Structured Review

iThemba Pharmaceuticals (Pty) Ltd ese 16 compound
Confocal microscopy images of the microtubule architecture of SNO cells with the use of anti-α tubulin antibodies and nuclear stain 4 ′, 6 - diamidino - 2 - phenylindole. (A) Cells propogated in medium only, (B) cells exposed to DMSO – vehicle control, (C) cells exposed to actinomycin D – positive control and (D) cells exposed to <t>ESE-16</t> at a concentration of 0.2 μM. The α-tubulin of the cells were stained green by a FITC-conjugate diluent while the nuclei were stained blue by DAPI to provide contrast to the green fluorescence. Cells propogated in medium and vehicle control cells showed normal microtubule architecture. The positive control showed a decrease in cell density and revealed shrunken cells. ESE-16-treated cells showed a decrease in cell density and abnormal spindle formation when compared to the appropriate controls. The abnormal spindle formation is indicative of metaphase block. Scale bar: 10 μm.
Ese 16 Compound, supplied by iThemba Pharmaceuticals (Pty) Ltd, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 11 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
https://www.bioz.com/result/ese 16 compound/product/iThemba Pharmaceuticals (Pty) Ltd
Average 88 stars, based on 11 article reviews
Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
ese 16 compound - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
88/100 stars

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1) Product Images from "Induction of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway via a new antimitotic agent in an esophageal carcinoma cell line"

Article Title: Induction of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway via a new antimitotic agent in an esophageal carcinoma cell line

Journal: Cell & Bioscience

doi: 10.1186/2045-3701-4-68

Confocal microscopy images of the microtubule architecture of SNO cells with the use of anti-α tubulin antibodies and nuclear stain 4 ′, 6 - diamidino - 2 - phenylindole. (A) Cells propogated in medium only, (B) cells exposed to DMSO – vehicle control, (C) cells exposed to actinomycin D – positive control and (D) cells exposed to ESE-16 at a concentration of 0.2 μM. The α-tubulin of the cells were stained green by a FITC-conjugate diluent while the nuclei were stained blue by DAPI to provide contrast to the green fluorescence. Cells propogated in medium and vehicle control cells showed normal microtubule architecture. The positive control showed a decrease in cell density and revealed shrunken cells. ESE-16-treated cells showed a decrease in cell density and abnormal spindle formation when compared to the appropriate controls. The abnormal spindle formation is indicative of metaphase block. Scale bar: 10 μm.
Figure Legend Snippet: Confocal microscopy images of the microtubule architecture of SNO cells with the use of anti-α tubulin antibodies and nuclear stain 4 ′, 6 - diamidino - 2 - phenylindole. (A) Cells propogated in medium only, (B) cells exposed to DMSO – vehicle control, (C) cells exposed to actinomycin D – positive control and (D) cells exposed to ESE-16 at a concentration of 0.2 μM. The α-tubulin of the cells were stained green by a FITC-conjugate diluent while the nuclei were stained blue by DAPI to provide contrast to the green fluorescence. Cells propogated in medium and vehicle control cells showed normal microtubule architecture. The positive control showed a decrease in cell density and revealed shrunken cells. ESE-16-treated cells showed a decrease in cell density and abnormal spindle formation when compared to the appropriate controls. The abnormal spindle formation is indicative of metaphase block. Scale bar: 10 μm.

Techniques Used: Confocal Microscopy, Staining, Positive Control, Concentration Assay, Fluorescence, Blocking Assay

Haematoxylin and eosin staining images revealing morphological changes in the nuclear and cytoplasmic components in SNO cells. (A) Cells propogated in medium only, (B) cells exposed to dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) – vehicle control, (C) cells exposed to actinomycin D – positive control and (D) cells exposed to ESE-16 at a concentration of 0.2 μM. Cells propogated in medium and the vehicle-treated cells showed normal cell morphology, with the majority of the cells being in interphase. The positive control for apoptosis and the ESE-16 treated cells showed a decrease in cell density and morphological characteristics of apoptosis such as membrane blebbing and apoptotic bodies. The ESE-16 treated cells also showed an increase in the number of round cells with hypercondensed chromatin indicative of a metaphase block (Magnification: ×20).
Figure Legend Snippet: Haematoxylin and eosin staining images revealing morphological changes in the nuclear and cytoplasmic components in SNO cells. (A) Cells propogated in medium only, (B) cells exposed to dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) – vehicle control, (C) cells exposed to actinomycin D – positive control and (D) cells exposed to ESE-16 at a concentration of 0.2 μM. Cells propogated in medium and the vehicle-treated cells showed normal cell morphology, with the majority of the cells being in interphase. The positive control for apoptosis and the ESE-16 treated cells showed a decrease in cell density and morphological characteristics of apoptosis such as membrane blebbing and apoptotic bodies. The ESE-16 treated cells also showed an increase in the number of round cells with hypercondensed chromatin indicative of a metaphase block (Magnification: ×20).

Techniques Used: Staining, Positive Control, Concentration Assay, Blocking Assay

Bar graph illustrating the ratio to medium of the effector caspase 3 levels in SNO cells exposed to ESE - 16 and various controls. Results revealed a statistically significant increase ( P -value of 0.004) * in caspase 3 activity in the ESE-16-treated cells when compared to the vehicle control. The ESE-16-treated cells had a ratio to medium value of 2.9772, while the vehicle control had a ratio to medium value of 1.0681.
Figure Legend Snippet: Bar graph illustrating the ratio to medium of the effector caspase 3 levels in SNO cells exposed to ESE - 16 and various controls. Results revealed a statistically significant increase ( P -value of 0.004) * in caspase 3 activity in the ESE-16-treated cells when compared to the vehicle control. The ESE-16-treated cells had a ratio to medium value of 2.9772, while the vehicle control had a ratio to medium value of 1.0681.

Techniques Used: Activity Assay

Histograms illustrating superoxide levels in SNO cells after exposure to ESE - 16 and the appropriate controls of a representative repeat. (A) Cells propogated in medium only, (B) cells exposed to DMSO – vehicle control, (C) cells exposed to actinomycin D – positive control and (D) cells exposed to ESE-16 at a concentration of 0.2 μM. Viable cells represent the population of cells which showed little or no increase in fluorescence, thus no increase. The non-viable cells represent the population of cells with an increase in fluorescence thus indicating an increase in O 2 − production. The ESE-16-treated cells showed 38.17% of its population to be non-viable compared to the 21.45% non-viable population of the vehicle control.
Figure Legend Snippet: Histograms illustrating superoxide levels in SNO cells after exposure to ESE - 16 and the appropriate controls of a representative repeat. (A) Cells propogated in medium only, (B) cells exposed to DMSO – vehicle control, (C) cells exposed to actinomycin D – positive control and (D) cells exposed to ESE-16 at a concentration of 0.2 μM. Viable cells represent the population of cells which showed little or no increase in fluorescence, thus no increase. The non-viable cells represent the population of cells with an increase in fluorescence thus indicating an increase in O 2 − production. The ESE-16-treated cells showed 38.17% of its population to be non-viable compared to the 21.45% non-viable population of the vehicle control.

Techniques Used: Positive Control, Concentration Assay, Fluorescence

Bar graph illustrating the ratio to medium of the initiator caspase 9 levels in SNO cells exposed to ESE - 16 and various controls. Results revealed a statistically insignificant increase ( P -value of 0.238) in caspase 9 activity in the ESE-16-treated cells when compared to the vehicle control. The ESE-16-treated cells had a ratio to medium value of 1.2188, while the vehicle control had a ratio to medium value of 1.0625.
Figure Legend Snippet: Bar graph illustrating the ratio to medium of the initiator caspase 9 levels in SNO cells exposed to ESE - 16 and various controls. Results revealed a statistically insignificant increase ( P -value of 0.238) in caspase 9 activity in the ESE-16-treated cells when compared to the vehicle control. The ESE-16-treated cells had a ratio to medium value of 1.2188, while the vehicle control had a ratio to medium value of 1.0625.

Techniques Used: Activity Assay

Transmission electron microscopy images providing information on the internal ultrastructure of SNO cells propogated in medium only and SNO cells treated with DMSO. (A) Cells propogated in medium only, (B) cells exposed to DMSO – vehicle control, (C) cells exposed to actinomycin D – positive control and (D) cells exposed to ESE-16 at a concentration of 0.2 μM. Both the cells propogated in medium and the vehicle control cells showed microvilli protruding from their cell membrane surface. The nuclear membrane is smoothly outlined and well-preserved cytoplasmic organelles are visible. The positive control for apoptosis showed loss of microvilli, membrane blebbing and the presence of apoptotic bodies. ESE-16-treated cells revealed a decrease in nuclear membrane definition, membrane blebbling and apoptotic body formation. Scale bar: 5 μm.
Figure Legend Snippet: Transmission electron microscopy images providing information on the internal ultrastructure of SNO cells propogated in medium only and SNO cells treated with DMSO. (A) Cells propogated in medium only, (B) cells exposed to DMSO – vehicle control, (C) cells exposed to actinomycin D – positive control and (D) cells exposed to ESE-16 at a concentration of 0.2 μM. Both the cells propogated in medium and the vehicle control cells showed microvilli protruding from their cell membrane surface. The nuclear membrane is smoothly outlined and well-preserved cytoplasmic organelles are visible. The positive control for apoptosis showed loss of microvilli, membrane blebbing and the presence of apoptotic bodies. ESE-16-treated cells revealed a decrease in nuclear membrane definition, membrane blebbling and apoptotic body formation. Scale bar: 5 μm.

Techniques Used: Transmission Assay, Electron Microscopy, Positive Control, Concentration Assay

Bar graph showing the average mean fluorescent intensity increase in the ESE - 16 - treated cells compared to the appropriate controls illustrating an increase in phosphatidylserine externalization. This bar graph represents the average MFI of all three repeats done. Cells propogated in medium had an average MFI of 11.31, the vehicle control had an average MFI of 15.74, the positive control had an average MFI of 18.82 while the ESE-16-treated cells an average MFI of 25.50. The increased MFI indicates an increase in PS externalization which is an early apoptotic indicator [ 35 ].
Figure Legend Snippet: Bar graph showing the average mean fluorescent intensity increase in the ESE - 16 - treated cells compared to the appropriate controls illustrating an increase in phosphatidylserine externalization. This bar graph represents the average MFI of all three repeats done. Cells propogated in medium had an average MFI of 11.31, the vehicle control had an average MFI of 15.74, the positive control had an average MFI of 18.82 while the ESE-16-treated cells an average MFI of 25.50. The increased MFI indicates an increase in PS externalization which is an early apoptotic indicator [ 35 ].

Techniques Used: Positive Control

Structural comparison between (A) 2ME and (B) ESE-16. When the two chemical structures are compared, an exchange of a sulphamoylated group for a hydroxyl group at position 3 and the removal of a hydroxyl group at position 17 on the ESE-16 compound are noticed. The sulphamoylated group increases the bioavailability of the compound [ 8 , 13 , 20 , 28 , 29 ], while the modifications at position 3 and −17 increases the anticancer potency and provides a prolonged half-life [ 6 , 11 , 13 , 22 , 27 , 28 ].
Figure Legend Snippet: Structural comparison between (A) 2ME and (B) ESE-16. When the two chemical structures are compared, an exchange of a sulphamoylated group for a hydroxyl group at position 3 and the removal of a hydroxyl group at position 17 on the ESE-16 compound are noticed. The sulphamoylated group increases the bioavailability of the compound [ 8 , 13 , 20 , 28 , 29 ], while the modifications at position 3 and −17 increases the anticancer potency and provides a prolonged half-life [ 6 , 11 , 13 , 22 , 27 , 28 ].

Techniques Used:

Bar graph showing the average mean fluorescent intensity increase in the ESE - 16 - treated cells compared to the appropriate controls , illustrating a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential. This bar graph represents the average MFI of all three repeats done. The vehicle control had an average MFI of 28.79 while the postive control had an average MFI of 45.58 and the ESE-16-treated cells an average MFI of 37.995. The increase in the MFI seen in the ESE-16-treated cells is statistically significantly ( P -value of 0.019) * higher than that of the vehicle control indicating a decrease in ∆Ψm and possible mitochondrial membrane degradation.
Figure Legend Snippet: Bar graph showing the average mean fluorescent intensity increase in the ESE - 16 - treated cells compared to the appropriate controls , illustrating a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential. This bar graph represents the average MFI of all three repeats done. The vehicle control had an average MFI of 28.79 while the postive control had an average MFI of 45.58 and the ESE-16-treated cells an average MFI of 37.995. The increase in the MFI seen in the ESE-16-treated cells is statistically significantly ( P -value of 0.019) * higher than that of the vehicle control indicating a decrease in ∆Ψm and possible mitochondrial membrane degradation.

Techniques Used:

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Synthesized:

Article Title: Induction of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway via a new antimitotic agent in an esophageal carcinoma cell line
Article Snippet: .. The ESE-16 compound was synthesized by iThemba Pharmaceuticals (Pty) Ltd (Modderfontein, Gauteng, SA). .. General laboratory reagents and supplies Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) and F-12 Nutrient Mixture, formulated from single-cell plating of Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells (HAM’s-F12), was obtained from Sigma-Aldrich Co. (St. Louis, USA).

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    iThemba Pharmaceuticals (Pty) Ltd ese 16 compound
    Confocal microscopy images of the microtubule architecture of SNO cells with the use of anti-α tubulin antibodies and nuclear stain 4 ′, 6 - diamidino - 2 - phenylindole. (A) Cells propogated in medium only, (B) cells exposed to DMSO – vehicle control, (C) cells exposed to actinomycin D – positive control and (D) cells exposed to <t>ESE-16</t> at a concentration of 0.2 μM. The α-tubulin of the cells were stained green by a FITC-conjugate diluent while the nuclei were stained blue by DAPI to provide contrast to the green fluorescence. Cells propogated in medium and vehicle control cells showed normal microtubule architecture. The positive control showed a decrease in cell density and revealed shrunken cells. ESE-16-treated cells showed a decrease in cell density and abnormal spindle formation when compared to the appropriate controls. The abnormal spindle formation is indicative of metaphase block. Scale bar: 10 μm.
    Ese 16 Compound, supplied by iThemba Pharmaceuticals (Pty) Ltd, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 11 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/ese 16 compound/product/iThemba Pharmaceuticals (Pty) Ltd
    Average 88 stars, based on 11 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    ese 16 compound - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    88/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

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    Confocal microscopy images of the microtubule architecture of SNO cells with the use of anti-α tubulin antibodies and nuclear stain 4 ′, 6 - diamidino - 2 - phenylindole. (A) Cells propogated in medium only, (B) cells exposed to DMSO – vehicle control, (C) cells exposed to actinomycin D – positive control and (D) cells exposed to ESE-16 at a concentration of 0.2 μM. The α-tubulin of the cells were stained green by a FITC-conjugate diluent while the nuclei were stained blue by DAPI to provide contrast to the green fluorescence. Cells propogated in medium and vehicle control cells showed normal microtubule architecture. The positive control showed a decrease in cell density and revealed shrunken cells. ESE-16-treated cells showed a decrease in cell density and abnormal spindle formation when compared to the appropriate controls. The abnormal spindle formation is indicative of metaphase block. Scale bar: 10 μm.

    Journal: Cell & Bioscience

    Article Title: Induction of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway via a new antimitotic agent in an esophageal carcinoma cell line

    doi: 10.1186/2045-3701-4-68

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Confocal microscopy images of the microtubule architecture of SNO cells with the use of anti-α tubulin antibodies and nuclear stain 4 ′, 6 - diamidino - 2 - phenylindole. (A) Cells propogated in medium only, (B) cells exposed to DMSO – vehicle control, (C) cells exposed to actinomycin D – positive control and (D) cells exposed to ESE-16 at a concentration of 0.2 μM. The α-tubulin of the cells were stained green by a FITC-conjugate diluent while the nuclei were stained blue by DAPI to provide contrast to the green fluorescence. Cells propogated in medium and vehicle control cells showed normal microtubule architecture. The positive control showed a decrease in cell density and revealed shrunken cells. ESE-16-treated cells showed a decrease in cell density and abnormal spindle formation when compared to the appropriate controls. The abnormal spindle formation is indicative of metaphase block. Scale bar: 10 μm.

    Article Snippet: The ESE-16 compound was synthesized by iThemba Pharmaceuticals (Pty) Ltd (Modderfontein, Gauteng, SA).

    Techniques: Confocal Microscopy, Staining, Positive Control, Concentration Assay, Fluorescence, Blocking Assay

    Haematoxylin and eosin staining images revealing morphological changes in the nuclear and cytoplasmic components in SNO cells. (A) Cells propogated in medium only, (B) cells exposed to dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) – vehicle control, (C) cells exposed to actinomycin D – positive control and (D) cells exposed to ESE-16 at a concentration of 0.2 μM. Cells propogated in medium and the vehicle-treated cells showed normal cell morphology, with the majority of the cells being in interphase. The positive control for apoptosis and the ESE-16 treated cells showed a decrease in cell density and morphological characteristics of apoptosis such as membrane blebbing and apoptotic bodies. The ESE-16 treated cells also showed an increase in the number of round cells with hypercondensed chromatin indicative of a metaphase block (Magnification: ×20).

    Journal: Cell & Bioscience

    Article Title: Induction of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway via a new antimitotic agent in an esophageal carcinoma cell line

    doi: 10.1186/2045-3701-4-68

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Haematoxylin and eosin staining images revealing morphological changes in the nuclear and cytoplasmic components in SNO cells. (A) Cells propogated in medium only, (B) cells exposed to dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) – vehicle control, (C) cells exposed to actinomycin D – positive control and (D) cells exposed to ESE-16 at a concentration of 0.2 μM. Cells propogated in medium and the vehicle-treated cells showed normal cell morphology, with the majority of the cells being in interphase. The positive control for apoptosis and the ESE-16 treated cells showed a decrease in cell density and morphological characteristics of apoptosis such as membrane blebbing and apoptotic bodies. The ESE-16 treated cells also showed an increase in the number of round cells with hypercondensed chromatin indicative of a metaphase block (Magnification: ×20).

    Article Snippet: The ESE-16 compound was synthesized by iThemba Pharmaceuticals (Pty) Ltd (Modderfontein, Gauteng, SA).

    Techniques: Staining, Positive Control, Concentration Assay, Blocking Assay

    Bar graph illustrating the ratio to medium of the effector caspase 3 levels in SNO cells exposed to ESE - 16 and various controls. Results revealed a statistically significant increase ( P -value of 0.004) * in caspase 3 activity in the ESE-16-treated cells when compared to the vehicle control. The ESE-16-treated cells had a ratio to medium value of 2.9772, while the vehicle control had a ratio to medium value of 1.0681.

    Journal: Cell & Bioscience

    Article Title: Induction of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway via a new antimitotic agent in an esophageal carcinoma cell line

    doi: 10.1186/2045-3701-4-68

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Bar graph illustrating the ratio to medium of the effector caspase 3 levels in SNO cells exposed to ESE - 16 and various controls. Results revealed a statistically significant increase ( P -value of 0.004) * in caspase 3 activity in the ESE-16-treated cells when compared to the vehicle control. The ESE-16-treated cells had a ratio to medium value of 2.9772, while the vehicle control had a ratio to medium value of 1.0681.

    Article Snippet: The ESE-16 compound was synthesized by iThemba Pharmaceuticals (Pty) Ltd (Modderfontein, Gauteng, SA).

    Techniques: Activity Assay

    Histograms illustrating superoxide levels in SNO cells after exposure to ESE - 16 and the appropriate controls of a representative repeat. (A) Cells propogated in medium only, (B) cells exposed to DMSO – vehicle control, (C) cells exposed to actinomycin D – positive control and (D) cells exposed to ESE-16 at a concentration of 0.2 μM. Viable cells represent the population of cells which showed little or no increase in fluorescence, thus no increase. The non-viable cells represent the population of cells with an increase in fluorescence thus indicating an increase in O 2 − production. The ESE-16-treated cells showed 38.17% of its population to be non-viable compared to the 21.45% non-viable population of the vehicle control.

    Journal: Cell & Bioscience

    Article Title: Induction of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway via a new antimitotic agent in an esophageal carcinoma cell line

    doi: 10.1186/2045-3701-4-68

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Histograms illustrating superoxide levels in SNO cells after exposure to ESE - 16 and the appropriate controls of a representative repeat. (A) Cells propogated in medium only, (B) cells exposed to DMSO – vehicle control, (C) cells exposed to actinomycin D – positive control and (D) cells exposed to ESE-16 at a concentration of 0.2 μM. Viable cells represent the population of cells which showed little or no increase in fluorescence, thus no increase. The non-viable cells represent the population of cells with an increase in fluorescence thus indicating an increase in O 2 − production. The ESE-16-treated cells showed 38.17% of its population to be non-viable compared to the 21.45% non-viable population of the vehicle control.

    Article Snippet: The ESE-16 compound was synthesized by iThemba Pharmaceuticals (Pty) Ltd (Modderfontein, Gauteng, SA).

    Techniques: Positive Control, Concentration Assay, Fluorescence

    Bar graph illustrating the ratio to medium of the initiator caspase 9 levels in SNO cells exposed to ESE - 16 and various controls. Results revealed a statistically insignificant increase ( P -value of 0.238) in caspase 9 activity in the ESE-16-treated cells when compared to the vehicle control. The ESE-16-treated cells had a ratio to medium value of 1.2188, while the vehicle control had a ratio to medium value of 1.0625.

    Journal: Cell & Bioscience

    Article Title: Induction of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway via a new antimitotic agent in an esophageal carcinoma cell line

    doi: 10.1186/2045-3701-4-68

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Bar graph illustrating the ratio to medium of the initiator caspase 9 levels in SNO cells exposed to ESE - 16 and various controls. Results revealed a statistically insignificant increase ( P -value of 0.238) in caspase 9 activity in the ESE-16-treated cells when compared to the vehicle control. The ESE-16-treated cells had a ratio to medium value of 1.2188, while the vehicle control had a ratio to medium value of 1.0625.

    Article Snippet: The ESE-16 compound was synthesized by iThemba Pharmaceuticals (Pty) Ltd (Modderfontein, Gauteng, SA).

    Techniques: Activity Assay

    Transmission electron microscopy images providing information on the internal ultrastructure of SNO cells propogated in medium only and SNO cells treated with DMSO. (A) Cells propogated in medium only, (B) cells exposed to DMSO – vehicle control, (C) cells exposed to actinomycin D – positive control and (D) cells exposed to ESE-16 at a concentration of 0.2 μM. Both the cells propogated in medium and the vehicle control cells showed microvilli protruding from their cell membrane surface. The nuclear membrane is smoothly outlined and well-preserved cytoplasmic organelles are visible. The positive control for apoptosis showed loss of microvilli, membrane blebbing and the presence of apoptotic bodies. ESE-16-treated cells revealed a decrease in nuclear membrane definition, membrane blebbling and apoptotic body formation. Scale bar: 5 μm.

    Journal: Cell & Bioscience

    Article Title: Induction of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway via a new antimitotic agent in an esophageal carcinoma cell line

    doi: 10.1186/2045-3701-4-68

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Transmission electron microscopy images providing information on the internal ultrastructure of SNO cells propogated in medium only and SNO cells treated with DMSO. (A) Cells propogated in medium only, (B) cells exposed to DMSO – vehicle control, (C) cells exposed to actinomycin D – positive control and (D) cells exposed to ESE-16 at a concentration of 0.2 μM. Both the cells propogated in medium and the vehicle control cells showed microvilli protruding from their cell membrane surface. The nuclear membrane is smoothly outlined and well-preserved cytoplasmic organelles are visible. The positive control for apoptosis showed loss of microvilli, membrane blebbing and the presence of apoptotic bodies. ESE-16-treated cells revealed a decrease in nuclear membrane definition, membrane blebbling and apoptotic body formation. Scale bar: 5 μm.

    Article Snippet: The ESE-16 compound was synthesized by iThemba Pharmaceuticals (Pty) Ltd (Modderfontein, Gauteng, SA).

    Techniques: Transmission Assay, Electron Microscopy, Positive Control, Concentration Assay

    Bar graph showing the average mean fluorescent intensity increase in the ESE - 16 - treated cells compared to the appropriate controls illustrating an increase in phosphatidylserine externalization. This bar graph represents the average MFI of all three repeats done. Cells propogated in medium had an average MFI of 11.31, the vehicle control had an average MFI of 15.74, the positive control had an average MFI of 18.82 while the ESE-16-treated cells an average MFI of 25.50. The increased MFI indicates an increase in PS externalization which is an early apoptotic indicator [ 35 ].

    Journal: Cell & Bioscience

    Article Title: Induction of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway via a new antimitotic agent in an esophageal carcinoma cell line

    doi: 10.1186/2045-3701-4-68

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Bar graph showing the average mean fluorescent intensity increase in the ESE - 16 - treated cells compared to the appropriate controls illustrating an increase in phosphatidylserine externalization. This bar graph represents the average MFI of all three repeats done. Cells propogated in medium had an average MFI of 11.31, the vehicle control had an average MFI of 15.74, the positive control had an average MFI of 18.82 while the ESE-16-treated cells an average MFI of 25.50. The increased MFI indicates an increase in PS externalization which is an early apoptotic indicator [ 35 ].

    Article Snippet: The ESE-16 compound was synthesized by iThemba Pharmaceuticals (Pty) Ltd (Modderfontein, Gauteng, SA).

    Techniques: Positive Control

    Structural comparison between (A) 2ME and (B) ESE-16. When the two chemical structures are compared, an exchange of a sulphamoylated group for a hydroxyl group at position 3 and the removal of a hydroxyl group at position 17 on the ESE-16 compound are noticed. The sulphamoylated group increases the bioavailability of the compound [ 8 , 13 , 20 , 28 , 29 ], while the modifications at position 3 and −17 increases the anticancer potency and provides a prolonged half-life [ 6 , 11 , 13 , 22 , 27 , 28 ].

    Journal: Cell & Bioscience

    Article Title: Induction of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway via a new antimitotic agent in an esophageal carcinoma cell line

    doi: 10.1186/2045-3701-4-68

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Structural comparison between (A) 2ME and (B) ESE-16. When the two chemical structures are compared, an exchange of a sulphamoylated group for a hydroxyl group at position 3 and the removal of a hydroxyl group at position 17 on the ESE-16 compound are noticed. The sulphamoylated group increases the bioavailability of the compound [ 8 , 13 , 20 , 28 , 29 ], while the modifications at position 3 and −17 increases the anticancer potency and provides a prolonged half-life [ 6 , 11 , 13 , 22 , 27 , 28 ].

    Article Snippet: The ESE-16 compound was synthesized by iThemba Pharmaceuticals (Pty) Ltd (Modderfontein, Gauteng, SA).

    Techniques:

    Bar graph showing the average mean fluorescent intensity increase in the ESE - 16 - treated cells compared to the appropriate controls , illustrating a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential. This bar graph represents the average MFI of all three repeats done. The vehicle control had an average MFI of 28.79 while the postive control had an average MFI of 45.58 and the ESE-16-treated cells an average MFI of 37.995. The increase in the MFI seen in the ESE-16-treated cells is statistically significantly ( P -value of 0.019) * higher than that of the vehicle control indicating a decrease in ∆Ψm and possible mitochondrial membrane degradation.

    Journal: Cell & Bioscience

    Article Title: Induction of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway via a new antimitotic agent in an esophageal carcinoma cell line

    doi: 10.1186/2045-3701-4-68

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Bar graph showing the average mean fluorescent intensity increase in the ESE - 16 - treated cells compared to the appropriate controls , illustrating a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential. This bar graph represents the average MFI of all three repeats done. The vehicle control had an average MFI of 28.79 while the postive control had an average MFI of 45.58 and the ESE-16-treated cells an average MFI of 37.995. The increase in the MFI seen in the ESE-16-treated cells is statistically significantly ( P -value of 0.019) * higher than that of the vehicle control indicating a decrease in ∆Ψm and possible mitochondrial membrane degradation.

    Article Snippet: The ESE-16 compound was synthesized by iThemba Pharmaceuticals (Pty) Ltd (Modderfontein, Gauteng, SA).

    Techniques: