inactive ppad  (ATCC)


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    Structured Review

    ATCC inactive ppad
    Identification and functional annotation of TIGK genes significantly dependent on <t>PPAD</t> activity. ( A ) Scatterplot of log2 fold-change (log2FC) in gene expression of TIGKs infected with P. gingivalis WT vs. control (y-axis), and P. gingivalis PPAD <t>C351A</t> vs. P. gingivalis WT (x-axis). Genes altered exclusively in the P. gingivalis WT vs. control comparison are displayed in red when significantly up-regulated (log2FC > 0.5, FDR q
    Inactive Ppad, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 75 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Images

    1) Product Images from "Impact of Porphyromonas gingivalis Peptidylarginine Deiminase on Bacterial Biofilm Formation, Epithelial Cell Invasion, and Epithelial Cell Transcriptional Landscape"

    Article Title: Impact of Porphyromonas gingivalis Peptidylarginine Deiminase on Bacterial Biofilm Formation, Epithelial Cell Invasion, and Epithelial Cell Transcriptional Landscape

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-32603-y

    Identification and functional annotation of TIGK genes significantly dependent on PPAD activity. ( A ) Scatterplot of log2 fold-change (log2FC) in gene expression of TIGKs infected with P. gingivalis WT vs. control (y-axis), and P. gingivalis PPAD C351A vs. P. gingivalis WT (x-axis). Genes altered exclusively in the P. gingivalis WT vs. control comparison are displayed in red when significantly up-regulated (log2FC > 0.5, FDR q
    Figure Legend Snippet: Identification and functional annotation of TIGK genes significantly dependent on PPAD activity. ( A ) Scatterplot of log2 fold-change (log2FC) in gene expression of TIGKs infected with P. gingivalis WT vs. control (y-axis), and P. gingivalis PPAD C351A vs. P. gingivalis WT (x-axis). Genes altered exclusively in the P. gingivalis WT vs. control comparison are displayed in red when significantly up-regulated (log2FC > 0.5, FDR q

    Techniques Used: Functional Assay, Activity Assay, Expressing, Infection

    The effect of P. gingivalis PPAD on bacterial abundance ( a ), species composition ( b ) and ( c ) the biofilm structure in multispecies biofilms. A biofilm consisting of T. forsythia , F. nucleatum , A. naeslundii , S. gordonii , and one of three P. gingivalis strains, wild type (WT), ppad deletion strain ( Δppad ), or a strain harboring inactivated PPAD (C351A), was cultured for 48 h, following which ( a,b ) the bacterial DNA was extracted and assessed via qPCR, ( c ) biofilm was fixed and observed via SEM under 1500x magnification. The ( a ) bacterial load and ( b ) species composition of each biofilm model are presented as mean ± SD from three independent experiments. Data were plotted on a logarithmic scale.
    Figure Legend Snippet: The effect of P. gingivalis PPAD on bacterial abundance ( a ), species composition ( b ) and ( c ) the biofilm structure in multispecies biofilms. A biofilm consisting of T. forsythia , F. nucleatum , A. naeslundii , S. gordonii , and one of three P. gingivalis strains, wild type (WT), ppad deletion strain ( Δppad ), or a strain harboring inactivated PPAD (C351A), was cultured for 48 h, following which ( a,b ) the bacterial DNA was extracted and assessed via qPCR, ( c ) biofilm was fixed and observed via SEM under 1500x magnification. The ( a ) bacterial load and ( b ) species composition of each biofilm model are presented as mean ± SD from three independent experiments. Data were plotted on a logarithmic scale.

    Techniques Used: Cell Culture, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction

    2) Product Images from "Oral Community Interactions of Filifactor alocis In Vitro"

    Article Title: Oral Community Interactions of Filifactor alocis In Vitro

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076271

    Dual-species community formation between F. alocis and A. actinomycetemcomitans analyzed by CLSM. A. A. actinomycetemcomitans 652 (red, stained with hexidium iodide) was cultured on glass coverslips. F. alocis strains ATCC 35896 (upper left panel) and D-62D (upper right panel) were stained with FITC (green) and reacted with A. actinomycetemcomitans for 24 h, 48 h and 72 h. B. Time-resolved changes in the biovolume of A. actinomycetemcomitans 652, F. alocis ATCC 35896 and D-62D in dual species communities. Data are representative of four independent replicates. P-value compared with control single species communities was calculated by t-test, and significant differences are at p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Dual-species community formation between F. alocis and A. actinomycetemcomitans analyzed by CLSM. A. A. actinomycetemcomitans 652 (red, stained with hexidium iodide) was cultured on glass coverslips. F. alocis strains ATCC 35896 (upper left panel) and D-62D (upper right panel) were stained with FITC (green) and reacted with A. actinomycetemcomitans for 24 h, 48 h and 72 h. B. Time-resolved changes in the biovolume of A. actinomycetemcomitans 652, F. alocis ATCC 35896 and D-62D in dual species communities. Data are representative of four independent replicates. P-value compared with control single species communities was calculated by t-test, and significant differences are at p

    Techniques Used: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, Staining, Cell Culture

    CLSM projections of monospecies communities of F.alocis strains ATCC 35896 and D-62D (green, stained with FITC), S. gordonii DL-1, F. nucleatum ATCC25586, A. actinomycetemcomitans 652, or P. gingivalis ATCC33277 (red, stained with hexidium iodide) after 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h.
    Figure Legend Snippet: CLSM projections of monospecies communities of F.alocis strains ATCC 35896 and D-62D (green, stained with FITC), S. gordonii DL-1, F. nucleatum ATCC25586, A. actinomycetemcomitans 652, or P. gingivalis ATCC33277 (red, stained with hexidium iodide) after 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h.

    Techniques Used: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, Staining

    3) Product Images from "Biomechanical Loading Modulates Proinflammatory and Bone Resorptive Mediators in Bacterial-Stimulated PDL Cells"

    Article Title: Biomechanical Loading Modulates Proinflammatory and Bone Resorptive Mediators in Bacterial-Stimulated PDL Cells

    Journal: Mediators of Inflammation

    doi: 10.1155/2014/425421

    (a and b) RANKL expression in PDL cells stimulated by F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 and/or CTSH at 1 day (a) and 3 days (b). (c and d) OPG expression in PDL cells stimulated by F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 and/or CTSH at 1 day (c) and 3 days (d). (e and f) RANKL/OPG mRNA ratio in PDL cells stimulated by F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 and/or CTSH at 1 day (e) and 3 days (f). *Significant difference compared to other groups ( P
    Figure Legend Snippet: (a and b) RANKL expression in PDL cells stimulated by F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 and/or CTSH at 1 day (a) and 3 days (b). (c and d) OPG expression in PDL cells stimulated by F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 and/or CTSH at 1 day (c) and 3 days (d). (e and f) RANKL/OPG mRNA ratio in PDL cells stimulated by F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 and/or CTSH at 1 day (e) and 3 days (f). *Significant difference compared to other groups ( P

    Techniques Used: Expressing

    (a and b) Synthesis of RANKL protein in supernatants of PDL cells stimulated by F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 and/or CTSH at 1 day (a) and 3 days (b). (c and d) Synthesis of OPG protein in supernatants of PDL cells stimulated by F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 and/or CTSH at 1 day (c) and 3 days (d). (e and f) RANKL/OPG protein ratio in supernatants of PDL cells stimulated by F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 and/or CTSH at 1 day (e) and 3 days (f). *Significant difference compared to other groups ( P
    Figure Legend Snippet: (a and b) Synthesis of RANKL protein in supernatants of PDL cells stimulated by F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 and/or CTSH at 1 day (a) and 3 days (b). (c and d) Synthesis of OPG protein in supernatants of PDL cells stimulated by F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 and/or CTSH at 1 day (c) and 3 days (d). (e and f) RANKL/OPG protein ratio in supernatants of PDL cells stimulated by F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 and/or CTSH at 1 day (e) and 3 days (f). *Significant difference compared to other groups ( P

    Techniques Used:

    4) Product Images from "Biomechanical Loading Modulates Proinflammatory and Bone Resorptive Mediators in Bacterial-Stimulated PDL Cells"

    Article Title: Biomechanical Loading Modulates Proinflammatory and Bone Resorptive Mediators in Bacterial-Stimulated PDL Cells

    Journal: Mediators of Inflammation

    doi: 10.1155/2014/425421

    (a and b) RANKL expression in PDL cells stimulated by F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 and/or CTSH at 1 day (a) and 3 days (b). (c and d) OPG expression in PDL cells stimulated by F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 and/or CTSH at 1 day (c) and 3 days (d). (e and f) RANKL/OPG mRNA ratio in PDL cells stimulated by F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 and/or CTSH at 1 day (e) and 3 days (f). *Significant difference compared to other groups ( P
    Figure Legend Snippet: (a and b) RANKL expression in PDL cells stimulated by F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 and/or CTSH at 1 day (a) and 3 days (b). (c and d) OPG expression in PDL cells stimulated by F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 and/or CTSH at 1 day (c) and 3 days (d). (e and f) RANKL/OPG mRNA ratio in PDL cells stimulated by F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 and/or CTSH at 1 day (e) and 3 days (f). *Significant difference compared to other groups ( P

    Techniques Used: Expressing

    (a and b) Synthesis of RANKL protein in supernatants of PDL cells stimulated by F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 and/or CTSH at 1 day (a) and 3 days (b). (c and d) Synthesis of OPG protein in supernatants of PDL cells stimulated by F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 and/or CTSH at 1 day (c) and 3 days (d). (e and f) RANKL/OPG protein ratio in supernatants of PDL cells stimulated by F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 and/or CTSH at 1 day (e) and 3 days (f). *Significant difference compared to other groups ( P
    Figure Legend Snippet: (a and b) Synthesis of RANKL protein in supernatants of PDL cells stimulated by F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 and/or CTSH at 1 day (a) and 3 days (b). (c and d) Synthesis of OPG protein in supernatants of PDL cells stimulated by F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 and/or CTSH at 1 day (c) and 3 days (d). (e and f) RANKL/OPG protein ratio in supernatants of PDL cells stimulated by F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 and/or CTSH at 1 day (e) and 3 days (f). *Significant difference compared to other groups ( P

    Techniques Used:

    (a) COX2 expression in PDL cells stimulated by F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 over time. (b) COX2 expression in PDL cells stimulated by various concentrations of F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 at 1 day. (c) OPG expression in PDL cells stimulated by F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 over time. (d) OPG expression in PDL cells stimulated by various concentrations of F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 at 1 day. (e) COX2 expression in PDL cells stimulated by F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 (OD 0.025) in the presence or in the absence of anti-TLR2 or anti-TLR4 antibodies at 1 day. *Significant difference between groups ( P
    Figure Legend Snippet: (a) COX2 expression in PDL cells stimulated by F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 over time. (b) COX2 expression in PDL cells stimulated by various concentrations of F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 at 1 day. (c) OPG expression in PDL cells stimulated by F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 over time. (d) OPG expression in PDL cells stimulated by various concentrations of F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 at 1 day. (e) COX2 expression in PDL cells stimulated by F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 (OD 0.025) in the presence or in the absence of anti-TLR2 or anti-TLR4 antibodies at 1 day. *Significant difference between groups ( P

    Techniques Used: Expressing

    (a) Synthesis of COX2 in lysates of PDL cells treated with F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 and/or cyclic tensile strain (CTS) of low (CTSL, 3%) and high (CTSH, 20%) magnitudes at 36 hours. (b and c) Production of PGE2 in supernatants of PDL cells treated with F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 and/or CTSL and CTSH at 1 day (b) and 3 days (c). *Significant difference compared to other groups ( P
    Figure Legend Snippet: (a) Synthesis of COX2 in lysates of PDL cells treated with F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 and/or cyclic tensile strain (CTS) of low (CTSL, 3%) and high (CTSH, 20%) magnitudes at 36 hours. (b and c) Production of PGE2 in supernatants of PDL cells treated with F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 and/or CTSL and CTSH at 1 day (b) and 3 days (c). *Significant difference compared to other groups ( P

    Techniques Used:

    5) Product Images from "Fusobacterium nucleatum host cell binding and invasion induces IL-8 and CXCL1 secretion that drives colorectal cancer cell migration"

    Article Title: Fusobacterium nucleatum host cell binding and invasion induces IL-8 and CXCL1 secretion that drives colorectal cancer cell migration

    Journal: bioRxiv

    doi: 10.1101/2020.01.15.907931

    A model of F. nucleatum induced metastasis through cytokine signaling. We show that F. nucleatum induces IL-8 and CXCL1 secretion from CRC cells, and both cytokines have been characterized as key players in cancer metastasis and subsequent downstream cell seeding. As well as autocrine signaling back to cancer cells as a metastatic signal, HCT116 derived cytokines can participate in paracrine signaling to recruit neighboring immune cells, which further secrete their own cytokine signatures that alter the tumor microenvironment through metastatic, inflammatory, and immune cell programming.
    Figure Legend Snippet: A model of F. nucleatum induced metastasis through cytokine signaling. We show that F. nucleatum induces IL-8 and CXCL1 secretion from CRC cells, and both cytokines have been characterized as key players in cancer metastasis and subsequent downstream cell seeding. As well as autocrine signaling back to cancer cells as a metastatic signal, HCT116 derived cytokines can participate in paracrine signaling to recruit neighboring immune cells, which further secrete their own cytokine signatures that alter the tumor microenvironment through metastatic, inflammatory, and immune cell programming.

    Techniques Used: Derivative Assay

    Validation of markerless fap2 and fadA gene deletions in F. nucleatum 23726 Δ galKT. ( A ) Map of chromosomal plasmid incorporation after the initial single-crossover insertion for fap2 . ( B ) RT-PCR of fadA and fap2 with their two surrounding genes showing loss of gene transcription due to gene deletion. ( C ) DNA sequencing with primers sitting −250 and +250 from the start codon of fadA and fap2 . All constructs created are 100% accurate and show perfect excision and recission of the genome to the −1 and +1 base for each gene.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Validation of markerless fap2 and fadA gene deletions in F. nucleatum 23726 Δ galKT. ( A ) Map of chromosomal plasmid incorporation after the initial single-crossover insertion for fap2 . ( B ) RT-PCR of fadA and fap2 with their two surrounding genes showing loss of gene transcription due to gene deletion. ( C ) DNA sequencing with primers sitting −250 and +250 from the start codon of fadA and fap2 . All constructs created are 100% accurate and show perfect excision and recission of the genome to the −1 and +1 base for each gene.

    Techniques Used: Plasmid Preparation, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, DNA Sequencing, Construct

    Utilizing the Leloir pathway for targeted gene deletions in bacteria. ( A ) The Leloir pathway of galactose catabolism. ( B ) Graphical representation of the different selection stages of F. nucleatum gene deletions and how the GalK and GalT affect cellular survival in the presence of galactose and 2-deoxy-galactose.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Utilizing the Leloir pathway for targeted gene deletions in bacteria. ( A ) The Leloir pathway of galactose catabolism. ( B ) Graphical representation of the different selection stages of F. nucleatum gene deletions and how the GalK and GalT affect cellular survival in the presence of galactose and 2-deoxy-galactose.

    Techniques Used: Selection

    Deletion of the galKT gene operon in F. nucleatum 23726. ( A ) Development of pDJSVT13, the plasmid for galKT gene deletion, by inserting 1000 bp galKT flanking sequences into pDJSVT1. ( B ) Representation of single-crossover homologous recombination onto the F. nucleatum 23726 chromosome with either the A (upstream) or ( C ) B (downstream) 1000 bp DNA fragments in pDJSVT13 followed by showing how the double crossover results in complete plasmid excision. ( D ) Map of chromosomal plasmid incorporation after the initial single-crossover insertion. ( E ) PCR verification of single-cross pDJSVT13 and subsequent double-crossover deletion of the galKT operon. ( F ) Plating on 5 μg/mL thiamphenicol (T5) (single-crossover selection) and ( G ) 1% 2-deoxy-galactose (double-crossover), resulting in galKT operon deletion. ( H ) Validation that F. nucleatum 23726 Δ galKT grows the same as WT F. nucleatum 23726.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Deletion of the galKT gene operon in F. nucleatum 23726. ( A ) Development of pDJSVT13, the plasmid for galKT gene deletion, by inserting 1000 bp galKT flanking sequences into pDJSVT1. ( B ) Representation of single-crossover homologous recombination onto the F. nucleatum 23726 chromosome with either the A (upstream) or ( C ) B (downstream) 1000 bp DNA fragments in pDJSVT13 followed by showing how the double crossover results in complete plasmid excision. ( D ) Map of chromosomal plasmid incorporation after the initial single-crossover insertion. ( E ) PCR verification of single-cross pDJSVT13 and subsequent double-crossover deletion of the galKT operon. ( F ) Plating on 5 μg/mL thiamphenicol (T5) (single-crossover selection) and ( G ) 1% 2-deoxy-galactose (double-crossover), resulting in galKT operon deletion. ( H ) Validation that F. nucleatum 23726 Δ galKT grows the same as WT F. nucleatum 23726.

    Techniques Used: Plasmid Preparation, Homologous Recombination, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Selection

    Development of vector for markerless gene deletion in Fusobacterium nucleatum . ( A ) Method to create pDJSVT1; the base vector for all gene deletion constructs that consists of an E. coli origin and chloramphenicol/thiamphenicol resistance and a GC rich multiple cloning site for efficient cloning of AT rich F. nucleatum DNA. ( B ) pDJSVT7 plasmid incorporation of a constitutively active FLAG:galK gene for selection on 2-deoxy-galactose. ( C ) Development of a chromosomal complementation vector that incorporates the entire pDJSVT11 plasmid onto the chromosome at the arsB gene in F. nucleatum 23726.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Development of vector for markerless gene deletion in Fusobacterium nucleatum . ( A ) Method to create pDJSVT1; the base vector for all gene deletion constructs that consists of an E. coli origin and chloramphenicol/thiamphenicol resistance and a GC rich multiple cloning site for efficient cloning of AT rich F. nucleatum DNA. ( B ) pDJSVT7 plasmid incorporation of a constitutively active FLAG:galK gene for selection on 2-deoxy-galactose. ( C ) Development of a chromosomal complementation vector that incorporates the entire pDJSVT11 plasmid onto the chromosome at the arsB gene in F. nucleatum 23726.

    Techniques Used: Plasmid Preparation, Construct, Clone Assay, Selection

    F. nucleatum induces cytokine secretion from HCT116 cells. ( A ) Overview of experiments used to analyze Fnn induced cytokine secretion from HCT116 CRC cells. ( B ) Broad cytokine array dot blots analyzing Fnn and Fnn adhesin deletion strains. ( C ) Heatmap of fold increased dot blot intensity reveals an increase in IL-8 and CXCL1 secretion for invasive strains. ( D ) IL-8 and CXCL1 ELISA to quantitate cytokine secretion from HCT116 cells induced by Fnn and Fnn Δ fap2. ( E ) IL-8 and CXCL1 ELISA to quantitate and compare cytokine secretion from HCT116 cells induced by F. nucleatum subsp. nucleatum 25586, F. nucleatum subsp. nucleatum 23726, F. nucleatum subsp. animalis 7_1 ( Fna ).
    Figure Legend Snippet: F. nucleatum induces cytokine secretion from HCT116 cells. ( A ) Overview of experiments used to analyze Fnn induced cytokine secretion from HCT116 CRC cells. ( B ) Broad cytokine array dot blots analyzing Fnn and Fnn adhesin deletion strains. ( C ) Heatmap of fold increased dot blot intensity reveals an increase in IL-8 and CXCL1 secretion for invasive strains. ( D ) IL-8 and CXCL1 ELISA to quantitate cytokine secretion from HCT116 cells induced by Fnn and Fnn Δ fap2. ( E ) IL-8 and CXCL1 ELISA to quantitate and compare cytokine secretion from HCT116 cells induced by F. nucleatum subsp. nucleatum 25586, F. nucleatum subsp. nucleatum 23726, F. nucleatum subsp. animalis 7_1 ( Fna ).

    Techniques Used: Dot Blot, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    Target gene deletion in F. nucleatum 23726 Δ galKT. ( A ) Development of all target gene deletion plasmids ( Table S2 ) by inserting 750 bp from target gene flanking sequences into pDJSVT7. ( B ) Representation of single-crossover homologous recombination onto the F. nucleatum 23726 chromosome with either the A (upstream) or ( C ) B (downstream) 750 bp DNA fragments. Double crossover results are shown during complete plasmid excision. ( D ) fap2 and fadA as examples of gene excision. KO validation primers are shown flanking genes at −1000 and +1000 bp. This results in 2kb PCR products as shown in ( E ) for the fap2 and fadA gene deletions. ( F ) Table of select deleted genes in this study and their function.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Target gene deletion in F. nucleatum 23726 Δ galKT. ( A ) Development of all target gene deletion plasmids ( Table S2 ) by inserting 750 bp from target gene flanking sequences into pDJSVT7. ( B ) Representation of single-crossover homologous recombination onto the F. nucleatum 23726 chromosome with either the A (upstream) or ( C ) B (downstream) 750 bp DNA fragments. Double crossover results are shown during complete plasmid excision. ( D ) fap2 and fadA as examples of gene excision. KO validation primers are shown flanking genes at −1000 and +1000 bp. This results in 2kb PCR products as shown in ( E ) for the fap2 and fadA gene deletions. ( F ) Table of select deleted genes in this study and their function.

    Techniques Used: Homologous Recombination, Plasmid Preparation, Polymerase Chain Reaction

    F. nucleatum binds to and invades HCT116 cells. ( A ) Overview of experiments used to analyze binding and invasion of Fnn and adhesin mutants in HCT116 CRC cells. ( B ) Intra- and extracellular Fnn detected with a fluorescent lipid dye (Green, intra- and extracellular) and a pan- Fusobacterium membrane antisera (Red, extracellular), host cell nuclei are stained with DAPI (blue). ( C ) Zoomed in view and focus on a single Fnn bacterium that is half intracellular, half extracellular. ( D ) Imaging flow cytometry view of intracellular Fnn . ( E ) Comparison of HCT116 binding and invasion of wild type (WT) F. nucleatum 23726 with F. nucleatum 23726 Δ galKT ( Fnn ). ( F ) Binding and invasion analysis of Fnn and adhesin gene deletion strains using flow cytometry. ( G ) Invasion and survival of Fnn and Fnn Δ fap2 in HCT116 cells analyzed using an antibiotic protection assay.
    Figure Legend Snippet: F. nucleatum binds to and invades HCT116 cells. ( A ) Overview of experiments used to analyze binding and invasion of Fnn and adhesin mutants in HCT116 CRC cells. ( B ) Intra- and extracellular Fnn detected with a fluorescent lipid dye (Green, intra- and extracellular) and a pan- Fusobacterium membrane antisera (Red, extracellular), host cell nuclei are stained with DAPI (blue). ( C ) Zoomed in view and focus on a single Fnn bacterium that is half intracellular, half extracellular. ( D ) Imaging flow cytometry view of intracellular Fnn . ( E ) Comparison of HCT116 binding and invasion of wild type (WT) F. nucleatum 23726 with F. nucleatum 23726 Δ galKT ( Fnn ). ( F ) Binding and invasion analysis of Fnn and adhesin gene deletion strains using flow cytometry. ( G ) Invasion and survival of Fnn and Fnn Δ fap2 in HCT116 cells analyzed using an antibiotic protection assay.

    Techniques Used: Binding Assay, Staining, Imaging, Flow Cytometry

    Complementation of gene deletions at the static arsB gene site in F. nucleatum 23726. ( A ) pDJSVT20 plasmid created for complementing Δ galKT with galKT::6xHis. ( B ) RT-PCR of Δ galKT and Δ galKT galKT::6xHis and the two genes flanking the operon (FN2106, FN2109). ( C ) Western blot verification of galKT::6sHis complementation and constitutive expression of GalT::6xHis. ( D ) pDJSVT11 base vector depicted with target gene of interest (GOI) complementation and how it incorporates into the chromosome at arsB . ( E ) Potential sites for complementation of gene deletions used in this study. However, we did not complement the Δ fap2 strain due to the extreme difficulties of complementing large genes (12kb). ( F ) Complementation of Δ fadA with fadA: : FLAG and western blot verification of constitutive expression of FadA::FLAG.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Complementation of gene deletions at the static arsB gene site in F. nucleatum 23726. ( A ) pDJSVT20 plasmid created for complementing Δ galKT with galKT::6xHis. ( B ) RT-PCR of Δ galKT and Δ galKT galKT::6xHis and the two genes flanking the operon (FN2106, FN2109). ( C ) Western blot verification of galKT::6sHis complementation and constitutive expression of GalT::6xHis. ( D ) pDJSVT11 base vector depicted with target gene of interest (GOI) complementation and how it incorporates into the chromosome at arsB . ( E ) Potential sites for complementation of gene deletions used in this study. However, we did not complement the Δ fap2 strain due to the extreme difficulties of complementing large genes (12kb). ( F ) Complementation of Δ fadA with fadA: : FLAG and western blot verification of constitutive expression of FadA::FLAG.

    Techniques Used: Plasmid Preparation, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Western Blot, Expressing

    6) Product Images from "Identification and Characterization of Fusolisin, the Fusobacterium nucleatum Autotransporter Serine Protease"

    Article Title: Identification and Characterization of Fusolisin, the Fusobacterium nucleatum Autotransporter Serine Protease

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0111329

    Identification of the fusobacterial serine protease. Amino acid sequences of the putative serine protease open reading frames FN1426 (Fsp25586) (A), and FNV0835 (Fsp49256) (B). Red highlight indicates sequences identified by mass spectrometry of the 99 kDa serine protease of F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 (A), and of the 55 kDa serine protease of F. nucleatum ATCC 49256 (B).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Identification of the fusobacterial serine protease. Amino acid sequences of the putative serine protease open reading frames FN1426 (Fsp25586) (A), and FNV0835 (Fsp49256) (B). Red highlight indicates sequences identified by mass spectrometry of the 99 kDa serine protease of F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 (A), and of the 55 kDa serine protease of F. nucleatum ATCC 49256 (B).

    Techniques Used: Mass Spectrometry

    7) Product Images from "Regulation and Molecular Basis of Environmental Muropeptide Uptake and Utilization in Fastidious Oral Anaerobe Tannerella forsythia"

    Article Title: Regulation and Molecular Basis of Environmental Muropeptide Uptake and Utilization in Fastidious Oral Anaerobe Tannerella forsythia

    Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

    doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.00648

    Growth of Tannerella forsythia on muropeptides. Growth of T. forsythia wild-type and ΔgppX in M9 liquid medium supplemented with 0.2% muropeptides or 0.2% MurNAc was measured at OD 600 . Results of one out of three independent cultivations with similar outcome are given.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Growth of Tannerella forsythia on muropeptides. Growth of T. forsythia wild-type and ΔgppX in M9 liquid medium supplemented with 0.2% muropeptides or 0.2% MurNAc was measured at OD 600 . Results of one out of three independent cultivations with similar outcome are given.

    Techniques Used:

    8) Product Images from "Antimicrobial Activity of Piper marginatum Jacq and Ilex guayusa Loes on Microorganisms Associated with Periodontal Disease"

    Article Title: Antimicrobial Activity of Piper marginatum Jacq and Ilex guayusa Loes on Microorganisms Associated with Periodontal Disease

    Journal: International Journal of Microbiology

    doi: 10.1155/2018/4147383

    I. guayusa Loes and P. marginatum Jacq fraction antimicrobial activity against P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 at three concentrations. (a) Antimicrobial activities (inhibitory halos mm) from I. guayusa Loes and P. marginatum Jacq fractions against P. gingivalis. (b) 1: P. marginatum Jacq 4 mg/mL ethanol : water fraction, 19.0 mm inhibitory halo; 2: I. guayusa Loes 4 mg/mL acetone fraction, 12.3 mm inhibitory halo; 3: P. marginatum Jacq 4 mg/mL acetone fraction, 11.7 mm inhibitory halo; 4: I. guayusa Loes 4 mg/mL hexane fraction, 13.7 mm inhibitory halo; 5: 100 µ g/mL ampicillin positive control, 38.0 mm inhibitory halo.
    Figure Legend Snippet: I. guayusa Loes and P. marginatum Jacq fraction antimicrobial activity against P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 at three concentrations. (a) Antimicrobial activities (inhibitory halos mm) from I. guayusa Loes and P. marginatum Jacq fractions against P. gingivalis. (b) 1: P. marginatum Jacq 4 mg/mL ethanol : water fraction, 19.0 mm inhibitory halo; 2: I. guayusa Loes 4 mg/mL acetone fraction, 12.3 mm inhibitory halo; 3: P. marginatum Jacq 4 mg/mL acetone fraction, 11.7 mm inhibitory halo; 4: I. guayusa Loes 4 mg/mL hexane fraction, 13.7 mm inhibitory halo; 5: 100 µ g/mL ampicillin positive control, 38.0 mm inhibitory halo.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Positive Control

    I. guayusa Loes and P. marginatum Jacq fraction antimicrobial activity against P. intermedia ATCC 25611 at three concentrations. (a) Antimicrobial activities (inhibitory halos mm) from I. guayusa Loes and P. marginatum Jacq fractions against P. intermedia. (b) 1: P. marginatum Jacq 4 mg/mL ethanol : water fraction, 12.3 mm inhibitory halo; 2: I. guayusa Loes 4 mg/mL acetone fraction, 12.0 mm inhibitory halo; 3: P. marginatum Jacq; 4 mg/mL acetone fraction, 11.3 mm inhibitory halo; 4: I. guayusa Loes 4 mg/mL hexane fraction, 13.3 mm inhibitory halo; 5: 50 IU/mL erythromycin positive control, 40 mm inhibitory halo.
    Figure Legend Snippet: I. guayusa Loes and P. marginatum Jacq fraction antimicrobial activity against P. intermedia ATCC 25611 at three concentrations. (a) Antimicrobial activities (inhibitory halos mm) from I. guayusa Loes and P. marginatum Jacq fractions against P. intermedia. (b) 1: P. marginatum Jacq 4 mg/mL ethanol : water fraction, 12.3 mm inhibitory halo; 2: I. guayusa Loes 4 mg/mL acetone fraction, 12.0 mm inhibitory halo; 3: P. marginatum Jacq; 4 mg/mL acetone fraction, 11.3 mm inhibitory halo; 4: I. guayusa Loes 4 mg/mL hexane fraction, 13.3 mm inhibitory halo; 5: 50 IU/mL erythromycin positive control, 40 mm inhibitory halo.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Positive Control

    9) Product Images from "Strain-Specific Colonization Patterns and Serum Modulation of Multi-Species Oral Biofilm Development"

    Article Title: Strain-Specific Colonization Patterns and Serum Modulation of Multi-Species Oral Biofilm Development

    Journal: Anaerobe

    doi: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2012.06.003

    Ability of avirulent P. gingivalis strains ATCC 33277 and 381 to integrate into 4h-old biofilm communities of health-associated species. Biofilms of A. oris and V. parvula or A. oris , V. parvula and F. nucleatum were allowed to develop for 4h in flow
    Figure Legend Snippet: Ability of avirulent P. gingivalis strains ATCC 33277 and 381 to integrate into 4h-old biofilm communities of health-associated species. Biofilms of A. oris and V. parvula or A. oris , V. parvula and F. nucleatum were allowed to develop for 4h in flow

    Techniques Used: Flow Cytometry

    Effect of serum on viability of A. oris (Ao), V. parvula (Vp), F. nucleatum ATCC 10953 (Fn) and P. gingivalis 381 (Pg). Planktonic growth of microorganisms was evaluated in their appropriate nutrient-rich medium supplemented with 10% native human serum
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of serum on viability of A. oris (Ao), V. parvula (Vp), F. nucleatum ATCC 10953 (Fn) and P. gingivalis 381 (Pg). Planktonic growth of microorganisms was evaluated in their appropriate nutrient-rich medium supplemented with 10% native human serum

    Techniques Used:

    Planktonic growth of F. nucleatum ATCC 10953 in salivary growth medium as a mono-culture or in co-culture with A. oris and V. parvula . Panel A shows planktonic growth curves. Data points represent measurements from three independent replicate experiments.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Planktonic growth of F. nucleatum ATCC 10953 in salivary growth medium as a mono-culture or in co-culture with A. oris and V. parvula . Panel A shows planktonic growth curves. Data points represent measurements from three independent replicate experiments.

    Techniques Used: Co-Culture Assay

    Ability of virulent P. gingivalis strains W50 and W83 to integrate into 4h-old biofilm communities of health-associated species. In panel A, biofilms of A. oris and V. parvula or A. oris , V. parvula and F. nucleatum were allowed to develop for 4h in flow
    Figure Legend Snippet: Ability of virulent P. gingivalis strains W50 and W83 to integrate into 4h-old biofilm communities of health-associated species. In panel A, biofilms of A. oris and V. parvula or A. oris , V. parvula and F. nucleatum were allowed to develop for 4h in flow

    Techniques Used: Flow Cytometry

    Ability of avirulent P. gingivalis strains ATCC 33277 and 381 to integrate into 4h-old biofilm communities of health-associated species. Biofilms of A. oris and V. parvula or A. oris , V. parvula and F. nucleatum were allowed to develop for 4h in flow
    Figure Legend Snippet: Ability of avirulent P. gingivalis strains ATCC 33277 and 381 to integrate into 4h-old biofilm communities of health-associated species. Biofilms of A. oris and V. parvula or A. oris , V. parvula and F. nucleatum were allowed to develop for 4h in flow

    Techniques Used: Flow Cytometry

    Effect of serum on viability of A. oris (Ao), V. parvula (Vp), F. nucleatum ATCC 10953 (Fn) and P. gingivalis 381 (Pg). Planktonic growth of microorganisms was evaluated in their appropriate nutrient-rich medium supplemented with 10% native human serum
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of serum on viability of A. oris (Ao), V. parvula (Vp), F. nucleatum ATCC 10953 (Fn) and P. gingivalis 381 (Pg). Planktonic growth of microorganisms was evaluated in their appropriate nutrient-rich medium supplemented with 10% native human serum

    Techniques Used:

    Ability of virulent P. gingivalis strains W50 and W83 to integrate into 4h-old biofilm communities of health-associated species. In panel A, biofilms of A. oris and V. parvula or A. oris , V. parvula and F. nucleatum were allowed to develop for 4h in flow
    Figure Legend Snippet: Ability of virulent P. gingivalis strains W50 and W83 to integrate into 4h-old biofilm communities of health-associated species. In panel A, biofilms of A. oris and V. parvula or A. oris , V. parvula and F. nucleatum were allowed to develop for 4h in flow

    Techniques Used: Flow Cytometry

    10) Product Images from "Strain-Specific Colonization Patterns and Serum Modulation of Multi-Species Oral Biofilm Development"

    Article Title: Strain-Specific Colonization Patterns and Serum Modulation of Multi-Species Oral Biofilm Development

    Journal: Anaerobe

    doi: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2012.06.003

    Effect of serum on viability of A. oris (Ao), V. parvula (Vp), F. nucleatum ATCC 10953 (Fn) and P. gingivalis 381 (Pg). Planktonic growth of microorganisms was evaluated in their appropriate nutrient-rich medium supplemented with 10% native human serum
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of serum on viability of A. oris (Ao), V. parvula (Vp), F. nucleatum ATCC 10953 (Fn) and P. gingivalis 381 (Pg). Planktonic growth of microorganisms was evaluated in their appropriate nutrient-rich medium supplemented with 10% native human serum

    Techniques Used:

    11) Product Images from "Strain-Specific Colonization Patterns and Serum Modulation of Multi-Species Oral Biofilm Development"

    Article Title: Strain-Specific Colonization Patterns and Serum Modulation of Multi-Species Oral Biofilm Development

    Journal: Anaerobe

    doi: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2012.06.003

    Ability of avirulent P. gingivalis strains ATCC 33277 and 381 to integrate into 4h-old biofilm communities of health-associated species. Biofilms of A. oris and V. parvula or A. oris , V. parvula and F. nucleatum were allowed to develop for 4h in flow
    Figure Legend Snippet: Ability of avirulent P. gingivalis strains ATCC 33277 and 381 to integrate into 4h-old biofilm communities of health-associated species. Biofilms of A. oris and V. parvula or A. oris , V. parvula and F. nucleatum were allowed to develop for 4h in flow

    Techniques Used: Flow Cytometry

    Mono-species biofilm formation by four strains of P. gingivalis . Biofilms were allowed to develop for 4 and 16h in flow cells using saliva-supplemented medium as nutritional source. P. gingivalis ( Pg ) appears in red in CLSM 3-D image projections. * indicates
    Figure Legend Snippet: Mono-species biofilm formation by four strains of P. gingivalis . Biofilms were allowed to develop for 4 and 16h in flow cells using saliva-supplemented medium as nutritional source. P. gingivalis ( Pg ) appears in red in CLSM 3-D image projections. * indicates

    Techniques Used: Flow Cytometry, Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy

    Ability of virulent P. gingivalis strains W50 and W83 to integrate into 4h-old biofilm communities of health-associated species. In panel A, biofilms of A. oris and V. parvula or A. oris , V. parvula and F. nucleatum were allowed to develop for 4h in flow
    Figure Legend Snippet: Ability of virulent P. gingivalis strains W50 and W83 to integrate into 4h-old biofilm communities of health-associated species. In panel A, biofilms of A. oris and V. parvula or A. oris , V. parvula and F. nucleatum were allowed to develop for 4h in flow

    Techniques Used: Flow Cytometry

    Effect of serum on mono-species and multi-species biofilm communities. Left image and biovolume data represent the control condition in which no serum was added to the salivary growth medium. In the three central images and graphs serum was present in
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of serum on mono-species and multi-species biofilm communities. Left image and biovolume data represent the control condition in which no serum was added to the salivary growth medium. In the three central images and graphs serum was present in

    Techniques Used:

    Mono-species and multi-species biofilm formation by three strains of F. nucleatum . Biofilms were allowed to develop for 4 and 16h in flow cells using saliva-supplemented medium as nutritional source. Panel A depicts representative CLSM 3-D image projections
    Figure Legend Snippet: Mono-species and multi-species biofilm formation by three strains of F. nucleatum . Biofilms were allowed to develop for 4 and 16h in flow cells using saliva-supplemented medium as nutritional source. Panel A depicts representative CLSM 3-D image projections

    Techniques Used: Flow Cytometry, Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy

    12) Product Images from "Identification of Independent Streptococcus gordonii SspA and SspB Functions in Coaggregation with Actinomyces naeslundii"

    Article Title: Identification of Independent Streptococcus gordonii SspA and SspB Functions in Coaggregation with Actinomyces naeslundii

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.69.12.7512-7516.2001

    (A) Coaggregation of S. gordonii wild-type (DL1) and mutant strains with A. naeslundii strains and Actinomyces sp. strain WVA963 strain PK1259. Coaggregation group designations are shown at left. Coaggregation scores range from no coaggregation (−) to strongest coaggregation (4) (see text for details), in which large coaggregates settle out of suspension immediately, leaving a clear supernatant. Superscripts indicate the coaggregation score after addition of lactose. (B) Diagrammatic model of interactions of SspA and SspB with the six actinomyces coaggregation groups. At right, complementary sets of symbols used to represent interactions are depicted. The symbols with stems (left side) represent protein adhesins. Their cognates without stems (right side) represent receptors.
    Figure Legend Snippet: (A) Coaggregation of S. gordonii wild-type (DL1) and mutant strains with A. naeslundii strains and Actinomyces sp. strain WVA963 strain PK1259. Coaggregation group designations are shown at left. Coaggregation scores range from no coaggregation (−) to strongest coaggregation (4) (see text for details), in which large coaggregates settle out of suspension immediately, leaving a clear supernatant. Superscripts indicate the coaggregation score after addition of lactose. (B) Diagrammatic model of interactions of SspA and SspB with the six actinomyces coaggregation groups. At right, complementary sets of symbols used to represent interactions are depicted. The symbols with stems (left side) represent protein adhesins. Their cognates without stems (right side) represent receptors.

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis

    Immunoblot of S. gordonii surface proteins prepared from wild-type (DL1) and mutant S. gordonii strains reacted with antibody to SspB. Strain genotypes are indicated at the top. Lanes contained 10 μg of protein. Positions of molecular mass standards are shown at the left.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Immunoblot of S. gordonii surface proteins prepared from wild-type (DL1) and mutant S. gordonii strains reacted with antibody to SspB. Strain genotypes are indicated at the top. Lanes contained 10 μg of protein. Positions of molecular mass standards are shown at the left.

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis

    Strategy for mutagenesis of sspB . The gray and checkered boxes within sspA and sspB, ). The divergent region from sspB was PCR amplified and cloned into pUC18. The kanamycin resistance gene ( aphAIII ) was PCR amplified and cloned into the Hin dIII site in the sspB fragment. The sspB :: aphAIII fragment was excised from the vector, gel purified, and transformed into strain DL1 to construct the sspB ) to generate the sspAB double mutant PK3247.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Strategy for mutagenesis of sspB . The gray and checkered boxes within sspA and sspB, ). The divergent region from sspB was PCR amplified and cloned into pUC18. The kanamycin resistance gene ( aphAIII ) was PCR amplified and cloned into the Hin dIII site in the sspB fragment. The sspB :: aphAIII fragment was excised from the vector, gel purified, and transformed into strain DL1 to construct the sspB ) to generate the sspAB double mutant PK3247.

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Amplification, Clone Assay, Plasmid Preparation, Purification, Transformation Assay, Construct

    13) Product Images from "Macrolides Inhibit Fusobacterium nucleatum-Induced MUC5AC Production in Human Airway Epithelial Cells"

    Article Title: Macrolides Inhibit Fusobacterium nucleatum-Induced MUC5AC Production in Human Airway Epithelial Cells

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.02466-12

    Time-dependent effect of F. nucleatum culture supernatant on MUC5AC synthesis. NCI-H292 cells were stimulated with modified GAM medium (1:64 dilution) or F. nucleatum Sup (dilution ratio,1:64). (A) MUC5AC protein was measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) ( n = 4). (B) The mRNA level of MUC5AC expression after the addition of F. nucleatum Sup was analyzed by RT-PCR ( n = 3). Data are means and SEM. An asterisk and a dagger indicate P values of
    Figure Legend Snippet: Time-dependent effect of F. nucleatum culture supernatant on MUC5AC synthesis. NCI-H292 cells were stimulated with modified GAM medium (1:64 dilution) or F. nucleatum Sup (dilution ratio,1:64). (A) MUC5AC protein was measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) ( n = 4). (B) The mRNA level of MUC5AC expression after the addition of F. nucleatum Sup was analyzed by RT-PCR ( n = 3). Data are means and SEM. An asterisk and a dagger indicate P values of

    Techniques Used: Modification, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Expressing, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Effects of azithromycin (AZM), clarithromycin (CAM), clindamycin (CLDM), and metronidazole (MTZ) on MUC5AC production induced by F. nucleatum culture supernatant (Fn-Sup). Cells were treated with 1 to 100 μg/ml of each drug (CAM was used at 1 to 50 μg/ml, as the maximal dose of CAM that could be diluted in DMSO was 50 μg/ml). CAM and AZM dose-dependently suppressed F. nucleatum Sup-induced MUC5AC production. CLDM significantly suppressed F. nucleatum Sup-induced MUC5AC production only at 100 μg/ml, while MTZ resulted in no reduction of MUC5AC at any concentration. Data are means and SEM from four experiments. An asterisk and a dagger indicate P values of
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of azithromycin (AZM), clarithromycin (CAM), clindamycin (CLDM), and metronidazole (MTZ) on MUC5AC production induced by F. nucleatum culture supernatant (Fn-Sup). Cells were treated with 1 to 100 μg/ml of each drug (CAM was used at 1 to 50 μg/ml, as the maximal dose of CAM that could be diluted in DMSO was 50 μg/ml). CAM and AZM dose-dependently suppressed F. nucleatum Sup-induced MUC5AC production. CLDM significantly suppressed F. nucleatum Sup-induced MUC5AC production only at 100 μg/ml, while MTZ resulted in no reduction of MUC5AC at any concentration. Data are means and SEM from four experiments. An asterisk and a dagger indicate P values of

    Techniques Used: Chick Chorioallantoic Membrane Assay, Concentration Assay

    Dose-dependent effect of F. nucleatum culture supernatant (Fn-Sup) on MUC5AC expression. Confluent NCI-H292 cells were stimulated using modified GAM medium (1:9 dilution) or various concentrations of F. nucleatum Sup (dilution ratio, 1:319 to 1:9). (A) MUC5AC protein was measured by performing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at 24 h after the addition of F. nucleatum Sup ( n = 3). (B) The mRNA level of MUC5AC expression at 10 h after the addition of F. nucleatum Sup was analyzed by RT-PCR ( n = 3). Data are expressed as means and SEM from three experiments. Daggers indicate P values of
    Figure Legend Snippet: Dose-dependent effect of F. nucleatum culture supernatant (Fn-Sup) on MUC5AC expression. Confluent NCI-H292 cells were stimulated using modified GAM medium (1:9 dilution) or various concentrations of F. nucleatum Sup (dilution ratio, 1:319 to 1:9). (A) MUC5AC protein was measured by performing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at 24 h after the addition of F. nucleatum Sup ( n = 3). (B) The mRNA level of MUC5AC expression at 10 h after the addition of F. nucleatum Sup was analyzed by RT-PCR ( n = 3). Data are expressed as means and SEM from three experiments. Daggers indicate P values of

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Modification, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Effect of MAP kinase inhibitor on MUC5AC production in cells activated by F. nucleatum culture supernatant. Cells were pretreated with U0126 (ERK), SB203580 (p38 MAP kinase), and CAPE (NF-κB) 30 min before F. nucleatum Sup stimulation. All the inhibitors effectively suppressed MUC5AC protein production compared with F. nucleatum Sup stimulation alone. Data are means and SEM from four experiments. An asterisk and a dagger indicate P values of
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of MAP kinase inhibitor on MUC5AC production in cells activated by F. nucleatum culture supernatant. Cells were pretreated with U0126 (ERK), SB203580 (p38 MAP kinase), and CAPE (NF-κB) 30 min before F. nucleatum Sup stimulation. All the inhibitors effectively suppressed MUC5AC protein production compared with F. nucleatum Sup stimulation alone. Data are means and SEM from four experiments. An asterisk and a dagger indicate P values of

    Techniques Used:

    Effects of azithromycin (AZM), clarithromycin (CAM), clindamycin (CLDM), and metronidazole (MTZ) on MUC5AC mRNA expression induced by F. nucleatum culture supernatant. Cells were treated with 100 μg/ml of each drug (CAM was at 50 μg/ml). CAM and AZM significantly suppressed F. nucleatum Sup-induced MUC5AC mRNA expression. Data are means and SEM from five experiments ( n = 3 for the control). An asterisk and a dagger indicate P values of
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of azithromycin (AZM), clarithromycin (CAM), clindamycin (CLDM), and metronidazole (MTZ) on MUC5AC mRNA expression induced by F. nucleatum culture supernatant. Cells were treated with 100 μg/ml of each drug (CAM was at 50 μg/ml). CAM and AZM significantly suppressed F. nucleatum Sup-induced MUC5AC mRNA expression. Data are means and SEM from five experiments ( n = 3 for the control). An asterisk and a dagger indicate P values of

    Techniques Used: Chick Chorioallantoic Membrane Assay, Expressing

    14) Product Images from "Binding of the Fap2 Protein of Fusobacterium nucleatum to Human Inhibitory Receptor TIGIT Protects Tumors from Immune Cell Attack"

    Article Title: Binding of the Fap2 Protein of Fusobacterium nucleatum to Human Inhibitory Receptor TIGIT Protects Tumors from Immune Cell Attack

    Journal: Immunity

    doi: 10.1016/j.immuni.2015.01.010

    F. nucleatum Interacts with TIGIT
    Figure Legend Snippet: F. nucleatum Interacts with TIGIT

    Techniques Used:

    F. nucleatum Inhibits YTS Cytotoxicity via TIGIT
    Figure Legend Snippet: F. nucleatum Inhibits YTS Cytotoxicity via TIGIT

    Techniques Used:

    F. nucleatum Inhibits Primary NK Cytotoxicity via TIGIT in an Hemagglutination-Dependent Manner
    Figure Legend Snippet: F. nucleatum Inhibits Primary NK Cytotoxicity via TIGIT in an Hemagglutination-Dependent Manner

    Techniques Used:

    TIGIT Interacts with the Fap2 Protein of F. nucleatum
    Figure Legend Snippet: TIGIT Interacts with the Fap2 Protein of F. nucleatum

    Techniques Used:

    F. nucleatum Protects Tumor Cells from NK Cell Killing
    Figure Legend Snippet: F. nucleatum Protects Tumor Cells from NK Cell Killing

    Techniques Used:

    15) Product Images from "FAD-I, a Fusobacterium nucleatum Cell Wall-Associated Diacylated Lipoprotein That Mediates Human Beta Defensin 2 Induction through Toll-Like Receptor-1/2 (TLR-1/2) and TLR-2/6"

    Article Title: FAD-I, a Fusobacterium nucleatum Cell Wall-Associated Diacylated Lipoprotein That Mediates Human Beta Defensin 2 Induction through Toll-Like Receptor-1/2 (TLR-1/2) and TLR-2/6

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.01311-15

    (A) Western immunoblot of FAD-I protein in whole-cell lysates of F. nucleatum ATCC 25586, ATCC 23726, ATCC 10953, ATCC 10953 Δ fadI , and ATCC 10953 Δ fadI /pFAD-I 23726 (ATCC 10953 Δ fadI with plasmid-based expression of FAD-I from
    Figure Legend Snippet: (A) Western immunoblot of FAD-I protein in whole-cell lysates of F. nucleatum ATCC 25586, ATCC 23726, ATCC 10953, ATCC 10953 Δ fadI , and ATCC 10953 Δ fadI /pFAD-I 23726 (ATCC 10953 Δ fadI with plasmid-based expression of FAD-I from

    Techniques Used: Western Blot, Plasmid Preparation, Expressing

    Induction of hBD-2 mRNA by cell wall preparations (10 μg/ml) of parent ATCC 10953, ATCC 10953 Δ fadI , ATCC 10953 Δ fadI (ATCC
    Figure Legend Snippet: Induction of hBD-2 mRNA by cell wall preparations (10 μg/ml) of parent ATCC 10953, ATCC 10953 Δ fadI , ATCC 10953 Δ fadI (ATCC

    Techniques Used:

    16) Product Images from "Fap2 Mediates Fusobacterium nucleatum Colorectal Adenocarcinoma Enrichment by Binding to Tumor-Expressed Gal-GalNAc"

    Article Title: Fap2 Mediates Fusobacterium nucleatum Colorectal Adenocarcinoma Enrichment by Binding to Tumor-Expressed Gal-GalNAc

    Journal: Cell host & microbe

    doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2016.07.006

    Localization of F. nucleatum to Established CRC Tumors Requires Fap2
    Figure Legend Snippet: Localization of F. nucleatum to Established CRC Tumors Requires Fap2

    Techniques Used:

    Fap2 Binding to GalNAc in Human CRC Mediates F. nucleatum Adenocarcinoma Enrichment
    Figure Legend Snippet: Fap2 Binding to GalNAc in Human CRC Mediates F. nucleatum Adenocarcinoma Enrichment

    Techniques Used: Binding Assay

    Fap2-Dependent Gal-GalNAc Binding Mediates F. nucleatum CRC Attachment
    Figure Legend Snippet: Fap2-Dependent Gal-GalNAc Binding Mediates F. nucleatum CRC Attachment

    Techniques Used: Binding Assay

    17) Product Images from "Coaggregation of Candida dubliniensis with Fusobacterium nucleatum"

    Article Title: Coaggregation of Candida dubliniensis with Fusobacterium nucleatum

    Journal: Journal of Clinical Microbiology

    doi:

    Visual CoAg testing of C. albicans or C. dubliniensis with F. nucleatum . For each pair of tubes, the left tube contains C. albicans grown at 37°C plus F. nucleatum , and the right tube contains C. dubliniensis grown at 37°C plus F. nucleatum . The tubes are shown 45 s (A) or 5 min (B) after mixing (CoAg score of 4+).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Visual CoAg testing of C. albicans or C. dubliniensis with F. nucleatum . For each pair of tubes, the left tube contains C. albicans grown at 37°C plus F. nucleatum , and the right tube contains C. dubliniensis grown at 37°C plus F. nucleatum . The tubes are shown 45 s (A) or 5 min (B) after mixing (CoAg score of 4+).

    Techniques Used:

    18) Product Images from "Genetic Determinant of Intrinsic Quinolone Resistance in Fusobacterium canifelinum"

    Article Title: Genetic Determinant of Intrinsic Quinolone Resistance in Fusobacterium canifelinum

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.49.1.434-437.2005

    Comparison of the QRDRs (5′ end of gyrA ) of resistant strains F. canifelinum RMA 1036 T (ATCC BAA 689 T ) and RMA 12701 (ATCC BAA 690) and closely related susceptible strains F. nucleatum subsp. nucleatum ATCC 25586 T and F. nucleatum subsp. vincentii ) was used for alignment.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Comparison of the QRDRs (5′ end of gyrA ) of resistant strains F. canifelinum RMA 1036 T (ATCC BAA 689 T ) and RMA 12701 (ATCC BAA 690) and closely related susceptible strains F. nucleatum subsp. nucleatum ATCC 25586 T and F. nucleatum subsp. vincentii ) was used for alignment.

    Techniques Used:

    19) Product Images from "Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Builds Mutualistic Biofilm Communities with Fusobacterium nucleatum and Veillonella Species in Saliva "

    Article Title: Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Builds Mutualistic Biofilm Communities with Fusobacterium nucleatum and Veillonella Species in Saliva

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.00345-09

    q-PCR quantification of biofilms inoculated with one (A), two (B), and three (C) species grown on polystyrene pegs submerged in 25% saliva and incubated anaerobically for 12, 24, or 36 h. (A and C) Open bars, 12 h; black bars, 24 h; gray bars, 36 h. (B) Va, Veillonella sp. strain PK1910; Aa, A. actinomycetemcomitans JP2; Fn, F. nucleatum ATCC 10953. Statistically significant increases in bacterial growth on the pegs are indicated in the lower portion of each panel; for example, “Va 12 h - 24 h” indicates that there was significant growth of Veillonella sp. strain PK1910 between 12 h and 24 h in a peg biofilm inoculated with two species.
    Figure Legend Snippet: q-PCR quantification of biofilms inoculated with one (A), two (B), and three (C) species grown on polystyrene pegs submerged in 25% saliva and incubated anaerobically for 12, 24, or 36 h. (A and C) Open bars, 12 h; black bars, 24 h; gray bars, 36 h. (B) Va, Veillonella sp. strain PK1910; Aa, A. actinomycetemcomitans JP2; Fn, F. nucleatum ATCC 10953. Statistically significant increases in bacterial growth on the pegs are indicated in the lower portion of each panel; for example, “Va 12 h - 24 h” indicates that there was significant growth of Veillonella sp. strain PK1910 between 12 h and 24 h in a peg biofilm inoculated with two species.

    Techniques Used: Polymerase Chain Reaction, Incubation

    Phase-contrast micrographs of one-species suspensions (left panels), two-species coaggregates (right panels), and three-species coaggregates (bottom panel) in microtiter wells immediately before immersion of polystyrene pegs. Va, Veillonella sp. strain PK1910; Aa, A. actinomycetemcomitans JP2; Fn, F. nucleatum ATCC 10953. Bars, 5 μm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Phase-contrast micrographs of one-species suspensions (left panels), two-species coaggregates (right panels), and three-species coaggregates (bottom panel) in microtiter wells immediately before immersion of polystyrene pegs. Va, Veillonella sp. strain PK1910; Aa, A. actinomycetemcomitans JP2; Fn, F. nucleatum ATCC 10953. Bars, 5 μm.

    Techniques Used:

    Confocal micrographs of biofilms formed in flow cells inoculated with one species after 4 h (left panels) and 18 h (right panels) of growth on 25% saliva. The organisms used were Veillonella sp. strain PK1910, A. actinomycetemcomitans JP2, and F. nucleatum ATCC 10953. The colonization (4 h) and growth (18 h) of each species was monitored. Bacterial cells were stained with species-specific fluorophore-conjugated immunoglobulin G.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Confocal micrographs of biofilms formed in flow cells inoculated with one species after 4 h (left panels) and 18 h (right panels) of growth on 25% saliva. The organisms used were Veillonella sp. strain PK1910, A. actinomycetemcomitans JP2, and F. nucleatum ATCC 10953. The colonization (4 h) and growth (18 h) of each species was monitored. Bacterial cells were stained with species-specific fluorophore-conjugated immunoglobulin G.

    Techniques Used: Flow Cytometry, Staining

    Representative confocal micrographs of 4-h (left panels) and 18-h (right panels) biofilms showing mutualistic growth in flow cells inoculated with two species. The organisms used were Veillonella sp. strain PK1910, A. actinomycetemcomitans JP2, and F. nucleatum ATCC 10953. Bacterial cells were stained with species-specific fluorophore-conjugated immunoglobulin G (blue, Veillonella sp. strain PK1910; green, A. actinomycetemcomitans JP2; red, F. nucleatum ATCC 10953), and cell-cell contact is evident.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Representative confocal micrographs of 4-h (left panels) and 18-h (right panels) biofilms showing mutualistic growth in flow cells inoculated with two species. The organisms used were Veillonella sp. strain PK1910, A. actinomycetemcomitans JP2, and F. nucleatum ATCC 10953. Bacterial cells were stained with species-specific fluorophore-conjugated immunoglobulin G (blue, Veillonella sp. strain PK1910; green, A. actinomycetemcomitans JP2; red, F. nucleatum ATCC 10953), and cell-cell contact is evident.

    Techniques Used: Flow Cytometry, Staining

    Representative confocal micrographs of flow cells inoculated with three species. The communities at 4 h and 18 h show the intimate interaction of Veillonella sp. strain PK1910 (blue) with A. actinomycetemcomitans JP2 (green) and F. nucleatum ATCC 10953 (red) that formed mutualistic multispecies communities.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Representative confocal micrographs of flow cells inoculated with three species. The communities at 4 h and 18 h show the intimate interaction of Veillonella sp. strain PK1910 (blue) with A. actinomycetemcomitans JP2 (green) and F. nucleatum ATCC 10953 (red) that formed mutualistic multispecies communities.

    Techniques Used: Flow Cytometry

    20) Product Images from "In vitro-activity of oily calcium hydroxide suspension on microorganisms as well as on human alveolar osteoblasts and periodontal ligament fibroblasts"

    Article Title: In vitro-activity of oily calcium hydroxide suspension on microorganisms as well as on human alveolar osteoblasts and periodontal ligament fibroblasts

    Journal: BMC Oral Health

    doi: 10.1186/1472-6831-14-9

    Attachment of A) HAO cells and B) PDL fibroblasts (mean and SD) 4 h after coverage with and without oily calcium hydroxide suspension (OCHS) and addition of A. actinomycetemcomitans Y4 as well as the combination of P. gingivalis ATCC 33277, T. forsythia ATCC 43037, T. denticola ATCC 35405 (p-values in comparison with controls and with no OCHS respectively each were determined by Student’s t-test).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Attachment of A) HAO cells and B) PDL fibroblasts (mean and SD) 4 h after coverage with and without oily calcium hydroxide suspension (OCHS) and addition of A. actinomycetemcomitans Y4 as well as the combination of P. gingivalis ATCC 33277, T. forsythia ATCC 43037, T. denticola ATCC 35405 (p-values in comparison with controls and with no OCHS respectively each were determined by Student’s t-test).

    Techniques Used:

    21) Product Images from "Characterization and in vitro properties of oral lactobacilli in breastfed infants"

    Article Title: Characterization and in vitro properties of oral lactobacilli in breastfed infants

    Journal: BMC Microbiology

    doi: 10.1186/1471-2180-13-193

    Adhesion of L. gasseri to human epithelial cells. Field of view containing differentiated human gingival epithelial cells (HGEP.05) and fluorescently stained L . gasseri A274 (in green). Bacteria were detected only in association with gingival epithelial cells. Images were captured using a Zeiss imager Z1 upright microscope. Bars in panels equal 20 μm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Adhesion of L. gasseri to human epithelial cells. Field of view containing differentiated human gingival epithelial cells (HGEP.05) and fluorescently stained L . gasseri A274 (in green). Bacteria were detected only in association with gingival epithelial cells. Images were captured using a Zeiss imager Z1 upright microscope. Bars in panels equal 20 μm.

    Techniques Used: Staining, Microscopy

    Probiotic traits of L. gasseri isolates. (A) Growth inhibition by L . gasseri . Growth of selected oral bacteria exposed to increasing concentrations of L . gasseri strain (B16) isolated from saliva. —— completely inhibited growth (score 0), - - - - - partially inhibited growth (score 1), and blank no effect on growth (score 2). (B) Adhesion to host ligand coated hydroxyapatite (HA). Adhesion of L . gasseri strain B16 to HA in the presence of selected host ligands. Data are presented as mean ± SEM for percent bacteria binding of added cells. Host ligands were from one adult donor of submandibular/sublingual saliva, two adult donors of parotid saliva and breast milk and purified MFGM (1 mg/mL). Background binding to bovine serum albumin blocked beads (no saliva) was
    Figure Legend Snippet: Probiotic traits of L. gasseri isolates. (A) Growth inhibition by L . gasseri . Growth of selected oral bacteria exposed to increasing concentrations of L . gasseri strain (B16) isolated from saliva. —— completely inhibited growth (score 0), - - - - - partially inhibited growth (score 1), and blank no effect on growth (score 2). (B) Adhesion to host ligand coated hydroxyapatite (HA). Adhesion of L . gasseri strain B16 to HA in the presence of selected host ligands. Data are presented as mean ± SEM for percent bacteria binding of added cells. Host ligands were from one adult donor of submandibular/sublingual saliva, two adult donors of parotid saliva and breast milk and purified MFGM (1 mg/mL). Background binding to bovine serum albumin blocked beads (no saliva) was

    Techniques Used: Inhibition, Isolation, Binding Assay, Purification

    Western blot detection of saliva gp340 and MUC7 after L. gasseri treatment. (A) Upper panel shows detection of gp340 (using mAb143) and lower panel MUC7 (usig mAb LUM7-2) in parotid and submandibular/sublingual saliva alone or after incubation with L . gasseri isolate B16; (B) upper panel shows detection of gp340 and lower panel MUC7 in parotid and submandibular/sublingual saliva alone or after incubation with S . mutans strain Ingbritt. Numbers below lanes in panels A and B refer to the following contents: (1) Bacterial cells alone (−ve control), (2) Parotid saliva alone (+ve control), (3) Parotid saliva after bacteria incubation, (4) Bacteria incubated in parotid saliva, (5) Bacteria after SDS protein release, (6) Submandibular saliva alone (+ve control), (7) Submandibular saliva after bacteria incubation, (8) Bacteria incubated in submandibular saliva, (9) Bacteria after SDS protein release. (C) upper panel depicts detection of gp340 in parotid saliva alone and after incubation with five different L . gasseri isolates and the L . gasseri type strain; (D) upper panel depicts detection of gp340 and lower panel detection of MUC7 in submandibular/sublingual saliva alone and after incubation with five different L . gasseri isolates and the type strain. Numbers below lanes in panels C and D refer to the following contents: (1) Saliva alone (+ve control), (2) Saliva after L . gasseri CCUG31451 T incubation, (3) Saliva after L . gasseri isolate A241 incubation, (4) Saliva after L . gasseri isolate A274 incubation, (5) Saliva after L . gasseri isolate B1 incubation, (6) Saliva after L . gasseri isolate B16 incubation, (7) Saliva after L . gasseri isolate L10 incubation.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Western blot detection of saliva gp340 and MUC7 after L. gasseri treatment. (A) Upper panel shows detection of gp340 (using mAb143) and lower panel MUC7 (usig mAb LUM7-2) in parotid and submandibular/sublingual saliva alone or after incubation with L . gasseri isolate B16; (B) upper panel shows detection of gp340 and lower panel MUC7 in parotid and submandibular/sublingual saliva alone or after incubation with S . mutans strain Ingbritt. Numbers below lanes in panels A and B refer to the following contents: (1) Bacterial cells alone (−ve control), (2) Parotid saliva alone (+ve control), (3) Parotid saliva after bacteria incubation, (4) Bacteria incubated in parotid saliva, (5) Bacteria after SDS protein release, (6) Submandibular saliva alone (+ve control), (7) Submandibular saliva after bacteria incubation, (8) Bacteria incubated in submandibular saliva, (9) Bacteria after SDS protein release. (C) upper panel depicts detection of gp340 in parotid saliva alone and after incubation with five different L . gasseri isolates and the L . gasseri type strain; (D) upper panel depicts detection of gp340 and lower panel detection of MUC7 in submandibular/sublingual saliva alone and after incubation with five different L . gasseri isolates and the type strain. Numbers below lanes in panels C and D refer to the following contents: (1) Saliva alone (+ve control), (2) Saliva after L . gasseri CCUG31451 T incubation, (3) Saliva after L . gasseri isolate A241 incubation, (4) Saliva after L . gasseri isolate A274 incubation, (5) Saliva after L . gasseri isolate B1 incubation, (6) Saliva after L . gasseri isolate B16 incubation, (7) Saliva after L . gasseri isolate L10 incubation.

    Techniques Used: Western Blot, Incubation

    22) Product Images from "Strain-Specific Colonization Patterns and Serum Modulation of Multi-Species Oral Biofilm Development"

    Article Title: Strain-Specific Colonization Patterns and Serum Modulation of Multi-Species Oral Biofilm Development

    Journal: Anaerobe

    doi: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2012.06.003

    Ability of avirulent P. gingivalis strains ATCC 33277 and 381 to integrate into 4h-old biofilm communities of health-associated species. Biofilms of A. oris and V. parvula or A. oris , V. parvula and F. nucleatum were allowed to develop for 4h in flow
    Figure Legend Snippet: Ability of avirulent P. gingivalis strains ATCC 33277 and 381 to integrate into 4h-old biofilm communities of health-associated species. Biofilms of A. oris and V. parvula or A. oris , V. parvula and F. nucleatum were allowed to develop for 4h in flow

    Techniques Used: Flow Cytometry

    Effect of serum on viability of A. oris (Ao), V. parvula (Vp), F. nucleatum ATCC 10953 (Fn) and P. gingivalis 381 (Pg). Planktonic growth of microorganisms was evaluated in their appropriate nutrient-rich medium supplemented with 10% native human serum
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of serum on viability of A. oris (Ao), V. parvula (Vp), F. nucleatum ATCC 10953 (Fn) and P. gingivalis 381 (Pg). Planktonic growth of microorganisms was evaluated in their appropriate nutrient-rich medium supplemented with 10% native human serum

    Techniques Used:

    Planktonic growth of F. nucleatum ATCC 10953 in salivary growth medium as a mono-culture or in co-culture with A. oris and V. parvula . Panel A shows planktonic growth curves. Data points represent measurements from three independent replicate experiments.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Planktonic growth of F. nucleatum ATCC 10953 in salivary growth medium as a mono-culture or in co-culture with A. oris and V. parvula . Panel A shows planktonic growth curves. Data points represent measurements from three independent replicate experiments.

    Techniques Used: Co-Culture Assay

    Ability of virulent P. gingivalis strains W50 and W83 to integrate into 4h-old biofilm communities of health-associated species. In panel A, biofilms of A. oris and V. parvula or A. oris , V. parvula and F. nucleatum were allowed to develop for 4h in flow
    Figure Legend Snippet: Ability of virulent P. gingivalis strains W50 and W83 to integrate into 4h-old biofilm communities of health-associated species. In panel A, biofilms of A. oris and V. parvula or A. oris , V. parvula and F. nucleatum were allowed to develop for 4h in flow

    Techniques Used: Flow Cytometry

    23) Product Images from "Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii. Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii"

    Article Title: Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii. Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii

    Journal: MicrobiologyOpen

    doi: 10.1002/mbo3.444

    Quantitative coaggregation of (a) wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 and the WT Fusobacterium nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative, at different phases of growth. (b) Quantitative coaggregation of WT S. gordonii strains ( DL 1, V288, ATCC 10558, and ATCC 51656) with WT F. nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative at exponential growth. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Quantitative coaggregation of (a) wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 and the WT Fusobacterium nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative, at different phases of growth. (b) Quantitative coaggregation of WT S. gordonii strains ( DL 1, V288, ATCC 10558, and ATCC 51656) with WT F. nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative at exponential growth. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Standard Deviation

    Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type Streptococcus gordonii strain (a) V288, (b) ATCC 10558, (c) DL 1, and (d) ATCC 51656 with Fusobacterium nucleatum strains: Wild‐type ( WT ) and the mutant derivatives: radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type Streptococcus gordonii strain (a) V288, (b) ATCC 10558, (c) DL 1, and (d) ATCC 51656 with Fusobacterium nucleatum strains: Wild‐type ( WT ) and the mutant derivatives: radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Standard Deviation

    Streptococcus gordonii and Fusobacterium nucleatum dual‐species biofilm: (a) Confocal laser scanning microscopy of syto9‐stained dual‐species biofilm after overnight incubation. S. gordonii (Sg) cells constitutively express mCherry from their chromosome and appear orange/yellow on the images. Wild‐type ( WT ) F. nucleatum (Fn) and its mutant derivatives ( radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant) are strained by syto9‐only and appear green on the images. (b) The presence of the Fn mutant strains in the Sg‐Fn dual‐species biofilm is displayed as the percentage of Fn cells normalized to the number of attached Sg cells/well, compared to that measured with WT Fn. Cellular ratios were determined by measuring DNA concentration by qPCR , targeting the F. nucleatum gene fomA and the S. gordonii gene srtA . At least three independent experiments were performed per strain combination. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Streptococcus gordonii and Fusobacterium nucleatum dual‐species biofilm: (a) Confocal laser scanning microscopy of syto9‐stained dual‐species biofilm after overnight incubation. S. gordonii (Sg) cells constitutively express mCherry from their chromosome and appear orange/yellow on the images. Wild‐type ( WT ) F. nucleatum (Fn) and its mutant derivatives ( radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant) are strained by syto9‐only and appear green on the images. (b) The presence of the Fn mutant strains in the Sg‐Fn dual‐species biofilm is displayed as the percentage of Fn cells normalized to the number of attached Sg cells/well, compared to that measured with WT Fn. Cellular ratios were determined by measuring DNA concentration by qPCR , targeting the F. nucleatum gene fomA and the S. gordonii gene srtA . At least three independent experiments were performed per strain combination. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, Staining, Incubation, Mutagenesis, Concentration Assay, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Standard Deviation

    Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 with Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 23726 WT strain and OMP mutant derivatives ( radD , Fn254, cmpA , Fn1893, Fn2047, and aim1 ). Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 with Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 23726 WT strain and OMP mutant derivatives ( radD , Fn254, cmpA , Fn1893, Fn2047, and aim1 ). Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Standard Deviation

    24) Product Images from "Assessment of the involvement of the macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF)-glucocorticoid regulatory dyad in MMP2 expression during periodontitis"

    Article Title: Assessment of the involvement of the macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF)-glucocorticoid regulatory dyad in MMP2 expression during periodontitis

    Journal: European journal of oral sciences

    doi: 10.1111/eos.12363

    Levels of proinflammatory IL6 in vivo and in vitro . A and B: Local tissue Il6 mRNA levels in healthy and inflamed gingivae nine days after ligature placement are shown as relative expressions in relation to β-actin and as fold change (compared to healthy sites). * P =0.05, ** P =0.006 for healthy vs . inflamed tissues in WT and MIF KO mice and ** P =0.01 for inflamed sites in WT vs . MIF KO animals. Grey bars: WT mice (n=6), white bars: MIF KO mice (n=6). Results are shown as mean values ±SD, each sample was run in duplicate. C: Levels of IL6 released from HGFs after stimulation with HC, MIF or F. nucleatum (* P ) was employed. Results are shown as mean values ±SD and represent five different donors; each sample was run in triplicate.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Levels of proinflammatory IL6 in vivo and in vitro . A and B: Local tissue Il6 mRNA levels in healthy and inflamed gingivae nine days after ligature placement are shown as relative expressions in relation to β-actin and as fold change (compared to healthy sites). * P =0.05, ** P =0.006 for healthy vs . inflamed tissues in WT and MIF KO mice and ** P =0.01 for inflamed sites in WT vs . MIF KO animals. Grey bars: WT mice (n=6), white bars: MIF KO mice (n=6). Results are shown as mean values ±SD, each sample was run in duplicate. C: Levels of IL6 released from HGFs after stimulation with HC, MIF or F. nucleatum (* P ) was employed. Results are shown as mean values ±SD and represent five different donors; each sample was run in triplicate.

    Techniques Used: In Vivo, In Vitro, Mouse Assay

    MIF protein release from HGFs. MIF release was inducible by hydrocortisol (HC), but not by TNF-α or F. nucleatum (* P ), were used as a positive control. Results are shown as mean values ±SD and represent five different donors; each sample was run in triplicate.
    Figure Legend Snippet: MIF protein release from HGFs. MIF release was inducible by hydrocortisol (HC), but not by TNF-α or F. nucleatum (* P ), were used as a positive control. Results are shown as mean values ±SD and represent five different donors; each sample was run in triplicate.

    Techniques Used: Positive Control

    MMP2 levels in murine gingival tissues and HGF supernatants. A : Mmp2 mRNA levels in WT and MIF KO mice in healthy and inflamed gingival sites shown as relative expressions in relation to β-actin and as fold change (compared to healthy sites). B: MMP2 release by HGFs from five different donors in cell culture experiments in response to hydrocortisol (HC), MIF and F. nucleatum (*** P =0.0003 compared to negative controls), each sample was run in triplicate wells.
    Figure Legend Snippet: MMP2 levels in murine gingival tissues and HGF supernatants. A : Mmp2 mRNA levels in WT and MIF KO mice in healthy and inflamed gingival sites shown as relative expressions in relation to β-actin and as fold change (compared to healthy sites). B: MMP2 release by HGFs from five different donors in cell culture experiments in response to hydrocortisol (HC), MIF and F. nucleatum (*** P =0.0003 compared to negative controls), each sample was run in triplicate wells.

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Cell Culture

    25) Product Images from "Assessment of the involvement of the macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF)-glucocorticoid regulatory dyad in MMP2 expression during periodontitis"

    Article Title: Assessment of the involvement of the macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF)-glucocorticoid regulatory dyad in MMP2 expression during periodontitis

    Journal: European journal of oral sciences

    doi: 10.1111/eos.12363

    Levels of proinflammatory IL6 in vivo and in vitro . A and B: Local tissue Il6 mRNA levels in healthy and inflamed gingivae nine days after ligature placement are shown as relative expressions in relation to β-actin and as fold change (compared to healthy sites). * P =0.05, ** P =0.006 for healthy vs . inflamed tissues in WT and MIF KO mice and ** P =0.01 for inflamed sites in WT vs . MIF KO animals. Grey bars: WT mice (n=6), white bars: MIF KO mice (n=6). Results are shown as mean values ±SD, each sample was run in duplicate. C: Levels of IL6 released from HGFs after stimulation with HC, MIF or F. nucleatum (* P ) was employed. Results are shown as mean values ±SD and represent five different donors; each sample was run in triplicate.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Levels of proinflammatory IL6 in vivo and in vitro . A and B: Local tissue Il6 mRNA levels in healthy and inflamed gingivae nine days after ligature placement are shown as relative expressions in relation to β-actin and as fold change (compared to healthy sites). * P =0.05, ** P =0.006 for healthy vs . inflamed tissues in WT and MIF KO mice and ** P =0.01 for inflamed sites in WT vs . MIF KO animals. Grey bars: WT mice (n=6), white bars: MIF KO mice (n=6). Results are shown as mean values ±SD, each sample was run in duplicate. C: Levels of IL6 released from HGFs after stimulation with HC, MIF or F. nucleatum (* P ) was employed. Results are shown as mean values ±SD and represent five different donors; each sample was run in triplicate.

    Techniques Used: In Vivo, In Vitro, Mouse Assay

    MIF protein release from HGFs. MIF release was inducible by hydrocortisol (HC), but not by TNF-α or F. nucleatum (* P ), were used as a positive control. Results are shown as mean values ±SD and represent five different donors; each sample was run in triplicate.
    Figure Legend Snippet: MIF protein release from HGFs. MIF release was inducible by hydrocortisol (HC), but not by TNF-α or F. nucleatum (* P ), were used as a positive control. Results are shown as mean values ±SD and represent five different donors; each sample was run in triplicate.

    Techniques Used: Positive Control

    MMP2 levels in murine gingival tissues and HGF supernatants. A : Mmp2 mRNA levels in WT and MIF KO mice in healthy and inflamed gingival sites shown as relative expressions in relation to β-actin and as fold change (compared to healthy sites). B: MMP2 release by HGFs from five different donors in cell culture experiments in response to hydrocortisol (HC), MIF and F. nucleatum (*** P =0.0003 compared to negative controls), each sample was run in triplicate wells.
    Figure Legend Snippet: MMP2 levels in murine gingival tissues and HGF supernatants. A : Mmp2 mRNA levels in WT and MIF KO mice in healthy and inflamed gingival sites shown as relative expressions in relation to β-actin and as fold change (compared to healthy sites). B: MMP2 release by HGFs from five different donors in cell culture experiments in response to hydrocortisol (HC), MIF and F. nucleatum (*** P =0.0003 compared to negative controls), each sample was run in triplicate wells.

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Cell Culture

    26) Product Images from "Ubiquitous Sialometabolism Present among Oral Fusobacteria"

    Article Title: Ubiquitous Sialometabolism Present among Oral Fusobacteria

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0099263

    Effect of synthetic sialic acid upon nan operon transcription. F. nucleatum ssp. nucleatum was incubated in the presence of synthetic sialic acid at concentrations ranging from 0.02 mM to 2 mM before extracting RNA and measuring nan operon expression. Data are expressed relative to the cDNA abundance measured in the sample receiving no exogenous sialic acid. This sample was arbitrarily assigned a value of 1. All data were normalized using the DNA gyrase gene gyrA as a housekeeping control. Presented data are the average results from 3 independent experiments. Statistical significance was evaluated using an unpaired Student's t -test. *p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of synthetic sialic acid upon nan operon transcription. F. nucleatum ssp. nucleatum was incubated in the presence of synthetic sialic acid at concentrations ranging from 0.02 mM to 2 mM before extracting RNA and measuring nan operon expression. Data are expressed relative to the cDNA abundance measured in the sample receiving no exogenous sialic acid. This sample was arbitrarily assigned a value of 1. All data were normalized using the DNA gyrase gene gyrA as a housekeeping control. Presented data are the average results from 3 independent experiments. Statistical significance was evaluated using an unpaired Student's t -test. *p

    Techniques Used: Incubation, Expressing

    Surface sialylation is conserved among oral fusobacteria. Fusobacterial clinical isolates were grown in SDM to mid-log phase before fluorescently labeling surface sialic acids. Each set of images is shown with the phase contrast image on the left and the corresponding epifluorescence image on the right. The pictured species are: A) F. nucleatum ssp. animalis , B) F. nucleatum ssp. animalis pretreated with neuraminidase, C) F. nucleatum ssp. vincentii , D) F. nucleatum ssp. vincentii pretreated with neuraminidase, E) F. nucleatum ssp. polymorphum , F) F. nucleatum ssp. polymorphum pretreated with neuraminidase, G) F. periodonticum, and H) F. periodonticum pretreated with neuraminidase. Images were captured at 1000x total magnification.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Surface sialylation is conserved among oral fusobacteria. Fusobacterial clinical isolates were grown in SDM to mid-log phase before fluorescently labeling surface sialic acids. Each set of images is shown with the phase contrast image on the left and the corresponding epifluorescence image on the right. The pictured species are: A) F. nucleatum ssp. animalis , B) F. nucleatum ssp. animalis pretreated with neuraminidase, C) F. nucleatum ssp. vincentii , D) F. nucleatum ssp. vincentii pretreated with neuraminidase, E) F. nucleatum ssp. polymorphum , F) F. nucleatum ssp. polymorphum pretreated with neuraminidase, G) F. periodonticum, and H) F. periodonticum pretreated with neuraminidase. Images were captured at 1000x total magnification.

    Techniques Used: Labeling

    F. nucleatum ssp. nucleatum actively sialylates its outer surface. A) F. nucleatum ssp. nucleatum was grown in SDM before fluorescently labeling surface sialic acids. B) F. nucleatum ssp. nucleatum was grown in the presence of SDM and pretreated with neuraminidase before fluorescently labeling surface sialic acids. All pictures in the left panels are phase contrast images, whereas the right panel images are the corresponding images captured using epifluorescence microscopy. Total magnification is 1000x.
    Figure Legend Snippet: F. nucleatum ssp. nucleatum actively sialylates its outer surface. A) F. nucleatum ssp. nucleatum was grown in SDM before fluorescently labeling surface sialic acids. B) F. nucleatum ssp. nucleatum was grown in the presence of SDM and pretreated with neuraminidase before fluorescently labeling surface sialic acids. All pictures in the left panels are phase contrast images, whereas the right panel images are the corresponding images captured using epifluorescence microscopy. Total magnification is 1000x.

    Techniques Used: Labeling, Epifluorescence Microscopy

    Comparison of surface sialylation abilities among oral fusobacteria. Representatives of all of the F. nucleatum subspecies as well as F. periodonticum were grown to mid-log phase in SDM containing vegetable peptone before fluorescently labeling surface sialic acid. Average fluorescence intensity values were determined using ImageJ image analysis software. Data are expressed relative to the average fluorescence intensity values for erythrocytes labeled in parallel. Erythrocyte fluorescence values were arbitrarily assigned a value of 1. The species identities for the strains are as follows: F. nucleatum ssp. animalis (JM17 – FQG51A), F. nucleatum ssp. polymorphum (JMSY2 – JMTC3), F. nucleatum ssp. nucleatum (23726 – 25586), F . nucleatum ssp. vincentii (JMP2A), F. nucleatum unnamed subspecies (JMGN1), and F. periodonticum (JMSK2 and SYJL4).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Comparison of surface sialylation abilities among oral fusobacteria. Representatives of all of the F. nucleatum subspecies as well as F. periodonticum were grown to mid-log phase in SDM containing vegetable peptone before fluorescently labeling surface sialic acid. Average fluorescence intensity values were determined using ImageJ image analysis software. Data are expressed relative to the average fluorescence intensity values for erythrocytes labeled in parallel. Erythrocyte fluorescence values were arbitrarily assigned a value of 1. The species identities for the strains are as follows: F. nucleatum ssp. animalis (JM17 – FQG51A), F. nucleatum ssp. polymorphum (JMSY2 – JMTC3), F. nucleatum ssp. nucleatum (23726 – 25586), F . nucleatum ssp. vincentii (JMP2A), F. nucleatum unnamed subspecies (JMGN1), and F. periodonticum (JMSK2 and SYJL4).

    Techniques Used: Labeling, Fluorescence, Software

    27) Product Images from "Sonoporation Is an Efficient Tool for Intracellular Fluorescent Dextran Delivery and One-Step Double-Crossover Mutant Construction in Fusobacterium nucleatum ▿"

    Article Title: Sonoporation Is an Efficient Tool for Intracellular Fluorescent Dextran Delivery and One-Step Double-Crossover Mutant Construction in Fusobacterium nucleatum ▿

    Journal:

    doi: 10.1128/AEM.00428-07

    Effects of different sonoporation parameters, i.e., acoustic pressure amplitude (a), PRF and duty cycle (DC) (b), sonoporation duration (c), and quantity of Definity (d), on delivery of Texas Red-conjugated dextran into  F. nucleatum  12230. The percentages
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of different sonoporation parameters, i.e., acoustic pressure amplitude (a), PRF and duty cycle (DC) (b), sonoporation duration (c), and quantity of Definity (d), on delivery of Texas Red-conjugated dextran into F. nucleatum 12230. The percentages

    Techniques Used:

    Delivery of Texas Red-conjugated dextran into F. nucleatum 12230 by sonoporation and electroporation. (a) i, fluorescent dextran uptake by F. nucleatum 12230 following sonoporation in the presence of Definity; ii, fluorescent dextran uptake by F. nucleatum
    Figure Legend Snippet: Delivery of Texas Red-conjugated dextran into F. nucleatum 12230 by sonoporation and electroporation. (a) i, fluorescent dextran uptake by F. nucleatum 12230 following sonoporation in the presence of Definity; ii, fluorescent dextran uptake by F. nucleatum

    Techniques Used: Electroporation

    Construction of the  recA -defective mutant US1610 of  F. nucleatum  12230. (a) Schematic representation of the construction of the  recA :: ermF-ermAM  mutant. The  ermF-ermAM  cassette was inserted at the HincII site in  recA , conferring clindamycin resistance.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Construction of the recA -defective mutant US1610 of F. nucleatum 12230. (a) Schematic representation of the construction of the recA :: ermF-ermAM mutant. The ermF-ermAM cassette was inserted at the HincII site in recA , conferring clindamycin resistance.

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis

    Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the  recA  gene of  F. nucleatum  12230. The putative Shine-Dalgarno sequence (SD) is underlined. The consensus sequence of RecA is listed directly below the amino acid sequence. The 11 residues in  F. nucleatum
    Figure Legend Snippet: Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the recA gene of F. nucleatum 12230. The putative Shine-Dalgarno sequence (SD) is underlined. The consensus sequence of RecA is listed directly below the amino acid sequence. The 11 residues in F. nucleatum

    Techniques Used: Sequencing

    Susceptibilities of F. nucleatum 12230 and US1610 to UV (a) and sonoporation (b). Percent bacterial viability was expressed as the number of CFU following treatment over the total number of CFU prior to treatment. The sonoporation conditions used were
    Figure Legend Snippet: Susceptibilities of F. nucleatum 12230 and US1610 to UV (a) and sonoporation (b). Percent bacterial viability was expressed as the number of CFU following treatment over the total number of CFU prior to treatment. The sonoporation conditions used were

    Techniques Used:

    28) Product Images from "Interactions between Periodontal Bacteria and Human Oral Epithelial Cells: Fusobacterium nucleatum Adheres to and Invades Epithelial Cells"

    Article Title: Interactions between Periodontal Bacteria and Human Oral Epithelial Cells: Fusobacterium nucleatum Adheres to and Invades Epithelial Cells

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    doi:

    Transmission electron micrographs of invasion of HGEC and KB by  F. nucleatum  12230. (A)  F. nucleatum  entering HGEC; (B)  F. nucleatum  internalized in HGEC, with the membrane of the vacuole indicated by the arrow in the inset; (C)  F. nucleatum  invading and internalized in KB, as indicated by the arrows. C, cytoplasm; N, nucleus. Numbers in parentheses indicate original magnifications.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Transmission electron micrographs of invasion of HGEC and KB by F. nucleatum 12230. (A) F. nucleatum entering HGEC; (B) F. nucleatum internalized in HGEC, with the membrane of the vacuole indicated by the arrow in the inset; (C) F. nucleatum invading and internalized in KB, as indicated by the arrows. C, cytoplasm; N, nucleus. Numbers in parentheses indicate original magnifications.

    Techniques Used: Transmission Assay

    29) Product Images from "Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii. Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii"

    Article Title: Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii. Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii

    Journal: MicrobiologyOpen

    doi: 10.1002/mbo3.444

    radD and cmpA expression: WT Fusobacterium nucleatum was grown in Columbia broth for 25 hr. Cell samples were collected every 3 hr and (a) OD 600 was measured, as well as (b) radD and cmpA expression by qRT ‐ PCR . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to the first time point. The dashed line was added to aid in the comparison. (c) radD and cmpA expression were also measured in cells from Fn biofilm grown overnight in SHI ‐ FSMS . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to planktonic cells grown under the same conditions. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. To aid with visualization, the dashed line represents no change
    Figure Legend Snippet: radD and cmpA expression: WT Fusobacterium nucleatum was grown in Columbia broth for 25 hr. Cell samples were collected every 3 hr and (a) OD 600 was measured, as well as (b) radD and cmpA expression by qRT ‐ PCR . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to the first time point. The dashed line was added to aid in the comparison. (c) radD and cmpA expression were also measured in cells from Fn biofilm grown overnight in SHI ‐ FSMS . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to planktonic cells grown under the same conditions. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. To aid with visualization, the dashed line represents no change

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR, Standard Deviation

    Quantitative coaggregation of (a) wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 and the WT Fusobacterium nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative, at different phases of growth. (b) Quantitative coaggregation of WT S. gordonii strains ( DL 1, V288, ATCC 10558, and ATCC 51656) with WT F. nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative at exponential growth. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Quantitative coaggregation of (a) wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 and the WT Fusobacterium nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative, at different phases of growth. (b) Quantitative coaggregation of WT S. gordonii strains ( DL 1, V288, ATCC 10558, and ATCC 51656) with WT F. nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative at exponential growth. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Standard Deviation

    Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type Streptococcus gordonii strain (a) V288, (b) ATCC 10558, (c) DL 1, and (d) ATCC 51656 with Fusobacterium nucleatum strains: Wild‐type ( WT ) and the mutant derivatives: radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type Streptococcus gordonii strain (a) V288, (b) ATCC 10558, (c) DL 1, and (d) ATCC 51656 with Fusobacterium nucleatum strains: Wild‐type ( WT ) and the mutant derivatives: radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Standard Deviation

    (a) Fusobacterium nucleatum radD cmpA double mutant (strain BL 83) was constructed by insertion of the inactivation plasmid pBPL 9 into cmpA (Fn1554) in a radD::catP mutant background. Black arrows indicate the location of primers used for mutant construction and analysis. (b) Confirmation of plasmid insertion into cmpA by PCR analysis of the cmpA mutant (m) with wild‐type (WT) as the control
    Figure Legend Snippet: (a) Fusobacterium nucleatum radD cmpA double mutant (strain BL 83) was constructed by insertion of the inactivation plasmid pBPL 9 into cmpA (Fn1554) in a radD::catP mutant background. Black arrows indicate the location of primers used for mutant construction and analysis. (b) Confirmation of plasmid insertion into cmpA by PCR analysis of the cmpA mutant (m) with wild‐type (WT) as the control

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Construct, Plasmid Preparation, Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Streptococcus gordonii and Fusobacterium nucleatum dual‐species biofilm: (a) Confocal laser scanning microscopy of syto9‐stained dual‐species biofilm after overnight incubation. S. gordonii (Sg) cells constitutively express mCherry from their chromosome and appear orange/yellow on the images. Wild‐type ( WT ) F. nucleatum (Fn) and its mutant derivatives ( radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant) are strained by syto9‐only and appear green on the images. (b) The presence of the Fn mutant strains in the Sg‐Fn dual‐species biofilm is displayed as the percentage of Fn cells normalized to the number of attached Sg cells/well, compared to that measured with WT Fn. Cellular ratios were determined by measuring DNA concentration by qPCR , targeting the F. nucleatum gene fomA and the S. gordonii gene srtA . At least three independent experiments were performed per strain combination. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Streptococcus gordonii and Fusobacterium nucleatum dual‐species biofilm: (a) Confocal laser scanning microscopy of syto9‐stained dual‐species biofilm after overnight incubation. S. gordonii (Sg) cells constitutively express mCherry from their chromosome and appear orange/yellow on the images. Wild‐type ( WT ) F. nucleatum (Fn) and its mutant derivatives ( radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant) are strained by syto9‐only and appear green on the images. (b) The presence of the Fn mutant strains in the Sg‐Fn dual‐species biofilm is displayed as the percentage of Fn cells normalized to the number of attached Sg cells/well, compared to that measured with WT Fn. Cellular ratios were determined by measuring DNA concentration by qPCR , targeting the F. nucleatum gene fomA and the S. gordonii gene srtA . At least three independent experiments were performed per strain combination. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, Staining, Incubation, Mutagenesis, Concentration Assay, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Standard Deviation

    Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 with Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 23726 WT strain and OMP mutant derivatives ( radD , Fn254, cmpA , Fn1893, Fn2047, and aim1 ). Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 with Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 23726 WT strain and OMP mutant derivatives ( radD , Fn254, cmpA , Fn1893, Fn2047, and aim1 ). Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Standard Deviation

    30) Product Images from "Ubiquitous Sialometabolism Present among Oral Fusobacteria"

    Article Title: Ubiquitous Sialometabolism Present among Oral Fusobacteria

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0099263

    Effect of synthetic sialic acid upon nan operon transcription. F. nucleatum ssp. nucleatum was incubated in the presence of synthetic sialic acid at concentrations ranging from 0.02 mM to 2 mM before extracting RNA and measuring nan operon expression. Data are expressed relative to the cDNA abundance measured in the sample receiving no exogenous sialic acid. This sample was arbitrarily assigned a value of 1. All data were normalized using the DNA gyrase gene gyrA as a housekeeping control. Presented data are the average results from 3 independent experiments. Statistical significance was evaluated using an unpaired Student's t -test. *p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of synthetic sialic acid upon nan operon transcription. F. nucleatum ssp. nucleatum was incubated in the presence of synthetic sialic acid at concentrations ranging from 0.02 mM to 2 mM before extracting RNA and measuring nan operon expression. Data are expressed relative to the cDNA abundance measured in the sample receiving no exogenous sialic acid. This sample was arbitrarily assigned a value of 1. All data were normalized using the DNA gyrase gene gyrA as a housekeeping control. Presented data are the average results from 3 independent experiments. Statistical significance was evaluated using an unpaired Student's t -test. *p

    Techniques Used: Incubation, Expressing

    Surface sialylation is conserved among oral fusobacteria. Fusobacterial clinical isolates were grown in SDM to mid-log phase before fluorescently labeling surface sialic acids. Each set of images is shown with the phase contrast image on the left and the corresponding epifluorescence image on the right. The pictured species are: A) F. nucleatum ssp. animalis , B) F. nucleatum ssp. animalis pretreated with neuraminidase, C) F. nucleatum ssp. vincentii , D) F. nucleatum ssp. vincentii pretreated with neuraminidase, E) F. nucleatum ssp. polymorphum , F) F. nucleatum ssp. polymorphum pretreated with neuraminidase, G) F. periodonticum, and H) F. periodonticum pretreated with neuraminidase. Images were captured at 1000x total magnification.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Surface sialylation is conserved among oral fusobacteria. Fusobacterial clinical isolates were grown in SDM to mid-log phase before fluorescently labeling surface sialic acids. Each set of images is shown with the phase contrast image on the left and the corresponding epifluorescence image on the right. The pictured species are: A) F. nucleatum ssp. animalis , B) F. nucleatum ssp. animalis pretreated with neuraminidase, C) F. nucleatum ssp. vincentii , D) F. nucleatum ssp. vincentii pretreated with neuraminidase, E) F. nucleatum ssp. polymorphum , F) F. nucleatum ssp. polymorphum pretreated with neuraminidase, G) F. periodonticum, and H) F. periodonticum pretreated with neuraminidase. Images were captured at 1000x total magnification.

    Techniques Used: Labeling

    F. nucleatum ssp. nucleatum actively sialylates its outer surface. A) F. nucleatum ssp. nucleatum was grown in SDM before fluorescently labeling surface sialic acids. B) F. nucleatum ssp. nucleatum was grown in the presence of SDM and pretreated with neuraminidase before fluorescently labeling surface sialic acids. All pictures in the left panels are phase contrast images, whereas the right panel images are the corresponding images captured using epifluorescence microscopy. Total magnification is 1000x.
    Figure Legend Snippet: F. nucleatum ssp. nucleatum actively sialylates its outer surface. A) F. nucleatum ssp. nucleatum was grown in SDM before fluorescently labeling surface sialic acids. B) F. nucleatum ssp. nucleatum was grown in the presence of SDM and pretreated with neuraminidase before fluorescently labeling surface sialic acids. All pictures in the left panels are phase contrast images, whereas the right panel images are the corresponding images captured using epifluorescence microscopy. Total magnification is 1000x.

    Techniques Used: Labeling, Epifluorescence Microscopy

    Comparison of surface sialylation abilities among oral fusobacteria. Representatives of all of the F. nucleatum subspecies as well as F. periodonticum were grown to mid-log phase in SDM containing vegetable peptone before fluorescently labeling surface sialic acid. Average fluorescence intensity values were determined using ImageJ image analysis software. Data are expressed relative to the average fluorescence intensity values for erythrocytes labeled in parallel. Erythrocyte fluorescence values were arbitrarily assigned a value of 1. The species identities for the strains are as follows: F. nucleatum ssp. animalis (JM17 – FQG51A), F. nucleatum ssp. polymorphum (JMSY2 – JMTC3), F. nucleatum ssp. nucleatum (23726 – 25586), F . nucleatum ssp. vincentii (JMP2A), F. nucleatum unnamed subspecies (JMGN1), and F. periodonticum (JMSK2 and SYJL4).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Comparison of surface sialylation abilities among oral fusobacteria. Representatives of all of the F. nucleatum subspecies as well as F. periodonticum were grown to mid-log phase in SDM containing vegetable peptone before fluorescently labeling surface sialic acid. Average fluorescence intensity values were determined using ImageJ image analysis software. Data are expressed relative to the average fluorescence intensity values for erythrocytes labeled in parallel. Erythrocyte fluorescence values were arbitrarily assigned a value of 1. The species identities for the strains are as follows: F. nucleatum ssp. animalis (JM17 – FQG51A), F. nucleatum ssp. polymorphum (JMSY2 – JMTC3), F. nucleatum ssp. nucleatum (23726 – 25586), F . nucleatum ssp. vincentii (JMP2A), F. nucleatum unnamed subspecies (JMGN1), and F. periodonticum (JMSK2 and SYJL4).

    Techniques Used: Labeling, Fluorescence, Software

    31) Product Images from "Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages"

    Article Title: Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.01226-13

    Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the
    Figure Legend Snippet: Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the

    Techniques Used: Infection, Mouse Assay

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or

    Techniques Used: Infection

    NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein
    Figure Legend Snippet: NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay, Infection

    32) Product Images from "Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages"

    Article Title: Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.01226-13

    Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the
    Figure Legend Snippet: Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the

    Techniques Used: Infection, Mouse Assay

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or

    Techniques Used: Infection

    NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein
    Figure Legend Snippet: NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay, Infection

    33) Product Images from "Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages"

    Article Title: Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.01226-13

    Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the
    Figure Legend Snippet: Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the

    Techniques Used: Infection, Mouse Assay

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or

    Techniques Used: Infection

    NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein
    Figure Legend Snippet: NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay, Infection

    34) Product Images from "Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages"

    Article Title: Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.01226-13

    Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the
    Figure Legend Snippet: Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the

    Techniques Used: Infection, Mouse Assay

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or

    Techniques Used: Infection

    NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein
    Figure Legend Snippet: NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay, Infection

    35) Product Images from "Fusobacterium nucleatum-associated ?-Defensin Inducer (FAD-I)"

    Article Title: Fusobacterium nucleatum-associated ?-Defensin Inducer (FAD-I)

    Journal: The Journal of Biological Chemistry

    doi: 10.1074/jbc.M110.133140

    RT-PCR analysis of hBD2 mRNA induction in HOECs at different steps of purification. A , RT-PCR analysis was performed with RNA from HOEC monolayers treated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate ( PMA ) as positive control ( lane 2 ) or 10 μg of F. nucleatum
    Figure Legend Snippet: RT-PCR analysis of hBD2 mRNA induction in HOECs at different steps of purification. A , RT-PCR analysis was performed with RNA from HOEC monolayers treated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate ( PMA ) as positive control ( lane 2 ) or 10 μg of F. nucleatum

    Techniques Used: Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Purification, Positive Control

    Induction of hBD2 mRNA and protein by Pg1527 . A , Western blot analysis of cell wall preparations from P. gingivalis transformed with FN1527 ( Pg + 1527 ), P. gingivalis transformed with vector only ( Pg + vector ), F. nucleatum 25586 cell wall ( Fn ), or P.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Induction of hBD2 mRNA and protein by Pg1527 . A , Western blot analysis of cell wall preparations from P. gingivalis transformed with FN1527 ( Pg + 1527 ), P. gingivalis transformed with vector only ( Pg + vector ), F. nucleatum 25586 cell wall ( Fn ), or P.

    Techniques Used: Western Blot, Transformation Assay, Plasmid Preparation

    HOEC expression of hBD2 following challenge by cell extracts from E. coli expressing different F. nucleatum recombinant proteins and induction of hBD2 by affinity-purified FN1527 c-Myc. A , HOECs were treated with extracts (100 μg/ml total protein)
    Figure Legend Snippet: HOEC expression of hBD2 following challenge by cell extracts from E. coli expressing different F. nucleatum recombinant proteins and induction of hBD2 by affinity-purified FN1527 c-Myc. A , HOECs were treated with extracts (100 μg/ml total protein)

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Recombinant, Affinity Purification

    F. nucleatum cell wall and FAD-I induce hBD2 via TLR2. HOECs were treated with 5 μg/ml anti-TLR2 antibody or isotype control for 30 min and then stimulated with either 10 μg/ml F. nucleatum cell wall ( Fn-CW ) ( A ) or 10 μg/ml 1527
    Figure Legend Snippet: F. nucleatum cell wall and FAD-I induce hBD2 via TLR2. HOECs were treated with 5 μg/ml anti-TLR2 antibody or isotype control for 30 min and then stimulated with either 10 μg/ml F. nucleatum cell wall ( Fn-CW ) ( A ) or 10 μg/ml 1527

    Techniques Used:

    36) Product Images from "Fusobacterium nucleatum-associated ?-Defensin Inducer (FAD-I)"

    Article Title: Fusobacterium nucleatum-associated ?-Defensin Inducer (FAD-I)

    Journal: The Journal of Biological Chemistry

    doi: 10.1074/jbc.M110.133140

    RT-PCR analysis of hBD2 mRNA induction in HOECs at different steps of purification. A , RT-PCR analysis was performed with RNA from HOEC monolayers treated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate ( PMA ) as positive control ( lane 2 ) or 10 μg of F. nucleatum
    Figure Legend Snippet: RT-PCR analysis of hBD2 mRNA induction in HOECs at different steps of purification. A , RT-PCR analysis was performed with RNA from HOEC monolayers treated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate ( PMA ) as positive control ( lane 2 ) or 10 μg of F. nucleatum

    Techniques Used: Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Purification, Positive Control

    Induction of hBD2 mRNA and protein by Pg1527 . A , Western blot analysis of cell wall preparations from P. gingivalis transformed with FN1527 ( Pg + 1527 ), P. gingivalis transformed with vector only ( Pg + vector ), F. nucleatum 25586 cell wall ( Fn ), or P.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Induction of hBD2 mRNA and protein by Pg1527 . A , Western blot analysis of cell wall preparations from P. gingivalis transformed with FN1527 ( Pg + 1527 ), P. gingivalis transformed with vector only ( Pg + vector ), F. nucleatum 25586 cell wall ( Fn ), or P.

    Techniques Used: Western Blot, Transformation Assay, Plasmid Preparation

    HOEC expression of hBD2 following challenge by cell extracts from E. coli expressing different F. nucleatum recombinant proteins and induction of hBD2 by affinity-purified FN1527 c-Myc. A , HOECs were treated with extracts (100 μg/ml total protein)
    Figure Legend Snippet: HOEC expression of hBD2 following challenge by cell extracts from E. coli expressing different F. nucleatum recombinant proteins and induction of hBD2 by affinity-purified FN1527 c-Myc. A , HOECs were treated with extracts (100 μg/ml total protein)

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Recombinant, Affinity Purification

    F. nucleatum cell wall and FAD-I induce hBD2 via TLR2. HOECs were treated with 5 μg/ml anti-TLR2 antibody or isotype control for 30 min and then stimulated with either 10 μg/ml F. nucleatum cell wall ( Fn-CW ) ( A ) or 10 μg/ml 1527
    Figure Legend Snippet: F. nucleatum cell wall and FAD-I induce hBD2 via TLR2. HOECs were treated with 5 μg/ml anti-TLR2 antibody or isotype control for 30 min and then stimulated with either 10 μg/ml F. nucleatum cell wall ( Fn-CW ) ( A ) or 10 μg/ml 1527

    Techniques Used:

    37) Product Images from "Vaccination targeting surface FomA of Fusobacterium nucleatum against bacterial co-aggregation: implication for treatment of periodontal infection and halitosis"

    Article Title: Vaccination targeting surface FomA of Fusobacterium nucleatum against bacterial co-aggregation: implication for treatment of periodontal infection and halitosis

    Journal: Vaccine

    doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.02.047

    Blockage of VSC production using neutralizing antibodies to FomA. Detection of VSC production of F. nucleatum ( F.n ), P. gingivalis ( P.g ) and F. nucleatum plus P. gingivalis ( F.n + P.g ) in the absence (A) or presence of (B) anti-FomA or anti-GFP serum.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Blockage of VSC production using neutralizing antibodies to FomA. Detection of VSC production of F. nucleatum ( F.n ), P. gingivalis ( P.g ) and F. nucleatum plus P. gingivalis ( F.n + P.g ) in the absence (A) or presence of (B) anti-FomA or anti-GFP serum.

    Techniques Used:

    The co-aggregation of F. nucleatum with P. gingivalis and biofilm enhancement. The detection of bacterial co-aggregation and biofilm formation is described in “Materials and methods”. (A) F. nucleatum ( F.n ), P. gingivalis ( P.g ), and F.
    Figure Legend Snippet: The co-aggregation of F. nucleatum with P. gingivalis and biofilm enhancement. The detection of bacterial co-aggregation and biofilm formation is described in “Materials and methods”. (A) F. nucleatum ( F.n ), P. gingivalis ( P.g ), and F.

    Techniques Used:

    Abrogation of bacteria-induced gum swelling via passive neutralization of FomA. After pre-treatment of F. nucleatum (4 × 10 8 CFU) with anti-FomA or anti-GFP serum, bacteria were incubated with P. gingivalis (10 3 CFU) in PBS for 3 h. Both bacteria
    Figure Legend Snippet: Abrogation of bacteria-induced gum swelling via passive neutralization of FomA. After pre-treatment of F. nucleatum (4 × 10 8 CFU) with anti-FomA or anti-GFP serum, bacteria were incubated with P. gingivalis (10 3 CFU) in PBS for 3 h. Both bacteria

    Techniques Used: Neutralization, Incubation

    ] with abscesses and swollen tissues was used for evaluation of the in vivo efficacy of vaccination. (A) After inoculation with live bacteria F. nucleatum (4 ×
    Figure Legend Snippet: ] with abscesses and swollen tissues was used for evaluation of the in vivo efficacy of vaccination. (A) After inoculation with live bacteria F. nucleatum (4 ×

    Techniques Used: In Vivo

    38) Product Images from "Vaccination targeting surface FomA of Fusobacterium nucleatum against bacterial co-aggregation: implication for treatment of periodontal infection and halitosis"

    Article Title: Vaccination targeting surface FomA of Fusobacterium nucleatum against bacterial co-aggregation: implication for treatment of periodontal infection and halitosis

    Journal: Vaccine

    doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.02.047

    Blockage of VSC production using neutralizing antibodies to FomA. Detection of VSC production of F. nucleatum ( F.n ), P. gingivalis ( P.g ) and F. nucleatum plus P. gingivalis ( F.n + P.g ) in the absence (A) or presence of (B) anti-FomA or anti-GFP serum.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Blockage of VSC production using neutralizing antibodies to FomA. Detection of VSC production of F. nucleatum ( F.n ), P. gingivalis ( P.g ) and F. nucleatum plus P. gingivalis ( F.n + P.g ) in the absence (A) or presence of (B) anti-FomA or anti-GFP serum.

    Techniques Used:

    The co-aggregation of F. nucleatum with P. gingivalis and biofilm enhancement. The detection of bacterial co-aggregation and biofilm formation is described in “Materials and methods”. (A) F. nucleatum ( F.n ), P. gingivalis ( P.g ), and F.
    Figure Legend Snippet: The co-aggregation of F. nucleatum with P. gingivalis and biofilm enhancement. The detection of bacterial co-aggregation and biofilm formation is described in “Materials and methods”. (A) F. nucleatum ( F.n ), P. gingivalis ( P.g ), and F.

    Techniques Used:

    Abrogation of bacteria-induced gum swelling via passive neutralization of FomA. After pre-treatment of F. nucleatum (4 × 10 8 CFU) with anti-FomA or anti-GFP serum, bacteria were incubated with P. gingivalis (10 3 CFU) in PBS for 3 h. Both bacteria
    Figure Legend Snippet: Abrogation of bacteria-induced gum swelling via passive neutralization of FomA. After pre-treatment of F. nucleatum (4 × 10 8 CFU) with anti-FomA or anti-GFP serum, bacteria were incubated with P. gingivalis (10 3 CFU) in PBS for 3 h. Both bacteria

    Techniques Used: Neutralization, Incubation

    ] with abscesses and swollen tissues was used for evaluation of the in vivo efficacy of vaccination. (A) After inoculation with live bacteria F. nucleatum (4 ×
    Figure Legend Snippet: ] with abscesses and swollen tissues was used for evaluation of the in vivo efficacy of vaccination. (A) After inoculation with live bacteria F. nucleatum (4 ×

    Techniques Used: In Vivo

    39) Product Images from "Vaccination targeting surface FomA of Fusobacterium nucleatum against bacterial co-aggregation: implication for treatment of periodontal infection and halitosis"

    Article Title: Vaccination targeting surface FomA of Fusobacterium nucleatum against bacterial co-aggregation: implication for treatment of periodontal infection and halitosis

    Journal: Vaccine

    doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.02.047

    Blockage of VSC production using neutralizing antibodies to FomA. Detection of VSC production of F. nucleatum ( F.n ), P. gingivalis ( P.g ) and F. nucleatum plus P. gingivalis ( F.n + P.g ) in the absence (A) or presence of (B) anti-FomA or anti-GFP serum.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Blockage of VSC production using neutralizing antibodies to FomA. Detection of VSC production of F. nucleatum ( F.n ), P. gingivalis ( P.g ) and F. nucleatum plus P. gingivalis ( F.n + P.g ) in the absence (A) or presence of (B) anti-FomA or anti-GFP serum.

    Techniques Used:

    The co-aggregation of F. nucleatum with P. gingivalis and biofilm enhancement. The detection of bacterial co-aggregation and biofilm formation is described in “Materials and methods”. (A) F. nucleatum ( F.n ), P. gingivalis ( P.g ), and F.
    Figure Legend Snippet: The co-aggregation of F. nucleatum with P. gingivalis and biofilm enhancement. The detection of bacterial co-aggregation and biofilm formation is described in “Materials and methods”. (A) F. nucleatum ( F.n ), P. gingivalis ( P.g ), and F.

    Techniques Used:

    Abrogation of bacteria-induced gum swelling via passive neutralization of FomA. After pre-treatment of F. nucleatum (4 × 10 8 CFU) with anti-FomA or anti-GFP serum, bacteria were incubated with P. gingivalis (10 3 CFU) in PBS for 3 h. Both bacteria
    Figure Legend Snippet: Abrogation of bacteria-induced gum swelling via passive neutralization of FomA. After pre-treatment of F. nucleatum (4 × 10 8 CFU) with anti-FomA or anti-GFP serum, bacteria were incubated with P. gingivalis (10 3 CFU) in PBS for 3 h. Both bacteria

    Techniques Used: Neutralization, Incubation

    ] with abscesses and swollen tissues was used for evaluation of the in vivo efficacy of vaccination. (A) After inoculation with live bacteria F. nucleatum (4 ×
    Figure Legend Snippet: ] with abscesses and swollen tissues was used for evaluation of the in vivo efficacy of vaccination. (A) After inoculation with live bacteria F. nucleatum (4 ×

    Techniques Used: In Vivo

    40) Product Images from "Vaccination targeting surface FomA of Fusobacterium nucleatum against bacterial co-aggregation: implication for treatment of periodontal infection and halitosis"

    Article Title: Vaccination targeting surface FomA of Fusobacterium nucleatum against bacterial co-aggregation: implication for treatment of periodontal infection and halitosis

    Journal: Vaccine

    doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.02.047

    Blockage of VSC production using neutralizing antibodies to FomA. Detection of VSC production of F. nucleatum ( F.n ), P. gingivalis ( P.g ) and F. nucleatum plus P. gingivalis ( F.n + P.g ) in the absence (A) or presence of (B) anti-FomA or anti-GFP serum.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Blockage of VSC production using neutralizing antibodies to FomA. Detection of VSC production of F. nucleatum ( F.n ), P. gingivalis ( P.g ) and F. nucleatum plus P. gingivalis ( F.n + P.g ) in the absence (A) or presence of (B) anti-FomA or anti-GFP serum.

    Techniques Used:

    The co-aggregation of F. nucleatum with P. gingivalis and biofilm enhancement. The detection of bacterial co-aggregation and biofilm formation is described in “Materials and methods”. (A) F. nucleatum ( F.n ), P. gingivalis ( P.g ), and F.
    Figure Legend Snippet: The co-aggregation of F. nucleatum with P. gingivalis and biofilm enhancement. The detection of bacterial co-aggregation and biofilm formation is described in “Materials and methods”. (A) F. nucleatum ( F.n ), P. gingivalis ( P.g ), and F.

    Techniques Used:

    Abrogation of bacteria-induced gum swelling via passive neutralization of FomA. After pre-treatment of F. nucleatum (4 × 10 8 CFU) with anti-FomA or anti-GFP serum, bacteria were incubated with P. gingivalis (10 3 CFU) in PBS for 3 h. Both bacteria
    Figure Legend Snippet: Abrogation of bacteria-induced gum swelling via passive neutralization of FomA. After pre-treatment of F. nucleatum (4 × 10 8 CFU) with anti-FomA or anti-GFP serum, bacteria were incubated with P. gingivalis (10 3 CFU) in PBS for 3 h. Both bacteria

    Techniques Used: Neutralization, Incubation

    ] with abscesses and swollen tissues was used for evaluation of the in vivo efficacy of vaccination. (A) After inoculation with live bacteria F. nucleatum (4 ×
    Figure Legend Snippet: ] with abscesses and swollen tissues was used for evaluation of the in vivo efficacy of vaccination. (A) After inoculation with live bacteria F. nucleatum (4 ×

    Techniques Used: In Vivo

    Related Articles

    Electroporation:

    Article Title: Identification and Characterization of a Novel Adhesin Unique to Oral Fusobacteria
    Article Snippet: .. Attempts to construct a fadA deletion mutant of F. nucleatum 12230 by either electroporation or conjugation were unfruitful. .. This could be attributed to one or more of the following: (i) inefficient DNA delivery by electroporation or conjugation, (ii) inefficient homologous recombination between the exogenous plasmid and the bacterial chromosome, (iii) exogenous DNA being digested by a restriction endonuclease(s) before recombination could occur, or (iv) killing of the bacteria by electroporation.

    Article Title: Identification and Characterization of a Novel Adhesin Unique to Oral Fusobacteria
    Article Snippet: .. Following unsuccessful attempts to generate a correct fadA deletion mutant of F. nucleatum 12230 by either electroporation or conjugation, DNA delivery via sonoporation, i.e., transient membrane permeabilization by ultrasound, was tested. .. Plasmid pYH1426, which contains a homologous fragment of approximately 500 bp at either end of fadA and a 2.1-kb ermF-ermAM cassette replacing fadA , was used (Fig. ).

    Agarose Gel Electrophoresis:

    Article Title: Identification and Characterization of a Novel Adhesin Unique to Oral Fusobacteria
    Article Snippet: .. Under these experimental conditions, the viability of F. nucleatum 12230 was not affected; nor was there any detectable DNA damage when examined by agarose gel electrophoresis (data not shown). .. Ultrasonic delivery of pYH1426 into F. nucleatum 12230 produced more than 30 independent transformants, at an efficiency of approximately 0.05 transformant/μg DNA.

    Conjugation Assay:

    Article Title: Identification and Characterization of a Novel Adhesin Unique to Oral Fusobacteria
    Article Snippet: .. Attempts to construct a fadA deletion mutant of F. nucleatum 12230 by either electroporation or conjugation were unfruitful. .. This could be attributed to one or more of the following: (i) inefficient DNA delivery by electroporation or conjugation, (ii) inefficient homologous recombination between the exogenous plasmid and the bacterial chromosome, (iii) exogenous DNA being digested by a restriction endonuclease(s) before recombination could occur, or (iv) killing of the bacteria by electroporation.

    Article Title: Identification and Characterization of a Novel Adhesin Unique to Oral Fusobacteria
    Article Snippet: .. Following unsuccessful attempts to generate a correct fadA deletion mutant of F. nucleatum 12230 by either electroporation or conjugation, DNA delivery via sonoporation, i.e., transient membrane permeabilization by ultrasound, was tested. .. Plasmid pYH1426, which contains a homologous fragment of approximately 500 bp at either end of fadA and a 2.1-kb ermF-ermAM cassette replacing fadA , was used (Fig. ).

    Mutagenesis:

    Article Title: Identification and Characterization of a Novel Adhesin Unique to Oral Fusobacteria
    Article Snippet: .. By mixing F. nucleatum 12230 with intact pYH1426, we intended to first obtain a single-crossover merodiploid construct through sonoporation and then utilize the sacB gene on pYH1426 to select for a double-crossover mutant on sucrose medium ( ). ..

    Article Title: Identification and Characterization of a Novel Adhesin Unique to Oral Fusobacteria
    Article Snippet: .. Attempts to construct a fadA deletion mutant of F. nucleatum 12230 by either electroporation or conjugation were unfruitful. .. This could be attributed to one or more of the following: (i) inefficient DNA delivery by electroporation or conjugation, (ii) inefficient homologous recombination between the exogenous plasmid and the bacterial chromosome, (iii) exogenous DNA being digested by a restriction endonuclease(s) before recombination could occur, or (iv) killing of the bacteria by electroporation.

    Article Title: Identification and Characterization of a Novel Adhesin Unique to Oral Fusobacteria
    Article Snippet: .. Following unsuccessful attempts to generate a correct fadA deletion mutant of F. nucleatum 12230 by either electroporation or conjugation, DNA delivery via sonoporation, i.e., transient membrane permeabilization by ultrasound, was tested. .. Plasmid pYH1426, which contains a homologous fragment of approximately 500 bp at either end of fadA and a 2.1-kb ermF-ermAM cassette replacing fadA , was used (Fig. ).

    Construct:

    Article Title: Identification and Characterization of a Novel Adhesin Unique to Oral Fusobacteria
    Article Snippet: .. By mixing F. nucleatum 12230 with intact pYH1426, we intended to first obtain a single-crossover merodiploid construct through sonoporation and then utilize the sacB gene on pYH1426 to select for a double-crossover mutant on sucrose medium ( ). ..

    Article Title: Identification and Characterization of a Novel Adhesin Unique to Oral Fusobacteria
    Article Snippet: .. Attempts to construct a fadA deletion mutant of F. nucleatum 12230 by either electroporation or conjugation were unfruitful. .. This could be attributed to one or more of the following: (i) inefficient DNA delivery by electroporation or conjugation, (ii) inefficient homologous recombination between the exogenous plasmid and the bacterial chromosome, (iii) exogenous DNA being digested by a restriction endonuclease(s) before recombination could occur, or (iv) killing of the bacteria by electroporation.

    Produced:

    Article Title: Identification and Characterization of a Novel Adhesin Unique to Oral Fusobacteria
    Article Snippet: .. Ultrasonic delivery of pYH1426 into F. nucleatum 12230 produced more than 30 independent transformants, at an efficiency of approximately 0.05 transformant/μg DNA. .. All transformants were genetically identical double-crossover fadA deletion mutants, as determined by PCR (data not shown) and Southern blot analyses (Fig. ).

    other:

    Article Title: Identification and Characterization of a Novel Adhesin Unique to Oral Fusobacteria
    Article Snippet: Intact pYH1426 was mixed with F. nucleatum 12230 and Optison, followed by a 90-s (pulse repetition frequency, 1 Hz; duty cycle, 50%) ultrasonic treatment.

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  • 86
    ATCC f nucleatum induced increase
    (a and b) RANKL expression in PDL cells stimulated by F. <t>nucleatum</t> ATCC 25586 and/or CTSH at 1 day (a) and 3 days (b). (c and d) OPG expression in PDL cells stimulated by F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 and/or CTSH at 1 day (c) and 3 days (d). (e and f) RANKL/OPG mRNA ratio in PDL cells stimulated by F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 and/or CTSH at 1 day (e) and 3 days (f). *Significant difference compared to other groups ( P
    F Nucleatum Induced Increase, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/f nucleatum induced increase/product/ATCC
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    88
    ATCC f nucleatum binding
    F. <t>nucleatum</t> Interacts with TIGIT
    F Nucleatum Binding, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    91
    ATCC f nucleatum subsp
    Comparison of the QRDRs (5′ end of gyrA ) of resistant strains F. canifelinum RMA 1036 T (ATCC BAA 689 T ) and RMA 12701 (ATCC BAA 690) and closely related susceptible strains F. <t>nucleatum</t> <t>subsp.</t> nucleatum ATCC 25586 T and F. nucleatum subsp. vincentii ) was used for alignment.
    F Nucleatum Subsp, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 7 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    ATCC f nucleatum
    Levels of proinflammatory IL6 in vivo and in vitro . A and B: Local tissue Il6 mRNA levels in healthy and inflamed gingivae nine days after ligature placement are shown as relative expressions in relation to β-actin and as fold change (compared to healthy sites). * P =0.05, ** P =0.006 for healthy vs . inflamed tissues in WT and MIF KO mice and ** P =0.01 for inflamed sites in WT vs . MIF KO animals. Grey bars: WT mice (n=6), white bars: MIF KO mice (n=6). Results are shown as mean values ±SD, each sample was run in duplicate. C: Levels of IL6 released from HGFs after stimulation with HC, MIF or F. <t>nucleatum</t> (* P ) was employed. Results are shown as mean values ±SD and represent five different donors; each sample was run in triplicate.
    F Nucleatum, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 6 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Image Search Results


    (a and b) RANKL expression in PDL cells stimulated by F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 and/or CTSH at 1 day (a) and 3 days (b). (c and d) OPG expression in PDL cells stimulated by F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 and/or CTSH at 1 day (c) and 3 days (d). (e and f) RANKL/OPG mRNA ratio in PDL cells stimulated by F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 and/or CTSH at 1 day (e) and 3 days (f). *Significant difference compared to other groups ( P

    Journal: Mediators of Inflammation

    Article Title: Biomechanical Loading Modulates Proinflammatory and Bone Resorptive Mediators in Bacterial-Stimulated PDL Cells

    doi: 10.1155/2014/425421

    Figure Lengend Snippet: (a and b) RANKL expression in PDL cells stimulated by F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 and/or CTSH at 1 day (a) and 3 days (b). (c and d) OPG expression in PDL cells stimulated by F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 and/or CTSH at 1 day (c) and 3 days (d). (e and f) RANKL/OPG mRNA ratio in PDL cells stimulated by F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 and/or CTSH at 1 day (e) and 3 days (f). *Significant difference compared to other groups ( P

    Article Snippet: In our study, CTS aggravated F. nucleatum -induced increase in the production of COX2 and PGE2 and reduced the expression and production of OPG, leading to an increase in RANKL/OPG ratio in this group compared to F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 alone.

    Techniques: Expressing

    (a and b) Synthesis of RANKL protein in supernatants of PDL cells stimulated by F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 and/or CTSH at 1 day (a) and 3 days (b). (c and d) Synthesis of OPG protein in supernatants of PDL cells stimulated by F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 and/or CTSH at 1 day (c) and 3 days (d). (e and f) RANKL/OPG protein ratio in supernatants of PDL cells stimulated by F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 and/or CTSH at 1 day (e) and 3 days (f). *Significant difference compared to other groups ( P

    Journal: Mediators of Inflammation

    Article Title: Biomechanical Loading Modulates Proinflammatory and Bone Resorptive Mediators in Bacterial-Stimulated PDL Cells

    doi: 10.1155/2014/425421

    Figure Lengend Snippet: (a and b) Synthesis of RANKL protein in supernatants of PDL cells stimulated by F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 and/or CTSH at 1 day (a) and 3 days (b). (c and d) Synthesis of OPG protein in supernatants of PDL cells stimulated by F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 and/or CTSH at 1 day (c) and 3 days (d). (e and f) RANKL/OPG protein ratio in supernatants of PDL cells stimulated by F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 and/or CTSH at 1 day (e) and 3 days (f). *Significant difference compared to other groups ( P

    Article Snippet: In our study, CTS aggravated F. nucleatum -induced increase in the production of COX2 and PGE2 and reduced the expression and production of OPG, leading to an increase in RANKL/OPG ratio in this group compared to F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 alone.

    Techniques:

    (a) COX2 expression in PDL cells stimulated by F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 over time. (b) COX2 expression in PDL cells stimulated by various concentrations of F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 at 1 day. (c) OPG expression in PDL cells stimulated by F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 over time. (d) OPG expression in PDL cells stimulated by various concentrations of F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 at 1 day. (e) COX2 expression in PDL cells stimulated by F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 (OD 0.025) in the presence or in the absence of anti-TLR2 or anti-TLR4 antibodies at 1 day. *Significant difference between groups ( P

    Journal: Mediators of Inflammation

    Article Title: Biomechanical Loading Modulates Proinflammatory and Bone Resorptive Mediators in Bacterial-Stimulated PDL Cells

    doi: 10.1155/2014/425421

    Figure Lengend Snippet: (a) COX2 expression in PDL cells stimulated by F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 over time. (b) COX2 expression in PDL cells stimulated by various concentrations of F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 at 1 day. (c) OPG expression in PDL cells stimulated by F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 over time. (d) OPG expression in PDL cells stimulated by various concentrations of F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 at 1 day. (e) COX2 expression in PDL cells stimulated by F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 (OD 0.025) in the presence or in the absence of anti-TLR2 or anti-TLR4 antibodies at 1 day. *Significant difference between groups ( P

    Article Snippet: In our study, CTS aggravated F. nucleatum -induced increase in the production of COX2 and PGE2 and reduced the expression and production of OPG, leading to an increase in RANKL/OPG ratio in this group compared to F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 alone.

    Techniques: Expressing

    (a) Synthesis of COX2 in lysates of PDL cells treated with F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 and/or cyclic tensile strain (CTS) of low (CTSL, 3%) and high (CTSH, 20%) magnitudes at 36 hours. (b and c) Production of PGE2 in supernatants of PDL cells treated with F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 and/or CTSL and CTSH at 1 day (b) and 3 days (c). *Significant difference compared to other groups ( P

    Journal: Mediators of Inflammation

    Article Title: Biomechanical Loading Modulates Proinflammatory and Bone Resorptive Mediators in Bacterial-Stimulated PDL Cells

    doi: 10.1155/2014/425421

    Figure Lengend Snippet: (a) Synthesis of COX2 in lysates of PDL cells treated with F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 and/or cyclic tensile strain (CTS) of low (CTSL, 3%) and high (CTSH, 20%) magnitudes at 36 hours. (b and c) Production of PGE2 in supernatants of PDL cells treated with F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 and/or CTSL and CTSH at 1 day (b) and 3 days (c). *Significant difference compared to other groups ( P

    Article Snippet: In our study, CTS aggravated F. nucleatum -induced increase in the production of COX2 and PGE2 and reduced the expression and production of OPG, leading to an increase in RANKL/OPG ratio in this group compared to F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 alone.

    Techniques:

    F. nucleatum Interacts with TIGIT

    Journal: Immunity

    Article Title: Binding of the Fap2 Protein of Fusobacterium nucleatum to Human Inhibitory Receptor TIGIT Protects Tumors from Immune Cell Attack

    doi: 10.1016/j.immuni.2015.01.010

    Figure Lengend Snippet: F. nucleatum Interacts with TIGIT

    Article Snippet: To test whether the origin of the tumor (epithelial versus hematopoietic) is important for F. nucleatum binding, we used FITC labeled F. nucleatum ATCC strain 23726 (herein named 726) and examined its binding to the human Epstein Bar Virus (EBV) transformed B cell line 721.221, to the human erythroleukemic line K562, and to the human colorectal carcinoma cell line RKO ( ).

    Techniques:

    F. nucleatum Inhibits YTS Cytotoxicity via TIGIT

    Journal: Immunity

    Article Title: Binding of the Fap2 Protein of Fusobacterium nucleatum to Human Inhibitory Receptor TIGIT Protects Tumors from Immune Cell Attack

    doi: 10.1016/j.immuni.2015.01.010

    Figure Lengend Snippet: F. nucleatum Inhibits YTS Cytotoxicity via TIGIT

    Article Snippet: To test whether the origin of the tumor (epithelial versus hematopoietic) is important for F. nucleatum binding, we used FITC labeled F. nucleatum ATCC strain 23726 (herein named 726) and examined its binding to the human Epstein Bar Virus (EBV) transformed B cell line 721.221, to the human erythroleukemic line K562, and to the human colorectal carcinoma cell line RKO ( ).

    Techniques:

    F. nucleatum Inhibits Primary NK Cytotoxicity via TIGIT in an Hemagglutination-Dependent Manner

    Journal: Immunity

    Article Title: Binding of the Fap2 Protein of Fusobacterium nucleatum to Human Inhibitory Receptor TIGIT Protects Tumors from Immune Cell Attack

    doi: 10.1016/j.immuni.2015.01.010

    Figure Lengend Snippet: F. nucleatum Inhibits Primary NK Cytotoxicity via TIGIT in an Hemagglutination-Dependent Manner

    Article Snippet: To test whether the origin of the tumor (epithelial versus hematopoietic) is important for F. nucleatum binding, we used FITC labeled F. nucleatum ATCC strain 23726 (herein named 726) and examined its binding to the human Epstein Bar Virus (EBV) transformed B cell line 721.221, to the human erythroleukemic line K562, and to the human colorectal carcinoma cell line RKO ( ).

    Techniques:

    TIGIT Interacts with the Fap2 Protein of F. nucleatum

    Journal: Immunity

    Article Title: Binding of the Fap2 Protein of Fusobacterium nucleatum to Human Inhibitory Receptor TIGIT Protects Tumors from Immune Cell Attack

    doi: 10.1016/j.immuni.2015.01.010

    Figure Lengend Snippet: TIGIT Interacts with the Fap2 Protein of F. nucleatum

    Article Snippet: To test whether the origin of the tumor (epithelial versus hematopoietic) is important for F. nucleatum binding, we used FITC labeled F. nucleatum ATCC strain 23726 (herein named 726) and examined its binding to the human Epstein Bar Virus (EBV) transformed B cell line 721.221, to the human erythroleukemic line K562, and to the human colorectal carcinoma cell line RKO ( ).

    Techniques:

    F. nucleatum Protects Tumor Cells from NK Cell Killing

    Journal: Immunity

    Article Title: Binding of the Fap2 Protein of Fusobacterium nucleatum to Human Inhibitory Receptor TIGIT Protects Tumors from Immune Cell Attack

    doi: 10.1016/j.immuni.2015.01.010

    Figure Lengend Snippet: F. nucleatum Protects Tumor Cells from NK Cell Killing

    Article Snippet: To test whether the origin of the tumor (epithelial versus hematopoietic) is important for F. nucleatum binding, we used FITC labeled F. nucleatum ATCC strain 23726 (herein named 726) and examined its binding to the human Epstein Bar Virus (EBV) transformed B cell line 721.221, to the human erythroleukemic line K562, and to the human colorectal carcinoma cell line RKO ( ).

    Techniques:

    Comparison of the QRDRs (5′ end of gyrA ) of resistant strains F. canifelinum RMA 1036 T (ATCC BAA 689 T ) and RMA 12701 (ATCC BAA 690) and closely related susceptible strains F. nucleatum subsp. nucleatum ATCC 25586 T and F. nucleatum subsp. vincentii ) was used for alignment.

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: Genetic Determinant of Intrinsic Quinolone Resistance in Fusobacterium canifelinum

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.49.1.434-437.2005

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Comparison of the QRDRs (5′ end of gyrA ) of resistant strains F. canifelinum RMA 1036 T (ATCC BAA 689 T ) and RMA 12701 (ATCC BAA 690) and closely related susceptible strains F. nucleatum subsp. nucleatum ATCC 25586 T and F. nucleatum subsp. vincentii ) was used for alignment.

    Article Snippet: By screening the proteins derived from the genome sequences of F. nucleatum subsp. nucleatum ATCC 25586 (GenBank accession no. [complete]) and F. nucleatum subsp. vincentii ATCC 49256 (GenBank accession no. AABF1000051 [almost complete]), we found that topoisomerase IV was absent.

    Techniques:

    Levels of proinflammatory IL6 in vivo and in vitro . A and B: Local tissue Il6 mRNA levels in healthy and inflamed gingivae nine days after ligature placement are shown as relative expressions in relation to β-actin and as fold change (compared to healthy sites). * P =0.05, ** P =0.006 for healthy vs . inflamed tissues in WT and MIF KO mice and ** P =0.01 for inflamed sites in WT vs . MIF KO animals. Grey bars: WT mice (n=6), white bars: MIF KO mice (n=6). Results are shown as mean values ±SD, each sample was run in duplicate. C: Levels of IL6 released from HGFs after stimulation with HC, MIF or F. nucleatum (* P ) was employed. Results are shown as mean values ±SD and represent five different donors; each sample was run in triplicate.

    Journal: European journal of oral sciences

    Article Title: Assessment of the involvement of the macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF)-glucocorticoid regulatory dyad in MMP2 expression during periodontitis

    doi: 10.1111/eos.12363

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Levels of proinflammatory IL6 in vivo and in vitro . A and B: Local tissue Il6 mRNA levels in healthy and inflamed gingivae nine days after ligature placement are shown as relative expressions in relation to β-actin and as fold change (compared to healthy sites). * P =0.05, ** P =0.006 for healthy vs . inflamed tissues in WT and MIF KO mice and ** P =0.01 for inflamed sites in WT vs . MIF KO animals. Grey bars: WT mice (n=6), white bars: MIF KO mice (n=6). Results are shown as mean values ±SD, each sample was run in duplicate. C: Levels of IL6 released from HGFs after stimulation with HC, MIF or F. nucleatum (* P ) was employed. Results are shown as mean values ±SD and represent five different donors; each sample was run in triplicate.

    Article Snippet: Increases in IL6 could also be observed in HGFs after stimulation with F. nucleatum (618.7 ± 220.2 pg/ml), compared with the negative control (115.7 ± 45.1 pg/ml) ( ).

    Techniques: In Vivo, In Vitro, Mouse Assay

    MIF protein release from HGFs. MIF release was inducible by hydrocortisol (HC), but not by TNF-α or F. nucleatum (* P ), were used as a positive control. Results are shown as mean values ±SD and represent five different donors; each sample was run in triplicate.

    Journal: European journal of oral sciences

    Article Title: Assessment of the involvement of the macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF)-glucocorticoid regulatory dyad in MMP2 expression during periodontitis

    doi: 10.1111/eos.12363

    Figure Lengend Snippet: MIF protein release from HGFs. MIF release was inducible by hydrocortisol (HC), but not by TNF-α or F. nucleatum (* P ), were used as a positive control. Results are shown as mean values ±SD and represent five different donors; each sample was run in triplicate.

    Article Snippet: Increases in IL6 could also be observed in HGFs after stimulation with F. nucleatum (618.7 ± 220.2 pg/ml), compared with the negative control (115.7 ± 45.1 pg/ml) ( ).

    Techniques: Positive Control

    MMP2 levels in murine gingival tissues and HGF supernatants. A : Mmp2 mRNA levels in WT and MIF KO mice in healthy and inflamed gingival sites shown as relative expressions in relation to β-actin and as fold change (compared to healthy sites). B: MMP2 release by HGFs from five different donors in cell culture experiments in response to hydrocortisol (HC), MIF and F. nucleatum (*** P =0.0003 compared to negative controls), each sample was run in triplicate wells.

    Journal: European journal of oral sciences

    Article Title: Assessment of the involvement of the macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF)-glucocorticoid regulatory dyad in MMP2 expression during periodontitis

    doi: 10.1111/eos.12363

    Figure Lengend Snippet: MMP2 levels in murine gingival tissues and HGF supernatants. A : Mmp2 mRNA levels in WT and MIF KO mice in healthy and inflamed gingival sites shown as relative expressions in relation to β-actin and as fold change (compared to healthy sites). B: MMP2 release by HGFs from five different donors in cell culture experiments in response to hydrocortisol (HC), MIF and F. nucleatum (*** P =0.0003 compared to negative controls), each sample was run in triplicate wells.

    Article Snippet: Increases in IL6 could also be observed in HGFs after stimulation with F. nucleatum (618.7 ± 220.2 pg/ml), compared with the negative control (115.7 ± 45.1 pg/ml) ( ).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Cell Culture