indicated. After 24 h of drug treatment, the total number of cells was counted by using a hemocytometer, and CFU counts were determined by plating cells onto YPG plates. Cell survival data were plotted as the percentage of viable cells in each culture and represent the mean of two experiments (± the SD).

Techniques Used: Activated Clotting Time Assay

Mitochondrion-associated acquired fluconazole resistance in C. glabrata is reversible and is not associated with loss of the mitochondrial genome. (A) Revertants of fluconazole-resistant derivatives of the C. glabrata wild type and mrpl4 mutant exhibit fluconazole susceptibility like that of the original parental strain. Cells were grown in YPD medium overnight at 30°C, and 5 μl of 10-fold serial dilutions were spotted onto YPG and YPD plates with or without fluconazole at a given concentration (64 and 256 μg/ml) as indicated. Three independent revertant colonies (R1 to R3) were tested for each strain. Plates were photographed after 2 days of incubation at 30°C. (B) The revertible fluconazole-resistant derivatives of C. glabrata wild type and mrpl4 mutant possess mitochondrial genome. Nuclear and mitochondrial genomes were stained with DAPI as described in Materials and Methods, and cells were visualized by fluorescence microscopy. Subpanel groups: I, reversible ( wt-fluR ) and nonreversible ( wt-rho 0 ) fluconazole-resistant derivatives of wild type; II, mrpl4 mutant and reversible ( mrpl4-fluR ) fluconazole-resistant derivative of mrpl4 ; III, she9 mutant and its nonreversible fluconazole-resistant derivative she9-fluR ; IV, suv9 mutant, along with its nonreversible fluconazole-resistant derivative ( suv3-fluR ).
Figure Legend Snippet: Mitochondrion-associated acquired fluconazole resistance in C. glabrata is reversible and is not associated with loss of the mitochondrial genome. (A) Revertants of fluconazole-resistant derivatives of the C. glabrata wild type and mrpl4 mutant exhibit fluconazole susceptibility like that of the original parental strain. Cells were grown in YPD medium overnight at 30°C, and 5 μl of 10-fold serial dilutions were spotted onto YPG and YPD plates with or without fluconazole at a given concentration (64 and 256 μg/ml) as indicated. Three independent revertant colonies (R1 to R3) were tested for each strain. Plates were photographed after 2 days of incubation at 30°C. (B) The revertible fluconazole-resistant derivatives of C. glabrata wild type and mrpl4 mutant possess mitochondrial genome. Nuclear and mitochondrial genomes were stained with DAPI as described in Materials and Methods, and cells were visualized by fluorescence microscopy. Subpanel groups: I, reversible ( wt-fluR ) and nonreversible ( wt-rho 0 ) fluconazole-resistant derivatives of wild type; II, mrpl4 mutant and reversible ( mrpl4-fluR ) fluconazole-resistant derivative of mrpl4 ; III, she9 mutant and its nonreversible fluconazole-resistant derivative she9-fluR ; IV, suv9 mutant, along with its nonreversible fluconazole-resistant derivative ( suv3-fluR ).

Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Concentration Assay, Incubation, Staining, Fluorescence, Microscopy

6) Product Images from "Heteroresistance to Fluconazole and Voriconazole in Cryptococcus neoformans"

Article Title: Heteroresistance to Fluconazole and Voriconazole in Cryptococcus neoformans

Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

doi:

Stability of fluconazole resistance of isolates B-4539 (□) and B-4544 (○) and their highly resistant clones B-4539 R (■), B-4544 R (●), and B-4548 R (▵) (selected on 64 μg of fluconazole per ml) after daily transfers in drug-free medium.
Figure Legend Snippet: Stability of fluconazole resistance of isolates B-4539 (□) and B-4544 (○) and their highly resistant clones B-4539 R (■), B-4544 R (●), and B-4548 R (▵) (selected on 64 μg of fluconazole per ml) after daily transfers in drug-free medium.

Techniques Used: Clone Assay

7) Product Images from "Effect of Denture-Related Stomatitis Fluconazole Treatment on Oral Candida albicans Susceptibility Profile and Genotypic Variability"

Article Title: Effect of Denture-Related Stomatitis Fluconazole Treatment on Oral Candida albicans Susceptibility Profile and Genotypic Variability

Journal: The Open Dentistry Journal

doi: 10.2174/1874210601509010046

Prevalence of fluconazole susceptibility profile of Candida albicans isolates at the time of stomatitis diagnosis (T0), after treatment (Tat) and 6-months after diagnosis (T6m). Bars represent prevalence.
Figure Legend Snippet: Prevalence of fluconazole susceptibility profile of Candida albicans isolates at the time of stomatitis diagnosis (T0), after treatment (Tat) and 6-months after diagnosis (T6m). Bars represent prevalence.

Techniques Used:

8) Product Images from "Enhanced Extracellular Production of Aspartyl Proteinase, a Virulence Factor, by Candida albicans Isolates following Growth in Subinhibitory Concentrations of Fluconazole"

Article Title: Enhanced Extracellular Production of Aspartyl Proteinase, a Virulence Factor, by Candida albicans Isolates following Growth in Subinhibitory Concentrations of Fluconazole

Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

doi:

Growth of fluconazole-susceptible (isolate 1) and fluconazole-resistant (isolate 17) C. albicans isolates in YCB-BSA medium with or without fluconazole added. Fluconazole concentrations tested: isolate 1, 0 MIC, 0 μg/ml, and 1 MIC, 1 μg/ml; isolate 17, 0 MIC, 0 μg/ml, and 1 MIC, 64 μg/ml. Fluconazole exposure induced stasis of cell growth for isolate 1, but no fluconazole-induced stasis of cell growth was observed for isolate 17.
Figure Legend Snippet: Growth of fluconazole-susceptible (isolate 1) and fluconazole-resistant (isolate 17) C. albicans isolates in YCB-BSA medium with or without fluconazole added. Fluconazole concentrations tested: isolate 1, 0 MIC, 0 μg/ml, and 1 MIC, 1 μg/ml; isolate 17, 0 MIC, 0 μg/ml, and 1 MIC, 64 μg/ml. Fluconazole exposure induced stasis of cell growth for isolate 1, but no fluconazole-induced stasis of cell growth was observed for isolate 17.

Techniques Used:

Sap activity of fluconazole-susceptible C. albicans isolate 1 in the absence or presence of increasing MICs of fluconazole (0 MIC, 0 μg/ml; 1/4 MIC, 0.25 μg/ml; 1/2 MIC, 0.5 μg/ml; 1 MIC, 1.0 μg/ml) with time in culture. Asterisks denote a significant reduction in Sap activity relative to the activity in control isolates grown without drug (for ∗, ∗∗, and ∗∗∗, P was
Figure Legend Snippet: Sap activity of fluconazole-susceptible C. albicans isolate 1 in the absence or presence of increasing MICs of fluconazole (0 MIC, 0 μg/ml; 1/4 MIC, 0.25 μg/ml; 1/2 MIC, 0.5 μg/ml; 1 MIC, 1.0 μg/ml) with time in culture. Asterisks denote a significant reduction in Sap activity relative to the activity in control isolates grown without drug (for ∗, ∗∗, and ∗∗∗, P was

Techniques Used: Activity Assay

Sap activity of fluconazole-susceptible C. albicans isolate 2 in the absence or presence of increasing MICs of fluconazole (0 MIC, 0 μg/ml; 1/4 MIC, 0.5 μg/ml; 1/2 MIC, 1 μg/ml; 1 MIC, 2 μg/ml) with time in culture. Asterisks denote a significant enhancement of Sap activity relative to the activity in control isolates grown without drug (for ∗, ∗∗, and ∗∗∗, P was
Figure Legend Snippet: Sap activity of fluconazole-susceptible C. albicans isolate 2 in the absence or presence of increasing MICs of fluconazole (0 MIC, 0 μg/ml; 1/4 MIC, 0.5 μg/ml; 1/2 MIC, 1 μg/ml; 1 MIC, 2 μg/ml) with time in culture. Asterisks denote a significant enhancement of Sap activity relative to the activity in control isolates grown without drug (for ∗, ∗∗, and ∗∗∗, P was

Techniques Used: Activity Assay

Comparison of extracellular (Extra Sap; left axis) and intracellular (Intra Sap; right axis) Sap concentrations of fluconazole-susceptible (isolate 1) and fluconazole-resistant (isolate 17) C. albicans isolates by EIA on the day of peak Sap production (day 9). Fluconazole concentrations tested for isolate 1: 0 MIC, 0 μg/ml; 1/2 MIC, 0.5 μg/ml; 1 MIC, 1.0 μg/ml. Fluconazole concentrations tested for isolate 17: 0 MIC, 0 μg/ml; 1/2 MIC, 32 μg/ml; 1 MIC, 64 μg/ml. Asterisks denote a significant reduction or enhancement of Sap concentration relative to the concentration for control isolates grown without drug (for ∗, ∗∗, and ∗∗∗, P was
Figure Legend Snippet: Comparison of extracellular (Extra Sap; left axis) and intracellular (Intra Sap; right axis) Sap concentrations of fluconazole-susceptible (isolate 1) and fluconazole-resistant (isolate 17) C. albicans isolates by EIA on the day of peak Sap production (day 9). Fluconazole concentrations tested for isolate 1: 0 MIC, 0 μg/ml; 1/2 MIC, 0.5 μg/ml; 1 MIC, 1.0 μg/ml. Fluconazole concentrations tested for isolate 17: 0 MIC, 0 μg/ml; 1/2 MIC, 32 μg/ml; 1 MIC, 64 μg/ml. Asterisks denote a significant reduction or enhancement of Sap concentration relative to the concentration for control isolates grown without drug (for ∗, ∗∗, and ∗∗∗, P was

Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Concentration Assay

Comparison of extracellular (Extra Eno; left axis) and intracellular (Intra Eno; right axis) enolase concentrations of fluconazole-susceptible (isolate 1) and fluconazole-resistant (isolate 17) C. albicans isolates by EIA on the day of peak Sap production (day 9). Fluconazole concentrations tested for isolate 1: 0 MIC, 0 μg/ml; 1 MIC, 1.0 μg/ml. Fluconazole concentrations tested for isolate 17: 0 MIC, 0 μg/ml; 1 MIC, 64 μg/ml. No significant differences in extracellular or intracellular enolase concentrations were observed between isolates grown in the presence or absence of fluconazole. Error bars show standard deviations.
Figure Legend Snippet: Comparison of extracellular (Extra Eno; left axis) and intracellular (Intra Eno; right axis) enolase concentrations of fluconazole-susceptible (isolate 1) and fluconazole-resistant (isolate 17) C. albicans isolates by EIA on the day of peak Sap production (day 9). Fluconazole concentrations tested for isolate 1: 0 MIC, 0 μg/ml; 1 MIC, 1.0 μg/ml. Fluconazole concentrations tested for isolate 17: 0 MIC, 0 μg/ml; 1 MIC, 64 μg/ml. No significant differences in extracellular or intracellular enolase concentrations were observed between isolates grown in the presence or absence of fluconazole. Error bars show standard deviations.

Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

9) Product Images from "Rapid, Transient Fluconazole Resistance in Candida albicans Is Associated with Increased mRNA Levels of CDR"

Article Title: Rapid, Transient Fluconazole Resistance in Candida albicans Is Associated with Increased mRNA Levels of CDR

Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

doi:

Results of sterol intermediate assay. Relative intensities of intermediates, measured as described in the text, for susceptible isolate 1 (open symbols) and for resistant isolate 5 (solid symbols) are shown. Cell extracts were incubated in increasing concentrations of fluconazole ( x axis). Relative intensities of the intermediates lanosterol (○) squalene (□), 2,3-oxidosqualene (◊), and ergosterol (▵) were measured by phosphorimaging.
Figure Legend Snippet: Results of sterol intermediate assay. Relative intensities of intermediates, measured as described in the text, for susceptible isolate 1 (open symbols) and for resistant isolate 5 (solid symbols) are shown. Cell extracts were incubated in increasing concentrations of fluconazole ( x axis). Relative intensities of the intermediates lanosterol (○) squalene (□), 2,3-oxidosqualene (◊), and ergosterol (▵) were measured by phosphorimaging.

Techniques Used: Incubation

Susceptibilities of isolates and exposure to fluconazole. MICs of fluconazole (○), ketoconazole (□), and itraconazole (◊) for each isolate are shown on the left y axis, and the total cumulative doses of fluconazole administered to the patient (▴) are shown on the right y axis. Isolates 1 through 9 were obtained on days −9, −2, 6, 15, 17, 18, 22, 23, and 28 relative to transplantation (day 0), respectively. Fluconazole was administered from days −7 to 7 and from days 12 to 21, and AmB was administered from days 7 to 10 and from days 20 to 25.
Figure Legend Snippet: Susceptibilities of isolates and exposure to fluconazole. MICs of fluconazole (○), ketoconazole (□), and itraconazole (◊) for each isolate are shown on the left y axis, and the total cumulative doses of fluconazole administered to the patient (▴) are shown on the right y axis. Isolates 1 through 9 were obtained on days −9, −2, 6, 15, 17, 18, 22, 23, and 28 relative to transplantation (day 0), respectively. Fluconazole was administered from days −7 to 7 and from days 12 to 21, and AmB was administered from days 7 to 10 and from days 20 to 25.

Techniques Used: Transplantation Assay

Stability of fluconazole resistance after growth in drug-free media. (A) Fluconazole MICs for isolates 2 (■), 5 (○), and 8 (▵), serially transferred in drug-free media, are shown. Each transfer represents approximately 12 generations of growth. MICs were determined by E test and confirmed by the NCCLS method (see text). (B) Susceptibilities of transferred isolates to other azoles. MICs for the initial fluconazole-resistant (isolates 5 and 8) and -susceptible (isolates 5T and 8T) isolates are shown. 5T, 5T33; 8T, 8T12. Fluconazole (□), ketoconazole (▵), and itraconazole (○) MICs were determined by E test, and additional MICs of fluconazole (◊) and AmB (■) were determined by macrodilution methods.
Figure Legend Snippet: Stability of fluconazole resistance after growth in drug-free media. (A) Fluconazole MICs for isolates 2 (■), 5 (○), and 8 (▵), serially transferred in drug-free media, are shown. Each transfer represents approximately 12 generations of growth. MICs were determined by E test and confirmed by the NCCLS method (see text). (B) Susceptibilities of transferred isolates to other azoles. MICs for the initial fluconazole-resistant (isolates 5 and 8) and -susceptible (isolates 5T and 8T) isolates are shown. 5T, 5T33; 8T, 8T12. Fluconazole (□), ketoconazole (▵), and itraconazole (○) MICs were determined by E test, and additional MICs of fluconazole (◊) and AmB (■) were determined by macrodilution methods.

Techniques Used:

10) Product Images from "Genetic Analysis of Azole Resistance in the Darlington Strain of Candida albicans"

Article Title: Genetic Analysis of Azole Resistance in the Darlington Strain of Candida albicans

Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

doi:

Fluconazole growth inhibition in C. albicans at day 4 (A) and day 7 (B). Data are for C. albicans isolates CAI4 (open squares), CAF2-1 (open circles), SC5314 (open triangles), Darlington (filled squares), and transformant 12 (filled triangles). OD 450 , optical density at 450 nm.
Figure Legend Snippet: Fluconazole growth inhibition in C. albicans at day 4 (A) and day 7 (B). Data are for C. albicans isolates CAI4 (open squares), CAF2-1 (open circles), SC5314 (open triangles), Darlington (filled squares), and transformant 12 (filled triangles). OD 450 , optical density at 450 nm.

Techniques Used: Inhibition

11) Product Images from "Seminational Surveillance of Fungemia in Denmark: Notably High Rates of Fungemia and Numbers of Isolates with Reduced Azole Susceptibility"

Article Title: Seminational Surveillance of Fungemia in Denmark: Notably High Rates of Fungemia and Numbers of Isolates with Reduced Azole Susceptibility

Journal:

doi: 10.1128/JCM.43.9.4434-4440.2005

MIC distributions for the 272 fungal isolates. Values for amphotericin B, caspofungin, fluconazole, and itraconazole are presented as the number of isolates per MIC for each fungal species.
Figure Legend Snippet: MIC distributions for the 272 fungal isolates. Values for amphotericin B, caspofungin, fluconazole, and itraconazole are presented as the number of isolates per MIC for each fungal species.

Techniques Used:

Fluconazole and itraconazole consumption.
Figure Legend Snippet: Fluconazole and itraconazole consumption.

Techniques Used:

12) Product Images from "Optimizing the Correlation between Results of Testing In Vitro and Therapeutic Outcome In Vivo for Fluconazole by Testing Critical Isolates in a Murine Model of Invasive Candidiasis"

Article Title: Optimizing the Correlation between Results of Testing In Vitro and Therapeutic Outcome In Vivo for Fluconazole by Testing Critical Isolates in a Murine Model of Invasive Candidiasis

Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

doi:

Effect of fluconazole. Each isolate was tested by the microdilution version of the M27-A method, and the reduction in growth is expressed as a percentage of the growth in the drug-free growth control well ( y axis) versus fluconazole concentration (in micrograms per milliliter, x axis) for the isolates for which the MICs were low/low (thin lines), the isolates for which the MICs were low/high (thick lines), and the isolates for which the MICs were high/high (dotted lines). Results for tests in 0.165 M MOPS-buffered (pH 7) RPMI 1640 medium are presented. GC, growth control. Similar results were obtained if testing was performed in medium supplemented with glucose at 20 g/liter (data not shown).
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of fluconazole. Each isolate was tested by the microdilution version of the M27-A method, and the reduction in growth is expressed as a percentage of the growth in the drug-free growth control well ( y axis) versus fluconazole concentration (in micrograms per milliliter, x axis) for the isolates for which the MICs were low/low (thin lines), the isolates for which the MICs were low/high (thick lines), and the isolates for which the MICs were high/high (dotted lines). Results for tests in 0.165 M MOPS-buffered (pH 7) RPMI 1640 medium are presented. GC, growth control. Similar results were obtained if testing was performed in medium supplemented with glucose at 20 g/liter (data not shown).

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

13) Product Images from "Phytochemical Characterization of Terminalia catappa Linn. Extracts and Their antifungal Activities against Candida spp."

Article Title: Phytochemical Characterization of Terminalia catappa Linn. Extracts and Their antifungal Activities against Candida spp.

Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.00595

Inhibitory effect of fluconazole and amphotericin B (clinically used antifungal agents), TcHE, FAcOEt, FBuOH, and FHEX on Candida clinical samples growth. (A) Candida albicans ; (B) Candida glabrata ; (C) Candida tropicalis ; (D) Candida krusei . The concentrations used were: 1.5, 8, and 2 μg/ml for TcHE and its fractions, fluconazole and amphotericin B, respectively. Inhibitory action of each substance was compared to that of FBuOH. * p
Figure Legend Snippet: Inhibitory effect of fluconazole and amphotericin B (clinically used antifungal agents), TcHE, FAcOEt, FBuOH, and FHEX on Candida clinical samples growth. (A) Candida albicans ; (B) Candida glabrata ; (C) Candida tropicalis ; (D) Candida krusei . The concentrations used were: 1.5, 8, and 2 μg/ml for TcHE and its fractions, fluconazole and amphotericin B, respectively. Inhibitory action of each substance was compared to that of FBuOH. * p

Techniques Used:

Inhibitory effect of fluconazole and amphotericin B (clinically used antifungal agents), TcHE, FAcOEt, FBuOH, and FHEX on Candida reference strains growth. (A) Candida albicans ATCC 90028; (B) Candida glabrata ATCC 2001; (C) Candida krusei ATCC 6258. The concentrations used were: 1.5, 8, and 2 μg/ml for TcHE and its fractions, fluconazole and amphotericin B, respectively. Inhibitory action of each substance was compared to that of FBuOH. * p
Figure Legend Snippet: Inhibitory effect of fluconazole and amphotericin B (clinically used antifungal agents), TcHE, FAcOEt, FBuOH, and FHEX on Candida reference strains growth. (A) Candida albicans ATCC 90028; (B) Candida glabrata ATCC 2001; (C) Candida krusei ATCC 6258. The concentrations used were: 1.5, 8, and 2 μg/ml for TcHE and its fractions, fluconazole and amphotericin B, respectively. Inhibitory action of each substance was compared to that of FBuOH. * p

Techniques Used:

14) Product Images from "Activation of Melanin Synthesis in Alternaria infectoria by Antifungal Drugs"

Article Title: Activation of Melanin Synthesis in Alternaria infectoria by Antifungal Drugs

Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

doi: 10.1128/AAC.02190-15

Melanin accumulation in A. infectoria in response to itraconazole, fluconazole, nikkomycin Z, caspofungin, and amphotericin B at subinhibitory and inhibitory concentrations. The melanin content is normalized to the fungal biomass and expressed as a percentage
Figure Legend Snippet: Melanin accumulation in A. infectoria in response to itraconazole, fluconazole, nikkomycin Z, caspofungin, and amphotericin B at subinhibitory and inhibitory concentrations. The melanin content is normalized to the fungal biomass and expressed as a percentage

Techniques Used:

15) Product Images from "Effective concentration-based serum pharmacodynamics for antifungal azoles in a murine model of disseminated Candida albicans infection"

Article Title: Effective concentration-based serum pharmacodynamics for antifungal azoles in a murine model of disseminated Candida albicans infection

Journal: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics

doi: 10.1007/s13318-013-0122-4

Relationship between serum antifungal titers and the inhibitory effects of fluconazole, itraconazole, and ketoconazole on kidney fungal burden. Azole doses were administered orally to DBA/2 mice 1 h (time 0 in the figure) after fungal inoculation. a The relationship between serum antifungal titer after 8 h and the inhibitory effect of the drug against the kidney fungal burden after 24 h was determined. ◇, vehicle-treated control at time 0 (5.0 × 10 3 CFU/organ); ◆, vehicle-treated control after 24 h (5.4 × 10 5 CFU/organ); □■, fluconazole; ○●, itraconazole; △▲, ketoconazole. The closed symbols (■, ●, ▲) represent plots of the drugs administered at the ED 90 doses. The vertical solid line denotes an antifungal titer of 1 (the serum mMIC). The dotted vertical line denotes the detection limit of the antifungal titer (the serum sub-mMIC). Serum antifungal titer of itraconazole includes the activity of an active metabolite (Maki et al. 2006 ). Co-efficiency of the combined plots of the three azoles: r 2 = 0.88. Each plot includes data from four mice and the values shown are the mean ± standard deviation. Plots other than the ED 90 plots are adopted from a previous report (Maki et al. 2007 ). b An expanded view showing data obtained at antifungal titers between 0.25 and 6
Figure Legend Snippet: Relationship between serum antifungal titers and the inhibitory effects of fluconazole, itraconazole, and ketoconazole on kidney fungal burden. Azole doses were administered orally to DBA/2 mice 1 h (time 0 in the figure) after fungal inoculation. a The relationship between serum antifungal titer after 8 h and the inhibitory effect of the drug against the kidney fungal burden after 24 h was determined. ◇, vehicle-treated control at time 0 (5.0 × 10 3 CFU/organ); ◆, vehicle-treated control after 24 h (5.4 × 10 5 CFU/organ); □■, fluconazole; ○●, itraconazole; △▲, ketoconazole. The closed symbols (■, ●, ▲) represent plots of the drugs administered at the ED 90 doses. The vertical solid line denotes an antifungal titer of 1 (the serum mMIC). The dotted vertical line denotes the detection limit of the antifungal titer (the serum sub-mMIC). Serum antifungal titer of itraconazole includes the activity of an active metabolite (Maki et al. 2006 ). Co-efficiency of the combined plots of the three azoles: r 2 = 0.88. Each plot includes data from four mice and the values shown are the mean ± standard deviation. Plots other than the ED 90 plots are adopted from a previous report (Maki et al. 2007 ). b An expanded view showing data obtained at antifungal titers between 0.25 and 6

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Activity Assay, Standard Deviation

Serum antifungal titers in serum samples from mice administered ED 90 doses of fluconazole, itraconazole, and ketoconazole. ED 90 doses of azoles were administered orally to DBA/2 mice 1 h (time 0 in the figure) after fungal inoculation, and the antifungal titers were determined every 2 h thereafter. The bold line denotes an antifungal titer of 1 (the serum mMIC). The solid line denotes the detection limit of the serum antifungal titer (the serum sub-mMIC). Serum antifungal titer of itraconazole includes the activity of an active metabolite (Maki et al. 2006 ). □, fluconazole; ○, itraconazole; ▲, ketoconazole; each point represents the data from four mice and the values shown are the mean ± standard deviation
Figure Legend Snippet: Serum antifungal titers in serum samples from mice administered ED 90 doses of fluconazole, itraconazole, and ketoconazole. ED 90 doses of azoles were administered orally to DBA/2 mice 1 h (time 0 in the figure) after fungal inoculation, and the antifungal titers were determined every 2 h thereafter. The bold line denotes an antifungal titer of 1 (the serum mMIC). The solid line denotes the detection limit of the serum antifungal titer (the serum sub-mMIC). Serum antifungal titer of itraconazole includes the activity of an active metabolite (Maki et al. 2006 ). □, fluconazole; ○, itraconazole; ▲, ketoconazole; each point represents the data from four mice and the values shown are the mean ± standard deviation

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Activity Assay, Standard Deviation

Relationship between AUC 0–8 h and the inhibitory effects of fluconazole on kidney fungal burden. The drug was administered orally to DBA/2 mice 1 h after fungal inoculation. The dosages of drugs were ×1/3 ED 50 , ×1 ED 50 , ×3 ED 50 ×10 ED 50 , and ×30 ED 50 . AUC up to 8 h of the dosages and anti-kidney fungal burden of C. albican s at 8 h were determined. AUC 0–8 h was determined only from active concentrations of the drug at concentrations at or above serum sub-mMIC. □, ED 50 -based doses of fluconazole at 8 h; ◇, vehicle-treated control at time 0 (5.0 × 10 3 CFU/organ); ◆, vehicle-treated control at 8 h. Each point represents the data from four mice and the values shown are the mean ± standard deviation. Differences between fugal burdens of each doses and at 0 time were analyzed statistically. The asterisks indicate P values of > 0.05
Figure Legend Snippet: Relationship between AUC 0–8 h and the inhibitory effects of fluconazole on kidney fungal burden. The drug was administered orally to DBA/2 mice 1 h after fungal inoculation. The dosages of drugs were ×1/3 ED 50 , ×1 ED 50 , ×3 ED 50 ×10 ED 50 , and ×30 ED 50 . AUC up to 8 h of the dosages and anti-kidney fungal burden of C. albican s at 8 h were determined. AUC 0–8 h was determined only from active concentrations of the drug at concentrations at or above serum sub-mMIC. □, ED 50 -based doses of fluconazole at 8 h; ◇, vehicle-treated control at time 0 (5.0 × 10 3 CFU/organ); ◆, vehicle-treated control at 8 h. Each point represents the data from four mice and the values shown are the mean ± standard deviation. Differences between fugal burdens of each doses and at 0 time were analyzed statistically. The asterisks indicate P values of > 0.05

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Standard Deviation

16) Product Images from "Fluconazole plus Cyclosporine: a Fungicidal Combination Effective against Experimental Endocarditis Due to Candida albicans"

Article Title: Fluconazole plus Cyclosporine: a Fungicidal Combination Effective against Experimental Endocarditis Due to Candida albicans

Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

doi:

Time-kill experiments of C. albicans CAF2-1 exposed to various antifungal regimens. The test organisms were grown in liquid cultures with aeration, and drugs were added at the indicated concentrations at time zero. Fungal viability was monitored over time by plating samples of the cultures on Sabouraud agar for colony count. The experiment was performed in triplicate, and each dot on the figure represents the mean of three independent determinations. Symbols: ●, growth control; ▴, Cy (0.625 mg/liter); ▾, fluconazole (10 mg/liter); ♦, fluconazole (10 mg/liter) plus Cy (0.625 mg/liter); ▪, AmB (0.5 mg/liter).
Figure Legend Snippet: Time-kill experiments of C. albicans CAF2-1 exposed to various antifungal regimens. The test organisms were grown in liquid cultures with aeration, and drugs were added at the indicated concentrations at time zero. Fungal viability was monitored over time by plating samples of the cultures on Sabouraud agar for colony count. The experiment was performed in triplicate, and each dot on the figure represents the mean of three independent determinations. Symbols: ●, growth control; ▴, Cy (0.625 mg/liter); ▾, fluconazole (10 mg/liter); ♦, fluconazole (10 mg/liter) plus Cy (0.625 mg/liter); ▪, AmB (0.5 mg/liter).

Techniques Used:

17) Product Images from "Candida glabrata erg1 Mutant with Increased Sensitivity to Azoles and to Low Oxygen Tension"

Article Title: Candida glabrata erg1 Mutant with Increased Sensitivity to Azoles and to Low Oxygen Tension

Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

doi: 10.1128/AAC.48.7.2483-2489.2004

Ergosterol or cholesterol reduced the fluconazole susceptibility of CgTn201S. Plates were incubated aerobically or under conditions of low oxygen tension at 30°C for 2 days. The fluconazole susceptibilities of Cg1660 and CgTn201S were analyzed by Etest. The intercept of the zone of growth inhibition with the paper strip indicates the MIC. The addition of ergosterol or cholesterol is indicated by the position within each of the four groups, as follows: upper left corner, YPD; upper right corner; YPD with ethanol-Tween 80 solvent alone; lower left corner, YPD with ergosterol; and lower right corner, YPD with cholesterol. Hypoxic, conditions of low oxygen tension.
Figure Legend Snippet: Ergosterol or cholesterol reduced the fluconazole susceptibility of CgTn201S. Plates were incubated aerobically or under conditions of low oxygen tension at 30°C for 2 days. The fluconazole susceptibilities of Cg1660 and CgTn201S were analyzed by Etest. The intercept of the zone of growth inhibition with the paper strip indicates the MIC. The addition of ergosterol or cholesterol is indicated by the position within each of the four groups, as follows: upper left corner, YPD; upper right corner; YPD with ethanol-Tween 80 solvent alone; lower left corner, YPD with ergosterol; and lower right corner, YPD with cholesterol. Hypoxic, conditions of low oxygen tension.

Techniques Used: Incubation, Inhibition, Stripping Membranes

In vitro transposon (Tn) insertion and transposon rescue cloning. Sequences were obtained by using the transposon-specific primers SqFP and SqRP (Epicentre), and the sequences were used to search the Génolevures Consortium database with the BLASTX algorithm. FCZ, fluconazole.
Figure Legend Snippet: In vitro transposon (Tn) insertion and transposon rescue cloning. Sequences were obtained by using the transposon-specific primers SqFP and SqRP (Epicentre), and the sequences were used to search the Génolevures Consortium database with the BLASTX algorithm. FCZ, fluconazole.

Techniques Used: In Vitro, Clone Assay

[ 3 H]fluconazole uptake with and without ergosterol (erg) or growth under conditions of low oxygen tension (−O 2 ). Bars indicate standard errors of the mean. (A) The level of uptake by wild-type strain Cg1660 was low under all conditions. Note that two of the three lines for Cg1660 overlap. For all conditions the level of uptake was higher in Cgerg1 mutant CgTn201S and was not restored to wild-type levels by ergosterol under aerobic conditions or conditions of low oxygen tension. (B) The level of [ 3 H]fluconazole uptake by CgTn201S was lowered nearly to wild-type levels by CgERG1 complementation (CgTn201C).
Figure Legend Snippet: [ 3 H]fluconazole uptake with and without ergosterol (erg) or growth under conditions of low oxygen tension (−O 2 ). Bars indicate standard errors of the mean. (A) The level of uptake by wild-type strain Cg1660 was low under all conditions. Note that two of the three lines for Cg1660 overlap. For all conditions the level of uptake was higher in Cgerg1 mutant CgTn201S and was not restored to wild-type levels by ergosterol under aerobic conditions or conditions of low oxygen tension. (B) The level of [ 3 H]fluconazole uptake by CgTn201S was lowered nearly to wild-type levels by CgERG1 complementation (CgTn201C).

Techniques Used: Mutagenesis

18) Product Images from "Effects of Cytochrome P450 Inhibition and Induction on the Phenotyping Metrics of the Basel Cocktail: A Randomized Crossover Study"

Article Title: Effects of Cytochrome P450 Inhibition and Induction on the Phenotyping Metrics of the Basel Cocktail: A Randomized Crossover Study

Journal: Clinical Pharmacokinetics

doi: 10.1007/s40262-015-0294-y

Intra-individual change of metabolic ratios of the Basel cocktail probe drugs after pretreatment with the CYP inhibitors ciprofloxacin, paroxetine, and fluconazole compared with baseline. CYP inhibition changed the metabolic ratio in every single subject for CYP1A2 ( a ), CYP2B6 ( b ), CYP2C9 ( c ), CYP2C19 ( d ), CYP2D6 ( e ), and CYP3A4 ( f ). Metabolic ratios of subjects with altered function alleles are shown using open symbols . The CYP2C19 poor metabolizer ( CYP2C19*2/*2 ), the CYP2D6 intermediate metabolizer ( CYP2D6*4/*41 ) and subjects heterozygous for the CYP2C9*3 allele had higher metabolic ratios at baseline compared with extensive metabolizer subjects. CYP cytochrome P450 enzyme
Figure Legend Snippet: Intra-individual change of metabolic ratios of the Basel cocktail probe drugs after pretreatment with the CYP inhibitors ciprofloxacin, paroxetine, and fluconazole compared with baseline. CYP inhibition changed the metabolic ratio in every single subject for CYP1A2 ( a ), CYP2B6 ( b ), CYP2C9 ( c ), CYP2C19 ( d ), CYP2D6 ( e ), and CYP3A4 ( f ). Metabolic ratios of subjects with altered function alleles are shown using open symbols . The CYP2C19 poor metabolizer ( CYP2C19*2/*2 ), the CYP2D6 intermediate metabolizer ( CYP2D6*4/*41 ) and subjects heterozygous for the CYP2C9*3 allele had higher metabolic ratios at baseline compared with extensive metabolizer subjects. CYP cytochrome P450 enzyme

Techniques Used: Inhibition

19) Product Images from "In Vitro and In Vivo Efficacies of the New Triazole Albaconazole against Cryptococcus neoformans"

Article Title: In Vitro and In Vivo Efficacies of the New Triazole Albaconazole against Cryptococcus neoformans

Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

doi: 10.1128/AAC.48.2.384-387.2004

Results of treatment of cryptococcal meningitis with albaconazole or fluconazole or no treatment (controls). (a) Dosing at 80 mg/kg/day; (b) dosing at 20 mg/kg/day; (c) dosing at 5 mg/kg/day.
Figure Legend Snippet: Results of treatment of cryptococcal meningitis with albaconazole or fluconazole or no treatment (controls). (a) Dosing at 80 mg/kg/day; (b) dosing at 20 mg/kg/day; (c) dosing at 5 mg/kg/day.

Techniques Used:

Comparison of survival of rabbits treated with albaconazole or fluconazole at all dosages or not treated (controls). Kaplan-Meier survival estimates predict a survival advantage for treated animals ( P
Figure Legend Snippet: Comparison of survival of rabbits treated with albaconazole or fluconazole at all dosages or not treated (controls). Kaplan-Meier survival estimates predict a survival advantage for treated animals ( P

Techniques Used:

20) Product Images from "Human subcutaneous tissue distribution of fluconazole: comparison of microdialysis and suction blister techniques"

Article Title: Human subcutaneous tissue distribution of fluconazole: comparison of microdialysis and suction blister techniques

Journal: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology

doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2125.2003.01930.x

Concentration-time profiles of fluconazole in plasma (unbound), microdialysate and blister fluid in individual subjects following single 200 mg oral administration of fluconazole.
Figure Legend Snippet: Concentration-time profiles of fluconazole in plasma (unbound), microdialysate and blister fluid in individual subjects following single 200 mg oral administration of fluconazole.

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

Predicted fluconazole concentration-time profiles in subcutaneous interstitial fluid using PB-PK model simulation based on population pharmacokinetic parameters for fluconazole and observed concentrations (mean, n = 5) measured by microdialysis following an oral 200 mg dose of fluconazole in humans. A one compartment pharmacokinetic model with first-order input was used as a forcing function of plasma concentrations. PB-PK simulation (—); and microdialysis sampling data (□).
Figure Legend Snippet: Predicted fluconazole concentration-time profiles in subcutaneous interstitial fluid using PB-PK model simulation based on population pharmacokinetic parameters for fluconazole and observed concentrations (mean, n = 5) measured by microdialysis following an oral 200 mg dose of fluconazole in humans. A one compartment pharmacokinetic model with first-order input was used as a forcing function of plasma concentrations. PB-PK simulation (—); and microdialysis sampling data (□).

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay, Sampling

Predicted fluconazole concentration-time profiles in subcutaneous interstitial fluid using PB-PK model simulation and observed concentrations (mean + SD, n = 5) measured by microdialysis following oral dose (200 mg) administration of fluconazole in humans. A bi-exponential equation was used as a forcing function of experimental plasma concentrations of fluconazole obtained over 8 h sampling. PB-PK simulation (—); and microdialysis sampling data (□).
Figure Legend Snippet: Predicted fluconazole concentration-time profiles in subcutaneous interstitial fluid using PB-PK model simulation and observed concentrations (mean + SD, n = 5) measured by microdialysis following oral dose (200 mg) administration of fluconazole in humans. A bi-exponential equation was used as a forcing function of experimental plasma concentrations of fluconazole obtained over 8 h sampling. PB-PK simulation (—); and microdialysis sampling data (□).

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay, Sampling

21) Product Images from "Statin Concentrations Below the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration Attenuate the Virulence of Rhizopus oryzae"

Article Title: Statin Concentrations Below the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration Attenuate the Virulence of Rhizopus oryzae

Journal: The Journal of Infectious Diseases

doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiw090

Effects of statins on Rhizopus oryzae growth. A , Germination of the R. oryzae isolate RO-969 with no treatment (control) and after treatment with fluconazole (FLU; 64 µg/mL), amphotericin B (AMB; 1 µg/mL), and 2 concentrations of lovastatin (LOV; 16 µg/mL and 128 µg/mL). Magnification ×40. B , Growth of R. oryzae after 48 hours of incubation at 37°C on drug-free and LOV-containing (8 µg/mL and 32 µg/mL) yeast extract agar glucose (YAG) plates. C , Growth inhibition of R. oryzae grown on LOV-containing YAG plates (0, 8, and 32 µg/mL) after exposure to peroxide. Significantly higher susceptibility to peroxide was observed in R. oryzae grown on the YAG plates containing 32 µg/mL LOV, compared with that grown on drug-free YAG plates (* P
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of statins on Rhizopus oryzae growth. A , Germination of the R. oryzae isolate RO-969 with no treatment (control) and after treatment with fluconazole (FLU; 64 µg/mL), amphotericin B (AMB; 1 µg/mL), and 2 concentrations of lovastatin (LOV; 16 µg/mL and 128 µg/mL). Magnification ×40. B , Growth of R. oryzae after 48 hours of incubation at 37°C on drug-free and LOV-containing (8 µg/mL and 32 µg/mL) yeast extract agar glucose (YAG) plates. C , Growth inhibition of R. oryzae grown on LOV-containing YAG plates (0, 8, and 32 µg/mL) after exposure to peroxide. Significantly higher susceptibility to peroxide was observed in R. oryzae grown on the YAG plates containing 32 µg/mL LOV, compared with that grown on drug-free YAG plates (* P

Techniques Used: Incubation, Inhibition

22) Product Images from "In vitro interactions of crocin with fluconazole against Candida isolates"

Article Title: In vitro interactions of crocin with fluconazole against Candida isolates

Journal: Current Medical Mycology

doi: 10.18502/cmm.4.4.383

Interaction of crocin (1 µg/ml) combined with fluconazole at three concentrations by time-killing test (After 24 h of incubation, the isolate behaved as control sample when exposed to fluconazole. Although the growth rate decreased when it was treated with crocin, no synergistic effect was observed as the growth rate did not decrease since synergism and antagonism are defined as a respective decrease or increase of ≥ 2 log10 CFU/ml in antifungal activity.)
Figure Legend Snippet: Interaction of crocin (1 µg/ml) combined with fluconazole at three concentrations by time-killing test (After 24 h of incubation, the isolate behaved as control sample when exposed to fluconazole. Although the growth rate decreased when it was treated with crocin, no synergistic effect was observed as the growth rate did not decrease since synergism and antagonism are defined as a respective decrease or increase of ≥ 2 log10 CFU/ml in antifungal activity.)

Techniques Used: Incubation, Activity Assay

23) Product Images from "Multiple Molecular Mechanisms Contribute to a Stepwise Development of Fluconazole Resistance in Clinical Candida albicans Strains"

Article Title: Multiple Molecular Mechanisms Contribute to a Stepwise Development of Fluconazole Resistance in Clinical Candida albicans Strains

Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

doi:

ERG11 mRNA levels in susceptible and resistant C. albicans strains during growth in the absence (−) or presence (+) of 5 μg of fluconazole/ml. The ERG11 and ACT1 mRNAs are indicated on the right side. (A) Isolates F1 (susceptible) and F5 (resistant) from patient 1. (B) Isolates G1 (susceptible) and G5 (resistant) from patient 2.
Figure Legend Snippet: ERG11 mRNA levels in susceptible and resistant C. albicans strains during growth in the absence (−) or presence (+) of 5 μg of fluconazole/ml. The ERG11 and ACT1 mRNAs are indicated on the right side. (A) Isolates F1 (susceptible) and F5 (resistant) from patient 1. (B) Isolates G1 (susceptible) and G5 (resistant) from patient 2.

Techniques Used:

24) Product Images from "Influence of Incubation Time, Inoculum Size, and Glucose Concentrations on Spectrophotometric Endpoint Determinations for Amphotericin B, Fluconazole, and Itraconazole"

Article Title: Influence of Incubation Time, Inoculum Size, and Glucose Concentrations on Spectrophotometric Endpoint Determinations for Amphotericin B, Fluconazole, and Itraconazole

Journal: Journal of Clinical Microbiology

doi:

Influence of inoculum size and glucose concentration on the OD curve and on the fluconazole MIC determination for an isolate of C. albicans . 1, standard inoculum size (∼10 3 CFU/mL), RPMI 1640 medium; 2, standard inoculum size (∼10 3 CFU/mL), RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with 2% glucose; 3, large inoculum size (∼10 4 CFU/mL), RPMI 1640 medium; and 4, large inoculum size (∼10 4 CFU/mL), RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with 2% glucose. The MICs determined by testing with large inoculum size and medium supplemented with 2% glucose were 2 μg/ml, and the MICs determined by testing under other conditions were 4 μg/ml.
Figure Legend Snippet: Influence of inoculum size and glucose concentration on the OD curve and on the fluconazole MIC determination for an isolate of C. albicans . 1, standard inoculum size (∼10 3 CFU/mL), RPMI 1640 medium; 2, standard inoculum size (∼10 3 CFU/mL), RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with 2% glucose; 3, large inoculum size (∼10 4 CFU/mL), RPMI 1640 medium; and 4, large inoculum size (∼10 4 CFU/mL), RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with 2% glucose. The MICs determined by testing with large inoculum size and medium supplemented with 2% glucose were 2 μg/ml, and the MICs determined by testing under other conditions were 4 μg/ml.

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

25) Product Images from "Increasing trend of fluconazole-non-susceptible Cryptococcus neoformans in patients with invasive cryptococcosis: a 12-year longitudinal study"

Article Title: Increasing trend of fluconazole-non-susceptible Cryptococcus neoformans in patients with invasive cryptococcosis: a 12-year longitudinal study

Journal: BMC Infectious Diseases

doi: 10.1186/s12879-015-1023-8

The annual rate (black line) of fluconazole non-susceptible (MICs ≥16 μg/ml) Cryptococcus neoformans from 2001 to 2012 significantly increased over time ( p
Figure Legend Snippet: The annual rate (black line) of fluconazole non-susceptible (MICs ≥16 μg/ml) Cryptococcus neoformans from 2001 to 2012 significantly increased over time ( p

Techniques Used:

26) Product Images from "Voriconazole in the management of nosocomial invasive fungal infections"

Article Title: Voriconazole in the management of nosocomial invasive fungal infections

Journal: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management

doi:

Structural formulae of fluconazole and voriconazole.
Figure Legend Snippet: Structural formulae of fluconazole and voriconazole.

Techniques Used:

27) Product Images from "Combination Antifungal Therapy in Treatment of Murine Pulmonary Mucormycosis: Roles of Quinolones and Azoles †"

Article Title: Combination Antifungal Therapy in Treatment of Murine Pulmonary Mucormycosis: Roles of Quinolones and Azoles †

Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

doi:

Effects of treatment with low (suboptimal) doses of amphotericin B. Treatment groups were as follows: untreated controls (■), trovafloxacin treated (▾), fluconazole treated (●), fluconazole plus trovafloxacin treated (▴), low-dose amphotericin B at 0.5 mg/kg/day treated (▿), amphotericin B at 0.5 mg/kg/day plus fluconazole plus trovafloxacin treated (◊), or amphotericin B at 1 mg/kg/day treated (⧫). There were no differences in survival between mice treated with amphotericin B at 1 mg/kg/day and mice treated with fluconazole plus trovafloxacin or amphotericin B at 0.5 mg/kg/day plus fluconazole plus trovafloxacin. Note that the amphotericin B and amphotericin B plus fluconazole plus trovafloxacin groups overlap.
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of treatment with low (suboptimal) doses of amphotericin B. Treatment groups were as follows: untreated controls (■), trovafloxacin treated (▾), fluconazole treated (●), fluconazole plus trovafloxacin treated (▴), low-dose amphotericin B at 0.5 mg/kg/day treated (▿), amphotericin B at 0.5 mg/kg/day plus fluconazole plus trovafloxacin treated (◊), or amphotericin B at 1 mg/kg/day treated (⧫). There were no differences in survival between mice treated with amphotericin B at 1 mg/kg/day and mice treated with fluconazole plus trovafloxacin or amphotericin B at 0.5 mg/kg/day plus fluconazole plus trovafloxacin. Note that the amphotericin B and amphotericin B plus fluconazole plus trovafloxacin groups overlap.

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

Effect of ciprofloxacin in combination therapy with fluconazole and quinolones. Mice were treated as in previous experiments, with the exception that ciprofloxacin was substituted for trovafloxacin. The treatment groups were as follows: untreated controls (■), ciprofloxacin treated (▾), fluconazole treated (●), fluconazole plus ciprofloxacin treated (▴), and amphotericin B treated (⧫). No differences in survival were noted in mice treated with fluconazole and either trovafloxacin or ciprofloxacin.
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of ciprofloxacin in combination therapy with fluconazole and quinolones. Mice were treated as in previous experiments, with the exception that ciprofloxacin was substituted for trovafloxacin. The treatment groups were as follows: untreated controls (■), ciprofloxacin treated (▾), fluconazole treated (●), fluconazole plus ciprofloxacin treated (▴), and amphotericin B treated (⧫). No differences in survival were noted in mice treated with fluconazole and either trovafloxacin or ciprofloxacin.

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

28) Product Images from "Use of Fatty Acid RPMI 1640 Media for Testing Susceptibilities of Eight Malassezia Species to the New Triazole Posaconazole and to Six Established Antifungal Agents by a Modified NCCLS M27-A2 Microdilution Method and Etest"

Article Title: Use of Fatty Acid RPMI 1640 Media for Testing Susceptibilities of Eight Malassezia Species to the New Triazole Posaconazole and to Six Established Antifungal Agents by a Modified NCCLS M27-A2 Microdilution Method and Etest

Journal: Journal of Clinical Microbiology

doi: 10.1128/JCM.42.8.3589-3593.2004

M. furfur ATCC 15521 and M. globosa ATCC 96807 susceptibility testing by Etest. Both were used as QC strains in this study. (A) M. furfur type strain CBS 1878/ATCC 15521 tested against posaconazole (strip SCH), fluconazole (strip FL), voriconazole (strip VO), ketoconazole (strip KE), amphotericin (strip AP), and itraconazole (strip IT). Trailing is evident with KE, VO, and IT. (B) M. globosa type strain CBS 7966/ATCC 96807. Similar degrees of trailing were not present with all azoles; less trailing was observed with posaconazole. (C) Confirmation of resistance of an M. furfur clinical isolate (BMD and Etest MICs, ≥2 μg/ml) to amphotericin B in AM3.
Figure Legend Snippet: M. furfur ATCC 15521 and M. globosa ATCC 96807 susceptibility testing by Etest. Both were used as QC strains in this study. (A) M. furfur type strain CBS 1878/ATCC 15521 tested against posaconazole (strip SCH), fluconazole (strip FL), voriconazole (strip VO), ketoconazole (strip KE), amphotericin (strip AP), and itraconazole (strip IT). Trailing is evident with KE, VO, and IT. (B) M. globosa type strain CBS 7966/ATCC 96807. Similar degrees of trailing were not present with all azoles; less trailing was observed with posaconazole. (C) Confirmation of resistance of an M. furfur clinical isolate (BMD and Etest MICs, ≥2 μg/ml) to amphotericin B in AM3.

Techniques Used: Stripping Membranes

29) Product Images from "Chlorhexidine: beta-cyclodextrin inhibits yeast growth by extraction of ergosterol"

Article Title: Chlorhexidine: beta-cyclodextrin inhibits yeast growth by extraction of ergosterol

Journal: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology

doi: 10.1590/S1517-83822012000200047

Percentage of solubilization of Candida albicans membrane treated with Chlorhydrate of Chlorhexidine, Chlorhexidine:β-cyclodextrin 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4; β-cyclodextrin and Fluconazole.
Figure Legend Snippet: Percentage of solubilization of Candida albicans membrane treated with Chlorhydrate of Chlorhexidine, Chlorhexidine:β-cyclodextrin 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4; β-cyclodextrin and Fluconazole.

Techniques Used:

30) Product Images from "Cryptococcal meningitis: epidemiology and therapeutic options"

Article Title: Cryptococcal meningitis: epidemiology and therapeutic options

Journal: Clinical Epidemiology

doi: 10.2147/CLEP.S38850

A screening and management strategy for asymptomatic antigenemia. Notes: Undetectable HIV viral load and CD4 > 100/μL should be demonstrated on two occasions 6 months apart before stopping fluconazole. Jarvis JN, Govender N, Chiller T, et al, J Int Assoc Physicians AIDS Care (Chic) (11), pp 374–379, copyright © 2012 by SAGE Publications. Adapted by permission of SAGE Publications. 154 Abbreviations: HIV, human immunodeficiency virus; CrAg, cryptococcal antigen; LP, lumbar puncture; CM, cryptococcal meningitis; od, once daily; ART, antiretroviral therapy.
Figure Legend Snippet: A screening and management strategy for asymptomatic antigenemia. Notes: Undetectable HIV viral load and CD4 > 100/μL should be demonstrated on two occasions 6 months apart before stopping fluconazole. Jarvis JN, Govender N, Chiller T, et al, J Int Assoc Physicians AIDS Care (Chic) (11), pp 374–379, copyright © 2012 by SAGE Publications. Adapted by permission of SAGE Publications. 154 Abbreviations: HIV, human immunodeficiency virus; CrAg, cryptococcal antigen; LP, lumbar puncture; CM, cryptococcal meningitis; od, once daily; ART, antiretroviral therapy.

Techniques Used:

Treatment options for cryptococcal meningitis (CM), summarized from infectious Diseases Society of America and world Health Organization guidelines. Notes: a In HIV-infected patients with renal impairment or concern about nephrotoxicity, LAmB or ABLC should be used. b In settings of limited AmB availability or difficulty with toxicity monitoring, an abbreviated 5- to 7-day induction course of AmB may be used. c Non-HIV, nontransplant patients are a heterogeneous group, including individuals with hematological malignancies and immunocompetent hosts with Cryptococcus gattii infection. There is no consensus on optimal treatment; some authors suggest identical induction and consolidation therapy as for HIV-associated CM. d Undetectable Hiv viral load and CD4 > 100/μL should be demonstrated on two occasions 6 months apart before stopping fluconazole. Abbreviations: HIV, human immunodeficiency virus; AmB, amphotericin B; LAmB, liposomal amphotericin B (3–6 mg/kg/day); ABLC, amphotericin B lipid complex (5 mg/kg/day); od, once daily; PO, per os (by mouth); ART, antiretroviral therapy.
Figure Legend Snippet: Treatment options for cryptococcal meningitis (CM), summarized from infectious Diseases Society of America and world Health Organization guidelines. Notes: a In HIV-infected patients with renal impairment or concern about nephrotoxicity, LAmB or ABLC should be used. b In settings of limited AmB availability or difficulty with toxicity monitoring, an abbreviated 5- to 7-day induction course of AmB may be used. c Non-HIV, nontransplant patients are a heterogeneous group, including individuals with hematological malignancies and immunocompetent hosts with Cryptococcus gattii infection. There is no consensus on optimal treatment; some authors suggest identical induction and consolidation therapy as for HIV-associated CM. d Undetectable Hiv viral load and CD4 > 100/μL should be demonstrated on two occasions 6 months apart before stopping fluconazole. Abbreviations: HIV, human immunodeficiency virus; AmB, amphotericin B; LAmB, liposomal amphotericin B (3–6 mg/kg/day); ABLC, amphotericin B lipid complex (5 mg/kg/day); od, once daily; PO, per os (by mouth); ART, antiretroviral therapy.

Techniques Used: Infection

31) Product Images from "Impact of imatinib on the pharmacokinetics and in vivo efficacy of etoposide and/or ifosfamide"

Article Title: Impact of imatinib on the pharmacokinetics and in vivo efficacy of etoposide and/or ifosfamide

Journal: BMC Pharmacology

doi: 10.1186/1471-2210-7-13

(A) Mean AUC 0–3 h of etoposide (VP16) in CD1 mice . Area Under Curve concentration versus time of etoposide (VP16) was calculated between base time (0) and 3 hours after administration of etoposide alone or etoposide plus fluconazole or etoposide plus imatinib or etoposide with imatinib and fluconazole. (B) Concentration-time curve of etoposide (VP16) administered with STI571 . After administration of etoposide (VP16) with STI571, concentrations of VP16 peaked at 30.9 ± 2.1 ng/mL, followed by a bi-exponential decline. (C) Graphical analysis between calculated concentrations and observed concentrations of etoposide (VP16) .
Figure Legend Snippet: (A) Mean AUC 0–3 h of etoposide (VP16) in CD1 mice . Area Under Curve concentration versus time of etoposide (VP16) was calculated between base time (0) and 3 hours after administration of etoposide alone or etoposide plus fluconazole or etoposide plus imatinib or etoposide with imatinib and fluconazole. (B) Concentration-time curve of etoposide (VP16) administered with STI571 . After administration of etoposide (VP16) with STI571, concentrations of VP16 peaked at 30.9 ± 2.1 ng/mL, followed by a bi-exponential decline. (C) Graphical analysis between calculated concentrations and observed concentrations of etoposide (VP16) .

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Concentration Assay

Antitumor activity of imatinib with or without chemotherapy in two human xenografted tumors . (A)(C). Both xenografted SCLC6 (A) and LY-3 (C) tumors were treated by etoposide (VP16) alone (E) at a dosage of 12 mg/kg in one daily intraperitoneal injection on days 1 to 3 (▲), etoposide (VP16) and STI571 (E + S) administered by one daily intraperitoneal injection at a dose of 70 mg/kg on days 1 to 3 (■), etoposide (VP16) and fluconazole (E + F) at a dosage of 40 mg/kg in one daily intraperitoneal injection on days 1 to 3 (○), or etoposide (VP16) with STI571 and fluconazole (E + S + F)(◇). All other groups included STI571 alone (S)(□), fluconazole alone (F)(△), and STI571 + fluconazole (S + F)(◆) and 0.9% NaCl (●). (B) Mice bearing LY-3 tumors were treated by one (□) daily intraperitoneal injection of STI571 (S) at a dose of 70 mg/kg from day 1 until sacrifice of the animals. (D) Xenografted LY-3 tumors were treated by gemcitabine at a dosage of 60 mg/kg by one weekly intraperitoneal injection, with (G + S)(■) or without (G)(▲) STI571 administered by one daily intraperitoneal injection at a dose of 70 mg/kg from day 1 until sacrifice of the animals. Mice treated by STI571 alone (S) are indicated by (□). All control groups received injections of 0.9% NaCl (Control)(●). Tumor growth was evaluated by measuring the relative tumor volume (RTV), as described in
Figure Legend Snippet: Antitumor activity of imatinib with or without chemotherapy in two human xenografted tumors . (A)(C). Both xenografted SCLC6 (A) and LY-3 (C) tumors were treated by etoposide (VP16) alone (E) at a dosage of 12 mg/kg in one daily intraperitoneal injection on days 1 to 3 (▲), etoposide (VP16) and STI571 (E + S) administered by one daily intraperitoneal injection at a dose of 70 mg/kg on days 1 to 3 (■), etoposide (VP16) and fluconazole (E + F) at a dosage of 40 mg/kg in one daily intraperitoneal injection on days 1 to 3 (○), or etoposide (VP16) with STI571 and fluconazole (E + S + F)(◇). All other groups included STI571 alone (S)(□), fluconazole alone (F)(△), and STI571 + fluconazole (S + F)(◆) and 0.9% NaCl (●). (B) Mice bearing LY-3 tumors were treated by one (□) daily intraperitoneal injection of STI571 (S) at a dose of 70 mg/kg from day 1 until sacrifice of the animals. (D) Xenografted LY-3 tumors were treated by gemcitabine at a dosage of 60 mg/kg by one weekly intraperitoneal injection, with (G + S)(■) or without (G)(▲) STI571 administered by one daily intraperitoneal injection at a dose of 70 mg/kg from day 1 until sacrifice of the animals. Mice treated by STI571 alone (S) are indicated by (□). All control groups received injections of 0.9% NaCl (Control)(●). Tumor growth was evaluated by measuring the relative tumor volume (RTV), as described in "Materials and Methods". A Mann-Whitney U test was used to assess the effects of treatments on xenografted tumor growth.

Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Injection, Mouse Assay, MANN-WHITNEY

Fecal and urine excretion of etoposide in CD1 mice . Etoposide (VP16) levels were determined in feces (ng of etoposide/g of feces) when mice were treated with etoposide alone (A, B) or in combination with imatinib (B) or in combination with imatinib and fluconazole (B). Etoposide (VP16) levels were determined in urine (ng of etoposide/24 hours of urine) when mice were treated with etoposide alone (C, D) or in combination with imatinib (C) or in combination with imatinib and fluconazole (D).
Figure Legend Snippet: Fecal and urine excretion of etoposide in CD1 mice . Etoposide (VP16) levels were determined in feces (ng of etoposide/g of feces) when mice were treated with etoposide alone (A, B) or in combination with imatinib (B) or in combination with imatinib and fluconazole (B). Etoposide (VP16) levels were determined in urine (ng of etoposide/24 hours of urine) when mice were treated with etoposide alone (C, D) or in combination with imatinib (C) or in combination with imatinib and fluconazole (D).

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

32) Product Images from "Optimizing Voriconazole Susceptibility Testing of Candida: Effects of Incubation Time, Endpoint Rule, Species of Candida, and Level of Fluconazole Susceptibility"

Article Title: Optimizing Voriconazole Susceptibility Testing of Candida: Effects of Incubation Time, Endpoint Rule, Species of Candida, and Level of Fluconazole Susceptibility

Journal: Journal of Clinical Microbiology

doi:

Cross-tabulation of voriconazole and fluconazole MICs. The data are the number of isolates for which the indicated MICs of voriconazole and fluconazole were obtained. MICs were determined as 50% inhibition (Spec-50) spectrophotometrically after 24 h (A) and 48 h (B) of incubation. The lines indicate the MIC at which 90% of the isolates tested were inhibited.
Figure Legend Snippet: Cross-tabulation of voriconazole and fluconazole MICs. The data are the number of isolates for which the indicated MICs of voriconazole and fluconazole were obtained. MICs were determined as 50% inhibition (Spec-50) spectrophotometrically after 24 h (A) and 48 h (B) of incubation. The lines indicate the MIC at which 90% of the isolates tested were inhibited.

Techniques Used: Inhibition, Incubation

33) Product Images from "Limited Activity of Miltefosine in Murine Models of Cryptococcal Meningoencephalitis and Disseminated Cryptococcosis"

Article Title: Limited Activity of Miltefosine in Murine Models of Cryptococcal Meningoencephalitis and Disseminated Cryptococcosis

Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

doi: 10.1128/AAC.01624-12

Survival curves in mice inoculated intravenously with C. neoformans H99 at 0.54 × 10 5 to 6.1 × 10 5 CFU/animal. Treatment with miltefosine (MTF) began at 1 h postchallenge, while fluconazole (FLC) and amphotericin B (AMB) were started 1
Figure Legend Snippet: Survival curves in mice inoculated intravenously with C. neoformans H99 at 0.54 × 10 5 to 6.1 × 10 5 CFU/animal. Treatment with miltefosine (MTF) began at 1 h postchallenge, while fluconazole (FLC) and amphotericin B (AMB) were started 1

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

Survival curves of mice inoculated intracranially with C. neoformans H99 at 1,335 CFU CFU/animal. Antifungal therapy with miltefosine (MTF) began at 1 h following infection, while therapy with fluconazole (FLC) and amphotericin B (AMB) was initiated at
Figure Legend Snippet: Survival curves of mice inoculated intracranially with C. neoformans H99 at 1,335 CFU CFU/animal. Antifungal therapy with miltefosine (MTF) began at 1 h following infection, while therapy with fluconazole (FLC) and amphotericin B (AMB) was initiated at

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Infection

Survival curves in mice inoculated intravenously with C. neoformans USC1597 at 0.54 × 10 5 to 1.6 × 10 5 CFU/animal. In the monotherapy experiments (A and B), miltefosine (MTF) began at 1 h postchallenge, while fluconazole (FLC) and amphotericin
Figure Legend Snippet: Survival curves in mice inoculated intravenously with C. neoformans USC1597 at 0.54 × 10 5 to 1.6 × 10 5 CFU/animal. In the monotherapy experiments (A and B), miltefosine (MTF) began at 1 h postchallenge, while fluconazole (FLC) and amphotericin

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

Survival curves in mice inoculated intracranially with C. neoformans USC1597 at 1,900 to 2,800 CFU/animal. Antifungal monotherapy therapy with miltefosine (MTF), fluconazole (FLC), or amphotericin B (AMB) or combination therapy began at 1 day postchallenge
Figure Legend Snippet: Survival curves in mice inoculated intracranially with C. neoformans USC1597 at 1,900 to 2,800 CFU/animal. Antifungal monotherapy therapy with miltefosine (MTF), fluconazole (FLC), or amphotericin B (AMB) or combination therapy began at 1 day postchallenge

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

34) Product Images from "Fluconazole Treatment Is Effective against a Candida albicans erg3/erg3 Mutant In Vivo Despite In Vitro Resistance"

Article Title: Fluconazole Treatment Is Effective against a Candida albicans erg3/erg3 Mutant In Vivo Despite In Vitro Resistance

Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

doi: 10.1128/AAC.50.2.580-586.2006

Fluconazole treatment in a murine model of candidiasis. Immunocompetent mice ( n = 10) were injected intravenously with 4.91 × 10 5 cells of CAF2-1 or 4.85 × 10 6 cells of CAE3DU3. Of note, the inoculum size of CAE3DU3 was 10-fold higher than that of CAF2-1 because of the difference in virulence between these strains. Fluconazole was administered by gavage at 40 mg/kg once a day for 4 days starting at 3 h after injection. Sterile saline was used as a control. Kidneys were excised 4 days after injection, and kidney CFU were determined. The scatter plot shows kidney CFU of CAF2-1 treated with saline (solid circles), CAF2-1 treated with fluconazole (open circles), CAE3DU3 treated with saline (solid triangles), and CAE3DU3 treated with fluconazole (open triangles). The geometric means and the standard deviations are shown in each group.
Figure Legend Snippet: Fluconazole treatment in a murine model of candidiasis. Immunocompetent mice ( n = 10) were injected intravenously with 4.91 × 10 5 cells of CAF2-1 or 4.85 × 10 6 cells of CAE3DU3. Of note, the inoculum size of CAE3DU3 was 10-fold higher than that of CAF2-1 because of the difference in virulence between these strains. Fluconazole was administered by gavage at 40 mg/kg once a day for 4 days starting at 3 h after injection. Sterile saline was used as a control. Kidneys were excised 4 days after injection, and kidney CFU were determined. The scatter plot shows kidney CFU of CAF2-1 treated with saline (solid circles), CAF2-1 treated with fluconazole (open circles), CAE3DU3 treated with saline (solid triangles), and CAE3DU3 treated with fluconazole (open triangles). The geometric means and the standard deviations are shown in each group.

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Injection

35) Product Images from "Endogenous Reactive Oxygen Species Is an Important Mediator of Miconazole Antifungal Effect"

Article Title: Endogenous Reactive Oxygen Species Is an Important Mediator of Miconazole Antifungal Effect

Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

doi: 10.1128/AAC.46.10.3113-3117.2002

Effects of miconazole and fluconazole concentrations on ROS production in C. albicans . The level of ROS production was measured 2 h after treatment with the indicated concentrations of miconazole (A) and fluconazole (B). Data represent the means ± standard deviations for three independent samples.
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of miconazole and fluconazole concentrations on ROS production in C. albicans . The level of ROS production was measured 2 h after treatment with the indicated concentrations of miconazole (A) and fluconazole (B). Data represent the means ± standard deviations for three independent samples.

Techniques Used:

36) Product Images from "Rates and Extents of Antifungal Activities of Amphotericin B, Flucytosine, Fluconazole, and Voriconazole against Candida lusitaniae Determined by Microdilution, Etest, and Time-Kill Methods"

Article Title: Rates and Extents of Antifungal Activities of Amphotericin B, Flucytosine, Fluconazole, and Voriconazole against Candida lusitaniae Determined by Microdilution, Etest, and Time-Kill Methods

Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

doi: 10.1128/AAC.46.2.578-581.2002

Representative time-kill curve plots for amphotericin B-susceptible C . lusitaniae isolate 20091.082 (A) and amphotericin B-resistant C. lusitaniae isolate FTL-1 (B) with antifungal agents. •, control; ○, amphotericin B; ▴, fluconazole; ▵, voriconazole; ▾, flucytosine; ▿, amphotericin B and flucytosine; ♦, fluconazole and amphotericin B; ⋄, fluconazole and flucytosine; ▪, voriconazole and amphotericin B; □, voriconazole and flucytosine.
Figure Legend Snippet: Representative time-kill curve plots for amphotericin B-susceptible C . lusitaniae isolate 20091.082 (A) and amphotericin B-resistant C. lusitaniae isolate FTL-1 (B) with antifungal agents. •, control; ○, amphotericin B; ▴, fluconazole; ▵, voriconazole; ▾, flucytosine; ▿, amphotericin B and flucytosine; ♦, fluconazole and amphotericin B; ⋄, fluconazole and flucytosine; ▪, voriconazole and amphotericin B; □, voriconazole and flucytosine.

Techniques Used:

37) Product Images from "Treatment of Intra-Abdominal Abscesses Caused by Candida albicans with Antifungal Agents and Recombinant Murine Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor"

Article Title: Treatment of Intra-Abdominal Abscesses Caused by Candida albicans with Antifungal Agents and Recombinant Murine Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor

Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

doi: 10.1128/AAC.47.12.3688-3693.2003

Effect of amphotericin B (AMB) or fluconazole (FCZ) combined with rmG-CSF on the outgrowth of C. albicans in intra-abdominal abscesses per mouse on day 8 of infection. (A) Mice received rmG-CSF on day −1 of infection. (B) Mice received daily rmG-CSF on days 3 through 7 of infection. Horizontal bars indicate the means. a , P
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of amphotericin B (AMB) or fluconazole (FCZ) combined with rmG-CSF on the outgrowth of C. albicans in intra-abdominal abscesses per mouse on day 8 of infection. (A) Mice received rmG-CSF on day −1 of infection. (B) Mice received daily rmG-CSF on days 3 through 7 of infection. Horizontal bars indicate the means. a , P

Techniques Used: Infection, Mouse Assay

Histopathology of intra-abdominal Candida abscesses (magnification, ×400) in untreated mice and mice treated with rmG-CSF therapy (days 3 through 7), an antifungal agent, or combination therapy on day 8 of infection. (A) Control mice showed an inflammatory response to yeast cells with a small number of granulocytes bordered by a strong histiocytic response. (B) Mice treated with rmG-CSF had larger abscesses with an increased number of granulocytes on a necrotic background. (C) Abscesses of amphotericin B-treated mice showed a necrotic area with disintegrating granulocytes. (D) The response of mice treated with rmG-CSF in combination with amphotericin B showed tissue necrosis, a histiocytic response, microabscess formation, and an increased number of granulocytes. (E) Abscesses of fluconazole-treated mice revealed yeast cells in an area of necrosis with many granulocytes. (F) Abscesses of mice treated with rmG-CSF in combination with fluconazole had histopathologic features similar to those of mice treated with fluconazole alone, except for an increased number of granulocytes.
Figure Legend Snippet: Histopathology of intra-abdominal Candida abscesses (magnification, ×400) in untreated mice and mice treated with rmG-CSF therapy (days 3 through 7), an antifungal agent, or combination therapy on day 8 of infection. (A) Control mice showed an inflammatory response to yeast cells with a small number of granulocytes bordered by a strong histiocytic response. (B) Mice treated with rmG-CSF had larger abscesses with an increased number of granulocytes on a necrotic background. (C) Abscesses of amphotericin B-treated mice showed a necrotic area with disintegrating granulocytes. (D) The response of mice treated with rmG-CSF in combination with amphotericin B showed tissue necrosis, a histiocytic response, microabscess formation, and an increased number of granulocytes. (E) Abscesses of fluconazole-treated mice revealed yeast cells in an area of necrosis with many granulocytes. (F) Abscesses of mice treated with rmG-CSF in combination with fluconazole had histopathologic features similar to those of mice treated with fluconazole alone, except for an increased number of granulocytes.

Techniques Used: Histopathology, Mouse Assay, Infection

38) Product Images from "Head-to-Head Comparison of Inhibitory and Fungicidal Activities of Fluconazole, Itraconazole, Voriconazole, Posaconazole, and Isavuconazole against Clinical Isolates of Trichosporon asahii"

Article Title: Head-to-Head Comparison of Inhibitory and Fungicidal Activities of Fluconazole, Itraconazole, Voriconazole, Posaconazole, and Isavuconazole against Clinical Isolates of Trichosporon asahii

Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

doi: 10.1128/AAC.00850-13

Representative time-kill plots for ATCC T. asahii after exposure to voriconazole (a) and killing rates of fluconazole (FLU), itraconazole (ITRA), voriconazole (VORI), posaconazole (POSA), and isavuconazole (ISAVU) against T. asahii ATCC 201110, isolate
Figure Legend Snippet: Representative time-kill plots for ATCC T. asahii after exposure to voriconazole (a) and killing rates of fluconazole (FLU), itraconazole (ITRA), voriconazole (VORI), posaconazole (POSA), and isavuconazole (ISAVU) against T. asahii ATCC 201110, isolate

Techniques Used:

39) Product Images from "Rabbit Model of Candida albicans Biofilm Infection: Liposomal Amphotericin B Antifungal Lock Therapy"

Article Title: Rabbit Model of Candida albicans Biofilm Infection: Liposomal Amphotericin B Antifungal Lock Therapy

Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

doi: 10.1128/AAC.48.5.1727-1732.2004

Effectiveness of antifungal lock therapy. Scanning electron micrographs of intraluminal catheter surfaces following 7 days of therapy with heparinized saline (magnification, ×5,000) (A), liposomal amphotericin B (magnification, ×121) (B), and fluconazole (magnification, ×3,500) (C) are shown.
Figure Legend Snippet: Effectiveness of antifungal lock therapy. Scanning electron micrographs of intraluminal catheter surfaces following 7 days of therapy with heparinized saline (magnification, ×5,000) (A), liposomal amphotericin B (magnification, ×121) (B), and fluconazole (magnification, ×3,500) (C) are shown.

Techniques Used:

40) Product Images from "Flow Cytometry Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Pathogenic Yeasts other than Candida albicans and Comparison with the NCCLS Broth Microdilution Test"

Article Title: Flow Cytometry Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Pathogenic Yeasts other than Candida albicans and Comparison with the NCCLS Broth Microdilution Test

Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

doi:

Effect of fluconazole on C. parapsilosis ATCC 22019. (A) 3-D plot depicting growth control. (B to I) 3-D plots illustrating increasing concentrations of fluconazole, with dead cells indicated as percent MCF. The MIC of the isolate was the drug concentration at which the MCF was equal to or more than 50%. In this isolate, an increase of percent MCF from 42.2% at 1.0 μg to 57.3% at 2.0 μg of fluconazole/ml was seen; therefore, 2.0 μg/ml was considered the MIC.
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of fluconazole on C. parapsilosis ATCC 22019. (A) 3-D plot depicting growth control. (B to I) 3-D plots illustrating increasing concentrations of fluconazole, with dead cells indicated as percent MCF. The MIC of the isolate was the drug concentration at which the MCF was equal to or more than 50%. In this isolate, an increase of percent MCF from 42.2% at 1.0 μg to 57.3% at 2.0 μg of fluconazole/ml was seen; therefore, 2.0 μg/ml was considered the MIC.

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

Related Articles

Concentration Assay:

Article Title: Enhanced Extracellular Production of Aspartyl Proteinase, a Virulence Factor, by Candida albicans Isolates following Growth in Subinhibitory Concentrations of Fluconazole
Article Snippet: .. C. albicans isolates were grown in 300 ml of YCB-BSA medium (final concentration, 107 blastoconidia per ml) containing 0, 1/4, 1/2 or 1 MIC of fluconazole (a gift from Pfizer, Inc., Groton, Conn.) in 1-liter Erlenmeyer flasks rotating at 140 rpm for 14 days at 25°C. .. Five-milliliter aliquots were removed daily, and Sap activity was determined spectrophotometrically by measuring the sample absorbance at 280 nm following the degradation of the substrate (BSA) as previously described ( , ).

other:

Article Title: Functional Genomic Analysis of Fluconazole Susceptibility in the Pathogenic Yeast Candida glabrata: Roles of Calcium Signaling and Mitochondria
Article Snippet: YPD plates containing various concentrations of fluconazole were prepared by adding appropriate volume of fluconazole (Diflucan-Pfizer) from a stock solution of 2 mg/ml.

Article Title: In Vitro Method To Study Antifungal Perfusion in Candida Biofilms
Article Snippet: Three antifungals commonly used to treat oropharyngeal and systemic candidiasis were selected for the study, viz., amphotericin B (Sigma), fluconazole (Pfizer), and flucytosine (Sigma).

Article Title: Heteroresistance to Fluconazole and Voriconazole in Cryptococcus neoformans
Article Snippet: Fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole (UK-109,496) were provided as powders by Pfizer Central Research (Groton, Conn.).

In Vitro:

Article Title: Antifungal Resistance to Fluconazole and Echinocandins Is Not Emerging in Yeast Isolates Causing Fungemia in a Spanish Tertiary Care Center
Article Snippet: .. We used the EUCAST EDef 7.2 microdilution procedure to test isolates for in vitro susceptibility to the following drugs: amphotericin B (Sigma-Aldrich, Madrid, Spain); fluconazole, voriconazole, and anidulafungin (Pfizer Pharmaceutical Group, New York, NY, USA); posaconazole and caspofungin (Merck & Co., Inc., Rahway, NJ, USA); and micafungin (Astellas Pharma, Inc., Tokyo, Japan) ( , ). ..

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    SEM images of 48-h C. albicans HK1Sa. (A) Control C. albicans HK1Sa; (B) C. albicans HK1Sa biofilm exposed to 600-μg/ml amphotericin B for 4 h; (C) C. albicans HK1Sa biofilm exposed to 600-μg/ml <t>fluconazole</t> for 4 h. Note the wrinkled,
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    SEM images of 48-h C. albicans HK1Sa. (A) Control C. albicans HK1Sa; (B) C. albicans HK1Sa biofilm exposed to 600-μg/ml amphotericin B for 4 h; (C) C. albicans HK1Sa biofilm exposed to 600-μg/ml fluconazole for 4 h. Note the wrinkled,

    Journal:

    Article Title: In Vitro Method To Study Antifungal Perfusion in Candida Biofilms

    doi: 10.1128/JCM.43.2.818-825.2005

    Figure Lengend Snippet: SEM images of 48-h C. albicans HK1Sa. (A) Control C. albicans HK1Sa; (B) C. albicans HK1Sa biofilm exposed to 600-μg/ml amphotericin B for 4 h; (C) C. albicans HK1Sa biofilm exposed to 600-μg/ml fluconazole for 4 h. Note the wrinkled,

    Article Snippet: Three antifungals commonly used to treat oropharyngeal and systemic candidiasis were selected for the study, viz., amphotericin B (Sigma), fluconazole (Pfizer), and flucytosine (Sigma).

    Techniques:

    Standard curves for the three antifungal agents, showing the relationship between drug concentration and the radius of growth inhibition of a lawn of C. parapsilosis on RPMI agar. 5FC, flucytosine; FL, fluconazole; AmB, amphotericin B.

    Journal:

    Article Title: In Vitro Method To Study Antifungal Perfusion in Candida Biofilms

    doi: 10.1128/JCM.43.2.818-825.2005

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Standard curves for the three antifungal agents, showing the relationship between drug concentration and the radius of growth inhibition of a lawn of C. parapsilosis on RPMI agar. 5FC, flucytosine; FL, fluconazole; AmB, amphotericin B.

    Article Snippet: Three antifungals commonly used to treat oropharyngeal and systemic candidiasis were selected for the study, viz., amphotericin B (Sigma), fluconazole (Pfizer), and flucytosine (Sigma).

    Techniques: Concentration Assay, Inhibition

    Penetration of various concentrations (i.e., 150, 300, and 600 μg/ml) of the three antifungals, amphotericin B (a), fluconazole (b), and flucytosine (c), through 48-h-old C. albicans , C. parapsilosis , and C. krusei biofilms shown in terms of the

    Journal:

    Article Title: In Vitro Method To Study Antifungal Perfusion in Candida Biofilms

    doi: 10.1128/JCM.43.2.818-825.2005

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Penetration of various concentrations (i.e., 150, 300, and 600 μg/ml) of the three antifungals, amphotericin B (a), fluconazole (b), and flucytosine (c), through 48-h-old C. albicans , C. parapsilosis , and C. krusei biofilms shown in terms of the

    Article Snippet: Three antifungals commonly used to treat oropharyngeal and systemic candidiasis were selected for the study, viz., amphotericin B (Sigma), fluconazole (Pfizer), and flucytosine (Sigma).

    Techniques:

    SEM images of 48-h C. krusei ATCC 6258. (A) Control C. krusei ATCC 6258; (B) C. krusei ATCC 6258 biofilm exposed to 600-μg/ml amphotericin B for 4 h; (C) C. krusei ATCC 6258 biofilm exposed to 600-μg/ml fluconazole for 4 h.

    Journal:

    Article Title: In Vitro Method To Study Antifungal Perfusion in Candida Biofilms

    doi: 10.1128/JCM.43.2.818-825.2005

    Figure Lengend Snippet: SEM images of 48-h C. krusei ATCC 6258. (A) Control C. krusei ATCC 6258; (B) C. krusei ATCC 6258 biofilm exposed to 600-μg/ml amphotericin B for 4 h; (C) C. krusei ATCC 6258 biofilm exposed to 600-μg/ml fluconazole for 4 h.

    Article Snippet: Three antifungals commonly used to treat oropharyngeal and systemic candidiasis were selected for the study, viz., amphotericin B (Sigma), fluconazole (Pfizer), and flucytosine (Sigma).

    Techniques:

    SEM images of 48-h C. parapsilosis ATCC 22019. (A) Control; (B) C. parapsilosis ATCC 22019 biofilm exposed to 600-μg/ml amphotericin B for 4 h; (C) C. parapsilosis ATCC 22019 biofilm exposed to 600-μg/ml fluconazole for 4 h. Note the ruptured

    Journal:

    Article Title: In Vitro Method To Study Antifungal Perfusion in Candida Biofilms

    doi: 10.1128/JCM.43.2.818-825.2005

    Figure Lengend Snippet: SEM images of 48-h C. parapsilosis ATCC 22019. (A) Control; (B) C. parapsilosis ATCC 22019 biofilm exposed to 600-μg/ml amphotericin B for 4 h; (C) C. parapsilosis ATCC 22019 biofilm exposed to 600-μg/ml fluconazole for 4 h. Note the ruptured

    Article Snippet: Three antifungals commonly used to treat oropharyngeal and systemic candidiasis were selected for the study, viz., amphotericin B (Sigma), fluconazole (Pfizer), and flucytosine (Sigma).

    Techniques:

    Msh2 alterations identified in diverse clinical isolates cause a mutator phenotype and increased emergence of antifungal resistance. ( a ) The 357 clinical isolates obtained were classified according to their susceptibilities to fluconazole (FLC) and the echinocandins (ECH), and the percentage of isolates within each group demonstrating a nonsynonymous msh2 mutation were determined. P value was determined through χ 2 analysis (compared with susceptible group). ( b ) All isolates were categorized by institution. Isolates demonstrating an msh2 mutation/total isolates are shown for each susceptibility group. See Supplementary Data 1 for a list of all individual isolates analyzed. ( c ) Echinocandin- (caspofungin) resistant colony frequencies of various clinical isolates were measured. ( d ) Wild type or msh2Δ cells expressing an empty or MSH2 -containing plasmid were selected on caspofungin and 5-fluoroanthranilic acid. See Supplementary Table 4 for strains. Frequency data in c , d are mean±s.d. from three independent experiments; representative images are shown. * P

    Journal: Nature Communications

    Article Title: Prevalent mutator genotype identified in fungal pathogen Candida glabrata promotes multi-drug resistance

    doi: 10.1038/ncomms11128

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Msh2 alterations identified in diverse clinical isolates cause a mutator phenotype and increased emergence of antifungal resistance. ( a ) The 357 clinical isolates obtained were classified according to their susceptibilities to fluconazole (FLC) and the echinocandins (ECH), and the percentage of isolates within each group demonstrating a nonsynonymous msh2 mutation were determined. P value was determined through χ 2 analysis (compared with susceptible group). ( b ) All isolates were categorized by institution. Isolates demonstrating an msh2 mutation/total isolates are shown for each susceptibility group. See Supplementary Data 1 for a list of all individual isolates analyzed. ( c ) Echinocandin- (caspofungin) resistant colony frequencies of various clinical isolates were measured. ( d ) Wild type or msh2Δ cells expressing an empty or MSH2 -containing plasmid were selected on caspofungin and 5-fluoroanthranilic acid. See Supplementary Table 4 for strains. Frequency data in c , d are mean±s.d. from three independent experiments; representative images are shown. * P

    Article Snippet: We aimed to plate ∼1 × 108 CFU onto echinocandin-containing drug plates and between 1 × 105 and 1 × 106 CFU onto fluconazole, voriconazole (Pfizer), amphotericin B (Sigma-Aldrich, Milwaukee, WI) and 5-fluoroanthranillic acid (5-FAA, Sigma-Aldrich) plates.

    Techniques: Mutagenesis, Expressing, Plasmid Preparation

    Deletion of MSH2 in C. glabrata leads to significantly more resistant colonies upon selection on multiple antifungal drugs. Wild type, msh2Δ and rad50Δ strains were selected on media containing caspofungin (an echinocandin), fluconazole (a triazole) and amphotericin B (a polyene) at concentrations from 16- to 32-fold greater than wild type MICs as described in Methods section. The plots show means of resistant colony frequencies from ≥3 independent experiments±s.d. See Supplementary Fig. 1 for resistant frequencies to voriconazole (triazole) and micafungin (echinocandin). ** P

    Journal: Nature Communications

    Article Title: Prevalent mutator genotype identified in fungal pathogen Candida glabrata promotes multi-drug resistance

    doi: 10.1038/ncomms11128

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Deletion of MSH2 in C. glabrata leads to significantly more resistant colonies upon selection on multiple antifungal drugs. Wild type, msh2Δ and rad50Δ strains were selected on media containing caspofungin (an echinocandin), fluconazole (a triazole) and amphotericin B (a polyene) at concentrations from 16- to 32-fold greater than wild type MICs as described in Methods section. The plots show means of resistant colony frequencies from ≥3 independent experiments±s.d. See Supplementary Fig. 1 for resistant frequencies to voriconazole (triazole) and micafungin (echinocandin). ** P

    Article Snippet: We aimed to plate ∼1 × 108 CFU onto echinocandin-containing drug plates and between 1 × 105 and 1 × 106 CFU onto fluconazole, voriconazole (Pfizer), amphotericin B (Sigma-Aldrich, Milwaukee, WI) and 5-fluoroanthranillic acid (5-FAA, Sigma-Aldrich) plates.

    Techniques: Selection

    C. albicans mouse kidney colonization. Representative example of kidney histology slides of PAS-stained paraffin sections of kidneys recovered from mice infected with a C. albicans -resistant ( Ca R) strain at day four postinfection and untreated (A) (×40 magnification), treated with 30 mg/kg/day of fluconazole (B to E) (×10, ×20, ×40 and ×20 magnification for the four panels, respectively), or treated with 30 mg/kg/day of fluconazole plus 20 mg/kg/day of ibuprofen (F and G) (×40 magnification). (E) Arrow shows a clear barrier to the progression of inflammatory leukocytes.

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: Ibuprofen Potentiates the In Vivo Antifungal Activity of Fluconazole against Candida albicans Murine Infection

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.05056-14

    Figure Lengend Snippet: C. albicans mouse kidney colonization. Representative example of kidney histology slides of PAS-stained paraffin sections of kidneys recovered from mice infected with a C. albicans -resistant ( Ca R) strain at day four postinfection and untreated (A) (×40 magnification), treated with 30 mg/kg/day of fluconazole (B to E) (×10, ×20, ×40 and ×20 magnification for the four panels, respectively), or treated with 30 mg/kg/day of fluconazole plus 20 mg/kg/day of ibuprofen (F and G) (×40 magnification). (E) Arrow shows a clear barrier to the progression of inflammatory leukocytes.

    Article Snippet: The MICs to azoles, fluconazole, voriconazole (Pfizer), and posaconazole (Schering-Plough) were determined for the parent strain and the successive fluconazole-exposed isolates, and the susceptibility profile was determined according to the CLSI M27-A3 protocol ( ).

    Techniques: Staining, Mouse Assay, Infection

    In vivo antifungal potentiating effect between fluconazole and ibuprofen against C. albicans systemic infection. The log CFU per gram of kidney values are plotted as the mean and standard error. Ca S, susceptible strain; Ca R, resistant strain; FLC, fluconazole; Ibu, ibuprofen.

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: Ibuprofen Potentiates the In Vivo Antifungal Activity of Fluconazole against Candida albicans Murine Infection

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.05056-14

    Figure Lengend Snippet: In vivo antifungal potentiating effect between fluconazole and ibuprofen against C. albicans systemic infection. The log CFU per gram of kidney values are plotted as the mean and standard error. Ca S, susceptible strain; Ca R, resistant strain; FLC, fluconazole; Ibu, ibuprofen.

    Article Snippet: The MICs to azoles, fluconazole, voriconazole (Pfizer), and posaconazole (Schering-Plough) were determined for the parent strain and the successive fluconazole-exposed isolates, and the susceptibility profile was determined according to the CLSI M27-A3 protocol ( ).

    Techniques: In Vivo, Infection

    Effect of the combined therapeutic fluconazole plus ibuprofen on mouse weight during systemic infection. Doses of drug are in milligrams per kilogram of body weight per day. Differences in weight loss between the first and the fourth day of infection are plotted as the mean values plus the respective standard errors. Ca S, susceptible strain; Ca R, resistant strain; FLC, fluconazole; Ibu, ibuprofen.

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: Ibuprofen Potentiates the In Vivo Antifungal Activity of Fluconazole against Candida albicans Murine Infection

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.05056-14

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of the combined therapeutic fluconazole plus ibuprofen on mouse weight during systemic infection. Doses of drug are in milligrams per kilogram of body weight per day. Differences in weight loss between the first and the fourth day of infection are plotted as the mean values plus the respective standard errors. Ca S, susceptible strain; Ca R, resistant strain; FLC, fluconazole; Ibu, ibuprofen.

    Article Snippet: The MICs to azoles, fluconazole, voriconazole (Pfizer), and posaconazole (Schering-Plough) were determined for the parent strain and the successive fluconazole-exposed isolates, and the susceptibility profile was determined according to the CLSI M27-A3 protocol ( ).

    Techniques: Infection

    Wards of admission of patients infected with fluconazole-resistant (a) or echinocandin-resistant (b) Candida species isolates. Medical wards included geriatrics, urology, internal medicine, nephrology, infectious diseases, and otorhinolaryngology.

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: Antifungal Resistance to Fluconazole and Echinocandins Is Not Emerging in Yeast Isolates Causing Fungemia in a Spanish Tertiary Care Center

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.02670-14

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Wards of admission of patients infected with fluconazole-resistant (a) or echinocandin-resistant (b) Candida species isolates. Medical wards included geriatrics, urology, internal medicine, nephrology, infectious diseases, and otorhinolaryngology.

    Article Snippet: We used the EUCAST EDef 7.2 microdilution procedure to test isolates for in vitro susceptibility to the following drugs: amphotericin B (Sigma-Aldrich, Madrid, Spain); fluconazole, voriconazole, and anidulafungin (Pfizer Pharmaceutical Group, New York, NY, USA); posaconazole and caspofungin (Merck & Co., Inc., Rahway, NJ, USA); and micafungin (Astellas Pharma, Inc., Tokyo, Japan) ( , ).

    Techniques: Infection