f nucleatum  (ATCC)


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    Structured Review

    ATCC f nucleatum
    mRNA expression of innate immune markers human β-defensin 2 (hBD-2) are increased when histone deacetylase (HDAC) and DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) are inhibited. Gingival epithelial cells (GECs) were pretreated with trichostatin A (TSA; 9 and 45 m), sodium butyrate (SB; 0.5 and 2.0 m) or 5′-azacytidine (AZA; 1 and 10 μ) for 4 h, and subsequently exposed to Porphyromonas gingivalis (multiplicity of infection (MOI) 100:1) or Fusobacterium <t>nucleatum</t> (MOI 100:1) for 16 h. Gene expression of hBD2 was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR) compared with unstimulated control after normalization with glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Controls include unstimulated control, bacteria-alone treatment, and various inhibitors alone as indicated. No significant changes were found in the gene expression of hBD2 in GECs treated with inhibitor only: ( a ) SB, ( b ) TSA, ( c ) SB+TSA, and ( d ) AZA compared with unstimulated control. Data are expressed as means of fold change±s.e.m. from three donors evaluated in duplicate. Asterisks indicate statistically significant difference compared with unstimulated control (Ctl) (* P
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    Images

    1) Product Images from "Epigenetic regulation of human ?-defensin 2 and CC chemokine ligand 20 expression in gingival epithelial cells in response to oral bacteria"

    Article Title: Epigenetic regulation of human ?-defensin 2 and CC chemokine ligand 20 expression in gingival epithelial cells in response to oral bacteria

    Journal: Mucosal Immunology

    doi: 10.1038/mi.2010.83

    mRNA expression of innate immune markers human β-defensin 2 (hBD-2) are increased when histone deacetylase (HDAC) and DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) are inhibited. Gingival epithelial cells (GECs) were pretreated with trichostatin A (TSA; 9 and 45 m), sodium butyrate (SB; 0.5 and 2.0 m) or 5′-azacytidine (AZA; 1 and 10 μ) for 4 h, and subsequently exposed to Porphyromonas gingivalis (multiplicity of infection (MOI) 100:1) or Fusobacterium nucleatum (MOI 100:1) for 16 h. Gene expression of hBD2 was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR) compared with unstimulated control after normalization with glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Controls include unstimulated control, bacteria-alone treatment, and various inhibitors alone as indicated. No significant changes were found in the gene expression of hBD2 in GECs treated with inhibitor only: ( a ) SB, ( b ) TSA, ( c ) SB+TSA, and ( d ) AZA compared with unstimulated control. Data are expressed as means of fold change±s.e.m. from three donors evaluated in duplicate. Asterisks indicate statistically significant difference compared with unstimulated control (Ctl) (* P
    Figure Legend Snippet: mRNA expression of innate immune markers human β-defensin 2 (hBD-2) are increased when histone deacetylase (HDAC) and DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) are inhibited. Gingival epithelial cells (GECs) were pretreated with trichostatin A (TSA; 9 and 45 m), sodium butyrate (SB; 0.5 and 2.0 m) or 5′-azacytidine (AZA; 1 and 10 μ) for 4 h, and subsequently exposed to Porphyromonas gingivalis (multiplicity of infection (MOI) 100:1) or Fusobacterium nucleatum (MOI 100:1) for 16 h. Gene expression of hBD2 was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR) compared with unstimulated control after normalization with glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Controls include unstimulated control, bacteria-alone treatment, and various inhibitors alone as indicated. No significant changes were found in the gene expression of hBD2 in GECs treated with inhibitor only: ( a ) SB, ( b ) TSA, ( c ) SB+TSA, and ( d ) AZA compared with unstimulated control. Data are expressed as means of fold change±s.e.m. from three donors evaluated in duplicate. Asterisks indicate statistically significant difference compared with unstimulated control (Ctl) (* P

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Histone Deacetylase Assay, Infection, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Quantitative RT-PCR, CTL Assay

    mRNA expression of innate immune markers CC chemokine ligand 20 (CCL20) are increased when histone deacetylase (HDAC) and DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) are inhibited. Gingival epithelial cells (GECs) were pretreated with trichostatin A (TSA; 9 and 45 m), sodium butyrate (SB; 0.5 and 2.0 m), or 5′-azacytidine (AZA; 1 and 10 μ) for 4 h, and subsequently exposed to Porphyromonas gingivalis (multiplicity of infection (MOI) 100:1) or Fusobacterium nucleatum (MOI 100:1) for 16 h. Gene expression of ( b ) CCL20 was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR) compared with unstimulated control after normalization with glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Controls include unstimulated control, bacteria-alone treatment, and various inhibitors alone as indicated. No significant changes were found in the gene expression of CCL20 in GECs treated with inhibitor only: ( a ) SB, ( b ) TSA, ( c ) SB+TSA, and ( d ) AZA compared with unstimulated control. Data are expressed as means of fold change±s.e.m. from three donors evaluated in duplicate. Asterisks indicate statistically significant difference compared with unstimulated control (Ctl) (* P
    Figure Legend Snippet: mRNA expression of innate immune markers CC chemokine ligand 20 (CCL20) are increased when histone deacetylase (HDAC) and DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) are inhibited. Gingival epithelial cells (GECs) were pretreated with trichostatin A (TSA; 9 and 45 m), sodium butyrate (SB; 0.5 and 2.0 m), or 5′-azacytidine (AZA; 1 and 10 μ) for 4 h, and subsequently exposed to Porphyromonas gingivalis (multiplicity of infection (MOI) 100:1) or Fusobacterium nucleatum (MOI 100:1) for 16 h. Gene expression of ( b ) CCL20 was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR) compared with unstimulated control after normalization with glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Controls include unstimulated control, bacteria-alone treatment, and various inhibitors alone as indicated. No significant changes were found in the gene expression of CCL20 in GECs treated with inhibitor only: ( a ) SB, ( b ) TSA, ( c ) SB+TSA, and ( d ) AZA compared with unstimulated control. Data are expressed as means of fold change±s.e.m. from three donors evaluated in duplicate. Asterisks indicate statistically significant difference compared with unstimulated control (Ctl) (* P

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Histone Deacetylase Assay, Infection, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Quantitative RT-PCR, CTL Assay

    Differential decreased mRNA expression of HDAC1, HDAC2 and DNMT1 in gingival epithelial cells in response to various doses of oral bacteria. mRNA expression of ( a ) DNA methyltransferase (DNMT1), ( b ) histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1), and ( c ) histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) are differentially decreased in gingival epithelial cells (GECs) in response to various doses of Porphyromonas gingivalis vs. Fusobacterium nucleatum . GECs were stimulated with P. gingivalis (Pg) or F. nucleatum (Fn) at multiplicities of infection (MOIs) of 10:1, 50:1, 100:1, and 200:1 for 24 h. Changes in mRNA expression were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR) and results are expressed as fold change in gene expression compared with the unstimulated control after normalization with the housekeeping gene glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase ( GAPDH ). The data are derived from three different cell donors tested in duplicate. Error bars indicate s.e.m. Asterisks indicate statistically significant difference compared with unstimulated control (Ctl) (* P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Differential decreased mRNA expression of HDAC1, HDAC2 and DNMT1 in gingival epithelial cells in response to various doses of oral bacteria. mRNA expression of ( a ) DNA methyltransferase (DNMT1), ( b ) histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1), and ( c ) histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) are differentially decreased in gingival epithelial cells (GECs) in response to various doses of Porphyromonas gingivalis vs. Fusobacterium nucleatum . GECs were stimulated with P. gingivalis (Pg) or F. nucleatum (Fn) at multiplicities of infection (MOIs) of 10:1, 50:1, 100:1, and 200:1 for 24 h. Changes in mRNA expression were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR) and results are expressed as fold change in gene expression compared with the unstimulated control after normalization with the housekeeping gene glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase ( GAPDH ). The data are derived from three different cell donors tested in duplicate. Error bars indicate s.e.m. Asterisks indicate statistically significant difference compared with unstimulated control (Ctl) (* P

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Histone Deacetylase Assay, Infection, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Quantitative RT-PCR, Derivative Assay, CTL Assay

    Protein levels of histone H3 methylated at Lys4 were evaluated with PathScan enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Gingival epithelial cells (GECs) were exposed to Porphyromonas gingivalis or Fusobacterium nucleatum for 24 h at multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 100:1, and then nuclear protein was extracted followed by sonication. The H3 tri-methylated at Lys4 was captured by coated antibody after incubation with cell lysates, and histone H3 protein level was quantified according to the absorbance readings at 450 nm. Protein expression was expressed as the ratio of absorbance readings normalized to relative protein amount. The data are average from three different donor cells tested with standard error deviation. The asterisks indicate the significant difference vs. the respective unstimulated control (** P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Protein levels of histone H3 methylated at Lys4 were evaluated with PathScan enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Gingival epithelial cells (GECs) were exposed to Porphyromonas gingivalis or Fusobacterium nucleatum for 24 h at multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 100:1, and then nuclear protein was extracted followed by sonication. The H3 tri-methylated at Lys4 was captured by coated antibody after incubation with cell lysates, and histone H3 protein level was quantified according to the absorbance readings at 450 nm. Protein expression was expressed as the ratio of absorbance readings normalized to relative protein amount. The data are average from three different donor cells tested with standard error deviation. The asterisks indicate the significant difference vs. the respective unstimulated control (** P

    Techniques Used: Methylation, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Infection, Sonication, Incubation, Expressing

    Protein levels of histone deacetylases 1 and 2 (HDAC1 and HDAC2) and DNA methyltransferase (DNMT1) are differentially expressed in gingival epithelial cells (GECs) in response to Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) and Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn). GECs were stimulated with P. gingivalis (Pg) or F. nucleatum (Fn) at multiplicities of infection (MOIs) of 100:1 for 24 h. Nuclear proteins were extracted, denatured at 70 °C for 10 min, and separated by NuPAGE electrophoresis system. Nuclear extracts of Hela cells probed with individual primary antibody were used as positive controls. The data are derived from two different cell donors tested in duplicate.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Protein levels of histone deacetylases 1 and 2 (HDAC1 and HDAC2) and DNA methyltransferase (DNMT1) are differentially expressed in gingival epithelial cells (GECs) in response to Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) and Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn). GECs were stimulated with P. gingivalis (Pg) or F. nucleatum (Fn) at multiplicities of infection (MOIs) of 100:1 for 24 h. Nuclear proteins were extracted, denatured at 70 °C for 10 min, and separated by NuPAGE electrophoresis system. Nuclear extracts of Hela cells probed with individual primary antibody were used as positive controls. The data are derived from two different cell donors tested in duplicate.

    Techniques Used: Infection, Electrophoresis, Derivative Assay

    Differential mRNA expression of HDAC1, HDAC2 and DNMT1 in human TERT cells in response to oral bacteria. Differential mRNA expression of ( a ) histone deacetylases 1 and 2 (HDAC1 and HDAC2) and ( b ) DNA methyltransferase (DNMT1) in human TERT cells in response to Porphyromonas gingivalis vs. Fusobacterium nucleatum . Human TERT cells were stimulated with P. gingivalis (Pg) or F. nucleatum (Fn) at multiplicities of infection (MOIs) of 10:1, 50:1, and 100:1 for 4 or 24 h. Unstimulated cells at 4 and 24 h served as controls. Changes in mRNA expression were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR) and results are expressed as fold change in gene expression compared with the corresponding unstimulated controls (4 and 24 h) after normalization with glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). The experiment was repeated twice using TERT cells. Error bars indicate s.e.m. Asterisks indicate statistically significant difference compared with unstimulated control (Ctl) (* P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Differential mRNA expression of HDAC1, HDAC2 and DNMT1 in human TERT cells in response to oral bacteria. Differential mRNA expression of ( a ) histone deacetylases 1 and 2 (HDAC1 and HDAC2) and ( b ) DNA methyltransferase (DNMT1) in human TERT cells in response to Porphyromonas gingivalis vs. Fusobacterium nucleatum . Human TERT cells were stimulated with P. gingivalis (Pg) or F. nucleatum (Fn) at multiplicities of infection (MOIs) of 10:1, 50:1, and 100:1 for 4 or 24 h. Unstimulated cells at 4 and 24 h served as controls. Changes in mRNA expression were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR) and results are expressed as fold change in gene expression compared with the corresponding unstimulated controls (4 and 24 h) after normalization with glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). The experiment was repeated twice using TERT cells. Error bars indicate s.e.m. Asterisks indicate statistically significant difference compared with unstimulated control (Ctl) (* P

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Infection, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Quantitative RT-PCR, CTL Assay

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion is increased when histone deacetylase (HDAC) and DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) are inhibited. Gingival epithelial cells (GECs) were pretreated with trichostatin A (TSA; 9 and 45 m), sodium butyrate (SB; 0.5 and 2.0 m), or 5′-azacytidine (AZA; 1 and 10 μ) for 4 h, and subsequently exposed to Porphyromonas gingivalis (multiplicity of infection (MOI) 100:1) or Fusobacterium nucleatum (MOI 100:1) for 16 h. Secretion of IL-8 in response to various oral bacteria is evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cell-free supernatant was collected and the amount of IL-8 secreted is shown in pg ml –1 . Unstimulated cells (UN) are used as controls in each experiment. Data from duplicates with cells from three different donors are shown. No significant changes were found in the secretion of IL-8 in GECs treated with inhibitor only: ( a ) SB, ( b ) TSA, ( c ) SB+TSA, and ( d ) AZA compared with unstimulated control. Asterisks indicate statistically significant difference compared with unstimulated control (Ctl) (* P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion is increased when histone deacetylase (HDAC) and DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) are inhibited. Gingival epithelial cells (GECs) were pretreated with trichostatin A (TSA; 9 and 45 m), sodium butyrate (SB; 0.5 and 2.0 m), or 5′-azacytidine (AZA; 1 and 10 μ) for 4 h, and subsequently exposed to Porphyromonas gingivalis (multiplicity of infection (MOI) 100:1) or Fusobacterium nucleatum (MOI 100:1) for 16 h. Secretion of IL-8 in response to various oral bacteria is evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cell-free supernatant was collected and the amount of IL-8 secreted is shown in pg ml –1 . Unstimulated cells (UN) are used as controls in each experiment. Data from duplicates with cells from three different donors are shown. No significant changes were found in the secretion of IL-8 in GECs treated with inhibitor only: ( a ) SB, ( b ) TSA, ( c ) SB+TSA, and ( d ) AZA compared with unstimulated control. Asterisks indicate statistically significant difference compared with unstimulated control (Ctl) (* P

    Techniques Used: Histone Deacetylase Assay, Infection, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, CTL Assay

    2) Product Images from "A novel vaccine targeting Fusobacterium nucleatum against abscesses and halitosis"

    Article Title: A novel vaccine targeting Fusobacterium nucleatum against abscesses and halitosis

    Journal: Vaccine

    doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.12.058

    The production of antibody (IgG) to F. nucleatum. For immunization, cultured F. nucleatum and S. mutans were irradiated by UV at a total energy of 7000 J/m 2 . F. nucleatum lysate (20 µg) was separated by 10% SDS-PAGE and then subjected to Western
    Figure Legend Snippet: The production of antibody (IgG) to F. nucleatum. For immunization, cultured F. nucleatum and S. mutans were irradiated by UV at a total energy of 7000 J/m 2 . F. nucleatum lysate (20 µg) was separated by 10% SDS-PAGE and then subjected to Western

    Techniques Used: Cell Culture, Irradiation, SDS Page, Western Blot

    An abscess induced by the injection of live F. nucleatum into the gums of lower incisors of ICR mice. One hundred micro liter of PBS (A, C and E) or F. nucleatum (4 × 10 8 CFU in PBS) (B, D and F) was inoculated into a mouse oral cavity for 3 days,
    Figure Legend Snippet: An abscess induced by the injection of live F. nucleatum into the gums of lower incisors of ICR mice. One hundred micro liter of PBS (A, C and E) or F. nucleatum (4 × 10 8 CFU in PBS) (B, D and F) was inoculated into a mouse oral cavity for 3 days,

    Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

    Detection of VSC production and biofilm formation of F. nucleatum . F. nucleatum (4 × 10 9 CFU/well) was cultured on a 6-well nonpyrogenic polystyrene plate for 6, 12, 24 and 36 h. (A) After removing the media, each well containing attached bacteria
    Figure Legend Snippet: Detection of VSC production and biofilm formation of F. nucleatum . F. nucleatum (4 × 10 9 CFU/well) was cultured on a 6-well nonpyrogenic polystyrene plate for 6, 12, 24 and 36 h. (A) After removing the media, each well containing attached bacteria

    Techniques Used: Cell Culture

    In vivo protective immunity. A gum pocket model with abscesses and swollen tissues was created, as described in and Section 2. After inoculation with live F. nucleatum (4 × 10 8 CFU) for 3 days, the change in the volume of gum swelling
    Figure Legend Snippet: In vivo protective immunity. A gum pocket model with abscesses and swollen tissues was created, as described in and Section 2. After inoculation with live F. nucleatum (4 × 10 8 CFU) for 3 days, the change in the volume of gum swelling

    Techniques Used: In Vivo

    Inhibition of VSC production and biofilm formation by anti- F. nucleatum serum. F. nucleatum (4 × 10 9 CFU) was pre-incubated with 2.5% (v/v) anti- F. nucleatum (Anti-N) or anti- S. mutans (Anti-M) sera without activated complements for 2 h. Afterwards,
    Figure Legend Snippet: Inhibition of VSC production and biofilm formation by anti- F. nucleatum serum. F. nucleatum (4 × 10 9 CFU) was pre-incubated with 2.5% (v/v) anti- F. nucleatum (Anti-N) or anti- S. mutans (Anti-M) sera without activated complements for 2 h. Afterwards,

    Techniques Used: Inhibition, Incubation

    3) Product Images from "A novel vaccine targeting Fusobacterium nucleatum against abscesses and halitosis"

    Article Title: A novel vaccine targeting Fusobacterium nucleatum against abscesses and halitosis

    Journal: Vaccine

    doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.12.058

    The production of antibody (IgG) to F. nucleatum. For immunization, cultured F. nucleatum and S. mutans were irradiated by UV at a total energy of 7000 J/m 2 . F. nucleatum lysate (20 µg) was separated by 10% SDS-PAGE and then subjected to Western
    Figure Legend Snippet: The production of antibody (IgG) to F. nucleatum. For immunization, cultured F. nucleatum and S. mutans were irradiated by UV at a total energy of 7000 J/m 2 . F. nucleatum lysate (20 µg) was separated by 10% SDS-PAGE and then subjected to Western

    Techniques Used: Cell Culture, Irradiation, SDS Page, Western Blot

    An abscess induced by the injection of live F. nucleatum into the gums of lower incisors of ICR mice. One hundred micro liter of PBS (A, C and E) or F. nucleatum (4 × 10 8 CFU in PBS) (B, D and F) was inoculated into a mouse oral cavity for 3 days,
    Figure Legend Snippet: An abscess induced by the injection of live F. nucleatum into the gums of lower incisors of ICR mice. One hundred micro liter of PBS (A, C and E) or F. nucleatum (4 × 10 8 CFU in PBS) (B, D and F) was inoculated into a mouse oral cavity for 3 days,

    Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

    Detection of VSC production and biofilm formation of F. nucleatum . F. nucleatum (4 × 10 9 CFU/well) was cultured on a 6-well nonpyrogenic polystyrene plate for 6, 12, 24 and 36 h. (A) After removing the media, each well containing attached bacteria
    Figure Legend Snippet: Detection of VSC production and biofilm formation of F. nucleatum . F. nucleatum (4 × 10 9 CFU/well) was cultured on a 6-well nonpyrogenic polystyrene plate for 6, 12, 24 and 36 h. (A) After removing the media, each well containing attached bacteria

    Techniques Used: Cell Culture

    In vivo protective immunity. A gum pocket model with abscesses and swollen tissues was created, as described in and Section 2. After inoculation with live F. nucleatum (4 × 10 8 CFU) for 3 days, the change in the volume of gum swelling
    Figure Legend Snippet: In vivo protective immunity. A gum pocket model with abscesses and swollen tissues was created, as described in and Section 2. After inoculation with live F. nucleatum (4 × 10 8 CFU) for 3 days, the change in the volume of gum swelling

    Techniques Used: In Vivo

    Inhibition of VSC production and biofilm formation by anti- F. nucleatum serum. F. nucleatum (4 × 10 9 CFU) was pre-incubated with 2.5% (v/v) anti- F. nucleatum (Anti-N) or anti- S. mutans (Anti-M) sera without activated complements for 2 h. Afterwards,
    Figure Legend Snippet: Inhibition of VSC production and biofilm formation by anti- F. nucleatum serum. F. nucleatum (4 × 10 9 CFU) was pre-incubated with 2.5% (v/v) anti- F. nucleatum (Anti-N) or anti- S. mutans (Anti-M) sera without activated complements for 2 h. Afterwards,

    Techniques Used: Inhibition, Incubation

    4) Product Images from "A novel vaccine targeting Fusobacterium nucleatum against abscesses and halitosis"

    Article Title: A novel vaccine targeting Fusobacterium nucleatum against abscesses and halitosis

    Journal: Vaccine

    doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.12.058

    The production of antibody (IgG) to F. nucleatum. For immunization, cultured F. nucleatum and S. mutans were irradiated by UV at a total energy of 7000 J/m 2 . F. nucleatum lysate (20 µg) was separated by 10% SDS-PAGE and then subjected to Western
    Figure Legend Snippet: The production of antibody (IgG) to F. nucleatum. For immunization, cultured F. nucleatum and S. mutans were irradiated by UV at a total energy of 7000 J/m 2 . F. nucleatum lysate (20 µg) was separated by 10% SDS-PAGE and then subjected to Western

    Techniques Used: Cell Culture, Irradiation, SDS Page, Western Blot

    An abscess induced by the injection of live F. nucleatum into the gums of lower incisors of ICR mice. One hundred micro liter of PBS (A, C and E) or F. nucleatum (4 × 10 8 CFU in PBS) (B, D and F) was inoculated into a mouse oral cavity for 3 days,
    Figure Legend Snippet: An abscess induced by the injection of live F. nucleatum into the gums of lower incisors of ICR mice. One hundred micro liter of PBS (A, C and E) or F. nucleatum (4 × 10 8 CFU in PBS) (B, D and F) was inoculated into a mouse oral cavity for 3 days,

    Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

    Detection of VSC production and biofilm formation of F. nucleatum . F. nucleatum (4 × 10 9 CFU/well) was cultured on a 6-well nonpyrogenic polystyrene plate for 6, 12, 24 and 36 h. (A) After removing the media, each well containing attached bacteria
    Figure Legend Snippet: Detection of VSC production and biofilm formation of F. nucleatum . F. nucleatum (4 × 10 9 CFU/well) was cultured on a 6-well nonpyrogenic polystyrene plate for 6, 12, 24 and 36 h. (A) After removing the media, each well containing attached bacteria

    Techniques Used: Cell Culture

    In vivo protective immunity. A gum pocket model with abscesses and swollen tissues was created, as described in and Section 2. After inoculation with live F. nucleatum (4 × 10 8 CFU) for 3 days, the change in the volume of gum swelling
    Figure Legend Snippet: In vivo protective immunity. A gum pocket model with abscesses and swollen tissues was created, as described in and Section 2. After inoculation with live F. nucleatum (4 × 10 8 CFU) for 3 days, the change in the volume of gum swelling

    Techniques Used: In Vivo

    Inhibition of VSC production and biofilm formation by anti- F. nucleatum serum. F. nucleatum (4 × 10 9 CFU) was pre-incubated with 2.5% (v/v) anti- F. nucleatum (Anti-N) or anti- S. mutans (Anti-M) sera without activated complements for 2 h. Afterwards,
    Figure Legend Snippet: Inhibition of VSC production and biofilm formation by anti- F. nucleatum serum. F. nucleatum (4 × 10 9 CFU) was pre-incubated with 2.5% (v/v) anti- F. nucleatum (Anti-N) or anti- S. mutans (Anti-M) sera without activated complements for 2 h. Afterwards,

    Techniques Used: Inhibition, Incubation

    5) Product Images from "Identification and Characterization of Fusolisin, the Fusobacterium nucleatum Autotransporter Serine Protease"

    Article Title: Identification and Characterization of Fusolisin, the Fusobacterium nucleatum Autotransporter Serine Protease

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0111329

    Fu-S-P activity correlates with the number of F. nucleatum cells. Fu-S-P (0.03 mM) was incubated for 2 hrs with increasing numbers of washed F. nucleatum cells. Relative Fluorescent Units (RFU) were determined as described in Materials and Methods. No activity was observed with boiled cells.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Fu-S-P activity correlates with the number of F. nucleatum cells. Fu-S-P (0.03 mM) was incubated for 2 hrs with increasing numbers of washed F. nucleatum cells. Relative Fluorescent Units (RFU) were determined as described in Materials and Methods. No activity was observed with boiled cells.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Incubation

    PMSF inhibits growth of F. nucleatum but not of E. coli . (A) Growth of F. nucleatum 12230 (black line) is inhibited by PMSF (solid green line), but this inhibition is relieved by P. gingivalis supernatant (SN Pg) containing PMSF-resistant cysteine proteases (broken green line). (B) Growth of E. coli is not affected by PMSF, ruling out PMSF toxicity. *P
    Figure Legend Snippet: PMSF inhibits growth of F. nucleatum but not of E. coli . (A) Growth of F. nucleatum 12230 (black line) is inhibited by PMSF (solid green line), but this inhibition is relieved by P. gingivalis supernatant (SN Pg) containing PMSF-resistant cysteine proteases (broken green line). (B) Growth of E. coli is not affected by PMSF, ruling out PMSF toxicity. *P

    Techniques Used: Inhibition

    Identification of the fusobacterial serine protease. Amino acid sequences of the putative serine protease open reading frames FN1426 (Fsp25586) (A), and FNV0835 (Fsp49256) (B). Red highlight indicates sequences identified by mass spectrometry of the 99 kDa serine protease of F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 (A), and of the 55 kDa serine protease of F. nucleatum ATCC 49256 (B).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Identification of the fusobacterial serine protease. Amino acid sequences of the putative serine protease open reading frames FN1426 (Fsp25586) (A), and FNV0835 (Fsp49256) (B). Red highlight indicates sequences identified by mass spectrometry of the 99 kDa serine protease of F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 (A), and of the 55 kDa serine protease of F. nucleatum ATCC 49256 (B).

    Techniques Used: Mass Spectrometry

    PMSF inhibits the proteolytic activity of F. nucleatum . A, F. nucleatum FDC 364. B, F. nucleatum ATCC 25586. C, F. nucleatum 12230. D, F. nucleatum ATCC 23726. M, Molecular weight markers. Presented data are of representative zymograms.
    Figure Legend Snippet: PMSF inhibits the proteolytic activity of F. nucleatum . A, F. nucleatum FDC 364. B, F. nucleatum ATCC 25586. C, F. nucleatum 12230. D, F. nucleatum ATCC 23726. M, Molecular weight markers. Presented data are of representative zymograms.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Molecular Weight

    Self-restriction of Fsp25586 is not efficient. Zymogram analysis of cell culture supernatant prepared from F. nucleatum ATCC 23726 carrying the pHS30 vector (A), or the pHSPROT plasmid expressing Fsp25586 (B).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Self-restriction of Fsp25586 is not efficient. Zymogram analysis of cell culture supernatant prepared from F. nucleatum ATCC 23726 carrying the pHS30 vector (A), or the pHSPROT plasmid expressing Fsp25586 (B).

    Techniques Used: Cell Culture, Plasmid Preparation, Expressing

    Protease profiles of F. nucleatum growth medium supernatants on fibrinogen containing zymograms. M, Molecular weight markers. A, F. nucleatum ATCC 49256. B, F. nucleatum FDC 364. C, F. nucleatum ATCC 10953. D, F. nucleatum ATCC 25586. E, F. nucleatum ATCC 23726. F, F. nucleatum 12230. Arrows indicate proteolytic bands. Presented data are of representative zymograms.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Protease profiles of F. nucleatum growth medium supernatants on fibrinogen containing zymograms. M, Molecular weight markers. A, F. nucleatum ATCC 49256. B, F. nucleatum FDC 364. C, F. nucleatum ATCC 10953. D, F. nucleatum ATCC 25586. E, F. nucleatum ATCC 23726. F, F. nucleatum 12230. Arrows indicate proteolytic bands. Presented data are of representative zymograms.

    Techniques Used: Molecular Weight

    6) Product Images from "Identification and Characterization of Fusolisin, the Fusobacterium nucleatum Autotransporter Serine Protease"

    Article Title: Identification and Characterization of Fusolisin, the Fusobacterium nucleatum Autotransporter Serine Protease

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0111329

    Fu-S-P activity correlates with the number of F. nucleatum cells. Fu-S-P (0.03 mM) was incubated for 2 hrs with increasing numbers of washed F. nucleatum cells. Relative Fluorescent Units (RFU) were determined as described in Materials and Methods. No activity was observed with boiled cells.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Fu-S-P activity correlates with the number of F. nucleatum cells. Fu-S-P (0.03 mM) was incubated for 2 hrs with increasing numbers of washed F. nucleatum cells. Relative Fluorescent Units (RFU) were determined as described in Materials and Methods. No activity was observed with boiled cells.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Incubation

    PMSF inhibits growth of F. nucleatum but not of E. coli . (A) Growth of F. nucleatum 12230 (black line) is inhibited by PMSF (solid green line), but this inhibition is relieved by P. gingivalis supernatant (SN Pg) containing PMSF-resistant cysteine proteases (broken green line). (B) Growth of E. coli is not affected by PMSF, ruling out PMSF toxicity. *P
    Figure Legend Snippet: PMSF inhibits growth of F. nucleatum but not of E. coli . (A) Growth of F. nucleatum 12230 (black line) is inhibited by PMSF (solid green line), but this inhibition is relieved by P. gingivalis supernatant (SN Pg) containing PMSF-resistant cysteine proteases (broken green line). (B) Growth of E. coli is not affected by PMSF, ruling out PMSF toxicity. *P

    Techniques Used: Inhibition

    Identification of the fusobacterial serine protease. Amino acid sequences of the putative serine protease open reading frames FN1426 (Fsp25586) (A), and FNV0835 (Fsp49256) (B). Red highlight indicates sequences identified by mass spectrometry of the 99 kDa serine protease of F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 (A), and of the 55 kDa serine protease of F. nucleatum ATCC 49256 (B).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Identification of the fusobacterial serine protease. Amino acid sequences of the putative serine protease open reading frames FN1426 (Fsp25586) (A), and FNV0835 (Fsp49256) (B). Red highlight indicates sequences identified by mass spectrometry of the 99 kDa serine protease of F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 (A), and of the 55 kDa serine protease of F. nucleatum ATCC 49256 (B).

    Techniques Used: Mass Spectrometry

    PMSF inhibits the proteolytic activity of F. nucleatum . A, F. nucleatum FDC 364. B, F. nucleatum ATCC 25586. C, F. nucleatum 12230. D, F. nucleatum ATCC 23726. M, Molecular weight markers. Presented data are of representative zymograms.
    Figure Legend Snippet: PMSF inhibits the proteolytic activity of F. nucleatum . A, F. nucleatum FDC 364. B, F. nucleatum ATCC 25586. C, F. nucleatum 12230. D, F. nucleatum ATCC 23726. M, Molecular weight markers. Presented data are of representative zymograms.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Molecular Weight

    Self-restriction of Fsp25586 is not efficient. Zymogram analysis of cell culture supernatant prepared from F. nucleatum ATCC 23726 carrying the pHS30 vector (A), or the pHSPROT plasmid expressing Fsp25586 (B).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Self-restriction of Fsp25586 is not efficient. Zymogram analysis of cell culture supernatant prepared from F. nucleatum ATCC 23726 carrying the pHS30 vector (A), or the pHSPROT plasmid expressing Fsp25586 (B).

    Techniques Used: Cell Culture, Plasmid Preparation, Expressing

    Protease profiles of F. nucleatum growth medium supernatants on fibrinogen containing zymograms. M, Molecular weight markers. A, F. nucleatum ATCC 49256. B, F. nucleatum FDC 364. C, F. nucleatum ATCC 10953. D, F. nucleatum ATCC 25586. E, F. nucleatum ATCC 23726. F, F. nucleatum 12230. Arrows indicate proteolytic bands. Presented data are of representative zymograms.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Protease profiles of F. nucleatum growth medium supernatants on fibrinogen containing zymograms. M, Molecular weight markers. A, F. nucleatum ATCC 49256. B, F. nucleatum FDC 364. C, F. nucleatum ATCC 10953. D, F. nucleatum ATCC 25586. E, F. nucleatum ATCC 23726. F, F. nucleatum 12230. Arrows indicate proteolytic bands. Presented data are of representative zymograms.

    Techniques Used: Molecular Weight

    7) Product Images from "Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase expression regulates the survival and proliferation of Fusobacterium nucleatum in THP-1-derived macrophages"

    Article Title: Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase expression regulates the survival and proliferation of Fusobacterium nucleatum in THP-1-derived macrophages

    Journal: Cell Death & Disease

    doi: 10.1038/s41419-018-0389-0

    Involvement of IL-6 and TNF-α in the induction of IDO by F. nucleatum -infected THP-1 cells. TNF-α ( a ) and IL-6 ( b ) levels in the supernatants of Fn - or heat-killed Fn -infected dTHP1 cells at an MOI of 10:1 for the indicated times. c IDO expression was assessed by Western blot at 48 h. d mRNA expression of IL-6 and TNF-α level in the presence of PMB with the indicated dosages. IDO enzymatic activity in supernatants ( e ) and representative western blots for IDO in cells lysates ( f ) of live Fn -infected dTHP1 cells (MOI: 10:1) in the presence of neutralizing antibodies to TNF-α and/or PBM for 48 h. Bars represent the mean ± SD of the results from triplicate determinations. ^Below the detection limit. * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Involvement of IL-6 and TNF-α in the induction of IDO by F. nucleatum -infected THP-1 cells. TNF-α ( a ) and IL-6 ( b ) levels in the supernatants of Fn - or heat-killed Fn -infected dTHP1 cells at an MOI of 10:1 for the indicated times. c IDO expression was assessed by Western blot at 48 h. d mRNA expression of IL-6 and TNF-α level in the presence of PMB with the indicated dosages. IDO enzymatic activity in supernatants ( e ) and representative western blots for IDO in cells lysates ( f ) of live Fn -infected dTHP1 cells (MOI: 10:1) in the presence of neutralizing antibodies to TNF-α and/or PBM for 48 h. Bars represent the mean ± SD of the results from triplicate determinations. ^Below the detection limit. * P

    Techniques Used: Infection, Expressing, Western Blot, Activity Assay

    F. nucleatum survives and undergoes limited intracellular proliferation in THP-1-derived macrophages. Intracellular bacteria proliferation was assessed by gentamycin protection assay. Fn -dTHP1 cells with or without treated by 1-MT were lysed at the indicated time-points after infection, and the numbers of total viable bacteria ( a ) and viable bacteria per macrophage ( b ) were determined by the serial dilution method. c Immunofluorescence staining of intracellular Fn (red) was observed by confocal microscope at 24 h and 72 h (×60). d The apoptotic cells were analyzed by flow cytometry at 72 h. Bars represent the mean ± SD of the results from triplicate determinations. * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: F. nucleatum survives and undergoes limited intracellular proliferation in THP-1-derived macrophages. Intracellular bacteria proliferation was assessed by gentamycin protection assay. Fn -dTHP1 cells with or without treated by 1-MT were lysed at the indicated time-points after infection, and the numbers of total viable bacteria ( a ) and viable bacteria per macrophage ( b ) were determined by the serial dilution method. c Immunofluorescence staining of intracellular Fn (red) was observed by confocal microscope at 24 h and 72 h (×60). d The apoptotic cells were analyzed by flow cytometry at 72 h. Bars represent the mean ± SD of the results from triplicate determinations. * P

    Techniques Used: Derivative Assay, Infection, Serial Dilution, Immunofluorescence, Staining, Microscopy, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry

    Growth of F. nucleatum is regulated by tryptophan and kynurenine in a dose-dependent manner. a Fn grew in a tryptophan dose-dependent manner. b The growth of Fn was inhibited with kynurenine in a dose-dependent manner. Bacterial growth was assessed in enriched BHI broth by spectrophotometry. Columns indicate the mean of six replicate measurements, and bars indicate the SD (** P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Growth of F. nucleatum is regulated by tryptophan and kynurenine in a dose-dependent manner. a Fn grew in a tryptophan dose-dependent manner. b The growth of Fn was inhibited with kynurenine in a dose-dependent manner. Bacterial growth was assessed in enriched BHI broth by spectrophotometry. Columns indicate the mean of six replicate measurements, and bars indicate the SD (** P

    Techniques Used: Spectrophotometry

    F. nucleatum invades THP-1-derived macrophages. THP-1-derived macrophages (dTHP1) were infected with F. nucleatum ( Fn ) at a MOI of 10:1 (bacteria:cells) for 48 h. Immunofluorescence staining of live Fn infection ( a ) and heat-killed Fn infection ( b ) were observed by confocal microscope (×60). c After 72 h co-culture, the recovery colonies numbers of average cell lysis and supernatant liquid. d Gram staining of Fn bacteria (×100) and Fn -infected dTHP1 cells (×20) were observed by light microscope. Bacteria external to the host cell were labeled with both Cy3 (red) and FITC (green), bacteria inside the cells were labeled with Cy3 (appearing red when channels were merged). Scale bar = 10 μm. *** P
    Figure Legend Snippet: F. nucleatum invades THP-1-derived macrophages. THP-1-derived macrophages (dTHP1) were infected with F. nucleatum ( Fn ) at a MOI of 10:1 (bacteria:cells) for 48 h. Immunofluorescence staining of live Fn infection ( a ) and heat-killed Fn infection ( b ) were observed by confocal microscope (×60). c After 72 h co-culture, the recovery colonies numbers of average cell lysis and supernatant liquid. d Gram staining of Fn bacteria (×100) and Fn -infected dTHP1 cells (×20) were observed by light microscope. Bacteria external to the host cell were labeled with both Cy3 (red) and FITC (green), bacteria inside the cells were labeled with Cy3 (appearing red when channels were merged). Scale bar = 10 μm. *** P

    Techniques Used: Derivative Assay, Infection, Immunofluorescence, Staining, Microscopy, Co-Culture Assay, Lysis, Light Microscopy, Labeling

    F. nucleatum infection exhibits little or no effect on the cell viability of THP-1-derived macrophages. dTHP1 cells were infected with dead F. nucleatum ( Fn ) (heat-killed- Fn , grey) or live Fn ( Fn , dark grey) at a MOI of 10:1 (bacteria:cells) for the indicated time-points. a Morphology was observed at 72 h; b cell viability was measured by an MTT assay; c , d the apoptotic cells were analyzed by flow cytometry at 72 h; e the PI3K/AKT and ERK signaling pathway were analyzed by western blot from 1 h to 4 h and f quantitation was performed using pixel density analysis. Data indicate the mean ± standard deviation (SD) of triplicate-infected cultures. Bars represent the mean ± SD of the results from replicate measurements. * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: F. nucleatum infection exhibits little or no effect on the cell viability of THP-1-derived macrophages. dTHP1 cells were infected with dead F. nucleatum ( Fn ) (heat-killed- Fn , grey) or live Fn ( Fn , dark grey) at a MOI of 10:1 (bacteria:cells) for the indicated time-points. a Morphology was observed at 72 h; b cell viability was measured by an MTT assay; c , d the apoptotic cells were analyzed by flow cytometry at 72 h; e the PI3K/AKT and ERK signaling pathway were analyzed by western blot from 1 h to 4 h and f quantitation was performed using pixel density analysis. Data indicate the mean ± standard deviation (SD) of triplicate-infected cultures. Bars represent the mean ± SD of the results from replicate measurements. * P

    Techniques Used: Infection, Derivative Assay, MTT Assay, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Western Blot, Quantitation Assay, Standard Deviation

    F. nucleatum infection induces IDO expression in THP-1-derived macrophages in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. a IDO mRNA expression assessed by qRT-PCR, b induction of IDO enzymatic activity by HPLC, and c , d representative western blots for IDO protein expression in dTHP1 cells infected with live Fn or heat-killed- Fn for 48 h at different dosages; e IDO mRNA expression assessed by qRT-PCR, f induction of IDO enzymatic activity by HPLC and g , h representative western blots for IDO protein expression in dTHP1 cells infected with live Fn or heat-killed- Fn at a MOI of 10:1 for the indicated time-points; i Fn -infected dTHP1 cells exhibit positive cytoplasmic staining for IDO at a MOI of 10:1 for 48 h and j negative staining for uninfected-dTHP1 cells as detected by immunohistochemistry. Bars represent the mean ± SD of the results from replicate measurements. ^Below the detection limit. * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: F. nucleatum infection induces IDO expression in THP-1-derived macrophages in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. a IDO mRNA expression assessed by qRT-PCR, b induction of IDO enzymatic activity by HPLC, and c , d representative western blots for IDO protein expression in dTHP1 cells infected with live Fn or heat-killed- Fn for 48 h at different dosages; e IDO mRNA expression assessed by qRT-PCR, f induction of IDO enzymatic activity by HPLC and g , h representative western blots for IDO protein expression in dTHP1 cells infected with live Fn or heat-killed- Fn at a MOI of 10:1 for the indicated time-points; i Fn -infected dTHP1 cells exhibit positive cytoplasmic staining for IDO at a MOI of 10:1 for 48 h and j negative staining for uninfected-dTHP1 cells as detected by immunohistochemistry. Bars represent the mean ± SD of the results from replicate measurements. ^Below the detection limit. * P

    Techniques Used: Infection, Expressing, Derivative Assay, Quantitative RT-PCR, Activity Assay, High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Western Blot, Staining, Negative Staining, Immunohistochemistry

    F. nucleatum infection induces classically activated THP-1-derived macrophages. The mRNA levels of a cytokines (INF-γ, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-12p40, IL-10); b MHC class II cell surface receptors (HLA-DR, CD80); M2-polarized phenotype markers (CD206, CD163); and chemokine receptors (CCR7, CXCR4) were assessed by qRT-PCR in dTHP1 cells infected with heat-killed- Fn or live Fn at an MOI of 10:1 for 24 h. The expression of the M1-polarized phenotype marker CCR7, CXCR4, and HLA-DR in dTHP1 cells with live/heated-killed Fn at an MOI of 10:1 for 48 h was analyzed by flow cytometry ( c ) and western blot ( d ). Bars represent the mean ± SD of the results from replicate measurements. * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: F. nucleatum infection induces classically activated THP-1-derived macrophages. The mRNA levels of a cytokines (INF-γ, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-12p40, IL-10); b MHC class II cell surface receptors (HLA-DR, CD80); M2-polarized phenotype markers (CD206, CD163); and chemokine receptors (CCR7, CXCR4) were assessed by qRT-PCR in dTHP1 cells infected with heat-killed- Fn or live Fn at an MOI of 10:1 for 24 h. The expression of the M1-polarized phenotype marker CCR7, CXCR4, and HLA-DR in dTHP1 cells with live/heated-killed Fn at an MOI of 10:1 for 48 h was analyzed by flow cytometry ( c ) and western blot ( d ). Bars represent the mean ± SD of the results from replicate measurements. * P

    Techniques Used: Infection, Derivative Assay, Quantitative RT-PCR, Expressing, Marker, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Western Blot

    8) Product Images from "Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii. Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii"

    Article Title: Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii. Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii

    Journal: MicrobiologyOpen

    doi: 10.1002/mbo3.444

    radD and cmpA expression: WT Fusobacterium nucleatum was grown in Columbia broth for 25 hr. Cell samples were collected every 3 hr and (a) OD 600 was measured, as well as (b) radD and cmpA expression by qRT ‐ PCR . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to the first time point. The dashed line was added to aid in the comparison. (c) radD and cmpA expression were also measured in cells from Fn biofilm grown overnight in SHI ‐ FSMS . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to planktonic cells grown under the same conditions. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. To aid with visualization, the dashed line represents no change
    Figure Legend Snippet: radD and cmpA expression: WT Fusobacterium nucleatum was grown in Columbia broth for 25 hr. Cell samples were collected every 3 hr and (a) OD 600 was measured, as well as (b) radD and cmpA expression by qRT ‐ PCR . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to the first time point. The dashed line was added to aid in the comparison. (c) radD and cmpA expression were also measured in cells from Fn biofilm grown overnight in SHI ‐ FSMS . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to planktonic cells grown under the same conditions. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. To aid with visualization, the dashed line represents no change

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR, Standard Deviation

    Quantitative coaggregation of (a) wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 and the WT Fusobacterium nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative, at different phases of growth. (b) Quantitative coaggregation of WT S. gordonii strains ( DL 1, V288, ATCC 10558, and ATCC 51656) with WT F. nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative at exponential growth. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Quantitative coaggregation of (a) wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 and the WT Fusobacterium nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative, at different phases of growth. (b) Quantitative coaggregation of WT S. gordonii strains ( DL 1, V288, ATCC 10558, and ATCC 51656) with WT F. nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative at exponential growth. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Standard Deviation

    Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type Streptococcus gordonii strain (a) V288, (b) ATCC 10558, (c) DL 1, and (d) ATCC 51656 with Fusobacterium nucleatum strains: Wild‐type ( WT ) and the mutant derivatives: radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type Streptococcus gordonii strain (a) V288, (b) ATCC 10558, (c) DL 1, and (d) ATCC 51656 with Fusobacterium nucleatum strains: Wild‐type ( WT ) and the mutant derivatives: radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Standard Deviation

    (a) Fusobacterium nucleatum radD cmpA double mutant (strain BL 83) was constructed by insertion of the inactivation plasmid pBPL 9 into cmpA (Fn1554) in a radD::catP mutant background. Black arrows indicate the location of primers used for mutant construction and analysis. (b) Confirmation of plasmid insertion into cmpA by PCR analysis of the cmpA mutant (m) with wild‐type (WT) as the control
    Figure Legend Snippet: (a) Fusobacterium nucleatum radD cmpA double mutant (strain BL 83) was constructed by insertion of the inactivation plasmid pBPL 9 into cmpA (Fn1554) in a radD::catP mutant background. Black arrows indicate the location of primers used for mutant construction and analysis. (b) Confirmation of plasmid insertion into cmpA by PCR analysis of the cmpA mutant (m) with wild‐type (WT) as the control

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Construct, Plasmid Preparation, Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Streptococcus gordonii and Fusobacterium nucleatum dual‐species biofilm: (a) Confocal laser scanning microscopy of syto9‐stained dual‐species biofilm after overnight incubation. S. gordonii (Sg) cells constitutively express mCherry from their chromosome and appear orange/yellow on the images. Wild‐type ( WT ) F. nucleatum (Fn) and its mutant derivatives ( radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant) are strained by syto9‐only and appear green on the images. (b) The presence of the Fn mutant strains in the Sg‐Fn dual‐species biofilm is displayed as the percentage of Fn cells normalized to the number of attached Sg cells/well, compared to that measured with WT Fn. Cellular ratios were determined by measuring DNA concentration by qPCR , targeting the F. nucleatum gene fomA and the S. gordonii gene srtA . At least three independent experiments were performed per strain combination. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Streptococcus gordonii and Fusobacterium nucleatum dual‐species biofilm: (a) Confocal laser scanning microscopy of syto9‐stained dual‐species biofilm after overnight incubation. S. gordonii (Sg) cells constitutively express mCherry from their chromosome and appear orange/yellow on the images. Wild‐type ( WT ) F. nucleatum (Fn) and its mutant derivatives ( radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant) are strained by syto9‐only and appear green on the images. (b) The presence of the Fn mutant strains in the Sg‐Fn dual‐species biofilm is displayed as the percentage of Fn cells normalized to the number of attached Sg cells/well, compared to that measured with WT Fn. Cellular ratios were determined by measuring DNA concentration by qPCR , targeting the F. nucleatum gene fomA and the S. gordonii gene srtA . At least three independent experiments were performed per strain combination. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, Staining, Incubation, Mutagenesis, Concentration Assay, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Standard Deviation

    Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 with Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 23726 WT strain and OMP mutant derivatives ( radD , Fn254, cmpA , Fn1893, Fn2047, and aim1 ). Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 with Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 23726 WT strain and OMP mutant derivatives ( radD , Fn254, cmpA , Fn1893, Fn2047, and aim1 ). Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Standard Deviation

    9) Product Images from "Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii. Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii"

    Article Title: Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii. Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii

    Journal: MicrobiologyOpen

    doi: 10.1002/mbo3.444

    radD and cmpA expression: WT Fusobacterium nucleatum was grown in Columbia broth for 25 hr. Cell samples were collected every 3 hr and (a) OD 600 was measured, as well as (b) radD and cmpA expression by qRT ‐ PCR . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to the first time point. The dashed line was added to aid in the comparison. (c) radD and cmpA expression were also measured in cells from Fn biofilm grown overnight in SHI ‐ FSMS . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to planktonic cells grown under the same conditions. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. To aid with visualization, the dashed line represents no change
    Figure Legend Snippet: radD and cmpA expression: WT Fusobacterium nucleatum was grown in Columbia broth for 25 hr. Cell samples were collected every 3 hr and (a) OD 600 was measured, as well as (b) radD and cmpA expression by qRT ‐ PCR . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to the first time point. The dashed line was added to aid in the comparison. (c) radD and cmpA expression were also measured in cells from Fn biofilm grown overnight in SHI ‐ FSMS . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to planktonic cells grown under the same conditions. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. To aid with visualization, the dashed line represents no change

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR, Standard Deviation

    Quantitative coaggregation of (a) wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 and the WT Fusobacterium nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative, at different phases of growth. (b) Quantitative coaggregation of WT S. gordonii strains ( DL 1, V288, ATCC 10558, and ATCC 51656) with WT F. nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative at exponential growth. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Quantitative coaggregation of (a) wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 and the WT Fusobacterium nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative, at different phases of growth. (b) Quantitative coaggregation of WT S. gordonii strains ( DL 1, V288, ATCC 10558, and ATCC 51656) with WT F. nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative at exponential growth. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Standard Deviation

    Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type Streptococcus gordonii strain (a) V288, (b) ATCC 10558, (c) DL 1, and (d) ATCC 51656 with Fusobacterium nucleatum strains: Wild‐type ( WT ) and the mutant derivatives: radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type Streptococcus gordonii strain (a) V288, (b) ATCC 10558, (c) DL 1, and (d) ATCC 51656 with Fusobacterium nucleatum strains: Wild‐type ( WT ) and the mutant derivatives: radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Standard Deviation

    (a) Fusobacterium nucleatum radD cmpA double mutant (strain BL 83) was constructed by insertion of the inactivation plasmid pBPL 9 into cmpA (Fn1554) in a radD::catP mutant background. Black arrows indicate the location of primers used for mutant construction and analysis. (b) Confirmation of plasmid insertion into cmpA by PCR analysis of the cmpA mutant (m) with wild‐type (WT) as the control
    Figure Legend Snippet: (a) Fusobacterium nucleatum radD cmpA double mutant (strain BL 83) was constructed by insertion of the inactivation plasmid pBPL 9 into cmpA (Fn1554) in a radD::catP mutant background. Black arrows indicate the location of primers used for mutant construction and analysis. (b) Confirmation of plasmid insertion into cmpA by PCR analysis of the cmpA mutant (m) with wild‐type (WT) as the control

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Construct, Plasmid Preparation, Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Streptococcus gordonii and Fusobacterium nucleatum dual‐species biofilm: (a) Confocal laser scanning microscopy of syto9‐stained dual‐species biofilm after overnight incubation. S. gordonii (Sg) cells constitutively express mCherry from their chromosome and appear orange/yellow on the images. Wild‐type ( WT ) F. nucleatum (Fn) and its mutant derivatives ( radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant) are strained by syto9‐only and appear green on the images. (b) The presence of the Fn mutant strains in the Sg‐Fn dual‐species biofilm is displayed as the percentage of Fn cells normalized to the number of attached Sg cells/well, compared to that measured with WT Fn. Cellular ratios were determined by measuring DNA concentration by qPCR , targeting the F. nucleatum gene fomA and the S. gordonii gene srtA . At least three independent experiments were performed per strain combination. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Streptococcus gordonii and Fusobacterium nucleatum dual‐species biofilm: (a) Confocal laser scanning microscopy of syto9‐stained dual‐species biofilm after overnight incubation. S. gordonii (Sg) cells constitutively express mCherry from their chromosome and appear orange/yellow on the images. Wild‐type ( WT ) F. nucleatum (Fn) and its mutant derivatives ( radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant) are strained by syto9‐only and appear green on the images. (b) The presence of the Fn mutant strains in the Sg‐Fn dual‐species biofilm is displayed as the percentage of Fn cells normalized to the number of attached Sg cells/well, compared to that measured with WT Fn. Cellular ratios were determined by measuring DNA concentration by qPCR , targeting the F. nucleatum gene fomA and the S. gordonii gene srtA . At least three independent experiments were performed per strain combination. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, Staining, Incubation, Mutagenesis, Concentration Assay, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Standard Deviation

    Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 with Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 23726 WT strain and OMP mutant derivatives ( radD , Fn254, cmpA , Fn1893, Fn2047, and aim1 ). Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 with Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 23726 WT strain and OMP mutant derivatives ( radD , Fn254, cmpA , Fn1893, Fn2047, and aim1 ). Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Standard Deviation

    10) Product Images from "Fusobacterium nucleatum Transports Noninvasive Streptococcus cristatus into Human Epithelial Cells "

    Article Title: Fusobacterium nucleatum Transports Noninvasive Streptococcus cristatus into Human Epithelial Cells

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.74.1.654-662.2006

    Effect of a coaggregation-defective F. nucleatum isolate on S. cristatus adhesion or internalization. Adhesion to (A) or invasion of (B) KB cells by S. cristatus (filled bars) in the presence of wild-type F. nucleatum (WT, open bars) or isolate 21, a coaggregation-defective F. nucleatum isolate (21, open bars), was measured as described in Materials and Methods. Values are relative to those obtained with S. cristatus incubated in the presence of wild-type F. nucleatum .
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of a coaggregation-defective F. nucleatum isolate on S. cristatus adhesion or internalization. Adhesion to (A) or invasion of (B) KB cells by S. cristatus (filled bars) in the presence of wild-type F. nucleatum (WT, open bars) or isolate 21, a coaggregation-defective F. nucleatum isolate (21, open bars), was measured as described in Materials and Methods. Values are relative to those obtained with S. cristatus incubated in the presence of wild-type F. nucleatum .

    Techniques Used: Incubation

    Confirmation of adhesion of F. nucleatum or S. cristatus to KB cells by confocal microscopy. Fixed monolayers with adherent bacteria were stained with polyclonal antisera to F. nucleatum or S. cristatus and FITC- or TRITC-conjugated antibodies. F. nucleatum only, red in panel A; S. cristatus only, green or yellow in panel B; F. nucleatum and S. cristatus together, panels C and D. Scale bars represent 20 μm (A, B, and C) or 10 μm (D).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Confirmation of adhesion of F. nucleatum or S. cristatus to KB cells by confocal microscopy. Fixed monolayers with adherent bacteria were stained with polyclonal antisera to F. nucleatum or S. cristatus and FITC- or TRITC-conjugated antibodies. F. nucleatum only, red in panel A; S. cristatus only, green or yellow in panel B; F. nucleatum and S. cristatus together, panels C and D. Scale bars represent 20 μm (A, B, and C) or 10 μm (D).

    Techniques Used: Confocal Microscopy, Staining

    Effect of F. nucleatum on the internalization of various oral bacteria by KB cells. Percentages of recovered F. nucleatum (open bars) and other bacteria (closed bars) relative to the input were measured as described in Materials and Methods. Data from monoincubation (Mon) or coincubation (Co) assays are shown. Panels: A, S. cristatus ATCC 51110; B, S. sanguis SK36; C, S. gordonii DL-1; D, A. naeslundii ATCC 12104. Values that differ between invasion alone and in the presence of F. nucleatum by a statistically significant amount are indicated (*).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of F. nucleatum on the internalization of various oral bacteria by KB cells. Percentages of recovered F. nucleatum (open bars) and other bacteria (closed bars) relative to the input were measured as described in Materials and Methods. Data from monoincubation (Mon) or coincubation (Co) assays are shown. Panels: A, S. cristatus ATCC 51110; B, S. sanguis SK36; C, S. gordonii DL-1; D, A. naeslundii ATCC 12104. Values that differ between invasion alone and in the presence of F. nucleatum by a statistically significant amount are indicated (*).

    Techniques Used:

    Percentages of CFU of S. cristatus (Sc; filled bars) or F. nucleatum (Fn; open bars) recovered from epithelial cells after 4 h of incubation (relative to the input) independently or in dual-incubation assays. Graphs indicate either total associated bacteria (adherent plus internalized; A and B) or those surviving incubation with antibiotics (internalized; C and D). Assays were performed with KB (A and C) or TERT-2 (B and D) epithelial cells. Error bars indicate the mean average ± the standard deviation of four independent experiments performed in triplicate. Values that differ from controls by a statistically significant amount are indicated (*).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Percentages of CFU of S. cristatus (Sc; filled bars) or F. nucleatum (Fn; open bars) recovered from epithelial cells after 4 h of incubation (relative to the input) independently or in dual-incubation assays. Graphs indicate either total associated bacteria (adherent plus internalized; A and B) or those surviving incubation with antibiotics (internalized; C and D). Assays were performed with KB (A and C) or TERT-2 (B and D) epithelial cells. Error bars indicate the mean average ± the standard deviation of four independent experiments performed in triplicate. Values that differ from controls by a statistically significant amount are indicated (*).

    Techniques Used: Incubation, Standard Deviation

    Assessment of internalization of F. nucleatum or S. cristatus in KB epithelial cells by confocal microscopy and SEM. Dual-antibody staining demonstrated that F. nucleatum could adhere to (yellow) and invade (red) KB cells (A). S. cristatus attached to but did not invade (B) unless in the presence of F. nucleatum , when internalization of both species occurred (C). SEM of KB cells incubated with F. nucleatum (D and G) confirmed internalization of this species and lack of internalization of S. cristatus (E). Examination of KB monolayers incubated with both F. nucleatum and S. cristatus revealed the direct attachment of streptococci to F. nucleatum bacteria that were in the process of internalization (H, F, and I). SEM of KB cells incubated in buffer only (J) demonstrated that cellular projections were not due to the presence of bacteria. Scale bars represent 20 μm (A and B), 2 μm (C), or 1 μm (D, E, F, G, H, and I).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Assessment of internalization of F. nucleatum or S. cristatus in KB epithelial cells by confocal microscopy and SEM. Dual-antibody staining demonstrated that F. nucleatum could adhere to (yellow) and invade (red) KB cells (A). S. cristatus attached to but did not invade (B) unless in the presence of F. nucleatum , when internalization of both species occurred (C). SEM of KB cells incubated with F. nucleatum (D and G) confirmed internalization of this species and lack of internalization of S. cristatus (E). Examination of KB monolayers incubated with both F. nucleatum and S. cristatus revealed the direct attachment of streptococci to F. nucleatum bacteria that were in the process of internalization (H, F, and I). SEM of KB cells incubated in buffer only (J) demonstrated that cellular projections were not due to the presence of bacteria. Scale bars represent 20 μm (A and B), 2 μm (C), or 1 μm (D, E, F, G, H, and I).

    Techniques Used: Confocal Microscopy, Staining, Incubation

    Invasion of TERT-2 cells by F. nucleatum or S. cristatus. F. nucleatum readily invaded TERT-2 cells (A and B), although blebbing of the fusobacterial membrane was observed for the majority of the bacteria (A, B, E, and F). There was evidence of intercellular migration by F. nucleatum (C). S. cristatus was rarely observed to adhere directly to epithelial cells; attachment occurred via polar tufts of fibrils (D). In coincubation experiments, invading F. nucleatum bacteria were observed with attached S. cristatus (E and F). Bars represent 1 μm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Invasion of TERT-2 cells by F. nucleatum or S. cristatus. F. nucleatum readily invaded TERT-2 cells (A and B), although blebbing of the fusobacterial membrane was observed for the majority of the bacteria (A, B, E, and F). There was evidence of intercellular migration by F. nucleatum (C). S. cristatus was rarely observed to adhere directly to epithelial cells; attachment occurred via polar tufts of fibrils (D). In coincubation experiments, invading F. nucleatum bacteria were observed with attached S. cristatus (E and F). Bars represent 1 μm.

    Techniques Used: Migration

    Assessment of the effect of cytochalasin D (CD), staurosporine (STO), or cycloheximide (CX), relative to buffer only (control [CTL]), to inhibit invasion of KB cells by S. cristatus (filled bars) and F. nucleatum (open bars) in dual-incubation experiments. Relative percent inhibition is shown, and all values differed statistically significantly from those of untreated cells, except for S. cristatus in the presence of cycloheximide.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Assessment of the effect of cytochalasin D (CD), staurosporine (STO), or cycloheximide (CX), relative to buffer only (control [CTL]), to inhibit invasion of KB cells by S. cristatus (filled bars) and F. nucleatum (open bars) in dual-incubation experiments. Relative percent inhibition is shown, and all values differed statistically significantly from those of untreated cells, except for S. cristatus in the presence of cycloheximide.

    Techniques Used: CTL Assay, Incubation, Inhibition

    11) Product Images from "Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages"

    Article Title: Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.01226-13

    Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the
    Figure Legend Snippet: Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the

    Techniques Used: Infection, Mouse Assay

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or

    Techniques Used: Infection

    NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein
    Figure Legend Snippet: NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay, Infection

    12) Product Images from "Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages"

    Article Title: Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.01226-13

    Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the
    Figure Legend Snippet: Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the

    Techniques Used: Infection, Mouse Assay

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or

    Techniques Used: Infection

    NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein
    Figure Legend Snippet: NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay, Infection

    13) Product Images from "Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages"

    Article Title: Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.01226-13

    Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the
    Figure Legend Snippet: Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the

    Techniques Used: Infection, Mouse Assay

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or

    Techniques Used: Infection

    NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein
    Figure Legend Snippet: NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay, Infection

    14) Product Images from "Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages"

    Article Title: Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.01226-13

    Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the
    Figure Legend Snippet: Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the

    Techniques Used: Infection, Mouse Assay

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or

    Techniques Used: Infection

    NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein
    Figure Legend Snippet: NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay, Infection

    15) Product Images from "Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages"

    Article Title: Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.01226-13

    Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the
    Figure Legend Snippet: Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the

    Techniques Used: Infection, Mouse Assay

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or

    Techniques Used: Infection

    NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein
    Figure Legend Snippet: NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay, Infection

    16) Product Images from "Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages"

    Article Title: Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.01226-13

    Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the
    Figure Legend Snippet: Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the

    Techniques Used: Infection, Mouse Assay

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or

    Techniques Used: Infection

    NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein
    Figure Legend Snippet: NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay, Infection

    17) Product Images from "Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii. Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii"

    Article Title: Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii. Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii

    Journal: MicrobiologyOpen

    doi: 10.1002/mbo3.444

    radD and cmpA expression: WT Fusobacterium nucleatum was grown in Columbia broth for 25 hr. Cell samples were collected every 3 hr and (a) OD 600 was measured, as well as (b) radD and cmpA expression by qRT ‐ PCR . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to the first time point. The dashed line was added to aid in the comparison. (c) radD and cmpA expression were also measured in cells from Fn biofilm grown overnight in SHI ‐ FSMS . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to planktonic cells grown under the same conditions. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. To aid with visualization, the dashed line represents no change
    Figure Legend Snippet: radD and cmpA expression: WT Fusobacterium nucleatum was grown in Columbia broth for 25 hr. Cell samples were collected every 3 hr and (a) OD 600 was measured, as well as (b) radD and cmpA expression by qRT ‐ PCR . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to the first time point. The dashed line was added to aid in the comparison. (c) radD and cmpA expression were also measured in cells from Fn biofilm grown overnight in SHI ‐ FSMS . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to planktonic cells grown under the same conditions. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. To aid with visualization, the dashed line represents no change

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR, Standard Deviation

    Quantitative coaggregation of (a) wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 and the WT Fusobacterium nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative, at different phases of growth. (b) Quantitative coaggregation of WT S. gordonii strains ( DL 1, V288, ATCC 10558, and ATCC 51656) with WT F. nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative at exponential growth. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Quantitative coaggregation of (a) wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 and the WT Fusobacterium nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative, at different phases of growth. (b) Quantitative coaggregation of WT S. gordonii strains ( DL 1, V288, ATCC 10558, and ATCC 51656) with WT F. nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative at exponential growth. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Standard Deviation

    Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type Streptococcus gordonii strain (a) V288, (b) ATCC 10558, (c) DL 1, and (d) ATCC 51656 with Fusobacterium nucleatum strains: Wild‐type ( WT ) and the mutant derivatives: radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type Streptococcus gordonii strain (a) V288, (b) ATCC 10558, (c) DL 1, and (d) ATCC 51656 with Fusobacterium nucleatum strains: Wild‐type ( WT ) and the mutant derivatives: radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Standard Deviation

    (a) Fusobacterium nucleatum radD cmpA double mutant (strain BL 83) was constructed by insertion of the inactivation plasmid pBPL 9 into cmpA (Fn1554) in a radD::catP mutant background. Black arrows indicate the location of primers used for mutant construction and analysis. (b) Confirmation of plasmid insertion into cmpA by PCR analysis of the cmpA mutant (m) with wild‐type (WT) as the control
    Figure Legend Snippet: (a) Fusobacterium nucleatum radD cmpA double mutant (strain BL 83) was constructed by insertion of the inactivation plasmid pBPL 9 into cmpA (Fn1554) in a radD::catP mutant background. Black arrows indicate the location of primers used for mutant construction and analysis. (b) Confirmation of plasmid insertion into cmpA by PCR analysis of the cmpA mutant (m) with wild‐type (WT) as the control

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Construct, Plasmid Preparation, Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Streptococcus gordonii and Fusobacterium nucleatum dual‐species biofilm: (a) Confocal laser scanning microscopy of syto9‐stained dual‐species biofilm after overnight incubation. S. gordonii (Sg) cells constitutively express mCherry from their chromosome and appear orange/yellow on the images. Wild‐type ( WT ) F. nucleatum (Fn) and its mutant derivatives ( radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant) are strained by syto9‐only and appear green on the images. (b) The presence of the Fn mutant strains in the Sg‐Fn dual‐species biofilm is displayed as the percentage of Fn cells normalized to the number of attached Sg cells/well, compared to that measured with WT Fn. Cellular ratios were determined by measuring DNA concentration by qPCR , targeting the F. nucleatum gene fomA and the S. gordonii gene srtA . At least three independent experiments were performed per strain combination. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Streptococcus gordonii and Fusobacterium nucleatum dual‐species biofilm: (a) Confocal laser scanning microscopy of syto9‐stained dual‐species biofilm after overnight incubation. S. gordonii (Sg) cells constitutively express mCherry from their chromosome and appear orange/yellow on the images. Wild‐type ( WT ) F. nucleatum (Fn) and its mutant derivatives ( radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant) are strained by syto9‐only and appear green on the images. (b) The presence of the Fn mutant strains in the Sg‐Fn dual‐species biofilm is displayed as the percentage of Fn cells normalized to the number of attached Sg cells/well, compared to that measured with WT Fn. Cellular ratios were determined by measuring DNA concentration by qPCR , targeting the F. nucleatum gene fomA and the S. gordonii gene srtA . At least three independent experiments were performed per strain combination. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, Staining, Incubation, Mutagenesis, Concentration Assay, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Standard Deviation

    Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 with Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 23726 WT strain and OMP mutant derivatives ( radD , Fn254, cmpA , Fn1893, Fn2047, and aim1 ). Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 with Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 23726 WT strain and OMP mutant derivatives ( radD , Fn254, cmpA , Fn1893, Fn2047, and aim1 ). Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Standard Deviation

    18) Product Images from "Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii. Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii"

    Article Title: Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii. Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii

    Journal: MicrobiologyOpen

    doi: 10.1002/mbo3.444

    radD and cmpA expression: WT Fusobacterium nucleatum was grown in Columbia broth for 25 hr. Cell samples were collected every 3 hr and (a) OD 600 was measured, as well as (b) radD and cmpA expression by qRT ‐ PCR . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to the first time point. The dashed line was added to aid in the comparison. (c) radD and cmpA expression were also measured in cells from Fn biofilm grown overnight in SHI ‐ FSMS . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to planktonic cells grown under the same conditions. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. To aid with visualization, the dashed line represents no change
    Figure Legend Snippet: radD and cmpA expression: WT Fusobacterium nucleatum was grown in Columbia broth for 25 hr. Cell samples were collected every 3 hr and (a) OD 600 was measured, as well as (b) radD and cmpA expression by qRT ‐ PCR . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to the first time point. The dashed line was added to aid in the comparison. (c) radD and cmpA expression were also measured in cells from Fn biofilm grown overnight in SHI ‐ FSMS . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to planktonic cells grown under the same conditions. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. To aid with visualization, the dashed line represents no change

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR, Standard Deviation

    Quantitative coaggregation of (a) wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 and the WT Fusobacterium nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative, at different phases of growth. (b) Quantitative coaggregation of WT S. gordonii strains ( DL 1, V288, ATCC 10558, and ATCC 51656) with WT F. nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative at exponential growth. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Quantitative coaggregation of (a) wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 and the WT Fusobacterium nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative, at different phases of growth. (b) Quantitative coaggregation of WT S. gordonii strains ( DL 1, V288, ATCC 10558, and ATCC 51656) with WT F. nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative at exponential growth. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Standard Deviation

    Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type Streptococcus gordonii strain (a) V288, (b) ATCC 10558, (c) DL 1, and (d) ATCC 51656 with Fusobacterium nucleatum strains: Wild‐type ( WT ) and the mutant derivatives: radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type Streptococcus gordonii strain (a) V288, (b) ATCC 10558, (c) DL 1, and (d) ATCC 51656 with Fusobacterium nucleatum strains: Wild‐type ( WT ) and the mutant derivatives: radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Standard Deviation

    (a) Fusobacterium nucleatum radD cmpA double mutant (strain BL 83) was constructed by insertion of the inactivation plasmid pBPL 9 into cmpA (Fn1554) in a radD::catP mutant background. Black arrows indicate the location of primers used for mutant construction and analysis. (b) Confirmation of plasmid insertion into cmpA by PCR analysis of the cmpA mutant (m) with wild‐type (WT) as the control
    Figure Legend Snippet: (a) Fusobacterium nucleatum radD cmpA double mutant (strain BL 83) was constructed by insertion of the inactivation plasmid pBPL 9 into cmpA (Fn1554) in a radD::catP mutant background. Black arrows indicate the location of primers used for mutant construction and analysis. (b) Confirmation of plasmid insertion into cmpA by PCR analysis of the cmpA mutant (m) with wild‐type (WT) as the control

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Construct, Plasmid Preparation, Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Streptococcus gordonii and Fusobacterium nucleatum dual‐species biofilm: (a) Confocal laser scanning microscopy of syto9‐stained dual‐species biofilm after overnight incubation. S. gordonii (Sg) cells constitutively express mCherry from their chromosome and appear orange/yellow on the images. Wild‐type ( WT ) F. nucleatum (Fn) and its mutant derivatives ( radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant) are strained by syto9‐only and appear green on the images. (b) The presence of the Fn mutant strains in the Sg‐Fn dual‐species biofilm is displayed as the percentage of Fn cells normalized to the number of attached Sg cells/well, compared to that measured with WT Fn. Cellular ratios were determined by measuring DNA concentration by qPCR , targeting the F. nucleatum gene fomA and the S. gordonii gene srtA . At least three independent experiments were performed per strain combination. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Streptococcus gordonii and Fusobacterium nucleatum dual‐species biofilm: (a) Confocal laser scanning microscopy of syto9‐stained dual‐species biofilm after overnight incubation. S. gordonii (Sg) cells constitutively express mCherry from their chromosome and appear orange/yellow on the images. Wild‐type ( WT ) F. nucleatum (Fn) and its mutant derivatives ( radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant) are strained by syto9‐only and appear green on the images. (b) The presence of the Fn mutant strains in the Sg‐Fn dual‐species biofilm is displayed as the percentage of Fn cells normalized to the number of attached Sg cells/well, compared to that measured with WT Fn. Cellular ratios were determined by measuring DNA concentration by qPCR , targeting the F. nucleatum gene fomA and the S. gordonii gene srtA . At least three independent experiments were performed per strain combination. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, Staining, Incubation, Mutagenesis, Concentration Assay, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Standard Deviation

    Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 with Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 23726 WT strain and OMP mutant derivatives ( radD , Fn254, cmpA , Fn1893, Fn2047, and aim1 ). Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 with Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 23726 WT strain and OMP mutant derivatives ( radD , Fn254, cmpA , Fn1893, Fn2047, and aim1 ). Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Standard Deviation

    19) Product Images from "Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii. Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii"

    Article Title: Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii. Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii

    Journal: MicrobiologyOpen

    doi: 10.1002/mbo3.444

    radD and cmpA expression: WT Fusobacterium nucleatum was grown in Columbia broth for 25 hr. Cell samples were collected every 3 hr and (a) OD 600 was measured, as well as (b) radD and cmpA expression by qRT ‐ PCR . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to the first time point. The dashed line was added to aid in the comparison. (c) radD and cmpA expression were also measured in cells from Fn biofilm grown overnight in SHI ‐ FSMS . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to planktonic cells grown under the same conditions. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. To aid with visualization, the dashed line represents no change
    Figure Legend Snippet: radD and cmpA expression: WT Fusobacterium nucleatum was grown in Columbia broth for 25 hr. Cell samples were collected every 3 hr and (a) OD 600 was measured, as well as (b) radD and cmpA expression by qRT ‐ PCR . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to the first time point. The dashed line was added to aid in the comparison. (c) radD and cmpA expression were also measured in cells from Fn biofilm grown overnight in SHI ‐ FSMS . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to planktonic cells grown under the same conditions. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. To aid with visualization, the dashed line represents no change

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR, Standard Deviation

    Quantitative coaggregation of (a) wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 and the WT Fusobacterium nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative, at different phases of growth. (b) Quantitative coaggregation of WT S. gordonii strains ( DL 1, V288, ATCC 10558, and ATCC 51656) with WT F. nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative at exponential growth. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Quantitative coaggregation of (a) wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 and the WT Fusobacterium nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative, at different phases of growth. (b) Quantitative coaggregation of WT S. gordonii strains ( DL 1, V288, ATCC 10558, and ATCC 51656) with WT F. nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative at exponential growth. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Standard Deviation

    Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type Streptococcus gordonii strain (a) V288, (b) ATCC 10558, (c) DL 1, and (d) ATCC 51656 with Fusobacterium nucleatum strains: Wild‐type ( WT ) and the mutant derivatives: radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type Streptococcus gordonii strain (a) V288, (b) ATCC 10558, (c) DL 1, and (d) ATCC 51656 with Fusobacterium nucleatum strains: Wild‐type ( WT ) and the mutant derivatives: radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Standard Deviation

    (a) Fusobacterium nucleatum radD cmpA double mutant (strain BL 83) was constructed by insertion of the inactivation plasmid pBPL 9 into cmpA (Fn1554) in a radD::catP mutant background. Black arrows indicate the location of primers used for mutant construction and analysis. (b) Confirmation of plasmid insertion into cmpA by PCR analysis of the cmpA mutant (m) with wild‐type (WT) as the control
    Figure Legend Snippet: (a) Fusobacterium nucleatum radD cmpA double mutant (strain BL 83) was constructed by insertion of the inactivation plasmid pBPL 9 into cmpA (Fn1554) in a radD::catP mutant background. Black arrows indicate the location of primers used for mutant construction and analysis. (b) Confirmation of plasmid insertion into cmpA by PCR analysis of the cmpA mutant (m) with wild‐type (WT) as the control

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Construct, Plasmid Preparation, Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Streptococcus gordonii and Fusobacterium nucleatum dual‐species biofilm: (a) Confocal laser scanning microscopy of syto9‐stained dual‐species biofilm after overnight incubation. S. gordonii (Sg) cells constitutively express mCherry from their chromosome and appear orange/yellow on the images. Wild‐type ( WT ) F. nucleatum (Fn) and its mutant derivatives ( radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant) are strained by syto9‐only and appear green on the images. (b) The presence of the Fn mutant strains in the Sg‐Fn dual‐species biofilm is displayed as the percentage of Fn cells normalized to the number of attached Sg cells/well, compared to that measured with WT Fn. Cellular ratios were determined by measuring DNA concentration by qPCR , targeting the F. nucleatum gene fomA and the S. gordonii gene srtA . At least three independent experiments were performed per strain combination. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Streptococcus gordonii and Fusobacterium nucleatum dual‐species biofilm: (a) Confocal laser scanning microscopy of syto9‐stained dual‐species biofilm after overnight incubation. S. gordonii (Sg) cells constitutively express mCherry from their chromosome and appear orange/yellow on the images. Wild‐type ( WT ) F. nucleatum (Fn) and its mutant derivatives ( radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant) are strained by syto9‐only and appear green on the images. (b) The presence of the Fn mutant strains in the Sg‐Fn dual‐species biofilm is displayed as the percentage of Fn cells normalized to the number of attached Sg cells/well, compared to that measured with WT Fn. Cellular ratios were determined by measuring DNA concentration by qPCR , targeting the F. nucleatum gene fomA and the S. gordonii gene srtA . At least three independent experiments were performed per strain combination. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, Staining, Incubation, Mutagenesis, Concentration Assay, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Standard Deviation

    Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 with Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 23726 WT strain and OMP mutant derivatives ( radD , Fn254, cmpA , Fn1893, Fn2047, and aim1 ). Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 with Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 23726 WT strain and OMP mutant derivatives ( radD , Fn254, cmpA , Fn1893, Fn2047, and aim1 ). Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Standard Deviation

    20) Product Images from "Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii. Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii"

    Article Title: Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii. Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii

    Journal: MicrobiologyOpen

    doi: 10.1002/mbo3.444

    radD and cmpA expression: WT Fusobacterium nucleatum was grown in Columbia broth for 25 hr. Cell samples were collected every 3 hr and (a) OD 600 was measured, as well as (b) radD and cmpA expression by qRT ‐ PCR . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to the first time point. The dashed line was added to aid in the comparison. (c) radD and cmpA expression were also measured in cells from Fn biofilm grown overnight in SHI ‐ FSMS . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to planktonic cells grown under the same conditions. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. To aid with visualization, the dashed line represents no change
    Figure Legend Snippet: radD and cmpA expression: WT Fusobacterium nucleatum was grown in Columbia broth for 25 hr. Cell samples were collected every 3 hr and (a) OD 600 was measured, as well as (b) radD and cmpA expression by qRT ‐ PCR . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to the first time point. The dashed line was added to aid in the comparison. (c) radD and cmpA expression were also measured in cells from Fn biofilm grown overnight in SHI ‐ FSMS . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to planktonic cells grown under the same conditions. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. To aid with visualization, the dashed line represents no change

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR, Standard Deviation

    Quantitative coaggregation of (a) wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 and the WT Fusobacterium nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative, at different phases of growth. (b) Quantitative coaggregation of WT S. gordonii strains ( DL 1, V288, ATCC 10558, and ATCC 51656) with WT F. nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative at exponential growth. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Quantitative coaggregation of (a) wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 and the WT Fusobacterium nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative, at different phases of growth. (b) Quantitative coaggregation of WT S. gordonii strains ( DL 1, V288, ATCC 10558, and ATCC 51656) with WT F. nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative at exponential growth. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Standard Deviation

    Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type Streptococcus gordonii strain (a) V288, (b) ATCC 10558, (c) DL 1, and (d) ATCC 51656 with Fusobacterium nucleatum strains: Wild‐type ( WT ) and the mutant derivatives: radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type Streptococcus gordonii strain (a) V288, (b) ATCC 10558, (c) DL 1, and (d) ATCC 51656 with Fusobacterium nucleatum strains: Wild‐type ( WT ) and the mutant derivatives: radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Standard Deviation

    (a) Fusobacterium nucleatum radD cmpA double mutant (strain BL 83) was constructed by insertion of the inactivation plasmid pBPL 9 into cmpA (Fn1554) in a radD::catP mutant background. Black arrows indicate the location of primers used for mutant construction and analysis. (b) Confirmation of plasmid insertion into cmpA by PCR analysis of the cmpA mutant (m) with wild‐type (WT) as the control
    Figure Legend Snippet: (a) Fusobacterium nucleatum radD cmpA double mutant (strain BL 83) was constructed by insertion of the inactivation plasmid pBPL 9 into cmpA (Fn1554) in a radD::catP mutant background. Black arrows indicate the location of primers used for mutant construction and analysis. (b) Confirmation of plasmid insertion into cmpA by PCR analysis of the cmpA mutant (m) with wild‐type (WT) as the control

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Construct, Plasmid Preparation, Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Streptococcus gordonii and Fusobacterium nucleatum dual‐species biofilm: (a) Confocal laser scanning microscopy of syto9‐stained dual‐species biofilm after overnight incubation. S. gordonii (Sg) cells constitutively express mCherry from their chromosome and appear orange/yellow on the images. Wild‐type ( WT ) F. nucleatum (Fn) and its mutant derivatives ( radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant) are strained by syto9‐only and appear green on the images. (b) The presence of the Fn mutant strains in the Sg‐Fn dual‐species biofilm is displayed as the percentage of Fn cells normalized to the number of attached Sg cells/well, compared to that measured with WT Fn. Cellular ratios were determined by measuring DNA concentration by qPCR , targeting the F. nucleatum gene fomA and the S. gordonii gene srtA . At least three independent experiments were performed per strain combination. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Streptococcus gordonii and Fusobacterium nucleatum dual‐species biofilm: (a) Confocal laser scanning microscopy of syto9‐stained dual‐species biofilm after overnight incubation. S. gordonii (Sg) cells constitutively express mCherry from their chromosome and appear orange/yellow on the images. Wild‐type ( WT ) F. nucleatum (Fn) and its mutant derivatives ( radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant) are strained by syto9‐only and appear green on the images. (b) The presence of the Fn mutant strains in the Sg‐Fn dual‐species biofilm is displayed as the percentage of Fn cells normalized to the number of attached Sg cells/well, compared to that measured with WT Fn. Cellular ratios were determined by measuring DNA concentration by qPCR , targeting the F. nucleatum gene fomA and the S. gordonii gene srtA . At least three independent experiments were performed per strain combination. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, Staining, Incubation, Mutagenesis, Concentration Assay, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Standard Deviation

    Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 with Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 23726 WT strain and OMP mutant derivatives ( radD , Fn254, cmpA , Fn1893, Fn2047, and aim1 ). Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 with Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 23726 WT strain and OMP mutant derivatives ( radD , Fn254, cmpA , Fn1893, Fn2047, and aim1 ). Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Standard Deviation

    21) Product Images from "Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii. Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii"

    Article Title: Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii. Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii

    Journal: MicrobiologyOpen

    doi: 10.1002/mbo3.444

    radD and cmpA expression: WT Fusobacterium nucleatum was grown in Columbia broth for 25 hr. Cell samples were collected every 3 hr and (a) OD 600 was measured, as well as (b) radD and cmpA expression by qRT ‐ PCR . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to the first time point. The dashed line was added to aid in the comparison. (c) radD and cmpA expression were also measured in cells from Fn biofilm grown overnight in SHI ‐ FSMS . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to planktonic cells grown under the same conditions. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. To aid with visualization, the dashed line represents no change
    Figure Legend Snippet: radD and cmpA expression: WT Fusobacterium nucleatum was grown in Columbia broth for 25 hr. Cell samples were collected every 3 hr and (a) OD 600 was measured, as well as (b) radD and cmpA expression by qRT ‐ PCR . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to the first time point. The dashed line was added to aid in the comparison. (c) radD and cmpA expression were also measured in cells from Fn biofilm grown overnight in SHI ‐ FSMS . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to planktonic cells grown under the same conditions. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. To aid with visualization, the dashed line represents no change

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR, Standard Deviation

    Quantitative coaggregation of (a) wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 and the WT Fusobacterium nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative, at different phases of growth. (b) Quantitative coaggregation of WT S. gordonii strains ( DL 1, V288, ATCC 10558, and ATCC 51656) with WT F. nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative at exponential growth. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Quantitative coaggregation of (a) wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 and the WT Fusobacterium nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative, at different phases of growth. (b) Quantitative coaggregation of WT S. gordonii strains ( DL 1, V288, ATCC 10558, and ATCC 51656) with WT F. nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative at exponential growth. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Standard Deviation

    Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type Streptococcus gordonii strain (a) V288, (b) ATCC 10558, (c) DL 1, and (d) ATCC 51656 with Fusobacterium nucleatum strains: Wild‐type ( WT ) and the mutant derivatives: radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type Streptococcus gordonii strain (a) V288, (b) ATCC 10558, (c) DL 1, and (d) ATCC 51656 with Fusobacterium nucleatum strains: Wild‐type ( WT ) and the mutant derivatives: radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Standard Deviation

    (a) Fusobacterium nucleatum radD cmpA double mutant (strain BL 83) was constructed by insertion of the inactivation plasmid pBPL 9 into cmpA (Fn1554) in a radD::catP mutant background. Black arrows indicate the location of primers used for mutant construction and analysis. (b) Confirmation of plasmid insertion into cmpA by PCR analysis of the cmpA mutant (m) with wild‐type (WT) as the control
    Figure Legend Snippet: (a) Fusobacterium nucleatum radD cmpA double mutant (strain BL 83) was constructed by insertion of the inactivation plasmid pBPL 9 into cmpA (Fn1554) in a radD::catP mutant background. Black arrows indicate the location of primers used for mutant construction and analysis. (b) Confirmation of plasmid insertion into cmpA by PCR analysis of the cmpA mutant (m) with wild‐type (WT) as the control

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Construct, Plasmid Preparation, Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Streptococcus gordonii and Fusobacterium nucleatum dual‐species biofilm: (a) Confocal laser scanning microscopy of syto9‐stained dual‐species biofilm after overnight incubation. S. gordonii (Sg) cells constitutively express mCherry from their chromosome and appear orange/yellow on the images. Wild‐type ( WT ) F. nucleatum (Fn) and its mutant derivatives ( radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant) are strained by syto9‐only and appear green on the images. (b) The presence of the Fn mutant strains in the Sg‐Fn dual‐species biofilm is displayed as the percentage of Fn cells normalized to the number of attached Sg cells/well, compared to that measured with WT Fn. Cellular ratios were determined by measuring DNA concentration by qPCR , targeting the F. nucleatum gene fomA and the S. gordonii gene srtA . At least three independent experiments were performed per strain combination. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Streptococcus gordonii and Fusobacterium nucleatum dual‐species biofilm: (a) Confocal laser scanning microscopy of syto9‐stained dual‐species biofilm after overnight incubation. S. gordonii (Sg) cells constitutively express mCherry from their chromosome and appear orange/yellow on the images. Wild‐type ( WT ) F. nucleatum (Fn) and its mutant derivatives ( radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant) are strained by syto9‐only and appear green on the images. (b) The presence of the Fn mutant strains in the Sg‐Fn dual‐species biofilm is displayed as the percentage of Fn cells normalized to the number of attached Sg cells/well, compared to that measured with WT Fn. Cellular ratios were determined by measuring DNA concentration by qPCR , targeting the F. nucleatum gene fomA and the S. gordonii gene srtA . At least three independent experiments were performed per strain combination. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, Staining, Incubation, Mutagenesis, Concentration Assay, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Standard Deviation

    Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 with Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 23726 WT strain and OMP mutant derivatives ( radD , Fn254, cmpA , Fn1893, Fn2047, and aim1 ). Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 with Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 23726 WT strain and OMP mutant derivatives ( radD , Fn254, cmpA , Fn1893, Fn2047, and aim1 ). Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Standard Deviation

    22) Product Images from "Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii. Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii"

    Article Title: Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii. Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii

    Journal: MicrobiologyOpen

    doi: 10.1002/mbo3.444

    radD and cmpA expression: WT Fusobacterium nucleatum was grown in Columbia broth for 25 hr. Cell samples were collected every 3 hr and (a) OD 600 was measured, as well as (b) radD and cmpA expression by qRT ‐ PCR . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to the first time point. The dashed line was added to aid in the comparison. (c) radD and cmpA expression were also measured in cells from Fn biofilm grown overnight in SHI ‐ FSMS . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to planktonic cells grown under the same conditions. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. To aid with visualization, the dashed line represents no change
    Figure Legend Snippet: radD and cmpA expression: WT Fusobacterium nucleatum was grown in Columbia broth for 25 hr. Cell samples were collected every 3 hr and (a) OD 600 was measured, as well as (b) radD and cmpA expression by qRT ‐ PCR . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to the first time point. The dashed line was added to aid in the comparison. (c) radD and cmpA expression were also measured in cells from Fn biofilm grown overnight in SHI ‐ FSMS . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to planktonic cells grown under the same conditions. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. To aid with visualization, the dashed line represents no change

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR, Standard Deviation

    Quantitative coaggregation of (a) wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 and the WT Fusobacterium nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative, at different phases of growth. (b) Quantitative coaggregation of WT S. gordonii strains ( DL 1, V288, ATCC 10558, and ATCC 51656) with WT F. nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative at exponential growth. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Quantitative coaggregation of (a) wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 and the WT Fusobacterium nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative, at different phases of growth. (b) Quantitative coaggregation of WT S. gordonii strains ( DL 1, V288, ATCC 10558, and ATCC 51656) with WT F. nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative at exponential growth. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Standard Deviation

    Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type Streptococcus gordonii strain (a) V288, (b) ATCC 10558, (c) DL 1, and (d) ATCC 51656 with Fusobacterium nucleatum strains: Wild‐type ( WT ) and the mutant derivatives: radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type Streptococcus gordonii strain (a) V288, (b) ATCC 10558, (c) DL 1, and (d) ATCC 51656 with Fusobacterium nucleatum strains: Wild‐type ( WT ) and the mutant derivatives: radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Standard Deviation

    (a) Fusobacterium nucleatum radD cmpA double mutant (strain BL 83) was constructed by insertion of the inactivation plasmid pBPL 9 into cmpA (Fn1554) in a radD::catP mutant background. Black arrows indicate the location of primers used for mutant construction and analysis. (b) Confirmation of plasmid insertion into cmpA by PCR analysis of the cmpA mutant (m) with wild‐type (WT) as the control
    Figure Legend Snippet: (a) Fusobacterium nucleatum radD cmpA double mutant (strain BL 83) was constructed by insertion of the inactivation plasmid pBPL 9 into cmpA (Fn1554) in a radD::catP mutant background. Black arrows indicate the location of primers used for mutant construction and analysis. (b) Confirmation of plasmid insertion into cmpA by PCR analysis of the cmpA mutant (m) with wild‐type (WT) as the control

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Construct, Plasmid Preparation, Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Streptococcus gordonii and Fusobacterium nucleatum dual‐species biofilm: (a) Confocal laser scanning microscopy of syto9‐stained dual‐species biofilm after overnight incubation. S. gordonii (Sg) cells constitutively express mCherry from their chromosome and appear orange/yellow on the images. Wild‐type ( WT ) F. nucleatum (Fn) and its mutant derivatives ( radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant) are strained by syto9‐only and appear green on the images. (b) The presence of the Fn mutant strains in the Sg‐Fn dual‐species biofilm is displayed as the percentage of Fn cells normalized to the number of attached Sg cells/well, compared to that measured with WT Fn. Cellular ratios were determined by measuring DNA concentration by qPCR , targeting the F. nucleatum gene fomA and the S. gordonii gene srtA . At least three independent experiments were performed per strain combination. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Streptococcus gordonii and Fusobacterium nucleatum dual‐species biofilm: (a) Confocal laser scanning microscopy of syto9‐stained dual‐species biofilm after overnight incubation. S. gordonii (Sg) cells constitutively express mCherry from their chromosome and appear orange/yellow on the images. Wild‐type ( WT ) F. nucleatum (Fn) and its mutant derivatives ( radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant) are strained by syto9‐only and appear green on the images. (b) The presence of the Fn mutant strains in the Sg‐Fn dual‐species biofilm is displayed as the percentage of Fn cells normalized to the number of attached Sg cells/well, compared to that measured with WT Fn. Cellular ratios were determined by measuring DNA concentration by qPCR , targeting the F. nucleatum gene fomA and the S. gordonii gene srtA . At least three independent experiments were performed per strain combination. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, Staining, Incubation, Mutagenesis, Concentration Assay, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Standard Deviation

    Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 with Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 23726 WT strain and OMP mutant derivatives ( radD , Fn254, cmpA , Fn1893, Fn2047, and aim1 ). Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 with Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 23726 WT strain and OMP mutant derivatives ( radD , Fn254, cmpA , Fn1893, Fn2047, and aim1 ). Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Standard Deviation

    23) Product Images from "Assessment of the involvement of the macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF)-glucocorticoid regulatory dyad in MMP2 expression during periodontitis"

    Article Title: Assessment of the involvement of the macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF)-glucocorticoid regulatory dyad in MMP2 expression during periodontitis

    Journal: European journal of oral sciences

    doi: 10.1111/eos.12363

    Levels of proinflammatory IL6 in vivo and in vitro . A and B: Local tissue Il6 mRNA levels in healthy and inflamed gingivae nine days after ligature placement are shown as relative expressions in relation to β-actin and as fold change (compared to healthy sites). * P =0.05, ** P =0.006 for healthy vs . inflamed tissues in WT and MIF KO mice and ** P =0.01 for inflamed sites in WT vs . MIF KO animals. Grey bars: WT mice (n=6), white bars: MIF KO mice (n=6). Results are shown as mean values ±SD, each sample was run in duplicate. C: Levels of IL6 released from HGFs after stimulation with HC, MIF or F. nucleatum (* P ) was employed. Results are shown as mean values ±SD and represent five different donors; each sample was run in triplicate.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Levels of proinflammatory IL6 in vivo and in vitro . A and B: Local tissue Il6 mRNA levels in healthy and inflamed gingivae nine days after ligature placement are shown as relative expressions in relation to β-actin and as fold change (compared to healthy sites). * P =0.05, ** P =0.006 for healthy vs . inflamed tissues in WT and MIF KO mice and ** P =0.01 for inflamed sites in WT vs . MIF KO animals. Grey bars: WT mice (n=6), white bars: MIF KO mice (n=6). Results are shown as mean values ±SD, each sample was run in duplicate. C: Levels of IL6 released from HGFs after stimulation with HC, MIF or F. nucleatum (* P ) was employed. Results are shown as mean values ±SD and represent five different donors; each sample was run in triplicate.

    Techniques Used: In Vivo, In Vitro, Mouse Assay

    MIF protein release from HGFs. MIF release was inducible by hydrocortisol (HC), but not by TNF-α or F. nucleatum (* P ), were used as a positive control. Results are shown as mean values ±SD and represent five different donors; each sample was run in triplicate.
    Figure Legend Snippet: MIF protein release from HGFs. MIF release was inducible by hydrocortisol (HC), but not by TNF-α or F. nucleatum (* P ), were used as a positive control. Results are shown as mean values ±SD and represent five different donors; each sample was run in triplicate.

    Techniques Used: Positive Control

    MMP2 levels in murine gingival tissues and HGF supernatants. A : Mmp2 mRNA levels in WT and MIF KO mice in healthy and inflamed gingival sites shown as relative expressions in relation to β-actin and as fold change (compared to healthy sites). B: MMP2 release by HGFs from five different donors in cell culture experiments in response to hydrocortisol (HC), MIF and F. nucleatum (*** P =0.0003 compared to negative controls), each sample was run in triplicate wells.
    Figure Legend Snippet: MMP2 levels in murine gingival tissues and HGF supernatants. A : Mmp2 mRNA levels in WT and MIF KO mice in healthy and inflamed gingival sites shown as relative expressions in relation to β-actin and as fold change (compared to healthy sites). B: MMP2 release by HGFs from five different donors in cell culture experiments in response to hydrocortisol (HC), MIF and F. nucleatum (*** P =0.0003 compared to negative controls), each sample was run in triplicate wells.

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Cell Culture

    24) Product Images from "Assessment of the involvement of the macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF)-glucocorticoid regulatory dyad in MMP2 expression during periodontitis"

    Article Title: Assessment of the involvement of the macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF)-glucocorticoid regulatory dyad in MMP2 expression during periodontitis

    Journal: European journal of oral sciences

    doi: 10.1111/eos.12363

    Levels of proinflammatory IL6 in vivo and in vitro . A and B: Local tissue Il6 mRNA levels in healthy and inflamed gingivae nine days after ligature placement are shown as relative expressions in relation to β-actin and as fold change (compared to healthy sites). * P =0.05, ** P =0.006 for healthy vs . inflamed tissues in WT and MIF KO mice and ** P =0.01 for inflamed sites in WT vs . MIF KO animals. Grey bars: WT mice (n=6), white bars: MIF KO mice (n=6). Results are shown as mean values ±SD, each sample was run in duplicate. C: Levels of IL6 released from HGFs after stimulation with HC, MIF or F. nucleatum (* P ) was employed. Results are shown as mean values ±SD and represent five different donors; each sample was run in triplicate.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Levels of proinflammatory IL6 in vivo and in vitro . A and B: Local tissue Il6 mRNA levels in healthy and inflamed gingivae nine days after ligature placement are shown as relative expressions in relation to β-actin and as fold change (compared to healthy sites). * P =0.05, ** P =0.006 for healthy vs . inflamed tissues in WT and MIF KO mice and ** P =0.01 for inflamed sites in WT vs . MIF KO animals. Grey bars: WT mice (n=6), white bars: MIF KO mice (n=6). Results are shown as mean values ±SD, each sample was run in duplicate. C: Levels of IL6 released from HGFs after stimulation with HC, MIF or F. nucleatum (* P ) was employed. Results are shown as mean values ±SD and represent five different donors; each sample was run in triplicate.

    Techniques Used: In Vivo, In Vitro, Mouse Assay

    MIF protein release from HGFs. MIF release was inducible by hydrocortisol (HC), but not by TNF-α or F. nucleatum (* P ), were used as a positive control. Results are shown as mean values ±SD and represent five different donors; each sample was run in triplicate.
    Figure Legend Snippet: MIF protein release from HGFs. MIF release was inducible by hydrocortisol (HC), but not by TNF-α or F. nucleatum (* P ), were used as a positive control. Results are shown as mean values ±SD and represent five different donors; each sample was run in triplicate.

    Techniques Used: Positive Control

    MMP2 levels in murine gingival tissues and HGF supernatants. A : Mmp2 mRNA levels in WT and MIF KO mice in healthy and inflamed gingival sites shown as relative expressions in relation to β-actin and as fold change (compared to healthy sites). B: MMP2 release by HGFs from five different donors in cell culture experiments in response to hydrocortisol (HC), MIF and F. nucleatum (*** P =0.0003 compared to negative controls), each sample was run in triplicate wells.
    Figure Legend Snippet: MMP2 levels in murine gingival tissues and HGF supernatants. A : Mmp2 mRNA levels in WT and MIF KO mice in healthy and inflamed gingival sites shown as relative expressions in relation to β-actin and as fold change (compared to healthy sites). B: MMP2 release by HGFs from five different donors in cell culture experiments in response to hydrocortisol (HC), MIF and F. nucleatum (*** P =0.0003 compared to negative controls), each sample was run in triplicate wells.

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Cell Culture

    25) Product Images from "Assessment of the involvement of the macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF)-glucocorticoid regulatory dyad in MMP2 expression during periodontitis"

    Article Title: Assessment of the involvement of the macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF)-glucocorticoid regulatory dyad in MMP2 expression during periodontitis

    Journal: European journal of oral sciences

    doi: 10.1111/eos.12363

    Levels of proinflammatory IL6 in vivo and in vitro . A and B: Local tissue Il6 mRNA levels in healthy and inflamed gingivae nine days after ligature placement are shown as relative expressions in relation to β-actin and as fold change (compared to healthy sites). * P =0.05, ** P =0.006 for healthy vs . inflamed tissues in WT and MIF KO mice and ** P =0.01 for inflamed sites in WT vs . MIF KO animals. Grey bars: WT mice (n=6), white bars: MIF KO mice (n=6). Results are shown as mean values ±SD, each sample was run in duplicate. C: Levels of IL6 released from HGFs after stimulation with HC, MIF or F. nucleatum (* P ) was employed. Results are shown as mean values ±SD and represent five different donors; each sample was run in triplicate.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Levels of proinflammatory IL6 in vivo and in vitro . A and B: Local tissue Il6 mRNA levels in healthy and inflamed gingivae nine days after ligature placement are shown as relative expressions in relation to β-actin and as fold change (compared to healthy sites). * P =0.05, ** P =0.006 for healthy vs . inflamed tissues in WT and MIF KO mice and ** P =0.01 for inflamed sites in WT vs . MIF KO animals. Grey bars: WT mice (n=6), white bars: MIF KO mice (n=6). Results are shown as mean values ±SD, each sample was run in duplicate. C: Levels of IL6 released from HGFs after stimulation with HC, MIF or F. nucleatum (* P ) was employed. Results are shown as mean values ±SD and represent five different donors; each sample was run in triplicate.

    Techniques Used: In Vivo, In Vitro, Mouse Assay

    MIF protein release from HGFs. MIF release was inducible by hydrocortisol (HC), but not by TNF-α or F. nucleatum (* P ), were used as a positive control. Results are shown as mean values ±SD and represent five different donors; each sample was run in triplicate.
    Figure Legend Snippet: MIF protein release from HGFs. MIF release was inducible by hydrocortisol (HC), but not by TNF-α or F. nucleatum (* P ), were used as a positive control. Results are shown as mean values ±SD and represent five different donors; each sample was run in triplicate.

    Techniques Used: Positive Control

    MMP2 levels in murine gingival tissues and HGF supernatants. A : Mmp2 mRNA levels in WT and MIF KO mice in healthy and inflamed gingival sites shown as relative expressions in relation to β-actin and as fold change (compared to healthy sites). B: MMP2 release by HGFs from five different donors in cell culture experiments in response to hydrocortisol (HC), MIF and F. nucleatum (*** P =0.0003 compared to negative controls), each sample was run in triplicate wells.
    Figure Legend Snippet: MMP2 levels in murine gingival tissues and HGF supernatants. A : Mmp2 mRNA levels in WT and MIF KO mice in healthy and inflamed gingival sites shown as relative expressions in relation to β-actin and as fold change (compared to healthy sites). B: MMP2 release by HGFs from five different donors in cell culture experiments in response to hydrocortisol (HC), MIF and F. nucleatum (*** P =0.0003 compared to negative controls), each sample was run in triplicate wells.

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Cell Culture

    26) Product Images from "Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages"

    Article Title: Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.01226-13

    Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the
    Figure Legend Snippet: Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the

    Techniques Used: Infection, Mouse Assay

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or

    Techniques Used: Infection

    NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein
    Figure Legend Snippet: NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay, Infection

    27) Product Images from "A novel vaccine targeting Fusobacterium nucleatum against abscesses and halitosis"

    Article Title: A novel vaccine targeting Fusobacterium nucleatum against abscesses and halitosis

    Journal: Vaccine

    doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.12.058

    The production of antibody (IgG) to F. nucleatum. For immunization, cultured F. nucleatum and S. mutans were irradiated by UV at a total energy of 7000 J/m 2 . F. nucleatum lysate (20 µg) was separated by 10% SDS-PAGE and then subjected to Western
    Figure Legend Snippet: The production of antibody (IgG) to F. nucleatum. For immunization, cultured F. nucleatum and S. mutans were irradiated by UV at a total energy of 7000 J/m 2 . F. nucleatum lysate (20 µg) was separated by 10% SDS-PAGE and then subjected to Western

    Techniques Used: Cell Culture, Irradiation, SDS Page, Western Blot

    An abscess induced by the injection of live F. nucleatum into the gums of lower incisors of ICR mice. One hundred micro liter of PBS (A, C and E) or F. nucleatum (4 × 10 8 CFU in PBS) (B, D and F) was inoculated into a mouse oral cavity for 3 days,
    Figure Legend Snippet: An abscess induced by the injection of live F. nucleatum into the gums of lower incisors of ICR mice. One hundred micro liter of PBS (A, C and E) or F. nucleatum (4 × 10 8 CFU in PBS) (B, D and F) was inoculated into a mouse oral cavity for 3 days,

    Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

    Detection of VSC production and biofilm formation of F. nucleatum . F. nucleatum (4 × 10 9 CFU/well) was cultured on a 6-well nonpyrogenic polystyrene plate for 6, 12, 24 and 36 h. (A) After removing the media, each well containing attached bacteria
    Figure Legend Snippet: Detection of VSC production and biofilm formation of F. nucleatum . F. nucleatum (4 × 10 9 CFU/well) was cultured on a 6-well nonpyrogenic polystyrene plate for 6, 12, 24 and 36 h. (A) After removing the media, each well containing attached bacteria

    Techniques Used: Cell Culture

    In vivo protective immunity. A gum pocket model with abscesses and swollen tissues was created, as described in and Section 2. After inoculation with live F. nucleatum (4 × 10 8 CFU) for 3 days, the change in the volume of gum swelling
    Figure Legend Snippet: In vivo protective immunity. A gum pocket model with abscesses and swollen tissues was created, as described in and Section 2. After inoculation with live F. nucleatum (4 × 10 8 CFU) for 3 days, the change in the volume of gum swelling

    Techniques Used: In Vivo

    Inhibition of VSC production and biofilm formation by anti- F. nucleatum serum. F. nucleatum (4 × 10 9 CFU) was pre-incubated with 2.5% (v/v) anti- F. nucleatum (Anti-N) or anti- S. mutans (Anti-M) sera without activated complements for 2 h. Afterwards,
    Figure Legend Snippet: Inhibition of VSC production and biofilm formation by anti- F. nucleatum serum. F. nucleatum (4 × 10 9 CFU) was pre-incubated with 2.5% (v/v) anti- F. nucleatum (Anti-N) or anti- S. mutans (Anti-M) sera without activated complements for 2 h. Afterwards,

    Techniques Used: Inhibition, Incubation

    28) Product Images from "A novel vaccine targeting Fusobacterium nucleatum against abscesses and halitosis"

    Article Title: A novel vaccine targeting Fusobacterium nucleatum against abscesses and halitosis

    Journal: Vaccine

    doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.12.058

    The production of antibody (IgG) to F. nucleatum. For immunization, cultured F. nucleatum and S. mutans were irradiated by UV at a total energy of 7000 J/m 2 . F. nucleatum lysate (20 µg) was separated by 10% SDS-PAGE and then subjected to Western
    Figure Legend Snippet: The production of antibody (IgG) to F. nucleatum. For immunization, cultured F. nucleatum and S. mutans were irradiated by UV at a total energy of 7000 J/m 2 . F. nucleatum lysate (20 µg) was separated by 10% SDS-PAGE and then subjected to Western

    Techniques Used: Cell Culture, Irradiation, SDS Page, Western Blot

    An abscess induced by the injection of live F. nucleatum into the gums of lower incisors of ICR mice. One hundred micro liter of PBS (A, C and E) or F. nucleatum (4 × 10 8 CFU in PBS) (B, D and F) was inoculated into a mouse oral cavity for 3 days,
    Figure Legend Snippet: An abscess induced by the injection of live F. nucleatum into the gums of lower incisors of ICR mice. One hundred micro liter of PBS (A, C and E) or F. nucleatum (4 × 10 8 CFU in PBS) (B, D and F) was inoculated into a mouse oral cavity for 3 days,

    Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

    Detection of VSC production and biofilm formation of F. nucleatum . F. nucleatum (4 × 10 9 CFU/well) was cultured on a 6-well nonpyrogenic polystyrene plate for 6, 12, 24 and 36 h. (A) After removing the media, each well containing attached bacteria
    Figure Legend Snippet: Detection of VSC production and biofilm formation of F. nucleatum . F. nucleatum (4 × 10 9 CFU/well) was cultured on a 6-well nonpyrogenic polystyrene plate for 6, 12, 24 and 36 h. (A) After removing the media, each well containing attached bacteria

    Techniques Used: Cell Culture

    In vivo protective immunity. A gum pocket model with abscesses and swollen tissues was created, as described in and Section 2. After inoculation with live F. nucleatum (4 × 10 8 CFU) for 3 days, the change in the volume of gum swelling
    Figure Legend Snippet: In vivo protective immunity. A gum pocket model with abscesses and swollen tissues was created, as described in and Section 2. After inoculation with live F. nucleatum (4 × 10 8 CFU) for 3 days, the change in the volume of gum swelling

    Techniques Used: In Vivo

    Inhibition of VSC production and biofilm formation by anti- F. nucleatum serum. F. nucleatum (4 × 10 9 CFU) was pre-incubated with 2.5% (v/v) anti- F. nucleatum (Anti-N) or anti- S. mutans (Anti-M) sera without activated complements for 2 h. Afterwards,
    Figure Legend Snippet: Inhibition of VSC production and biofilm formation by anti- F. nucleatum serum. F. nucleatum (4 × 10 9 CFU) was pre-incubated with 2.5% (v/v) anti- F. nucleatum (Anti-N) or anti- S. mutans (Anti-M) sera without activated complements for 2 h. Afterwards,

    Techniques Used: Inhibition, Incubation

    29) Product Images from "A novel vaccine targeting Fusobacterium nucleatum against abscesses and halitosis"

    Article Title: A novel vaccine targeting Fusobacterium nucleatum against abscesses and halitosis

    Journal: Vaccine

    doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.12.058

    The production of antibody (IgG) to F. nucleatum. For immunization, cultured F. nucleatum and S. mutans were irradiated by UV at a total energy of 7000 J/m 2 . F. nucleatum lysate (20 µg) was separated by 10% SDS-PAGE and then subjected to Western
    Figure Legend Snippet: The production of antibody (IgG) to F. nucleatum. For immunization, cultured F. nucleatum and S. mutans were irradiated by UV at a total energy of 7000 J/m 2 . F. nucleatum lysate (20 µg) was separated by 10% SDS-PAGE and then subjected to Western

    Techniques Used: Cell Culture, Irradiation, SDS Page, Western Blot

    An abscess induced by the injection of live F. nucleatum into the gums of lower incisors of ICR mice. One hundred micro liter of PBS (A, C and E) or F. nucleatum (4 × 10 8 CFU in PBS) (B, D and F) was inoculated into a mouse oral cavity for 3 days,
    Figure Legend Snippet: An abscess induced by the injection of live F. nucleatum into the gums of lower incisors of ICR mice. One hundred micro liter of PBS (A, C and E) or F. nucleatum (4 × 10 8 CFU in PBS) (B, D and F) was inoculated into a mouse oral cavity for 3 days,

    Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

    Detection of VSC production and biofilm formation of F. nucleatum . F. nucleatum (4 × 10 9 CFU/well) was cultured on a 6-well nonpyrogenic polystyrene plate for 6, 12, 24 and 36 h. (A) After removing the media, each well containing attached bacteria
    Figure Legend Snippet: Detection of VSC production and biofilm formation of F. nucleatum . F. nucleatum (4 × 10 9 CFU/well) was cultured on a 6-well nonpyrogenic polystyrene plate for 6, 12, 24 and 36 h. (A) After removing the media, each well containing attached bacteria

    Techniques Used: Cell Culture

    In vivo protective immunity. A gum pocket model with abscesses and swollen tissues was created, as described in and Section 2. After inoculation with live F. nucleatum (4 × 10 8 CFU) for 3 days, the change in the volume of gum swelling
    Figure Legend Snippet: In vivo protective immunity. A gum pocket model with abscesses and swollen tissues was created, as described in and Section 2. After inoculation with live F. nucleatum (4 × 10 8 CFU) for 3 days, the change in the volume of gum swelling

    Techniques Used: In Vivo

    Inhibition of VSC production and biofilm formation by anti- F. nucleatum serum. F. nucleatum (4 × 10 9 CFU) was pre-incubated with 2.5% (v/v) anti- F. nucleatum (Anti-N) or anti- S. mutans (Anti-M) sera without activated complements for 2 h. Afterwards,
    Figure Legend Snippet: Inhibition of VSC production and biofilm formation by anti- F. nucleatum serum. F. nucleatum (4 × 10 9 CFU) was pre-incubated with 2.5% (v/v) anti- F. nucleatum (Anti-N) or anti- S. mutans (Anti-M) sera without activated complements for 2 h. Afterwards,

    Techniques Used: Inhibition, Incubation

    30) Product Images from "A novel vaccine targeting Fusobacterium nucleatum against abscesses and halitosis"

    Article Title: A novel vaccine targeting Fusobacterium nucleatum against abscesses and halitosis

    Journal: Vaccine

    doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.12.058

    The production of antibody (IgG) to F. nucleatum. For immunization, cultured F. nucleatum and S. mutans were irradiated by UV at a total energy of 7000 J/m 2 . F. nucleatum lysate (20 µg) was separated by 10% SDS-PAGE and then subjected to Western
    Figure Legend Snippet: The production of antibody (IgG) to F. nucleatum. For immunization, cultured F. nucleatum and S. mutans were irradiated by UV at a total energy of 7000 J/m 2 . F. nucleatum lysate (20 µg) was separated by 10% SDS-PAGE and then subjected to Western

    Techniques Used: Cell Culture, Irradiation, SDS Page, Western Blot

    An abscess induced by the injection of live F. nucleatum into the gums of lower incisors of ICR mice. One hundred micro liter of PBS (A, C and E) or F. nucleatum (4 × 10 8 CFU in PBS) (B, D and F) was inoculated into a mouse oral cavity for 3 days,
    Figure Legend Snippet: An abscess induced by the injection of live F. nucleatum into the gums of lower incisors of ICR mice. One hundred micro liter of PBS (A, C and E) or F. nucleatum (4 × 10 8 CFU in PBS) (B, D and F) was inoculated into a mouse oral cavity for 3 days,

    Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

    Detection of VSC production and biofilm formation of F. nucleatum . F. nucleatum (4 × 10 9 CFU/well) was cultured on a 6-well nonpyrogenic polystyrene plate for 6, 12, 24 and 36 h. (A) After removing the media, each well containing attached bacteria
    Figure Legend Snippet: Detection of VSC production and biofilm formation of F. nucleatum . F. nucleatum (4 × 10 9 CFU/well) was cultured on a 6-well nonpyrogenic polystyrene plate for 6, 12, 24 and 36 h. (A) After removing the media, each well containing attached bacteria

    Techniques Used: Cell Culture

    In vivo protective immunity. A gum pocket model with abscesses and swollen tissues was created, as described in and Section 2. After inoculation with live F. nucleatum (4 × 10 8 CFU) for 3 days, the change in the volume of gum swelling
    Figure Legend Snippet: In vivo protective immunity. A gum pocket model with abscesses and swollen tissues was created, as described in and Section 2. After inoculation with live F. nucleatum (4 × 10 8 CFU) for 3 days, the change in the volume of gum swelling

    Techniques Used: In Vivo

    Inhibition of VSC production and biofilm formation by anti- F. nucleatum serum. F. nucleatum (4 × 10 9 CFU) was pre-incubated with 2.5% (v/v) anti- F. nucleatum (Anti-N) or anti- S. mutans (Anti-M) sera without activated complements for 2 h. Afterwards,
    Figure Legend Snippet: Inhibition of VSC production and biofilm formation by anti- F. nucleatum serum. F. nucleatum (4 × 10 9 CFU) was pre-incubated with 2.5% (v/v) anti- F. nucleatum (Anti-N) or anti- S. mutans (Anti-M) sera without activated complements for 2 h. Afterwards,

    Techniques Used: Inhibition, Incubation

    31) Product Images from "A novel vaccine targeting Fusobacterium nucleatum against abscesses and halitosis"

    Article Title: A novel vaccine targeting Fusobacterium nucleatum against abscesses and halitosis

    Journal: Vaccine

    doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.12.058

    The production of antibody (IgG) to F. nucleatum. For immunization, cultured F. nucleatum and S. mutans were irradiated by UV at a total energy of 7000 J/m 2 . F. nucleatum lysate (20 µg) was separated by 10% SDS-PAGE and then subjected to Western
    Figure Legend Snippet: The production of antibody (IgG) to F. nucleatum. For immunization, cultured F. nucleatum and S. mutans were irradiated by UV at a total energy of 7000 J/m 2 . F. nucleatum lysate (20 µg) was separated by 10% SDS-PAGE and then subjected to Western

    Techniques Used: Cell Culture, Irradiation, SDS Page, Western Blot

    An abscess induced by the injection of live F. nucleatum into the gums of lower incisors of ICR mice. One hundred micro liter of PBS (A, C and E) or F. nucleatum (4 × 10 8 CFU in PBS) (B, D and F) was inoculated into a mouse oral cavity for 3 days,
    Figure Legend Snippet: An abscess induced by the injection of live F. nucleatum into the gums of lower incisors of ICR mice. One hundred micro liter of PBS (A, C and E) or F. nucleatum (4 × 10 8 CFU in PBS) (B, D and F) was inoculated into a mouse oral cavity for 3 days,

    Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

    Detection of VSC production and biofilm formation of F. nucleatum . F. nucleatum (4 × 10 9 CFU/well) was cultured on a 6-well nonpyrogenic polystyrene plate for 6, 12, 24 and 36 h. (A) After removing the media, each well containing attached bacteria
    Figure Legend Snippet: Detection of VSC production and biofilm formation of F. nucleatum . F. nucleatum (4 × 10 9 CFU/well) was cultured on a 6-well nonpyrogenic polystyrene plate for 6, 12, 24 and 36 h. (A) After removing the media, each well containing attached bacteria

    Techniques Used: Cell Culture

    In vivo protective immunity. A gum pocket model with abscesses and swollen tissues was created, as described in and Section 2. After inoculation with live F. nucleatum (4 × 10 8 CFU) for 3 days, the change in the volume of gum swelling
    Figure Legend Snippet: In vivo protective immunity. A gum pocket model with abscesses and swollen tissues was created, as described in and Section 2. After inoculation with live F. nucleatum (4 × 10 8 CFU) for 3 days, the change in the volume of gum swelling

    Techniques Used: In Vivo

    Inhibition of VSC production and biofilm formation by anti- F. nucleatum serum. F. nucleatum (4 × 10 9 CFU) was pre-incubated with 2.5% (v/v) anti- F. nucleatum (Anti-N) or anti- S. mutans (Anti-M) sera without activated complements for 2 h. Afterwards,
    Figure Legend Snippet: Inhibition of VSC production and biofilm formation by anti- F. nucleatum serum. F. nucleatum (4 × 10 9 CFU) was pre-incubated with 2.5% (v/v) anti- F. nucleatum (Anti-N) or anti- S. mutans (Anti-M) sera without activated complements for 2 h. Afterwards,

    Techniques Used: Inhibition, Incubation

    32) Product Images from "A novel vaccine targeting Fusobacterium nucleatum against abscesses and halitosis"

    Article Title: A novel vaccine targeting Fusobacterium nucleatum against abscesses and halitosis

    Journal: Vaccine

    doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.12.058

    The production of antibody (IgG) to F. nucleatum. For immunization, cultured F. nucleatum and S. mutans were irradiated by UV at a total energy of 7000 J/m 2 . F. nucleatum lysate (20 µg) was separated by 10% SDS-PAGE and then subjected to Western
    Figure Legend Snippet: The production of antibody (IgG) to F. nucleatum. For immunization, cultured F. nucleatum and S. mutans were irradiated by UV at a total energy of 7000 J/m 2 . F. nucleatum lysate (20 µg) was separated by 10% SDS-PAGE and then subjected to Western

    Techniques Used: Cell Culture, Irradiation, SDS Page, Western Blot

    An abscess induced by the injection of live F. nucleatum into the gums of lower incisors of ICR mice. One hundred micro liter of PBS (A, C and E) or F. nucleatum (4 × 10 8 CFU in PBS) (B, D and F) was inoculated into a mouse oral cavity for 3 days,
    Figure Legend Snippet: An abscess induced by the injection of live F. nucleatum into the gums of lower incisors of ICR mice. One hundred micro liter of PBS (A, C and E) or F. nucleatum (4 × 10 8 CFU in PBS) (B, D and F) was inoculated into a mouse oral cavity for 3 days,

    Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

    Detection of VSC production and biofilm formation of F. nucleatum . F. nucleatum (4 × 10 9 CFU/well) was cultured on a 6-well nonpyrogenic polystyrene plate for 6, 12, 24 and 36 h. (A) After removing the media, each well containing attached bacteria
    Figure Legend Snippet: Detection of VSC production and biofilm formation of F. nucleatum . F. nucleatum (4 × 10 9 CFU/well) was cultured on a 6-well nonpyrogenic polystyrene plate for 6, 12, 24 and 36 h. (A) After removing the media, each well containing attached bacteria

    Techniques Used: Cell Culture

    In vivo protective immunity. A gum pocket model with abscesses and swollen tissues was created, as described in and Section 2. After inoculation with live F. nucleatum (4 × 10 8 CFU) for 3 days, the change in the volume of gum swelling
    Figure Legend Snippet: In vivo protective immunity. A gum pocket model with abscesses and swollen tissues was created, as described in and Section 2. After inoculation with live F. nucleatum (4 × 10 8 CFU) for 3 days, the change in the volume of gum swelling

    Techniques Used: In Vivo

    Inhibition of VSC production and biofilm formation by anti- F. nucleatum serum. F. nucleatum (4 × 10 9 CFU) was pre-incubated with 2.5% (v/v) anti- F. nucleatum (Anti-N) or anti- S. mutans (Anti-M) sera without activated complements for 2 h. Afterwards,
    Figure Legend Snippet: Inhibition of VSC production and biofilm formation by anti- F. nucleatum serum. F. nucleatum (4 × 10 9 CFU) was pre-incubated with 2.5% (v/v) anti- F. nucleatum (Anti-N) or anti- S. mutans (Anti-M) sera without activated complements for 2 h. Afterwards,

    Techniques Used: Inhibition, Incubation

    33) Product Images from "A novel vaccine targeting Fusobacterium nucleatum against abscesses and halitosis"

    Article Title: A novel vaccine targeting Fusobacterium nucleatum against abscesses and halitosis

    Journal: Vaccine

    doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.12.058

    The production of antibody (IgG) to F. nucleatum. For immunization, cultured F. nucleatum and S. mutans were irradiated by UV at a total energy of 7000 J/m 2 . F. nucleatum lysate (20 µg) was separated by 10% SDS-PAGE and then subjected to Western
    Figure Legend Snippet: The production of antibody (IgG) to F. nucleatum. For immunization, cultured F. nucleatum and S. mutans were irradiated by UV at a total energy of 7000 J/m 2 . F. nucleatum lysate (20 µg) was separated by 10% SDS-PAGE and then subjected to Western

    Techniques Used: Cell Culture, Irradiation, SDS Page, Western Blot

    An abscess induced by the injection of live F. nucleatum into the gums of lower incisors of ICR mice. One hundred micro liter of PBS (A, C and E) or F. nucleatum (4 × 10 8 CFU in PBS) (B, D and F) was inoculated into a mouse oral cavity for 3 days,
    Figure Legend Snippet: An abscess induced by the injection of live F. nucleatum into the gums of lower incisors of ICR mice. One hundred micro liter of PBS (A, C and E) or F. nucleatum (4 × 10 8 CFU in PBS) (B, D and F) was inoculated into a mouse oral cavity for 3 days,

    Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

    Detection of VSC production and biofilm formation of F. nucleatum . F. nucleatum (4 × 10 9 CFU/well) was cultured on a 6-well nonpyrogenic polystyrene plate for 6, 12, 24 and 36 h. (A) After removing the media, each well containing attached bacteria
    Figure Legend Snippet: Detection of VSC production and biofilm formation of F. nucleatum . F. nucleatum (4 × 10 9 CFU/well) was cultured on a 6-well nonpyrogenic polystyrene plate for 6, 12, 24 and 36 h. (A) After removing the media, each well containing attached bacteria

    Techniques Used: Cell Culture

    In vivo protective immunity. A gum pocket model with abscesses and swollen tissues was created, as described in and Section 2. After inoculation with live F. nucleatum (4 × 10 8 CFU) for 3 days, the change in the volume of gum swelling
    Figure Legend Snippet: In vivo protective immunity. A gum pocket model with abscesses and swollen tissues was created, as described in and Section 2. After inoculation with live F. nucleatum (4 × 10 8 CFU) for 3 days, the change in the volume of gum swelling

    Techniques Used: In Vivo

    Inhibition of VSC production and biofilm formation by anti- F. nucleatum serum. F. nucleatum (4 × 10 9 CFU) was pre-incubated with 2.5% (v/v) anti- F. nucleatum (Anti-N) or anti- S. mutans (Anti-M) sera without activated complements for 2 h. Afterwards,
    Figure Legend Snippet: Inhibition of VSC production and biofilm formation by anti- F. nucleatum serum. F. nucleatum (4 × 10 9 CFU) was pre-incubated with 2.5% (v/v) anti- F. nucleatum (Anti-N) or anti- S. mutans (Anti-M) sera without activated complements for 2 h. Afterwards,

    Techniques Used: Inhibition, Incubation

    34) Product Images from "A novel vaccine targeting Fusobacterium nucleatum against abscesses and halitosis"

    Article Title: A novel vaccine targeting Fusobacterium nucleatum against abscesses and halitosis

    Journal: Vaccine

    doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.12.058

    The production of antibody (IgG) to F. nucleatum. For immunization, cultured F. nucleatum and S. mutans were irradiated by UV at a total energy of 7000 J/m 2 . F. nucleatum lysate (20 µg) was separated by 10% SDS-PAGE and then subjected to Western
    Figure Legend Snippet: The production of antibody (IgG) to F. nucleatum. For immunization, cultured F. nucleatum and S. mutans were irradiated by UV at a total energy of 7000 J/m 2 . F. nucleatum lysate (20 µg) was separated by 10% SDS-PAGE and then subjected to Western

    Techniques Used: Cell Culture, Irradiation, SDS Page, Western Blot

    An abscess induced by the injection of live F. nucleatum into the gums of lower incisors of ICR mice. One hundred micro liter of PBS (A, C and E) or F. nucleatum (4 × 10 8 CFU in PBS) (B, D and F) was inoculated into a mouse oral cavity for 3 days,
    Figure Legend Snippet: An abscess induced by the injection of live F. nucleatum into the gums of lower incisors of ICR mice. One hundred micro liter of PBS (A, C and E) or F. nucleatum (4 × 10 8 CFU in PBS) (B, D and F) was inoculated into a mouse oral cavity for 3 days,

    Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

    Detection of VSC production and biofilm formation of F. nucleatum . F. nucleatum (4 × 10 9 CFU/well) was cultured on a 6-well nonpyrogenic polystyrene plate for 6, 12, 24 and 36 h. (A) After removing the media, each well containing attached bacteria
    Figure Legend Snippet: Detection of VSC production and biofilm formation of F. nucleatum . F. nucleatum (4 × 10 9 CFU/well) was cultured on a 6-well nonpyrogenic polystyrene plate for 6, 12, 24 and 36 h. (A) After removing the media, each well containing attached bacteria

    Techniques Used: Cell Culture

    In vivo protective immunity. A gum pocket model with abscesses and swollen tissues was created, as described in and Section 2. After inoculation with live F. nucleatum (4 × 10 8 CFU) for 3 days, the change in the volume of gum swelling
    Figure Legend Snippet: In vivo protective immunity. A gum pocket model with abscesses and swollen tissues was created, as described in and Section 2. After inoculation with live F. nucleatum (4 × 10 8 CFU) for 3 days, the change in the volume of gum swelling

    Techniques Used: In Vivo

    Inhibition of VSC production and biofilm formation by anti- F. nucleatum serum. F. nucleatum (4 × 10 9 CFU) was pre-incubated with 2.5% (v/v) anti- F. nucleatum (Anti-N) or anti- S. mutans (Anti-M) sera without activated complements for 2 h. Afterwards,
    Figure Legend Snippet: Inhibition of VSC production and biofilm formation by anti- F. nucleatum serum. F. nucleatum (4 × 10 9 CFU) was pre-incubated with 2.5% (v/v) anti- F. nucleatum (Anti-N) or anti- S. mutans (Anti-M) sera without activated complements for 2 h. Afterwards,

    Techniques Used: Inhibition, Incubation

    35) Product Images from "A novel vaccine targeting Fusobacterium nucleatum against abscesses and halitosis"

    Article Title: A novel vaccine targeting Fusobacterium nucleatum against abscesses and halitosis

    Journal: Vaccine

    doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.12.058

    The production of antibody (IgG) to F. nucleatum. For immunization, cultured F. nucleatum and S. mutans were irradiated by UV at a total energy of 7000 J/m 2 . F. nucleatum lysate (20 µg) was separated by 10% SDS-PAGE and then subjected to Western
    Figure Legend Snippet: The production of antibody (IgG) to F. nucleatum. For immunization, cultured F. nucleatum and S. mutans were irradiated by UV at a total energy of 7000 J/m 2 . F. nucleatum lysate (20 µg) was separated by 10% SDS-PAGE and then subjected to Western

    Techniques Used: Cell Culture, Irradiation, SDS Page, Western Blot

    An abscess induced by the injection of live F. nucleatum into the gums of lower incisors of ICR mice. One hundred micro liter of PBS (A, C and E) or F. nucleatum (4 × 10 8 CFU in PBS) (B, D and F) was inoculated into a mouse oral cavity for 3 days,
    Figure Legend Snippet: An abscess induced by the injection of live F. nucleatum into the gums of lower incisors of ICR mice. One hundred micro liter of PBS (A, C and E) or F. nucleatum (4 × 10 8 CFU in PBS) (B, D and F) was inoculated into a mouse oral cavity for 3 days,

    Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

    Detection of VSC production and biofilm formation of F. nucleatum . F. nucleatum (4 × 10 9 CFU/well) was cultured on a 6-well nonpyrogenic polystyrene plate for 6, 12, 24 and 36 h. (A) After removing the media, each well containing attached bacteria
    Figure Legend Snippet: Detection of VSC production and biofilm formation of F. nucleatum . F. nucleatum (4 × 10 9 CFU/well) was cultured on a 6-well nonpyrogenic polystyrene plate for 6, 12, 24 and 36 h. (A) After removing the media, each well containing attached bacteria

    Techniques Used: Cell Culture

    In vivo protective immunity. A gum pocket model with abscesses and swollen tissues was created, as described in and Section 2. After inoculation with live F. nucleatum (4 × 10 8 CFU) for 3 days, the change in the volume of gum swelling
    Figure Legend Snippet: In vivo protective immunity. A gum pocket model with abscesses and swollen tissues was created, as described in and Section 2. After inoculation with live F. nucleatum (4 × 10 8 CFU) for 3 days, the change in the volume of gum swelling

    Techniques Used: In Vivo

    Inhibition of VSC production and biofilm formation by anti- F. nucleatum serum. F. nucleatum (4 × 10 9 CFU) was pre-incubated with 2.5% (v/v) anti- F. nucleatum (Anti-N) or anti- S. mutans (Anti-M) sera without activated complements for 2 h. Afterwards,
    Figure Legend Snippet: Inhibition of VSC production and biofilm formation by anti- F. nucleatum serum. F. nucleatum (4 × 10 9 CFU) was pre-incubated with 2.5% (v/v) anti- F. nucleatum (Anti-N) or anti- S. mutans (Anti-M) sera without activated complements for 2 h. Afterwards,

    Techniques Used: Inhibition, Incubation

    36) Product Images from "A novel vaccine targeting Fusobacterium nucleatum against abscesses and halitosis"

    Article Title: A novel vaccine targeting Fusobacterium nucleatum against abscesses and halitosis

    Journal: Vaccine

    doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.12.058

    The production of antibody (IgG) to F. nucleatum. For immunization, cultured F. nucleatum and S. mutans were irradiated by UV at a total energy of 7000 J/m 2 . F. nucleatum lysate (20 µg) was separated by 10% SDS-PAGE and then subjected to Western
    Figure Legend Snippet: The production of antibody (IgG) to F. nucleatum. For immunization, cultured F. nucleatum and S. mutans were irradiated by UV at a total energy of 7000 J/m 2 . F. nucleatum lysate (20 µg) was separated by 10% SDS-PAGE and then subjected to Western

    Techniques Used: Cell Culture, Irradiation, SDS Page, Western Blot

    An abscess induced by the injection of live F. nucleatum into the gums of lower incisors of ICR mice. One hundred micro liter of PBS (A, C and E) or F. nucleatum (4 × 10 8 CFU in PBS) (B, D and F) was inoculated into a mouse oral cavity for 3 days,
    Figure Legend Snippet: An abscess induced by the injection of live F. nucleatum into the gums of lower incisors of ICR mice. One hundred micro liter of PBS (A, C and E) or F. nucleatum (4 × 10 8 CFU in PBS) (B, D and F) was inoculated into a mouse oral cavity for 3 days,

    Techniques Used: Injection, Mouse Assay

    Detection of VSC production and biofilm formation of F. nucleatum . F. nucleatum (4 × 10 9 CFU/well) was cultured on a 6-well nonpyrogenic polystyrene plate for 6, 12, 24 and 36 h. (A) After removing the media, each well containing attached bacteria
    Figure Legend Snippet: Detection of VSC production and biofilm formation of F. nucleatum . F. nucleatum (4 × 10 9 CFU/well) was cultured on a 6-well nonpyrogenic polystyrene plate for 6, 12, 24 and 36 h. (A) After removing the media, each well containing attached bacteria

    Techniques Used: Cell Culture

    In vivo protective immunity. A gum pocket model with abscesses and swollen tissues was created, as described in and Section 2. After inoculation with live F. nucleatum (4 × 10 8 CFU) for 3 days, the change in the volume of gum swelling
    Figure Legend Snippet: In vivo protective immunity. A gum pocket model with abscesses and swollen tissues was created, as described in and Section 2. After inoculation with live F. nucleatum (4 × 10 8 CFU) for 3 days, the change in the volume of gum swelling

    Techniques Used: In Vivo

    Inhibition of VSC production and biofilm formation by anti- F. nucleatum serum. F. nucleatum (4 × 10 9 CFU) was pre-incubated with 2.5% (v/v) anti- F. nucleatum (Anti-N) or anti- S. mutans (Anti-M) sera without activated complements for 2 h. Afterwards,
    Figure Legend Snippet: Inhibition of VSC production and biofilm formation by anti- F. nucleatum serum. F. nucleatum (4 × 10 9 CFU) was pre-incubated with 2.5% (v/v) anti- F. nucleatum (Anti-N) or anti- S. mutans (Anti-M) sera without activated complements for 2 h. Afterwards,

    Techniques Used: Inhibition, Incubation

    37) Product Images from "Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii. Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii"

    Article Title: Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii. Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii

    Journal: MicrobiologyOpen

    doi: 10.1002/mbo3.444

    radD and cmpA expression: WT Fusobacterium nucleatum was grown in Columbia broth for 25 hr. Cell samples were collected every 3 hr and (a) OD 600 was measured, as well as (b) radD and cmpA expression by qRT ‐ PCR . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to the first time point. The dashed line was added to aid in the comparison. (c) radD and cmpA expression were also measured in cells from Fn biofilm grown overnight in SHI ‐ FSMS . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to planktonic cells grown under the same conditions. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. To aid with visualization, the dashed line represents no change
    Figure Legend Snippet: radD and cmpA expression: WT Fusobacterium nucleatum was grown in Columbia broth for 25 hr. Cell samples were collected every 3 hr and (a) OD 600 was measured, as well as (b) radD and cmpA expression by qRT ‐ PCR . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to the first time point. The dashed line was added to aid in the comparison. (c) radD and cmpA expression were also measured in cells from Fn biofilm grown overnight in SHI ‐ FSMS . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to planktonic cells grown under the same conditions. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. To aid with visualization, the dashed line represents no change

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR, Standard Deviation

    Quantitative coaggregation of (a) wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 and the WT Fusobacterium nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative, at different phases of growth. (b) Quantitative coaggregation of WT S. gordonii strains ( DL 1, V288, ATCC 10558, and ATCC 51656) with WT F. nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative at exponential growth. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Quantitative coaggregation of (a) wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 and the WT Fusobacterium nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative, at different phases of growth. (b) Quantitative coaggregation of WT S. gordonii strains ( DL 1, V288, ATCC 10558, and ATCC 51656) with WT F. nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative at exponential growth. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Standard Deviation

    Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type Streptococcus gordonii strain (a) V288, (b) ATCC 10558, (c) DL 1, and (d) ATCC 51656 with Fusobacterium nucleatum strains: Wild‐type ( WT ) and the mutant derivatives: radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type Streptococcus gordonii strain (a) V288, (b) ATCC 10558, (c) DL 1, and (d) ATCC 51656 with Fusobacterium nucleatum strains: Wild‐type ( WT ) and the mutant derivatives: radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Standard Deviation

    (a) Fusobacterium nucleatum radD cmpA double mutant (strain BL 83) was constructed by insertion of the inactivation plasmid pBPL 9 into cmpA (Fn1554) in a radD::catP mutant background. Black arrows indicate the location of primers used for mutant construction and analysis. (b) Confirmation of plasmid insertion into cmpA by PCR analysis of the cmpA mutant (m) with wild‐type (WT) as the control
    Figure Legend Snippet: (a) Fusobacterium nucleatum radD cmpA double mutant (strain BL 83) was constructed by insertion of the inactivation plasmid pBPL 9 into cmpA (Fn1554) in a radD::catP mutant background. Black arrows indicate the location of primers used for mutant construction and analysis. (b) Confirmation of plasmid insertion into cmpA by PCR analysis of the cmpA mutant (m) with wild‐type (WT) as the control

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Construct, Plasmid Preparation, Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Streptococcus gordonii and Fusobacterium nucleatum dual‐species biofilm: (a) Confocal laser scanning microscopy of syto9‐stained dual‐species biofilm after overnight incubation. S. gordonii (Sg) cells constitutively express mCherry from their chromosome and appear orange/yellow on the images. Wild‐type ( WT ) F. nucleatum (Fn) and its mutant derivatives ( radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant) are strained by syto9‐only and appear green on the images. (b) The presence of the Fn mutant strains in the Sg‐Fn dual‐species biofilm is displayed as the percentage of Fn cells normalized to the number of attached Sg cells/well, compared to that measured with WT Fn. Cellular ratios were determined by measuring DNA concentration by qPCR , targeting the F. nucleatum gene fomA and the S. gordonii gene srtA . At least three independent experiments were performed per strain combination. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Streptococcus gordonii and Fusobacterium nucleatum dual‐species biofilm: (a) Confocal laser scanning microscopy of syto9‐stained dual‐species biofilm after overnight incubation. S. gordonii (Sg) cells constitutively express mCherry from their chromosome and appear orange/yellow on the images. Wild‐type ( WT ) F. nucleatum (Fn) and its mutant derivatives ( radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant) are strained by syto9‐only and appear green on the images. (b) The presence of the Fn mutant strains in the Sg‐Fn dual‐species biofilm is displayed as the percentage of Fn cells normalized to the number of attached Sg cells/well, compared to that measured with WT Fn. Cellular ratios were determined by measuring DNA concentration by qPCR , targeting the F. nucleatum gene fomA and the S. gordonii gene srtA . At least three independent experiments were performed per strain combination. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, Staining, Incubation, Mutagenesis, Concentration Assay, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Standard Deviation

    Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 with Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 23726 WT strain and OMP mutant derivatives ( radD , Fn254, cmpA , Fn1893, Fn2047, and aim1 ). Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 with Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 23726 WT strain and OMP mutant derivatives ( radD , Fn254, cmpA , Fn1893, Fn2047, and aim1 ). Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Standard Deviation

    38) Product Images from "Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii. Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii"

    Article Title: Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii. Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii

    Journal: MicrobiologyOpen

    doi: 10.1002/mbo3.444

    radD and cmpA expression: WT Fusobacterium nucleatum was grown in Columbia broth for 25 hr. Cell samples were collected every 3 hr and (a) OD 600 was measured, as well as (b) radD and cmpA expression by qRT ‐ PCR . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to the first time point. The dashed line was added to aid in the comparison. (c) radD and cmpA expression were also measured in cells from Fn biofilm grown overnight in SHI ‐ FSMS . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to planktonic cells grown under the same conditions. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. To aid with visualization, the dashed line represents no change
    Figure Legend Snippet: radD and cmpA expression: WT Fusobacterium nucleatum was grown in Columbia broth for 25 hr. Cell samples were collected every 3 hr and (a) OD 600 was measured, as well as (b) radD and cmpA expression by qRT ‐ PCR . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to the first time point. The dashed line was added to aid in the comparison. (c) radD and cmpA expression were also measured in cells from Fn biofilm grown overnight in SHI ‐ FSMS . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to planktonic cells grown under the same conditions. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. To aid with visualization, the dashed line represents no change

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR, Standard Deviation

    Quantitative coaggregation of (a) wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 and the WT Fusobacterium nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative, at different phases of growth. (b) Quantitative coaggregation of WT S. gordonii strains ( DL 1, V288, ATCC 10558, and ATCC 51656) with WT F. nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative at exponential growth. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Quantitative coaggregation of (a) wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 and the WT Fusobacterium nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative, at different phases of growth. (b) Quantitative coaggregation of WT S. gordonii strains ( DL 1, V288, ATCC 10558, and ATCC 51656) with WT F. nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative at exponential growth. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Standard Deviation

    Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type Streptococcus gordonii strain (a) V288, (b) ATCC 10558, (c) DL 1, and (d) ATCC 51656 with Fusobacterium nucleatum strains: Wild‐type ( WT ) and the mutant derivatives: radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type Streptococcus gordonii strain (a) V288, (b) ATCC 10558, (c) DL 1, and (d) ATCC 51656 with Fusobacterium nucleatum strains: Wild‐type ( WT ) and the mutant derivatives: radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Standard Deviation

    (a) Fusobacterium nucleatum radD cmpA double mutant (strain BL 83) was constructed by insertion of the inactivation plasmid pBPL 9 into cmpA (Fn1554) in a radD::catP mutant background. Black arrows indicate the location of primers used for mutant construction and analysis. (b) Confirmation of plasmid insertion into cmpA by PCR analysis of the cmpA mutant (m) with wild‐type (WT) as the control
    Figure Legend Snippet: (a) Fusobacterium nucleatum radD cmpA double mutant (strain BL 83) was constructed by insertion of the inactivation plasmid pBPL 9 into cmpA (Fn1554) in a radD::catP mutant background. Black arrows indicate the location of primers used for mutant construction and analysis. (b) Confirmation of plasmid insertion into cmpA by PCR analysis of the cmpA mutant (m) with wild‐type (WT) as the control

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Construct, Plasmid Preparation, Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Streptococcus gordonii and Fusobacterium nucleatum dual‐species biofilm: (a) Confocal laser scanning microscopy of syto9‐stained dual‐species biofilm after overnight incubation. S. gordonii (Sg) cells constitutively express mCherry from their chromosome and appear orange/yellow on the images. Wild‐type ( WT ) F. nucleatum (Fn) and its mutant derivatives ( radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant) are strained by syto9‐only and appear green on the images. (b) The presence of the Fn mutant strains in the Sg‐Fn dual‐species biofilm is displayed as the percentage of Fn cells normalized to the number of attached Sg cells/well, compared to that measured with WT Fn. Cellular ratios were determined by measuring DNA concentration by qPCR , targeting the F. nucleatum gene fomA and the S. gordonii gene srtA . At least three independent experiments were performed per strain combination. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Streptococcus gordonii and Fusobacterium nucleatum dual‐species biofilm: (a) Confocal laser scanning microscopy of syto9‐stained dual‐species biofilm after overnight incubation. S. gordonii (Sg) cells constitutively express mCherry from their chromosome and appear orange/yellow on the images. Wild‐type ( WT ) F. nucleatum (Fn) and its mutant derivatives ( radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant) are strained by syto9‐only and appear green on the images. (b) The presence of the Fn mutant strains in the Sg‐Fn dual‐species biofilm is displayed as the percentage of Fn cells normalized to the number of attached Sg cells/well, compared to that measured with WT Fn. Cellular ratios were determined by measuring DNA concentration by qPCR , targeting the F. nucleatum gene fomA and the S. gordonii gene srtA . At least three independent experiments were performed per strain combination. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, Staining, Incubation, Mutagenesis, Concentration Assay, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Standard Deviation

    Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 with Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 23726 WT strain and OMP mutant derivatives ( radD , Fn254, cmpA , Fn1893, Fn2047, and aim1 ). Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 with Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 23726 WT strain and OMP mutant derivatives ( radD , Fn254, cmpA , Fn1893, Fn2047, and aim1 ). Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Standard Deviation

    39) Product Images from "Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii. Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii"

    Article Title: Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii. Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii

    Journal: MicrobiologyOpen

    doi: 10.1002/mbo3.444

    radD and cmpA expression: WT Fusobacterium nucleatum was grown in Columbia broth for 25 hr. Cell samples were collected every 3 hr and (a) OD 600 was measured, as well as (b) radD and cmpA expression by qRT ‐ PCR . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to the first time point. The dashed line was added to aid in the comparison. (c) radD and cmpA expression were also measured in cells from Fn biofilm grown overnight in SHI ‐ FSMS . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to planktonic cells grown under the same conditions. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. To aid with visualization, the dashed line represents no change
    Figure Legend Snippet: radD and cmpA expression: WT Fusobacterium nucleatum was grown in Columbia broth for 25 hr. Cell samples were collected every 3 hr and (a) OD 600 was measured, as well as (b) radD and cmpA expression by qRT ‐ PCR . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to the first time point. The dashed line was added to aid in the comparison. (c) radD and cmpA expression were also measured in cells from Fn biofilm grown overnight in SHI ‐ FSMS . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to planktonic cells grown under the same conditions. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. To aid with visualization, the dashed line represents no change

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR, Standard Deviation

    Quantitative coaggregation of (a) wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 and the WT Fusobacterium nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative, at different phases of growth. (b) Quantitative coaggregation of WT S. gordonii strains ( DL 1, V288, ATCC 10558, and ATCC 51656) with WT F. nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative at exponential growth. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Quantitative coaggregation of (a) wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 and the WT Fusobacterium nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative, at different phases of growth. (b) Quantitative coaggregation of WT S. gordonii strains ( DL 1, V288, ATCC 10558, and ATCC 51656) with WT F. nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative at exponential growth. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Standard Deviation

    Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type Streptococcus gordonii strain (a) V288, (b) ATCC 10558, (c) DL 1, and (d) ATCC 51656 with Fusobacterium nucleatum strains: Wild‐type ( WT ) and the mutant derivatives: radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type Streptococcus gordonii strain (a) V288, (b) ATCC 10558, (c) DL 1, and (d) ATCC 51656 with Fusobacterium nucleatum strains: Wild‐type ( WT ) and the mutant derivatives: radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Standard Deviation

    (a) Fusobacterium nucleatum radD cmpA double mutant (strain BL 83) was constructed by insertion of the inactivation plasmid pBPL 9 into cmpA (Fn1554) in a radD::catP mutant background. Black arrows indicate the location of primers used for mutant construction and analysis. (b) Confirmation of plasmid insertion into cmpA by PCR analysis of the cmpA mutant (m) with wild‐type (WT) as the control
    Figure Legend Snippet: (a) Fusobacterium nucleatum radD cmpA double mutant (strain BL 83) was constructed by insertion of the inactivation plasmid pBPL 9 into cmpA (Fn1554) in a radD::catP mutant background. Black arrows indicate the location of primers used for mutant construction and analysis. (b) Confirmation of plasmid insertion into cmpA by PCR analysis of the cmpA mutant (m) with wild‐type (WT) as the control

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Construct, Plasmid Preparation, Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Streptococcus gordonii and Fusobacterium nucleatum dual‐species biofilm: (a) Confocal laser scanning microscopy of syto9‐stained dual‐species biofilm after overnight incubation. S. gordonii (Sg) cells constitutively express mCherry from their chromosome and appear orange/yellow on the images. Wild‐type ( WT ) F. nucleatum (Fn) and its mutant derivatives ( radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant) are strained by syto9‐only and appear green on the images. (b) The presence of the Fn mutant strains in the Sg‐Fn dual‐species biofilm is displayed as the percentage of Fn cells normalized to the number of attached Sg cells/well, compared to that measured with WT Fn. Cellular ratios were determined by measuring DNA concentration by qPCR , targeting the F. nucleatum gene fomA and the S. gordonii gene srtA . At least three independent experiments were performed per strain combination. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Streptococcus gordonii and Fusobacterium nucleatum dual‐species biofilm: (a) Confocal laser scanning microscopy of syto9‐stained dual‐species biofilm after overnight incubation. S. gordonii (Sg) cells constitutively express mCherry from their chromosome and appear orange/yellow on the images. Wild‐type ( WT ) F. nucleatum (Fn) and its mutant derivatives ( radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant) are strained by syto9‐only and appear green on the images. (b) The presence of the Fn mutant strains in the Sg‐Fn dual‐species biofilm is displayed as the percentage of Fn cells normalized to the number of attached Sg cells/well, compared to that measured with WT Fn. Cellular ratios were determined by measuring DNA concentration by qPCR , targeting the F. nucleatum gene fomA and the S. gordonii gene srtA . At least three independent experiments were performed per strain combination. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, Staining, Incubation, Mutagenesis, Concentration Assay, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Standard Deviation

    Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 with Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 23726 WT strain and OMP mutant derivatives ( radD , Fn254, cmpA , Fn1893, Fn2047, and aim1 ). Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 with Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 23726 WT strain and OMP mutant derivatives ( radD , Fn254, cmpA , Fn1893, Fn2047, and aim1 ). Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Standard Deviation

    40) Product Images from "Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii. Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii"

    Article Title: Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii. Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii

    Journal: MicrobiologyOpen

    doi: 10.1002/mbo3.444

    radD and cmpA expression: WT Fusobacterium nucleatum was grown in Columbia broth for 25 hr. Cell samples were collected every 3 hr and (a) OD 600 was measured, as well as (b) radD and cmpA expression by qRT ‐ PCR . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to the first time point. The dashed line was added to aid in the comparison. (c) radD and cmpA expression were also measured in cells from Fn biofilm grown overnight in SHI ‐ FSMS . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to planktonic cells grown under the same conditions. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. To aid with visualization, the dashed line represents no change
    Figure Legend Snippet: radD and cmpA expression: WT Fusobacterium nucleatum was grown in Columbia broth for 25 hr. Cell samples were collected every 3 hr and (a) OD 600 was measured, as well as (b) radD and cmpA expression by qRT ‐ PCR . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to the first time point. The dashed line was added to aid in the comparison. (c) radD and cmpA expression were also measured in cells from Fn biofilm grown overnight in SHI ‐ FSMS . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to planktonic cells grown under the same conditions. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. To aid with visualization, the dashed line represents no change

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR, Standard Deviation

    Quantitative coaggregation of (a) wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 and the WT Fusobacterium nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative, at different phases of growth. (b) Quantitative coaggregation of WT S. gordonii strains ( DL 1, V288, ATCC 10558, and ATCC 51656) with WT F. nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative at exponential growth. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Quantitative coaggregation of (a) wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 and the WT Fusobacterium nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative, at different phases of growth. (b) Quantitative coaggregation of WT S. gordonii strains ( DL 1, V288, ATCC 10558, and ATCC 51656) with WT F. nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative at exponential growth. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Standard Deviation

    Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type Streptococcus gordonii strain (a) V288, (b) ATCC 10558, (c) DL 1, and (d) ATCC 51656 with Fusobacterium nucleatum strains: Wild‐type ( WT ) and the mutant derivatives: radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type Streptococcus gordonii strain (a) V288, (b) ATCC 10558, (c) DL 1, and (d) ATCC 51656 with Fusobacterium nucleatum strains: Wild‐type ( WT ) and the mutant derivatives: radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Standard Deviation

    (a) Fusobacterium nucleatum radD cmpA double mutant (strain BL 83) was constructed by insertion of the inactivation plasmid pBPL 9 into cmpA (Fn1554) in a radD::catP mutant background. Black arrows indicate the location of primers used for mutant construction and analysis. (b) Confirmation of plasmid insertion into cmpA by PCR analysis of the cmpA mutant (m) with wild‐type (WT) as the control
    Figure Legend Snippet: (a) Fusobacterium nucleatum radD cmpA double mutant (strain BL 83) was constructed by insertion of the inactivation plasmid pBPL 9 into cmpA (Fn1554) in a radD::catP mutant background. Black arrows indicate the location of primers used for mutant construction and analysis. (b) Confirmation of plasmid insertion into cmpA by PCR analysis of the cmpA mutant (m) with wild‐type (WT) as the control

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Construct, Plasmid Preparation, Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Streptococcus gordonii and Fusobacterium nucleatum dual‐species biofilm: (a) Confocal laser scanning microscopy of syto9‐stained dual‐species biofilm after overnight incubation. S. gordonii (Sg) cells constitutively express mCherry from their chromosome and appear orange/yellow on the images. Wild‐type ( WT ) F. nucleatum (Fn) and its mutant derivatives ( radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant) are strained by syto9‐only and appear green on the images. (b) The presence of the Fn mutant strains in the Sg‐Fn dual‐species biofilm is displayed as the percentage of Fn cells normalized to the number of attached Sg cells/well, compared to that measured with WT Fn. Cellular ratios were determined by measuring DNA concentration by qPCR , targeting the F. nucleatum gene fomA and the S. gordonii gene srtA . At least three independent experiments were performed per strain combination. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Streptococcus gordonii and Fusobacterium nucleatum dual‐species biofilm: (a) Confocal laser scanning microscopy of syto9‐stained dual‐species biofilm after overnight incubation. S. gordonii (Sg) cells constitutively express mCherry from their chromosome and appear orange/yellow on the images. Wild‐type ( WT ) F. nucleatum (Fn) and its mutant derivatives ( radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant) are strained by syto9‐only and appear green on the images. (b) The presence of the Fn mutant strains in the Sg‐Fn dual‐species biofilm is displayed as the percentage of Fn cells normalized to the number of attached Sg cells/well, compared to that measured with WT Fn. Cellular ratios were determined by measuring DNA concentration by qPCR , targeting the F. nucleatum gene fomA and the S. gordonii gene srtA . At least three independent experiments were performed per strain combination. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, Staining, Incubation, Mutagenesis, Concentration Assay, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Standard Deviation

    Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 with Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 23726 WT strain and OMP mutant derivatives ( radD , Fn254, cmpA , Fn1893, Fn2047, and aim1 ). Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 with Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 23726 WT strain and OMP mutant derivatives ( radD , Fn254, cmpA , Fn1893, Fn2047, and aim1 ). Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Standard Deviation

    41) Product Images from "Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii. Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii"

    Article Title: Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii. Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii

    Journal: MicrobiologyOpen

    doi: 10.1002/mbo3.444

    radD and cmpA expression: WT Fusobacterium nucleatum was grown in Columbia broth for 25 hr. Cell samples were collected every 3 hr and (a) OD 600 was measured, as well as (b) radD and cmpA expression by qRT ‐ PCR . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to the first time point. The dashed line was added to aid in the comparison. (c) radD and cmpA expression were also measured in cells from Fn biofilm grown overnight in SHI ‐ FSMS . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to planktonic cells grown under the same conditions. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. To aid with visualization, the dashed line represents no change
    Figure Legend Snippet: radD and cmpA expression: WT Fusobacterium nucleatum was grown in Columbia broth for 25 hr. Cell samples were collected every 3 hr and (a) OD 600 was measured, as well as (b) radD and cmpA expression by qRT ‐ PCR . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to the first time point. The dashed line was added to aid in the comparison. (c) radD and cmpA expression were also measured in cells from Fn biofilm grown overnight in SHI ‐ FSMS . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to planktonic cells grown under the same conditions. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. To aid with visualization, the dashed line represents no change

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR, Standard Deviation

    Quantitative coaggregation of (a) wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 and the WT Fusobacterium nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative, at different phases of growth. (b) Quantitative coaggregation of WT S. gordonii strains ( DL 1, V288, ATCC 10558, and ATCC 51656) with WT F. nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative at exponential growth. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Quantitative coaggregation of (a) wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 and the WT Fusobacterium nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative, at different phases of growth. (b) Quantitative coaggregation of WT S. gordonii strains ( DL 1, V288, ATCC 10558, and ATCC 51656) with WT F. nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative at exponential growth. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Standard Deviation

    Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type Streptococcus gordonii strain (a) V288, (b) ATCC 10558, (c) DL 1, and (d) ATCC 51656 with Fusobacterium nucleatum strains: Wild‐type ( WT ) and the mutant derivatives: radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type Streptococcus gordonii strain (a) V288, (b) ATCC 10558, (c) DL 1, and (d) ATCC 51656 with Fusobacterium nucleatum strains: Wild‐type ( WT ) and the mutant derivatives: radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Standard Deviation

    (a) Fusobacterium nucleatum radD cmpA double mutant (strain BL 83) was constructed by insertion of the inactivation plasmid pBPL 9 into cmpA (Fn1554) in a radD::catP mutant background. Black arrows indicate the location of primers used for mutant construction and analysis. (b) Confirmation of plasmid insertion into cmpA by PCR analysis of the cmpA mutant (m) with wild‐type (WT) as the control
    Figure Legend Snippet: (a) Fusobacterium nucleatum radD cmpA double mutant (strain BL 83) was constructed by insertion of the inactivation plasmid pBPL 9 into cmpA (Fn1554) in a radD::catP mutant background. Black arrows indicate the location of primers used for mutant construction and analysis. (b) Confirmation of plasmid insertion into cmpA by PCR analysis of the cmpA mutant (m) with wild‐type (WT) as the control

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Construct, Plasmid Preparation, Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Streptococcus gordonii and Fusobacterium nucleatum dual‐species biofilm: (a) Confocal laser scanning microscopy of syto9‐stained dual‐species biofilm after overnight incubation. S. gordonii (Sg) cells constitutively express mCherry from their chromosome and appear orange/yellow on the images. Wild‐type ( WT ) F. nucleatum (Fn) and its mutant derivatives ( radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant) are strained by syto9‐only and appear green on the images. (b) The presence of the Fn mutant strains in the Sg‐Fn dual‐species biofilm is displayed as the percentage of Fn cells normalized to the number of attached Sg cells/well, compared to that measured with WT Fn. Cellular ratios were determined by measuring DNA concentration by qPCR , targeting the F. nucleatum gene fomA and the S. gordonii gene srtA . At least three independent experiments were performed per strain combination. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Streptococcus gordonii and Fusobacterium nucleatum dual‐species biofilm: (a) Confocal laser scanning microscopy of syto9‐stained dual‐species biofilm after overnight incubation. S. gordonii (Sg) cells constitutively express mCherry from their chromosome and appear orange/yellow on the images. Wild‐type ( WT ) F. nucleatum (Fn) and its mutant derivatives ( radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant) are strained by syto9‐only and appear green on the images. (b) The presence of the Fn mutant strains in the Sg‐Fn dual‐species biofilm is displayed as the percentage of Fn cells normalized to the number of attached Sg cells/well, compared to that measured with WT Fn. Cellular ratios were determined by measuring DNA concentration by qPCR , targeting the F. nucleatum gene fomA and the S. gordonii gene srtA . At least three independent experiments were performed per strain combination. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, Staining, Incubation, Mutagenesis, Concentration Assay, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Standard Deviation

    Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 with Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 23726 WT strain and OMP mutant derivatives ( radD , Fn254, cmpA , Fn1893, Fn2047, and aim1 ). Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 with Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 23726 WT strain and OMP mutant derivatives ( radD , Fn254, cmpA , Fn1893, Fn2047, and aim1 ). Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Standard Deviation

    42) Product Images from "Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii. Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii"

    Article Title: Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii. Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii

    Journal: MicrobiologyOpen

    doi: 10.1002/mbo3.444

    radD and cmpA expression: WT Fusobacterium nucleatum was grown in Columbia broth for 25 hr. Cell samples were collected every 3 hr and (a) OD 600 was measured, as well as (b) radD and cmpA expression by qRT ‐ PCR . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to the first time point. The dashed line was added to aid in the comparison. (c) radD and cmpA expression were also measured in cells from Fn biofilm grown overnight in SHI ‐ FSMS . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to planktonic cells grown under the same conditions. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. To aid with visualization, the dashed line represents no change
    Figure Legend Snippet: radD and cmpA expression: WT Fusobacterium nucleatum was grown in Columbia broth for 25 hr. Cell samples were collected every 3 hr and (a) OD 600 was measured, as well as (b) radD and cmpA expression by qRT ‐ PCR . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to the first time point. The dashed line was added to aid in the comparison. (c) radD and cmpA expression were also measured in cells from Fn biofilm grown overnight in SHI ‐ FSMS . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to planktonic cells grown under the same conditions. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. To aid with visualization, the dashed line represents no change

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR, Standard Deviation

    Quantitative coaggregation of (a) wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 and the WT Fusobacterium nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative, at different phases of growth. (b) Quantitative coaggregation of WT S. gordonii strains ( DL 1, V288, ATCC 10558, and ATCC 51656) with WT F. nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative at exponential growth. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Quantitative coaggregation of (a) wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 and the WT Fusobacterium nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative, at different phases of growth. (b) Quantitative coaggregation of WT S. gordonii strains ( DL 1, V288, ATCC 10558, and ATCC 51656) with WT F. nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative at exponential growth. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Standard Deviation

    Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type Streptococcus gordonii strain (a) V288, (b) ATCC 10558, (c) DL 1, and (d) ATCC 51656 with Fusobacterium nucleatum strains: Wild‐type ( WT ) and the mutant derivatives: radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type Streptococcus gordonii strain (a) V288, (b) ATCC 10558, (c) DL 1, and (d) ATCC 51656 with Fusobacterium nucleatum strains: Wild‐type ( WT ) and the mutant derivatives: radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Standard Deviation

    (a) Fusobacterium nucleatum radD cmpA double mutant (strain BL 83) was constructed by insertion of the inactivation plasmid pBPL 9 into cmpA (Fn1554) in a radD::catP mutant background. Black arrows indicate the location of primers used for mutant construction and analysis. (b) Confirmation of plasmid insertion into cmpA by PCR analysis of the cmpA mutant (m) with wild‐type (WT) as the control
    Figure Legend Snippet: (a) Fusobacterium nucleatum radD cmpA double mutant (strain BL 83) was constructed by insertion of the inactivation plasmid pBPL 9 into cmpA (Fn1554) in a radD::catP mutant background. Black arrows indicate the location of primers used for mutant construction and analysis. (b) Confirmation of plasmid insertion into cmpA by PCR analysis of the cmpA mutant (m) with wild‐type (WT) as the control

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Construct, Plasmid Preparation, Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Streptococcus gordonii and Fusobacterium nucleatum dual‐species biofilm: (a) Confocal laser scanning microscopy of syto9‐stained dual‐species biofilm after overnight incubation. S. gordonii (Sg) cells constitutively express mCherry from their chromosome and appear orange/yellow on the images. Wild‐type ( WT ) F. nucleatum (Fn) and its mutant derivatives ( radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant) are strained by syto9‐only and appear green on the images. (b) The presence of the Fn mutant strains in the Sg‐Fn dual‐species biofilm is displayed as the percentage of Fn cells normalized to the number of attached Sg cells/well, compared to that measured with WT Fn. Cellular ratios were determined by measuring DNA concentration by qPCR , targeting the F. nucleatum gene fomA and the S. gordonii gene srtA . At least three independent experiments were performed per strain combination. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Streptococcus gordonii and Fusobacterium nucleatum dual‐species biofilm: (a) Confocal laser scanning microscopy of syto9‐stained dual‐species biofilm after overnight incubation. S. gordonii (Sg) cells constitutively express mCherry from their chromosome and appear orange/yellow on the images. Wild‐type ( WT ) F. nucleatum (Fn) and its mutant derivatives ( radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant) are strained by syto9‐only and appear green on the images. (b) The presence of the Fn mutant strains in the Sg‐Fn dual‐species biofilm is displayed as the percentage of Fn cells normalized to the number of attached Sg cells/well, compared to that measured with WT Fn. Cellular ratios were determined by measuring DNA concentration by qPCR , targeting the F. nucleatum gene fomA and the S. gordonii gene srtA . At least three independent experiments were performed per strain combination. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, Staining, Incubation, Mutagenesis, Concentration Assay, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Standard Deviation

    Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 with Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 23726 WT strain and OMP mutant derivatives ( radD , Fn254, cmpA , Fn1893, Fn2047, and aim1 ). Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 with Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 23726 WT strain and OMP mutant derivatives ( radD , Fn254, cmpA , Fn1893, Fn2047, and aim1 ). Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Standard Deviation

    43) Product Images from "Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii. Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii"

    Article Title: Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii. Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii

    Journal: MicrobiologyOpen

    doi: 10.1002/mbo3.444

    radD and cmpA expression: WT Fusobacterium nucleatum was grown in Columbia broth for 25 hr. Cell samples were collected every 3 hr and (a) OD 600 was measured, as well as (b) radD and cmpA expression by qRT ‐ PCR . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to the first time point. The dashed line was added to aid in the comparison. (c) radD and cmpA expression were also measured in cells from Fn biofilm grown overnight in SHI ‐ FSMS . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to planktonic cells grown under the same conditions. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. To aid with visualization, the dashed line represents no change
    Figure Legend Snippet: radD and cmpA expression: WT Fusobacterium nucleatum was grown in Columbia broth for 25 hr. Cell samples were collected every 3 hr and (a) OD 600 was measured, as well as (b) radD and cmpA expression by qRT ‐ PCR . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to the first time point. The dashed line was added to aid in the comparison. (c) radD and cmpA expression were also measured in cells from Fn biofilm grown overnight in SHI ‐ FSMS . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to planktonic cells grown under the same conditions. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. To aid with visualization, the dashed line represents no change

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR, Standard Deviation

    Quantitative coaggregation of (a) wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 and the WT Fusobacterium nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative, at different phases of growth. (b) Quantitative coaggregation of WT S. gordonii strains ( DL 1, V288, ATCC 10558, and ATCC 51656) with WT F. nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative at exponential growth. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Quantitative coaggregation of (a) wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 and the WT Fusobacterium nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative, at different phases of growth. (b) Quantitative coaggregation of WT S. gordonii strains ( DL 1, V288, ATCC 10558, and ATCC 51656) with WT F. nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative at exponential growth. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Standard Deviation

    Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type Streptococcus gordonii strain (a) V288, (b) ATCC 10558, (c) DL 1, and (d) ATCC 51656 with Fusobacterium nucleatum strains: Wild‐type ( WT ) and the mutant derivatives: radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type Streptococcus gordonii strain (a) V288, (b) ATCC 10558, (c) DL 1, and (d) ATCC 51656 with Fusobacterium nucleatum strains: Wild‐type ( WT ) and the mutant derivatives: radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Standard Deviation

    (a) Fusobacterium nucleatum radD cmpA double mutant (strain BL 83) was constructed by insertion of the inactivation plasmid pBPL 9 into cmpA (Fn1554) in a radD::catP mutant background. Black arrows indicate the location of primers used for mutant construction and analysis. (b) Confirmation of plasmid insertion into cmpA by PCR analysis of the cmpA mutant (m) with wild‐type (WT) as the control
    Figure Legend Snippet: (a) Fusobacterium nucleatum radD cmpA double mutant (strain BL 83) was constructed by insertion of the inactivation plasmid pBPL 9 into cmpA (Fn1554) in a radD::catP mutant background. Black arrows indicate the location of primers used for mutant construction and analysis. (b) Confirmation of plasmid insertion into cmpA by PCR analysis of the cmpA mutant (m) with wild‐type (WT) as the control

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Construct, Plasmid Preparation, Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Streptococcus gordonii and Fusobacterium nucleatum dual‐species biofilm: (a) Confocal laser scanning microscopy of syto9‐stained dual‐species biofilm after overnight incubation. S. gordonii (Sg) cells constitutively express mCherry from their chromosome and appear orange/yellow on the images. Wild‐type ( WT ) F. nucleatum (Fn) and its mutant derivatives ( radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant) are strained by syto9‐only and appear green on the images. (b) The presence of the Fn mutant strains in the Sg‐Fn dual‐species biofilm is displayed as the percentage of Fn cells normalized to the number of attached Sg cells/well, compared to that measured with WT Fn. Cellular ratios were determined by measuring DNA concentration by qPCR , targeting the F. nucleatum gene fomA and the S. gordonii gene srtA . At least three independent experiments were performed per strain combination. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Streptococcus gordonii and Fusobacterium nucleatum dual‐species biofilm: (a) Confocal laser scanning microscopy of syto9‐stained dual‐species biofilm after overnight incubation. S. gordonii (Sg) cells constitutively express mCherry from their chromosome and appear orange/yellow on the images. Wild‐type ( WT ) F. nucleatum (Fn) and its mutant derivatives ( radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant) are strained by syto9‐only and appear green on the images. (b) The presence of the Fn mutant strains in the Sg‐Fn dual‐species biofilm is displayed as the percentage of Fn cells normalized to the number of attached Sg cells/well, compared to that measured with WT Fn. Cellular ratios were determined by measuring DNA concentration by qPCR , targeting the F. nucleatum gene fomA and the S. gordonii gene srtA . At least three independent experiments were performed per strain combination. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, Staining, Incubation, Mutagenesis, Concentration Assay, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Standard Deviation

    Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 with Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 23726 WT strain and OMP mutant derivatives ( radD , Fn254, cmpA , Fn1893, Fn2047, and aim1 ). Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 with Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 23726 WT strain and OMP mutant derivatives ( radD , Fn254, cmpA , Fn1893, Fn2047, and aim1 ). Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Standard Deviation

    44) Product Images from "Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii. Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii"

    Article Title: Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii. Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii

    Journal: MicrobiologyOpen

    doi: 10.1002/mbo3.444

    radD and cmpA expression: WT Fusobacterium nucleatum was grown in Columbia broth for 25 hr. Cell samples were collected every 3 hr and (a) OD 600 was measured, as well as (b) radD and cmpA expression by qRT ‐ PCR . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to the first time point. The dashed line was added to aid in the comparison. (c) radD and cmpA expression were also measured in cells from Fn biofilm grown overnight in SHI ‐ FSMS . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to planktonic cells grown under the same conditions. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. To aid with visualization, the dashed line represents no change
    Figure Legend Snippet: radD and cmpA expression: WT Fusobacterium nucleatum was grown in Columbia broth for 25 hr. Cell samples were collected every 3 hr and (a) OD 600 was measured, as well as (b) radD and cmpA expression by qRT ‐ PCR . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to the first time point. The dashed line was added to aid in the comparison. (c) radD and cmpA expression were also measured in cells from Fn biofilm grown overnight in SHI ‐ FSMS . Gene expression was normalized to rpoB and compare to planktonic cells grown under the same conditions. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. To aid with visualization, the dashed line represents no change

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR, Standard Deviation

    Quantitative coaggregation of (a) wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 and the WT Fusobacterium nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative, at different phases of growth. (b) Quantitative coaggregation of WT S. gordonii strains ( DL 1, V288, ATCC 10558, and ATCC 51656) with WT F. nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative at exponential growth. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Quantitative coaggregation of (a) wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 and the WT Fusobacterium nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative, at different phases of growth. (b) Quantitative coaggregation of WT S. gordonii strains ( DL 1, V288, ATCC 10558, and ATCC 51656) with WT F. nucleatum strain ATCC 23726, or the radD mutant derivative at exponential growth. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Standard Deviation

    Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type Streptococcus gordonii strain (a) V288, (b) ATCC 10558, (c) DL 1, and (d) ATCC 51656 with Fusobacterium nucleatum strains: Wild‐type ( WT ) and the mutant derivatives: radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type Streptococcus gordonii strain (a) V288, (b) ATCC 10558, (c) DL 1, and (d) ATCC 51656 with Fusobacterium nucleatum strains: Wild‐type ( WT ) and the mutant derivatives: radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant. Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Standard Deviation

    (a) Fusobacterium nucleatum radD cmpA double mutant (strain BL 83) was constructed by insertion of the inactivation plasmid pBPL 9 into cmpA (Fn1554) in a radD::catP mutant background. Black arrows indicate the location of primers used for mutant construction and analysis. (b) Confirmation of plasmid insertion into cmpA by PCR analysis of the cmpA mutant (m) with wild‐type (WT) as the control
    Figure Legend Snippet: (a) Fusobacterium nucleatum radD cmpA double mutant (strain BL 83) was constructed by insertion of the inactivation plasmid pBPL 9 into cmpA (Fn1554) in a radD::catP mutant background. Black arrows indicate the location of primers used for mutant construction and analysis. (b) Confirmation of plasmid insertion into cmpA by PCR analysis of the cmpA mutant (m) with wild‐type (WT) as the control

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Construct, Plasmid Preparation, Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Streptococcus gordonii and Fusobacterium nucleatum dual‐species biofilm: (a) Confocal laser scanning microscopy of syto9‐stained dual‐species biofilm after overnight incubation. S. gordonii (Sg) cells constitutively express mCherry from their chromosome and appear orange/yellow on the images. Wild‐type ( WT ) F. nucleatum (Fn) and its mutant derivatives ( radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant) are strained by syto9‐only and appear green on the images. (b) The presence of the Fn mutant strains in the Sg‐Fn dual‐species biofilm is displayed as the percentage of Fn cells normalized to the number of attached Sg cells/well, compared to that measured with WT Fn. Cellular ratios were determined by measuring DNA concentration by qPCR , targeting the F. nucleatum gene fomA and the S. gordonii gene srtA . At least three independent experiments were performed per strain combination. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Streptococcus gordonii and Fusobacterium nucleatum dual‐species biofilm: (a) Confocal laser scanning microscopy of syto9‐stained dual‐species biofilm after overnight incubation. S. gordonii (Sg) cells constitutively express mCherry from their chromosome and appear orange/yellow on the images. Wild‐type ( WT ) F. nucleatum (Fn) and its mutant derivatives ( radD , cmpA , and radD cmpA double mutant) are strained by syto9‐only and appear green on the images. (b) The presence of the Fn mutant strains in the Sg‐Fn dual‐species biofilm is displayed as the percentage of Fn cells normalized to the number of attached Sg cells/well, compared to that measured with WT Fn. Cellular ratios were determined by measuring DNA concentration by qPCR , targeting the F. nucleatum gene fomA and the S. gordonii gene srtA . At least three independent experiments were performed per strain combination. Each value represents means and standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, Staining, Incubation, Mutagenesis, Concentration Assay, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Standard Deviation

    Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 with Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 23726 WT strain and OMP mutant derivatives ( radD , Fn254, cmpA , Fn1893, Fn2047, and aim1 ). Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Quantitative coaggregation of wild‐type ( WT ) Streptococcus gordonii strain V288 with Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 23726 WT strain and OMP mutant derivatives ( radD , Fn254, cmpA , Fn1893, Fn2047, and aim1 ). Data represent means and standard deviation of percent coaggregation of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Standard Deviation

    45) Product Images from "Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages"

    Article Title: Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.01226-13

    Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the
    Figure Legend Snippet: Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the

    Techniques Used: Infection, Mouse Assay

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or

    Techniques Used: Infection

    NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein
    Figure Legend Snippet: NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay, Infection

    46) Product Images from "Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages"

    Article Title: Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.01226-13

    Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the
    Figure Legend Snippet: Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the

    Techniques Used: Infection, Mouse Assay

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or

    Techniques Used: Infection

    NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein
    Figure Legend Snippet: NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay, Infection

    47) Product Images from "Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages"

    Article Title: Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.01226-13

    Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the
    Figure Legend Snippet: Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the

    Techniques Used: Infection, Mouse Assay

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or

    Techniques Used: Infection

    NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein
    Figure Legend Snippet: NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay, Infection

    48) Product Images from "Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages"

    Article Title: Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.01226-13

    Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the
    Figure Legend Snippet: Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the

    Techniques Used: Infection, Mouse Assay

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or

    Techniques Used: Infection

    NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein
    Figure Legend Snippet: NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay, Infection

    49) Product Images from "Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages"

    Article Title: Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.01226-13

    Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the
    Figure Legend Snippet: Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the

    Techniques Used: Infection, Mouse Assay

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or

    Techniques Used: Infection

    NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein
    Figure Legend Snippet: NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay, Infection

    50) Product Images from "Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages"

    Article Title: Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.01226-13

    Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the
    Figure Legend Snippet: Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the

    Techniques Used: Infection, Mouse Assay

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or

    Techniques Used: Infection

    NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein
    Figure Legend Snippet: NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay, Infection

    51) Product Images from "Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages"

    Article Title: Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.01226-13

    Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the
    Figure Legend Snippet: Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the

    Techniques Used: Infection, Mouse Assay

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or

    Techniques Used: Infection

    NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein
    Figure Legend Snippet: NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay, Infection

    52) Product Images from "Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages"

    Article Title: Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.01226-13

    Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the
    Figure Legend Snippet: Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the

    Techniques Used: Infection, Mouse Assay

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or

    Techniques Used: Infection

    NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein
    Figure Legend Snippet: NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay, Infection

    53) Product Images from "Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages"

    Article Title: Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.01226-13

    Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the
    Figure Legend Snippet: Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the

    Techniques Used: Infection, Mouse Assay

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or

    Techniques Used: Infection

    NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein
    Figure Legend Snippet: NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay, Infection

    54) Product Images from "Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages"

    Article Title: Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.01226-13

    Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the
    Figure Legend Snippet: Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the

    Techniques Used: Infection, Mouse Assay

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or

    Techniques Used: Infection

    NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein
    Figure Legend Snippet: NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay, Infection

    55) Product Images from "Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages"

    Article Title: Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.01226-13

    Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the
    Figure Legend Snippet: Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the

    Techniques Used: Infection, Mouse Assay

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or

    Techniques Used: Infection

    NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein
    Figure Legend Snippet: NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay, Infection

    56) Product Images from "Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages"

    Article Title: Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.01226-13

    Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the
    Figure Legend Snippet: Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the

    Techniques Used: Infection, Mouse Assay

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or

    Techniques Used: Infection

    NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein
    Figure Legend Snippet: NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay, Infection

    57) Product Images from "Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages"

    Article Title: Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.01226-13

    Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the
    Figure Legend Snippet: Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the

    Techniques Used: Infection, Mouse Assay

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or

    Techniques Used: Infection

    NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein
    Figure Legend Snippet: NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay, Infection

    58) Product Images from "Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages"

    Article Title: Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.01226-13

    Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the
    Figure Legend Snippet: Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the

    Techniques Used: Infection, Mouse Assay

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or

    Techniques Used: Infection

    NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein
    Figure Legend Snippet: NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay, Infection

    59) Product Images from "Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages"

    Article Title: Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.01226-13

    Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the
    Figure Legend Snippet: Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the

    Techniques Used: Infection, Mouse Assay

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or

    Techniques Used: Infection

    NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein
    Figure Legend Snippet: NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay, Infection

    60) Product Images from "Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages"

    Article Title: Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.01226-13

    Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the
    Figure Legend Snippet: Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the

    Techniques Used: Infection, Mouse Assay

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or

    Techniques Used: Infection

    NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein
    Figure Legend Snippet: NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay, Infection

    61) Product Images from "Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages"

    Article Title: Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.01226-13

    Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the
    Figure Legend Snippet: Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the

    Techniques Used: Infection, Mouse Assay

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or

    Techniques Used: Infection

    NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein
    Figure Legend Snippet: NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay, Infection

    62) Product Images from "Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages"

    Article Title: Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.01226-13

    Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the
    Figure Legend Snippet: Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the

    Techniques Used: Infection, Mouse Assay

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or

    Techniques Used: Infection

    NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein
    Figure Legend Snippet: NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay, Infection

    63) Product Images from "Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages"

    Article Title: Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.01226-13

    Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the
    Figure Legend Snippet: Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the

    Techniques Used: Infection, Mouse Assay

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or

    Techniques Used: Infection

    NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein
    Figure Legend Snippet: NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay, Infection

    64) Product Images from "Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages"

    Article Title: Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.01226-13

    Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the
    Figure Legend Snippet: Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the

    Techniques Used: Infection, Mouse Assay

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or

    Techniques Used: Infection

    NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein
    Figure Legend Snippet: NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay, Infection

    65) Product Images from "Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages"

    Article Title: Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.01226-13

    Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the
    Figure Legend Snippet: Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the

    Techniques Used: Infection, Mouse Assay

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or

    Techniques Used: Infection

    NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein
    Figure Legend Snippet: NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay, Infection

    66) Product Images from "Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages"

    Article Title: Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.01226-13

    Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the
    Figure Legend Snippet: Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the

    Techniques Used: Infection, Mouse Assay

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or

    Techniques Used: Infection

    NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein
    Figure Legend Snippet: NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay, Infection

    Related Articles

    Produced:

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: .. DNA from F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans produced substantial levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in macrophages, and this production was abolished by chloroquine ( to ). ..

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: .. Because TNF-α was still produced in MyD88-deficient macrophages in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans , a further study is recommended to assess the role of other factors such as TRIF, a key molecule in MyD88-independent TLR signaling, and Nod-like receptors (e.g., Nod1 and Nod2) in mediating cytokine production in F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -infected macrophages. ..

    Centrifugation:

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: Effect of serine protease inhibitors on growth of F. nucleatum and E. coli Overnight cultures of F. nucleatum or E. coli ATCC 25922 were diluted to an optical density at 600 nm of 0.02 in the appropriate growth medium. .. P. gingivalis supernatants were prepared by centrifugation of four day cultures at 10,000×g for 10 min at 4°C., collection of the supernatants and filtration through a 0.2 µm filter (Whatman Schleicher & Schuell, Germany).

    Zymography:

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: .. As F. nucleatum is naturally found in the murine oral cavity ( ) and experimental periodontitis is thought to be induced by the local accumulation of bacteria around the ligature , F. nucleatum may have been present in the periodontitis lesions of our mouse model. Supernatants of F. nucleatum -stimulated HGFs showed an enhanced gelatinolytic activity in the zymography assays. .. The increased gelatin digestion by supernatants obtained from HGFs stimulated with F. nucleatum corresponded to the increased levels of released MMP2 in this study, and the proteolytic band coincided with the known MMP2 protein size.

    In Vitro:

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: It is worth mentioning that neither RadD nor Fap2 is involved in the interaction between F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis strain ATCC 33277, implicating the existence of at least one more F. nucleatum adhesin involved in the F. nucleatum –P. gingivalis interaction (Park et al., ). .. While it is widely accepted that the initial interaction between oral bacteria can be assessed in vitro by measuring the ability of their planktonic cells to coaggregate, in the oral cavity, the ability of individual cells or group of cells to integrate into a biofilm is crucial for their survival and maintenance in the oral cavity (Kolenbrander, Palmer, Periasamy, & Jakubovics, ).

    Activation Assay:

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: .. Western blot analysis was performed to determine whether TLR2, TLR4, and MyD88 mediate the activation of NF-κB and MAPKs in macrophages induced by F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. .. Because a high dose of bacterial infection induced TLR2/TLR4-independent but MyD88-dependent cytokine production in macrophages ( and ), we infected macrophages at an MOI of 1/100 with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans .

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: .. Although TLR2 and TLR4 were required for F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced NF-κB activation in macrophages, they were involved in MAPK activation only by A. actinomycetemcomitans and not by F. nucleatum . .. In addition, F. nucleatum -induced MAPK activation was delayed in MyD88-deficient macrophages, whereas their activation by A. actinomycetemcomitans was almost abolished.

    Mutagenesis:

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: Since the interaction between F. nucleatum (ATCC 23726) and S. gordonii , including strain V288, is inhibited by the presence of 50 mmol/L arginine (Figure a of this manuscript; Kaplan et al., ), we hypothesized that the additional F. nucleatum adhesin involved in its interaction with S. gordonii was one of the arginine‐binding adhesins. .. The Fn1554 mutant strain of F. nucleatum consistently coaggregated less with S. gordonii V288 than the wild‐type parent strain or any of the other mutants tested (Figure ).

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: .. Analysis of three randomly selected biofilm images revealed that the average height and maximum height of the biofilms were 38.21 μm (±11.48) and 241.33 μm (±23.67) for the WT F. nucleatum ; 6.88 μm (±1.87) and 163.33 μm (±41.86) for the radD mutant; 8.47 μm (±0.19) and 171.66 μm (±48.41) for the cmpA mutant; and 4.48 μm (±1.04) and 71.66 μm (±34.93) for the double mutant. qPCR analysis of the total DNA extracted from the dual‐species biofilm revealed a decrease in the ratio of F. nucleatum to S. gordonii cells, as measured by their respective relative DNA concentration, when radD or cmpA mutants were used, compared to wild‐type cells (Figure b). .. Similar results were observed for the radD cmpA double mutant (Figure b).

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: .. However, there were no differences in the number of F. nucleatum colonized within the gums of mice immunized with F. nucleatum (9.3 ± 4.1 × 103 CFU) or S. mutant (8.0 ± 5.2 × 103 CFU), suggesting that the swelling subside by F. nucleatum immunization was not correlated to bacterial survival in gums. .. The data also indicated that F. nucleatum immunization did not enhance host defense systems to eradicate F. nucleatum , which may lower the risk of disturbing the balance of oral microflora.

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: .. The Fn1554 mutant strain of F. nucleatum consistently coaggregated less with S. gordonii V288 than the wild‐type parent strain or any of the other mutants tested (Figure ). ..

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: 3.1 Multiple F. nucleatum adhesins are involved in its coaggregation with S. gordonii For detailed characterization of the physical interaction between F. nucleatum and S. gordonii , we collected F. nucleatum cells, ATCC strain 23726, that were in stationary phase, after overnight growth, and cells that were in late exponential phase to perform coaggregation experiments with midexponential phase S. gordonii V288 cells. .. Surprisingly, the coaggregation defect usually observed for the radD mutant derivative of F. nucleatum was less evident at the late exponential phase, compared to F. nucleatum collected the stationary growth phase (Figure a).

    Serial Dilution:

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: F. nucleatum (ATCC 25586) and A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC 43718) were purchased from the American Type Culture Collection (Manassas, VA, USA). .. A 1/10 dilution of the overnight culture was prepared and allowed to grow with shaking to an optical density (at a wavelength of 600 nm) of 0.6, which corresponds to ∼109 CFU/ml of viable bacteria by serial dilution and plate counts.

    Western Blot:

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: .. Western blot analysis was performed to determine whether TLR2, TLR4, and MyD88 mediate the activation of NF-κB and MAPKs in macrophages induced by F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. .. Because a high dose of bacterial infection induced TLR2/TLR4-independent but MyD88-dependent cytokine production in macrophages ( and ), we infected macrophages at an MOI of 1/100 with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans .

    Cell Culture:

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: P. gingivalis (ATCC (American Type Culture Collection, Manassas, VA) 33277) was cultured under anaerobic conditions (85% N2 , 10% H2 , and 5% CO2 ) at 37 °C in Trypticase soy broth (BBL, Sparks, MD) supplemented with 1 g of yeast extract, 5 mg of hemin, and 1 mg of menadione per liter. .. F. nucleatum (ATCC 25586) was grown in Todd-Hewitt broth supplemented with 1 g of yeast extract per 100 ml at 37 °C under anaerobic conditions.

    Mouse Assay:

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: .. However, there were no differences in the number of F. nucleatum colonized within the gums of mice immunized with F. nucleatum (9.3 ± 4.1 × 103 CFU) or S. mutant (8.0 ± 5.2 × 103 CFU), suggesting that the swelling subside by F. nucleatum immunization was not correlated to bacterial survival in gums. .. The data also indicated that F. nucleatum immunization did not enhance host defense systems to eradicate F. nucleatum , which may lower the risk of disturbing the balance of oral microflora.

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: .. Inoculation of live F. nucleatum into S. mutans -immunized mice served as a control since antibodies to S. mutans did not cross-react F. nucleatum ( , lane 1). .. To assess the protective immunity, F. nucleatum -induced gum swelling in the F. nucleatum - and S. mutans - immunized mice was recorded.

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: .. To assess the protective immunity, F. nucleatum -induced gum swelling in the F. nucleatum - and S. mutans - immunized mice was recorded. .. A remarkable swelling (4.09 ± 0.23 mm3 ) was observed in the S. mutant -immunized mice at 6 h after final inoculation of live F. nucleatum ( ).

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: .. Previous reports have shown that F. nucleatum -induced production of TNF-α and reactive oxygen species (ROS) was significantly lower in thioglycolate-elicited peritoneal macrophages from TLR2-deficient or TLR4-mutant (C3H/H3J) mice than from control WT cells ( , ). ..

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: .. TNF-α and IL-12p40 production in response to F. nucleatum was also significantly lower in MyD88-deficient macrophages than in cells from WT mice ( and ). ..

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: .. To verify if inactivated F. nucleatum -based vaccines elicit neutralizing antibodies against VSC production and biofilm formation, F. nucleatum (4 × 109 CFU) was incubated with serum obtained from the F. nucleatum - or S. mutans -immunized mice. ..

    Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction:

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: .. Analysis of three randomly selected biofilm images revealed that the average height and maximum height of the biofilms were 38.21 μm (±11.48) and 241.33 μm (±23.67) for the WT F. nucleatum ; 6.88 μm (±1.87) and 163.33 μm (±41.86) for the radD mutant; 8.47 μm (±0.19) and 171.66 μm (±48.41) for the cmpA mutant; and 4.48 μm (±1.04) and 71.66 μm (±34.93) for the double mutant. qPCR analysis of the total DNA extracted from the dual‐species biofilm revealed a decrease in the ratio of F. nucleatum to S. gordonii cells, as measured by their respective relative DNA concentration, when radD or cmpA mutants were used, compared to wild‐type cells (Figure b). .. Similar results were observed for the radD cmpA double mutant (Figure b).

    Concentration Assay:

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: F. nucleatum (ATCC 25586) and A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC 43718) were purchased from the American Type Culture Collection (Manassas, VA, USA). .. After two washes with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS; pH 7.4), bacteria were diluted to the desired concentration with PBS or medium and used in subsequent experiments.

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: .. Analysis of three randomly selected biofilm images revealed that the average height and maximum height of the biofilms were 38.21 μm (±11.48) and 241.33 μm (±23.67) for the WT F. nucleatum ; 6.88 μm (±1.87) and 163.33 μm (±41.86) for the radD mutant; 8.47 μm (±0.19) and 171.66 μm (±48.41) for the cmpA mutant; and 4.48 μm (±1.04) and 71.66 μm (±34.93) for the double mutant. qPCR analysis of the total DNA extracted from the dual‐species biofilm revealed a decrease in the ratio of F. nucleatum to S. gordonii cells, as measured by their respective relative DNA concentration, when radD or cmpA mutants were used, compared to wild‐type cells (Figure b). .. Similar results were observed for the radD cmpA double mutant (Figure b).

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: Effect of serine protease inhibitors on growth of F. nucleatum and E. coli Overnight cultures of F. nucleatum or E. coli ATCC 25922 were diluted to an optical density at 600 nm of 0.02 in the appropriate growth medium. .. When added, PMSF and AEBSF were used at a final concentration of 1 mM and 2 mM respectively.

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: F. nucleatum ( Fn ) strain ATCC 25586 was purchased from the China General Microbiological Culture Collection Center (CGMCC, Beijing, China). .. Heat-killed (dead) Fn was made by heating at 100 °C for 10 min. Then, live/heat-killed Fn were centrifuged and suspended to 1 × 108 colony-forming units (CFUs)/ml with RPMI 1640 (Hyclone Labs, Logan, UT) for infection experiments The influence of tryptophan (Trp, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) and kynurenine (Kyn, Sigma-Aldrich) on the growth of Fn was assayed using a method described as follows: Fn were harvested in the exponential growth phase and subsequently resuspended and diluted with BHI medium to the appropriate concentration.

    Incubation:

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: .. To verify if inactivated F. nucleatum -based vaccines elicit neutralizing antibodies against VSC production and biofilm formation, F. nucleatum (4 × 109 CFU) was incubated with serum obtained from the F. nucleatum - or S. mutans -immunized mice. ..

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: .. F. nucleatum (4 × 109 CFU) in the culture medium was pre-incubated with 2.5% (v/v) anti- F. nucleatum or anti- S. mutans serum at 37 °C for 2 h. The 2 h incubation did not significantly influence the growth of F. nucleatum (4 ± 0.12 and 4 ± 0.15 × 109 CFU for anti- F. nucleatum and anti- S. mutans serum, respectively). .. After removing unbound sera with centrifugation, F. nucleatum was cultured on a 6-well plate for 36 h under anaerobic conditions.

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: F. nucleatum ( Fn ) strain ATCC 25586 was purchased from the China General Microbiological Culture Collection Center (CGMCC, Beijing, China). .. The twofold serially diluted samples with Try or Kyn (0.01–0.64 mg/ml) were placed into a flat-bottom 96-well microtiter plate and incubated anaerobically for 48 h at 37 °C.

    other:

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: As part of our long‐term effort to characterize the physical interaction between F. nucleatum and other members of the oral microbial community, we investigated, at the molecular level, the interaction between F. nucleatum 23726 and one of its early‐colonizer partners, S. gordonii .

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: In addition, p38 and JNK, but not NF-κB, mediate the induction of human β-defensin 2 (hBD-2) production in response to F. nucleatum in gingival epithelial cells ( ).

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: A previous study revealed that lipid A from F. nucleatum is a hexa-acylated fatty acid composed of tetradecanoate (C14 ) and hexadecanoate (C16 ) and is structurally similar to Escherichia coli synthetic lipid A ( ).

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: Most significantly, these data add an additional layer of complexity to the interaction between F. nucleatum and S. gordonii .

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: Chloroquine treatment (10 and 50 nM) reduced the production of IL-6 and TNF-α by F. nucleatum in TLR2/4 double-deficient macrophages ( and ).

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: F. nucleatum significantly enhanced invasion by S. cristatus ATCC 51110 (Fig. ), S. sanguinis SK36 (Fig. ), and A. naeslundii ATCC 12104 (Fig. ).

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: Moreover, chloroquine reduced cytokine production in TLR2/4-deficient macrophages in response to both bacteria and DNA from F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans , suggesting that endosomal TLRs, especially TLR9, may regulate F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced immune responses in macrophages.

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: IκBα degradation and phosphorylation induced by F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans were delayed in TLR2/4 double-deficient macrophages and abolished in MyD88-deficient cells compared to WT macrophages ( and ).

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: As shown in , a high dose (MOI of 1/100) of F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans can result in substantial production of IL-6 and TNF-α even in TLR2/4 double-deficient BMDMs, suggesting the involvement of other factors besides TLR2 and TLR4 in cytokine production by macrophages in response to periodontal pathogens.

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: Although the antibodies to F. nucleatum were detectable in patients with periodontitis [ ], it may be critical to determine if the titers of antibodies to F. nucleatum are proportionate to the severity of periodontitis or halitosis.

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: 3.4 CmpA is required for dual‐species biofilm formation with S. gordonii The interaction between streptococcal species and F. nucleatum is hypothesized to be an important step in oral biofilm development (Kolenbrander, ; Kolenbrander & London, ).

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: To differentiate between S. gordonii and F. nucleatum , we utilized an mCherry‐expressing S. gordonii V288 strain (BL98).

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: 3.2 Identification of an additional adhesin involved in the interaction between F. nucleatum and S. gordonii The genome of the sequenced F. nucleatum strain ATCC 25586 encodes at least eight large autotransporter‐like outer membrane proteins (OMPs): Fn0254, Fn0387, Fap2 (Fn1449), RadD (Fn1526), Fn1554, Fn1893, Fn2047, and Aim1 (Fn2058) (Kaplan et al., ), of which, six have been shown to bind arginine: Fn0254, RadD, Fn1554, Fn1893, Fn2047, and Aim1 (Kaplan et al., ).

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: F. nucleatum -induced IL-6 production was mostly abolished in MyD88-deficient BMDMs ( ).

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: Thus, we decided to test the possible involvement of CmpA in the coaggregation between F. nucleatum and other S. gordonii strains such as ATCC 51656 and DL110558 as well as the previously used ATCC 10588.

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: We found that the interaction of F. nucleatum with S. gordonii ATCC 10558 does not seem to involve CmpA (Figure b), whereas strains DL1 and ATCC 51656 presented only a subtle defect in coaggregation (Figure c and d).

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: In summary, the data presented here support the existence of a potentially complex interaction network between F. nucleatum and S. gordonii , which seems to be mediated by varying degrees of preferences for different F. nucleatum adhesins.

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: All inhibitors, including BAY 11-7802 (NF-κB), SB203580 (p38), PD98059 (ERK), and SP600125 (JNK), reduced F. nucleatum -induced production of IL-6 and TNF-α by BMDMs in a dose-dependent manner ( and ).

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: There are inconsistent results among studies regarding the involvement of TLR2 and TLR4 in F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced immune responses.

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: We next explored whether bacterial DNA from F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans is involved in cytokine production in macrophages.

    Activity Assay:

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: .. This may be an explanation for the strong TLR4 activity of F. nucleatum In contrast, the structure of P. gingivalis lipid A is different from that of E. coli . ..

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: .. As F. nucleatum is naturally found in the murine oral cavity ( ) and experimental periodontitis is thought to be induced by the local accumulation of bacteria around the ligature , F. nucleatum may have been present in the periodontitis lesions of our mouse model. Supernatants of F. nucleatum -stimulated HGFs showed an enhanced gelatinolytic activity in the zymography assays. .. The increased gelatin digestion by supernatants obtained from HGFs stimulated with F. nucleatum corresponded to the increased levels of released MMP2 in this study, and the proteolytic band coincided with the known MMP2 protein size.

    Infection:

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: .. In the present study, the effect of TLR2 and TLR4 on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines in macrophages depended on bacterial dose and infection time. .. For example, F. nucleatum -induced IL-6 production at 6 h after infection was lower in TLR2-deficient macrophages than in WT cells when they were infected at an MOI of 1/10 but not at an MOI of 1/100.

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: .. Western blot analysis was performed to determine whether TLR2, TLR4, and MyD88 mediate the activation of NF-κB and MAPKs in macrophages induced by F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. .. Because a high dose of bacterial infection induced TLR2/TLR4-independent but MyD88-dependent cytokine production in macrophages ( and ), we infected macrophages at an MOI of 1/100 with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans .

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: .. Because a high dose of bacterial infection induced TLR2/TLR4-independent but MyD88-dependent cytokine production in macrophages ( and ), we infected macrophages at an MOI of 1/100 with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . .. IκBα degradation and phosphorylation induced by F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans were delayed in TLR2/4 double-deficient macrophages and abolished in MyD88-deficient cells compared to WT macrophages ( and ).

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: .. Because TNF-α was still produced in MyD88-deficient macrophages in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans , a further study is recommended to assess the role of other factors such as TRIF, a key molecule in MyD88-independent TLR signaling, and Nod-like receptors (e.g., Nod1 and Nod2) in mediating cytokine production in F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -infected macrophages. ..

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: .. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/10 in the absence or presence of each inhibitor. .. At 24 h after infection, culture supernatants were collected, and the concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-α were measured by ELISA.

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: .. The day after plating, cells were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans at different multiplicities of infection (MOIs), presented as macrophage/bacterium ratios. ..

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: .. At a late time of infection (18 h), IL-6 production was not impaired in TLR2- or TLR4-deficient macrophages infected with F. nucleatum at MOIs of 1/10 and 1/100 ( ). .. Even double deficiency of TLR2 and TLR4 did not affect F. nucleatum -induced IL-6 production in macrophages when cells were infected at an MOI of 1/100 ( ) although A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of IL-6 was partially impaired ( ).

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: .. Even double deficiency of TLR2 and TLR4 did not affect F. nucleatum -induced IL-6 production in macrophages when cells were infected at an MOI of 1/100 ( ) although A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of IL-6 was partially impaired ( ). .. TNF-α production showed a tendency similar to that with of IL-6 production by macrophages upon infection at an MOI of 1/100 with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans (data not shown).

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: .. Because MyD88 is involved in multiple TLR-mediated signaling pathways, including TLR5, TLR7, and TLR9 as well as TLR2 and TLR4, we sought to compare F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced cytokine production levels in TLR2/4 double-deficient and MyD88-deficient macrophages infected at high dose (MOI of 1/100). .. As shown in and , F. nucleatum -induced production of IL-6 and TNF-α was significantly lower in MyD88-deficient macrophages than in macrophages from TLR2/4 DKO mice.

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: .. To determine the involvement and redundancy of TLR2 and TLR4 in F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines, BMDMs were infected with various doses of the bacteria for 6 or 18 h, and the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α were measured from the culture supernatant. .. The production of IL-6 and TNF-α in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection was partially impaired in TLR2- or TLR4-deficient macrophages, depending on the multiplicity of infection (MOI), compared to macrophages from WT mice ( to ).

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: F. nucleatum ( Fn ) strain ATCC 25586 was purchased from the China General Microbiological Culture Collection Center (CGMCC, Beijing, China). .. Heat-killed (dead) Fn was made by heating at 100 °C for 10 min. Then, live/heat-killed Fn were centrifuged and suspended to 1 × 108 colony-forming units (CFUs)/ml with RPMI 1640 (Hyclone Labs, Logan, UT) for infection experiments The influence of tryptophan (Trp, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) and kynurenine (Kyn, Sigma-Aldrich) on the growth of Fn was assayed using a method described as follows: Fn were harvested in the exponential growth phase and subsequently resuspended and diluted with BHI medium to the appropriate concentration.

    Expressing:

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: It is worth mentioning that neither RadD nor Fap2 is involved in the interaction between F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis strain ATCC 33277, implicating the existence of at least one more F. nucleatum adhesin involved in the F. nucleatum –P. gingivalis interaction (Park et al., ). .. These changes include, but are not limited to (1) gene and protein expression patterns, (2) metabolic preferences, and (3) replication rates (Cook, Costerton, & Lamont, ; Resch, Rosenstein, Nerz, & Gotz, ).

    Staining:

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: F. nucleatum (ATCC 25586) was grown in Todd-Hewitt broth supplemented with 1 g of yeast extract per 100 ml at 37 °C under anaerobic conditions. .. Bacterial purity was determined by Gram staining, and numbers were estimated by absorbance measurement using the TECAN GENios Multidetection Reader, V.4.51 (Phoenix, Hayward, CA).

    Filtration:

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: Effect of serine protease inhibitors on growth of F. nucleatum and E. coli Overnight cultures of F. nucleatum or E. coli ATCC 25922 were diluted to an optical density at 600 nm of 0.02 in the appropriate growth medium. .. P. gingivalis supernatants were prepared by centrifugation of four day cultures at 10,000×g for 10 min at 4°C., collection of the supernatants and filtration through a 0.2 µm filter (Whatman Schleicher & Schuell, Germany).

    Binding Assay:

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: .. Since our data demonstrate that both RadD and CmpA are involved in the physical binding between F. nucleatum and S. gordonii V288, we investigated whether these adhesins were also involved in dual‐species biofilm formation. .. To differentiate between S. gordonii and F. nucleatum , we utilized an mCherry‐expressing S. gordonii V288 strain (BL98).

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: .. Similar complexity seems to be present in the interaction between F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis ; while Fap2 appears to be a major adhesin for the interaction of F. nucleatum with P. gingivalis (Coppenhagen‐Glazer et al., ; Park et al., ), RadD plays an additional role in binding to strain 4612 (Park et al., ). .. It is worth mentioning that neither RadD nor Fap2 is involved in the interaction between F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis strain ATCC 33277, implicating the existence of at least one more F. nucleatum adhesin involved in the F. nucleatum –P. gingivalis interaction (Park et al., ).

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: Similar complexity seems to be present in the interaction between F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis ; while Fap2 appears to be a major adhesin for the interaction of F. nucleatum with P. gingivalis (Coppenhagen‐Glazer et al., ; Park et al., ), RadD plays an additional role in binding to strain 4612 (Park et al., ). .. It is worth mentioning that neither RadD nor Fap2 is involved in the interaction between F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis strain ATCC 33277, implicating the existence of at least one more F. nucleatum adhesin involved in the F. nucleatum –P. gingivalis interaction (Park et al., ).

    Derivative Assay:

    Article Title:
    Article Snippet: The difference in coaggregation phenotype between S. gordonii V288 and DL1 was surprising, since these two strains are derived from the same original isolate, S. gordonii Challis. .. It is worth mentioning that neither RadD nor Fap2 is involved in the interaction between F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis strain ATCC 33277, implicating the existence of at least one more F. nucleatum adhesin involved in the F. nucleatum –P. gingivalis interaction (Park et al., ).

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    ATCC f nucleatum
    mRNA expression of innate immune markers human β-defensin 2 (hBD-2) are increased when histone deacetylase (HDAC) and DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) are inhibited. Gingival epithelial cells (GECs) were pretreated with trichostatin A (TSA; 9 and 45 m), sodium butyrate (SB; 0.5 and 2.0 m) or 5′-azacytidine (AZA; 1 and 10 μ) for 4 h, and subsequently exposed to Porphyromonas gingivalis (multiplicity of infection (MOI) 100:1) or Fusobacterium <t>nucleatum</t> (MOI 100:1) for 16 h. Gene expression of hBD2 was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR) compared with unstimulated control after normalization with glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Controls include unstimulated control, bacteria-alone treatment, and various inhibitors alone as indicated. No significant changes were found in the gene expression of hBD2 in GECs treated with inhibitor only: ( a ) SB, ( b ) TSA, ( c ) SB+TSA, and ( d ) AZA compared with unstimulated control. Data are expressed as means of fold change±s.e.m. from three donors evaluated in duplicate. Asterisks indicate statistically significant difference compared with unstimulated control (Ctl) (* P
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    mRNA expression of innate immune markers human β-defensin 2 (hBD-2) are increased when histone deacetylase (HDAC) and DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) are inhibited. Gingival epithelial cells (GECs) were pretreated with trichostatin A (TSA; 9 and 45 m), sodium butyrate (SB; 0.5 and 2.0 m) or 5′-azacytidine (AZA; 1 and 10 μ) for 4 h, and subsequently exposed to Porphyromonas gingivalis (multiplicity of infection (MOI) 100:1) or Fusobacterium nucleatum (MOI 100:1) for 16 h. Gene expression of hBD2 was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR) compared with unstimulated control after normalization with glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Controls include unstimulated control, bacteria-alone treatment, and various inhibitors alone as indicated. No significant changes were found in the gene expression of hBD2 in GECs treated with inhibitor only: ( a ) SB, ( b ) TSA, ( c ) SB+TSA, and ( d ) AZA compared with unstimulated control. Data are expressed as means of fold change±s.e.m. from three donors evaluated in duplicate. Asterisks indicate statistically significant difference compared with unstimulated control (Ctl) (* P

    Journal: Mucosal Immunology

    Article Title: Epigenetic regulation of human ?-defensin 2 and CC chemokine ligand 20 expression in gingival epithelial cells in response to oral bacteria

    doi: 10.1038/mi.2010.83

    Figure Lengend Snippet: mRNA expression of innate immune markers human β-defensin 2 (hBD-2) are increased when histone deacetylase (HDAC) and DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) are inhibited. Gingival epithelial cells (GECs) were pretreated with trichostatin A (TSA; 9 and 45 m), sodium butyrate (SB; 0.5 and 2.0 m) or 5′-azacytidine (AZA; 1 and 10 μ) for 4 h, and subsequently exposed to Porphyromonas gingivalis (multiplicity of infection (MOI) 100:1) or Fusobacterium nucleatum (MOI 100:1) for 16 h. Gene expression of hBD2 was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR) compared with unstimulated control after normalization with glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Controls include unstimulated control, bacteria-alone treatment, and various inhibitors alone as indicated. No significant changes were found in the gene expression of hBD2 in GECs treated with inhibitor only: ( a ) SB, ( b ) TSA, ( c ) SB+TSA, and ( d ) AZA compared with unstimulated control. Data are expressed as means of fold change±s.e.m. from three donors evaluated in duplicate. Asterisks indicate statistically significant difference compared with unstimulated control (Ctl) (* P

    Article Snippet: F. nucleatum (ATCC 25586) was grown in Todd-Hewitt broth supplemented with 1 g of yeast extract per 100 ml at 37 °C under anaerobic conditions.

    Techniques: Expressing, Histone Deacetylase Assay, Infection, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Quantitative RT-PCR, CTL Assay

    mRNA expression of innate immune markers CC chemokine ligand 20 (CCL20) are increased when histone deacetylase (HDAC) and DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) are inhibited. Gingival epithelial cells (GECs) were pretreated with trichostatin A (TSA; 9 and 45 m), sodium butyrate (SB; 0.5 and 2.0 m), or 5′-azacytidine (AZA; 1 and 10 μ) for 4 h, and subsequently exposed to Porphyromonas gingivalis (multiplicity of infection (MOI) 100:1) or Fusobacterium nucleatum (MOI 100:1) for 16 h. Gene expression of ( b ) CCL20 was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR) compared with unstimulated control after normalization with glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Controls include unstimulated control, bacteria-alone treatment, and various inhibitors alone as indicated. No significant changes were found in the gene expression of CCL20 in GECs treated with inhibitor only: ( a ) SB, ( b ) TSA, ( c ) SB+TSA, and ( d ) AZA compared with unstimulated control. Data are expressed as means of fold change±s.e.m. from three donors evaluated in duplicate. Asterisks indicate statistically significant difference compared with unstimulated control (Ctl) (* P

    Journal: Mucosal Immunology

    Article Title: Epigenetic regulation of human ?-defensin 2 and CC chemokine ligand 20 expression in gingival epithelial cells in response to oral bacteria

    doi: 10.1038/mi.2010.83

    Figure Lengend Snippet: mRNA expression of innate immune markers CC chemokine ligand 20 (CCL20) are increased when histone deacetylase (HDAC) and DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) are inhibited. Gingival epithelial cells (GECs) were pretreated with trichostatin A (TSA; 9 and 45 m), sodium butyrate (SB; 0.5 and 2.0 m), or 5′-azacytidine (AZA; 1 and 10 μ) for 4 h, and subsequently exposed to Porphyromonas gingivalis (multiplicity of infection (MOI) 100:1) or Fusobacterium nucleatum (MOI 100:1) for 16 h. Gene expression of ( b ) CCL20 was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR) compared with unstimulated control after normalization with glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Controls include unstimulated control, bacteria-alone treatment, and various inhibitors alone as indicated. No significant changes were found in the gene expression of CCL20 in GECs treated with inhibitor only: ( a ) SB, ( b ) TSA, ( c ) SB+TSA, and ( d ) AZA compared with unstimulated control. Data are expressed as means of fold change±s.e.m. from three donors evaluated in duplicate. Asterisks indicate statistically significant difference compared with unstimulated control (Ctl) (* P

    Article Snippet: F. nucleatum (ATCC 25586) was grown in Todd-Hewitt broth supplemented with 1 g of yeast extract per 100 ml at 37 °C under anaerobic conditions.

    Techniques: Expressing, Histone Deacetylase Assay, Infection, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Quantitative RT-PCR, CTL Assay

    Differential decreased mRNA expression of HDAC1, HDAC2 and DNMT1 in gingival epithelial cells in response to various doses of oral bacteria. mRNA expression of ( a ) DNA methyltransferase (DNMT1), ( b ) histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1), and ( c ) histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) are differentially decreased in gingival epithelial cells (GECs) in response to various doses of Porphyromonas gingivalis vs. Fusobacterium nucleatum . GECs were stimulated with P. gingivalis (Pg) or F. nucleatum (Fn) at multiplicities of infection (MOIs) of 10:1, 50:1, 100:1, and 200:1 for 24 h. Changes in mRNA expression were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR) and results are expressed as fold change in gene expression compared with the unstimulated control after normalization with the housekeeping gene glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase ( GAPDH ). The data are derived from three different cell donors tested in duplicate. Error bars indicate s.e.m. Asterisks indicate statistically significant difference compared with unstimulated control (Ctl) (* P

    Journal: Mucosal Immunology

    Article Title: Epigenetic regulation of human ?-defensin 2 and CC chemokine ligand 20 expression in gingival epithelial cells in response to oral bacteria

    doi: 10.1038/mi.2010.83

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Differential decreased mRNA expression of HDAC1, HDAC2 and DNMT1 in gingival epithelial cells in response to various doses of oral bacteria. mRNA expression of ( a ) DNA methyltransferase (DNMT1), ( b ) histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1), and ( c ) histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) are differentially decreased in gingival epithelial cells (GECs) in response to various doses of Porphyromonas gingivalis vs. Fusobacterium nucleatum . GECs were stimulated with P. gingivalis (Pg) or F. nucleatum (Fn) at multiplicities of infection (MOIs) of 10:1, 50:1, 100:1, and 200:1 for 24 h. Changes in mRNA expression were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR) and results are expressed as fold change in gene expression compared with the unstimulated control after normalization with the housekeeping gene glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase ( GAPDH ). The data are derived from three different cell donors tested in duplicate. Error bars indicate s.e.m. Asterisks indicate statistically significant difference compared with unstimulated control (Ctl) (* P

    Article Snippet: F. nucleatum (ATCC 25586) was grown in Todd-Hewitt broth supplemented with 1 g of yeast extract per 100 ml at 37 °C under anaerobic conditions.

    Techniques: Expressing, Histone Deacetylase Assay, Infection, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Quantitative RT-PCR, Derivative Assay, CTL Assay

    Protein levels of histone H3 methylated at Lys4 were evaluated with PathScan enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Gingival epithelial cells (GECs) were exposed to Porphyromonas gingivalis or Fusobacterium nucleatum for 24 h at multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 100:1, and then nuclear protein was extracted followed by sonication. The H3 tri-methylated at Lys4 was captured by coated antibody after incubation with cell lysates, and histone H3 protein level was quantified according to the absorbance readings at 450 nm. Protein expression was expressed as the ratio of absorbance readings normalized to relative protein amount. The data are average from three different donor cells tested with standard error deviation. The asterisks indicate the significant difference vs. the respective unstimulated control (** P

    Journal: Mucosal Immunology

    Article Title: Epigenetic regulation of human ?-defensin 2 and CC chemokine ligand 20 expression in gingival epithelial cells in response to oral bacteria

    doi: 10.1038/mi.2010.83

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Protein levels of histone H3 methylated at Lys4 were evaluated with PathScan enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Gingival epithelial cells (GECs) were exposed to Porphyromonas gingivalis or Fusobacterium nucleatum for 24 h at multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 100:1, and then nuclear protein was extracted followed by sonication. The H3 tri-methylated at Lys4 was captured by coated antibody after incubation with cell lysates, and histone H3 protein level was quantified according to the absorbance readings at 450 nm. Protein expression was expressed as the ratio of absorbance readings normalized to relative protein amount. The data are average from three different donor cells tested with standard error deviation. The asterisks indicate the significant difference vs. the respective unstimulated control (** P

    Article Snippet: F. nucleatum (ATCC 25586) was grown in Todd-Hewitt broth supplemented with 1 g of yeast extract per 100 ml at 37 °C under anaerobic conditions.

    Techniques: Methylation, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Infection, Sonication, Incubation, Expressing

    Protein levels of histone deacetylases 1 and 2 (HDAC1 and HDAC2) and DNA methyltransferase (DNMT1) are differentially expressed in gingival epithelial cells (GECs) in response to Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) and Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn). GECs were stimulated with P. gingivalis (Pg) or F. nucleatum (Fn) at multiplicities of infection (MOIs) of 100:1 for 24 h. Nuclear proteins were extracted, denatured at 70 °C for 10 min, and separated by NuPAGE electrophoresis system. Nuclear extracts of Hela cells probed with individual primary antibody were used as positive controls. The data are derived from two different cell donors tested in duplicate.

    Journal: Mucosal Immunology

    Article Title: Epigenetic regulation of human ?-defensin 2 and CC chemokine ligand 20 expression in gingival epithelial cells in response to oral bacteria

    doi: 10.1038/mi.2010.83

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Protein levels of histone deacetylases 1 and 2 (HDAC1 and HDAC2) and DNA methyltransferase (DNMT1) are differentially expressed in gingival epithelial cells (GECs) in response to Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) and Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn). GECs were stimulated with P. gingivalis (Pg) or F. nucleatum (Fn) at multiplicities of infection (MOIs) of 100:1 for 24 h. Nuclear proteins were extracted, denatured at 70 °C for 10 min, and separated by NuPAGE electrophoresis system. Nuclear extracts of Hela cells probed with individual primary antibody were used as positive controls. The data are derived from two different cell donors tested in duplicate.

    Article Snippet: F. nucleatum (ATCC 25586) was grown in Todd-Hewitt broth supplemented with 1 g of yeast extract per 100 ml at 37 °C under anaerobic conditions.

    Techniques: Infection, Electrophoresis, Derivative Assay

    Differential mRNA expression of HDAC1, HDAC2 and DNMT1 in human TERT cells in response to oral bacteria. Differential mRNA expression of ( a ) histone deacetylases 1 and 2 (HDAC1 and HDAC2) and ( b ) DNA methyltransferase (DNMT1) in human TERT cells in response to Porphyromonas gingivalis vs. Fusobacterium nucleatum . Human TERT cells were stimulated with P. gingivalis (Pg) or F. nucleatum (Fn) at multiplicities of infection (MOIs) of 10:1, 50:1, and 100:1 for 4 or 24 h. Unstimulated cells at 4 and 24 h served as controls. Changes in mRNA expression were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR) and results are expressed as fold change in gene expression compared with the corresponding unstimulated controls (4 and 24 h) after normalization with glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). The experiment was repeated twice using TERT cells. Error bars indicate s.e.m. Asterisks indicate statistically significant difference compared with unstimulated control (Ctl) (* P

    Journal: Mucosal Immunology

    Article Title: Epigenetic regulation of human ?-defensin 2 and CC chemokine ligand 20 expression in gingival epithelial cells in response to oral bacteria

    doi: 10.1038/mi.2010.83

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Differential mRNA expression of HDAC1, HDAC2 and DNMT1 in human TERT cells in response to oral bacteria. Differential mRNA expression of ( a ) histone deacetylases 1 and 2 (HDAC1 and HDAC2) and ( b ) DNA methyltransferase (DNMT1) in human TERT cells in response to Porphyromonas gingivalis vs. Fusobacterium nucleatum . Human TERT cells were stimulated with P. gingivalis (Pg) or F. nucleatum (Fn) at multiplicities of infection (MOIs) of 10:1, 50:1, and 100:1 for 4 or 24 h. Unstimulated cells at 4 and 24 h served as controls. Changes in mRNA expression were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR) and results are expressed as fold change in gene expression compared with the corresponding unstimulated controls (4 and 24 h) after normalization with glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). The experiment was repeated twice using TERT cells. Error bars indicate s.e.m. Asterisks indicate statistically significant difference compared with unstimulated control (Ctl) (* P

    Article Snippet: F. nucleatum (ATCC 25586) was grown in Todd-Hewitt broth supplemented with 1 g of yeast extract per 100 ml at 37 °C under anaerobic conditions.

    Techniques: Expressing, Infection, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Quantitative RT-PCR, CTL Assay

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion is increased when histone deacetylase (HDAC) and DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) are inhibited. Gingival epithelial cells (GECs) were pretreated with trichostatin A (TSA; 9 and 45 m), sodium butyrate (SB; 0.5 and 2.0 m), or 5′-azacytidine (AZA; 1 and 10 μ) for 4 h, and subsequently exposed to Porphyromonas gingivalis (multiplicity of infection (MOI) 100:1) or Fusobacterium nucleatum (MOI 100:1) for 16 h. Secretion of IL-8 in response to various oral bacteria is evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cell-free supernatant was collected and the amount of IL-8 secreted is shown in pg ml –1 . Unstimulated cells (UN) are used as controls in each experiment. Data from duplicates with cells from three different donors are shown. No significant changes were found in the secretion of IL-8 in GECs treated with inhibitor only: ( a ) SB, ( b ) TSA, ( c ) SB+TSA, and ( d ) AZA compared with unstimulated control. Asterisks indicate statistically significant difference compared with unstimulated control (Ctl) (* P

    Journal: Mucosal Immunology

    Article Title: Epigenetic regulation of human ?-defensin 2 and CC chemokine ligand 20 expression in gingival epithelial cells in response to oral bacteria

    doi: 10.1038/mi.2010.83

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion is increased when histone deacetylase (HDAC) and DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) are inhibited. Gingival epithelial cells (GECs) were pretreated with trichostatin A (TSA; 9 and 45 m), sodium butyrate (SB; 0.5 and 2.0 m), or 5′-azacytidine (AZA; 1 and 10 μ) for 4 h, and subsequently exposed to Porphyromonas gingivalis (multiplicity of infection (MOI) 100:1) or Fusobacterium nucleatum (MOI 100:1) for 16 h. Secretion of IL-8 in response to various oral bacteria is evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cell-free supernatant was collected and the amount of IL-8 secreted is shown in pg ml –1 . Unstimulated cells (UN) are used as controls in each experiment. Data from duplicates with cells from three different donors are shown. No significant changes were found in the secretion of IL-8 in GECs treated with inhibitor only: ( a ) SB, ( b ) TSA, ( c ) SB+TSA, and ( d ) AZA compared with unstimulated control. Asterisks indicate statistically significant difference compared with unstimulated control (Ctl) (* P

    Article Snippet: F. nucleatum (ATCC 25586) was grown in Todd-Hewitt broth supplemented with 1 g of yeast extract per 100 ml at 37 °C under anaerobic conditions.

    Techniques: Histone Deacetylase Assay, Infection, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, CTL Assay