escherichia coli  (ATCC)


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    Structured Review

    ATCC escherichia coli
    Gel retardation assay. Notes: Various amounts of peptides were incubated with 0.479 µg of <t>Escherichia</t> coli genomic DNA at room temperature for 10 minutes, after 2 µL of loading dye was added and samples were applied to 1.5% agarose gel electrophoresis. The weight ratio (peptide/DNA) was indicated above each lane.
    Escherichia Coli, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 98/100, based on 15 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Images

    1) Product Images from "Peptide consensus sequence determination for the enhancement of the antimicrobial activity and selectivity of antimicrobial peptides"

    Article Title: Peptide consensus sequence determination for the enhancement of the antimicrobial activity and selectivity of antimicrobial peptides

    Journal: Infection and Drug Resistance

    doi: 10.2147/IDR.S118877

    Gel retardation assay. Notes: Various amounts of peptides were incubated with 0.479 µg of Escherichia coli genomic DNA at room temperature for 10 minutes, after 2 µL of loading dye was added and samples were applied to 1.5% agarose gel electrophoresis. The weight ratio (peptide/DNA) was indicated above each lane.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Gel retardation assay. Notes: Various amounts of peptides were incubated with 0.479 µg of Escherichia coli genomic DNA at room temperature for 10 minutes, after 2 µL of loading dye was added and samples were applied to 1.5% agarose gel electrophoresis. The weight ratio (peptide/DNA) was indicated above each lane.

    Techniques Used: Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay, Incubation, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis

    Time dependence of cytoplasmic membrane permeabilization of Escherichia coli bacterial cells after treatment with four concentrations of Pepcon (50 µM, 100 µM, 150 µM, and 200 µM). Notes: The Y-axis represents the optical density at 405 nm. Data are representative of three independent experiments. The positive control represents bacteria not treated with Pepcon.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Time dependence of cytoplasmic membrane permeabilization of Escherichia coli bacterial cells after treatment with four concentrations of Pepcon (50 µM, 100 µM, 150 µM, and 200 µM). Notes: The Y-axis represents the optical density at 405 nm. Data are representative of three independent experiments. The positive control represents bacteria not treated with Pepcon.

    Techniques Used: Positive Control

    Time-kill assays for Pepcon against stationary growing bacterial strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus ATCC 43300, S. aureus ATCC 33591, S. aureus ATCC 29213, Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Notes: Viability was counted at the indicated time points by serial dilution plating. Values are the mean of independent tests performed in triplicates. The positive control represents bacteria not treated with Pepcon. Abbreviations: CFU, colony forming unit; min, minutes.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Time-kill assays for Pepcon against stationary growing bacterial strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus ATCC 43300, S. aureus ATCC 33591, S. aureus ATCC 29213, Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Notes: Viability was counted at the indicated time points by serial dilution plating. Values are the mean of independent tests performed in triplicates. The positive control represents bacteria not treated with Pepcon. Abbreviations: CFU, colony forming unit; min, minutes.

    Techniques Used: Serial Dilution, Positive Control

    Time-kill assays for Pepcon against exponentially growing bacterial strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus ATCC 43300, S. aureus ATCC 33591, S. aureus ATCC 29213, Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Notes: Viability was counted at the indicated time points by serial dilution plating. Values are the mean of independent tests performed in triplicates. The positive control represents bacteria not treated with Pepcon. Abbreviations: CFU, colony forming unit; min, minutes.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Time-kill assays for Pepcon against exponentially growing bacterial strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus ATCC 43300, S. aureus ATCC 33591, S. aureus ATCC 29213, Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Notes: Viability was counted at the indicated time points by serial dilution plating. Values are the mean of independent tests performed in triplicates. The positive control represents bacteria not treated with Pepcon. Abbreviations: CFU, colony forming unit; min, minutes.

    Techniques Used: Serial Dilution, Positive Control

    2) Product Images from "Formulation and Evaluation of Antibacterial Creams and Gels Containing Metal Ions for Topical Application"

    Article Title: Formulation and Evaluation of Antibacterial Creams and Gels Containing Metal Ions for Topical Application

    Journal: Journal of Pharmaceutics

    doi: 10.1155/2016/5754349

    Antimicrobial activity of the selected cream (C1) containing copper sulfate and zinc sulfate in various concentrations against (a) Escherichia coli and (b) Staphylococcus aureus ( n = 3, results are shown as mean ± SD) ( p = 0.05).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Antimicrobial activity of the selected cream (C1) containing copper sulfate and zinc sulfate in various concentrations against (a) Escherichia coli and (b) Staphylococcus aureus ( n = 3, results are shown as mean ± SD) ( p = 0.05).

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay

    Antimicrobial activity of the selected cream (C1), gels (G1 and G5), and three marketed products (Nexcare Cold Sore Treatment Cream, Campho- Phenique Cold Sore Treatment Gel, and Equate Diaper Rash Relief Cream) against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus ( n = 3, results shown as mean ± SD).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Antimicrobial activity of the selected cream (C1), gels (G1 and G5), and three marketed products (Nexcare Cold Sore Treatment Cream, Campho- Phenique Cold Sore Treatment Gel, and Equate Diaper Rash Relief Cream) against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus ( n = 3, results shown as mean ± SD).

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay

    Antimicrobial activity of copper sulfate and zinc sulfate solutions in various concentrations against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus ( n = 3, results shown as mean ± SD) ( p = 0.05).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Antimicrobial activity of copper sulfate and zinc sulfate solutions in various concentrations against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus ( n = 3, results shown as mean ± SD) ( p = 0.05).

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay

    Antimicrobial activity of one of the selected gels (G5) during the stability testing compared to the control (gentamicin) against Escherichia coli ( n = 3, results shown as mean ± SD).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Antimicrobial activity of one of the selected gels (G5) during the stability testing compared to the control (gentamicin) against Escherichia coli ( n = 3, results shown as mean ± SD).

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay

    3) Product Images from "Considerations for studying transmission of antimicrobial resistant enteric bacteria between wild birds and the environment on intensive dairy and beef cattle operations"

    Article Title: Considerations for studying transmission of antimicrobial resistant enteric bacteria between wild birds and the environment on intensive dairy and beef cattle operations

    Journal: PeerJ

    doi: 10.7717/peerj.6460

    Genomic diversity of Escherichia coli by site and isolate source. Genomic diversity of Escherichia coli at a residential control and three cattle farm sites in central Illinois by site for both sources (A), from just bird feces (B), and from just environmental swabs (C). Sample points are labelled by site and source and colored by site. The first letter indicates source: D, Dairy (green); A, Beef A (orange); B, Beef B (blue), and C, Control (red). The second letter indicates sample source: B, bird feces or swab; E, environmental swab.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Genomic diversity of Escherichia coli by site and isolate source. Genomic diversity of Escherichia coli at a residential control and three cattle farm sites in central Illinois by site for both sources (A), from just bird feces (B), and from just environmental swabs (C). Sample points are labelled by site and source and colored by site. The first letter indicates source: D, Dairy (green); A, Beef A (orange); B, Beef B (blue), and C, Control (red). The second letter indicates sample source: B, bird feces or swab; E, environmental swab.

    Techniques Used:

    Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance by site, bacterial genus, and isolate source. Percentage (±95% CI of proportions; total n for each group provided at bar bases) of Escherichia coli (A) and Enterococcus (B) isolates resistant to one or more antimicrobial drug at a residential control and three cattle farm sites in central Illinois by sample source. The total proportions of Escherichia coli isolates resistant to one or more antimicrobial drug at each farm site did not differ significantly from the Control (Pairwise comparisons with Control as referent: all p > 0.05). Enterococcus isolates from the farm sites has significantly higher proportions of resistant isolates for two of three sites (Fisher’s exact, pair-wise comparisons with Control as referent: Dairy p = 0.001, Beef A p = 0.080, Beef B p = 0.0002).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance by site, bacterial genus, and isolate source. Percentage (±95% CI of proportions; total n for each group provided at bar bases) of Escherichia coli (A) and Enterococcus (B) isolates resistant to one or more antimicrobial drug at a residential control and three cattle farm sites in central Illinois by sample source. The total proportions of Escherichia coli isolates resistant to one or more antimicrobial drug at each farm site did not differ significantly from the Control (Pairwise comparisons with Control as referent: all p > 0.05). Enterococcus isolates from the farm sites has significantly higher proportions of resistant isolates for two of three sites (Fisher’s exact, pair-wise comparisons with Control as referent: Dairy p = 0.001, Beef A p = 0.080, Beef B p = 0.0002).

    Techniques Used:

    Prevalence of resistance to one or more antimicrobial drugs by site, bacterial genus, and isolate source. Percentage of Escherichia coli (A and C) and Enterococcus (B and D) isolates resistant to none, one, or more antimicrobial drugs at a residential control and three cattle farm sites in central Illinois by sample source. Escherichia coli resistant to more than one antimicrobial drug were primarily found in bird and environmental samples from the Dairy site. In contrast, Enterococcus isolates were seen in both sample types at all three farm facilities but less commonly at the Control.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Prevalence of resistance to one or more antimicrobial drugs by site, bacterial genus, and isolate source. Percentage of Escherichia coli (A and C) and Enterococcus (B and D) isolates resistant to none, one, or more antimicrobial drugs at a residential control and three cattle farm sites in central Illinois by sample source. Escherichia coli resistant to more than one antimicrobial drug were primarily found in bird and environmental samples from the Dairy site. In contrast, Enterococcus isolates were seen in both sample types at all three farm facilities but less commonly at the Control.

    Techniques Used: Environmental Sampling

    4) Product Images from "Synergistic Effect of Combinations Containing EDTA and the Antimicrobial Peptide AA230, an Arenicin-3 Derivative, on Gram-Negative Bacteria"

    Article Title: Synergistic Effect of Combinations Containing EDTA and the Antimicrobial Peptide AA230, an Arenicin-3 Derivative, on Gram-Negative Bacteria

    Journal: Biomolecules

    doi: 10.3390/biom8040122

    Time-kill curves of antimicrobial peptide AA230 against ( a ) Escherichia coli ATCC (American Type Culture Collection); ( b ) Escherichia coli ESBL (extended spectrum beta lactamase).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Time-kill curves of antimicrobial peptide AA230 against ( a ) Escherichia coli ATCC (American Type Culture Collection); ( b ) Escherichia coli ESBL (extended spectrum beta lactamase).

    Techniques Used:

    Time-kill curves of antimicrobial peptide AA230 and EDTA used alone and in combination against ( a , b ) Escherichia coli ATCC; ( c , d ) Escherichia coli ESBL.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Time-kill curves of antimicrobial peptide AA230 and EDTA used alone and in combination against ( a , b ) Escherichia coli ATCC; ( c , d ) Escherichia coli ESBL.

    Techniques Used:

    Time-kill curves of EDTA (etlylenediaminetetraacetic acid) against ( a ) Escherichia coli ATCC (American Type Culture Collection); ( b ) Escherichia coli ESBL (extended spectrum beta lactamase).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Time-kill curves of EDTA (etlylenediaminetetraacetic acid) against ( a ) Escherichia coli ATCC (American Type Culture Collection); ( b ) Escherichia coli ESBL (extended spectrum beta lactamase).

    Techniques Used:

    5) Product Images from "Synergistic Effect of Combinations Containing EDTA and the Antimicrobial Peptide AA230, an Arenicin-3 Derivative, on Gram-Negative Bacteria"

    Article Title: Synergistic Effect of Combinations Containing EDTA and the Antimicrobial Peptide AA230, an Arenicin-3 Derivative, on Gram-Negative Bacteria

    Journal: Biomolecules

    doi: 10.3390/biom8040122

    Time-kill curves of antimicrobial peptide AA230 against ( a ) Escherichia coli ATCC (American Type Culture Collection); ( b ) Escherichia coli ESBL (extended spectrum beta lactamase).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Time-kill curves of antimicrobial peptide AA230 against ( a ) Escherichia coli ATCC (American Type Culture Collection); ( b ) Escherichia coli ESBL (extended spectrum beta lactamase).

    Techniques Used:

    Time-kill curves of antimicrobial peptide AA230 and EDTA used alone and in combination against ( a , b ) Escherichia coli ATCC; ( c , d ) Escherichia coli ESBL.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Time-kill curves of antimicrobial peptide AA230 and EDTA used alone and in combination against ( a , b ) Escherichia coli ATCC; ( c , d ) Escherichia coli ESBL.

    Techniques Used:

    Time-kill curves of EDTA (etlylenediaminetetraacetic acid) against ( a ) Escherichia coli ATCC (American Type Culture Collection); ( b ) Escherichia coli ESBL (extended spectrum beta lactamase).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Time-kill curves of EDTA (etlylenediaminetetraacetic acid) against ( a ) Escherichia coli ATCC (American Type Culture Collection); ( b ) Escherichia coli ESBL (extended spectrum beta lactamase).

    Techniques Used:

    6) Product Images from "Antimicrobial activity and the mechanism of silver nanoparticle thermosensitive gel"

    Article Title: Antimicrobial activity and the mechanism of silver nanoparticle thermosensitive gel

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S23945

    Effect of S-T-Gel on genome DNA of bacterial cells. Note: 2, 4, and 6 denote genome DNA of normal Staphylococcus aureus , Escherichia coli , and Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells respectively. 1, 3, and 5 denote genome DNA of S. aureus , E. coli , and P. aeruginosa cells treated with 10 μg/mL S-T-Gel respectively. Abbreviations: DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid; S-T-Gel, silver nanoparticles incorporated into thermosensitive gel.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of S-T-Gel on genome DNA of bacterial cells. Note: 2, 4, and 6 denote genome DNA of normal Staphylococcus aureus , Escherichia coli , and Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells respectively. 1, 3, and 5 denote genome DNA of S. aureus , E. coli , and P. aeruginosa cells treated with 10 μg/mL S-T-Gel respectively. Abbreviations: DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid; S-T-Gel, silver nanoparticles incorporated into thermosensitive gel.

    Techniques Used:

    Morphology and structure of bacterial cells under transmission electron microscopy. ( A ) a1, normal Staphylococcus aureus cells; a2, S. aureus cells treated by S-T-Gel. ( B ) b1, normal Escherichia coli cells; b2, E. coli cells treated by S-T-Gel. ( C ) c1, normal Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells; c2, P. aeruginosa cells treated by S-T-Gel. Abbreviation: S-T-Gel, silver nanoparticles incorporated into thermosensitive gel.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Morphology and structure of bacterial cells under transmission electron microscopy. ( A ) a1, normal Staphylococcus aureus cells; a2, S. aureus cells treated by S-T-Gel. ( B ) b1, normal Escherichia coli cells; b2, E. coli cells treated by S-T-Gel. ( C ) c1, normal Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells; c2, P. aeruginosa cells treated by S-T-Gel. Abbreviation: S-T-Gel, silver nanoparticles incorporated into thermosensitive gel.

    Techniques Used: Transmission Assay, Electron Microscopy

    Growth curves of different concentrations of S-T-Gel with ( A ) Staphylococcus aureus , ( B ) Escherichia coli , and ( C ) Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Abbreviation: S-T-Gel, silver nanoparticles incorporated into thermosensitive gel.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Growth curves of different concentrations of S-T-Gel with ( A ) Staphylococcus aureus , ( B ) Escherichia coli , and ( C ) Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Abbreviation: S-T-Gel, silver nanoparticles incorporated into thermosensitive gel.

    Techniques Used:

    7) Product Images from "Novel BUF2-magnetite nanobioconjugates with cell-penetrating abilities"

    Article Title: Novel BUF2-magnetite nanobioconjugates with cell-penetrating abilities

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S188074

    ( A ) Cytotoxicity of BUF2-magnetite conjugates as tested by LDH assays after 24 and 72 hours. Cell viability remained above 95% for all studied concentrations. ( B ) Assessment of the hemolytic effect of BUF2-magnetite conjugates at different concentrations. Data points are mean data of each concentration. In all cases, hemolysis was below 5%. ( C ) Confocal microscopic images of effective cellular internalization (THP-1 cells) of BUF2-FITC-magnetite as prepared by conjugation via glutaraldehyde (arrow in inset). Scale bar corresponds to 10 μm. ( D ) Confocal microscopic images of effective cellular internalization (THP-1 cells) of BUF2-FITC-magnetite as prepared by conjugation via EDC (arrow in inset). Scale bar corresponds to 10 μm. ( E ) Confocal microscopic image showing failed internalization of fluorescently labeled bare magnetite (negative control). ( F ) Confocal microscopic images of effective cellular internalization of BUF2-FITC (arrow in inset). Scale bar corresponds to 10 μm. ( G ) Confocal microscopic images of internalization of BUF2-FITC into E. coli (arrow in inset). The image on the right shows the threshold mask to BUF2-FITC to remove the fluorescence background. Scale bar corresponds to 10 μm. Abbreviations: BUF2, buforin II; LDH, lactate dehydrogenase; EDC, N-[3-(dimethylamino)-propyl]-N′-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride; FITC, fluorescein isothiocyanate; E. coli , Escherichia coli .
    Figure Legend Snippet: ( A ) Cytotoxicity of BUF2-magnetite conjugates as tested by LDH assays after 24 and 72 hours. Cell viability remained above 95% for all studied concentrations. ( B ) Assessment of the hemolytic effect of BUF2-magnetite conjugates at different concentrations. Data points are mean data of each concentration. In all cases, hemolysis was below 5%. ( C ) Confocal microscopic images of effective cellular internalization (THP-1 cells) of BUF2-FITC-magnetite as prepared by conjugation via glutaraldehyde (arrow in inset). Scale bar corresponds to 10 μm. ( D ) Confocal microscopic images of effective cellular internalization (THP-1 cells) of BUF2-FITC-magnetite as prepared by conjugation via EDC (arrow in inset). Scale bar corresponds to 10 μm. ( E ) Confocal microscopic image showing failed internalization of fluorescently labeled bare magnetite (negative control). ( F ) Confocal microscopic images of effective cellular internalization of BUF2-FITC (arrow in inset). Scale bar corresponds to 10 μm. ( G ) Confocal microscopic images of internalization of BUF2-FITC into E. coli (arrow in inset). The image on the right shows the threshold mask to BUF2-FITC to remove the fluorescence background. Scale bar corresponds to 10 μm. Abbreviations: BUF2, buforin II; LDH, lactate dehydrogenase; EDC, N-[3-(dimethylamino)-propyl]-N′-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride; FITC, fluorescein isothiocyanate; E. coli , Escherichia coli .

    Techniques Used: Concentration Assay, Conjugation Assay, Labeling, Negative Control, Fluorescence

    ( A ) Antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli of magnetite (brown) and BUF2-magnetite (500 μg/mL, green; 100 μg/mL, purple) as prepared by conjugation via glutaraldehyde. BUF2-magnetite as prepared by conjugation via EDC at the same concentrations (blue and red, respectively). Comparison with the antimicrobial activity of BUF2 at 100 μM (orange) and 3.125 μM (black). The positive control was Escherichia coli in gentamicin at 10 μM, and suspension containing only cells was the negative control. ( B ) Actual image of the microplate where the antimicrobial assay was conducted. BUF2 at 100 μM and the positive control showed insignificant turbidity when compared with the rest of the treatments. Abbreviations: BUF2, buforin II; EDC, N-[3-(dimethylamino)-propyl]-N′-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride; Mag, magnetite; MBE, BUF2-magnetite conjugated with EDC; MBG, BUF2-magnetite conjugated with glutaraldehyde.
    Figure Legend Snippet: ( A ) Antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli of magnetite (brown) and BUF2-magnetite (500 μg/mL, green; 100 μg/mL, purple) as prepared by conjugation via glutaraldehyde. BUF2-magnetite as prepared by conjugation via EDC at the same concentrations (blue and red, respectively). Comparison with the antimicrobial activity of BUF2 at 100 μM (orange) and 3.125 μM (black). The positive control was Escherichia coli in gentamicin at 10 μM, and suspension containing only cells was the negative control. ( B ) Actual image of the microplate where the antimicrobial assay was conducted. BUF2 at 100 μM and the positive control showed insignificant turbidity when compared with the rest of the treatments. Abbreviations: BUF2, buforin II; EDC, N-[3-(dimethylamino)-propyl]-N′-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride; Mag, magnetite; MBE, BUF2-magnetite conjugated with EDC; MBG, BUF2-magnetite conjugated with glutaraldehyde.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Conjugation Assay, Positive Control, Negative Control

    8) Product Images from "Novel BUF2-magnetite nanobioconjugates with cell-penetrating abilities"

    Article Title: Novel BUF2-magnetite nanobioconjugates with cell-penetrating abilities

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S188074

    ( A ) Cytotoxicity of BUF2-magnetite conjugates as tested by LDH assays after 24 and 72 hours. Cell viability remained above 95% for all studied concentrations. ( B ) Assessment of the hemolytic effect of BUF2-magnetite conjugates at different concentrations. Data points are mean data of each concentration. In all cases, hemolysis was below 5%. ( C ) Confocal microscopic images of effective cellular internalization (THP-1 cells) of BUF2-FITC-magnetite as prepared by conjugation via glutaraldehyde (arrow in inset). Scale bar corresponds to 10 μm. ( D ) Confocal microscopic images of effective cellular internalization (THP-1 cells) of BUF2-FITC-magnetite as prepared by conjugation via EDC (arrow in inset). Scale bar corresponds to 10 μm. ( E ) Confocal microscopic image showing failed internalization of fluorescently labeled bare magnetite (negative control). ( F ) Confocal microscopic images of effective cellular internalization of BUF2-FITC (arrow in inset). Scale bar corresponds to 10 μm. ( G ) Confocal microscopic images of internalization of BUF2-FITC into E. coli (arrow in inset). The image on the right shows the threshold mask to BUF2-FITC to remove the fluorescence background. Scale bar corresponds to 10 μm. Abbreviations: BUF2, buforin II; LDH, lactate dehydrogenase; EDC, N-[3-(dimethylamino)-propyl]-N′-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride; FITC, fluorescein isothiocyanate; E. coli , Escherichia coli .
    Figure Legend Snippet: ( A ) Cytotoxicity of BUF2-magnetite conjugates as tested by LDH assays after 24 and 72 hours. Cell viability remained above 95% for all studied concentrations. ( B ) Assessment of the hemolytic effect of BUF2-magnetite conjugates at different concentrations. Data points are mean data of each concentration. In all cases, hemolysis was below 5%. ( C ) Confocal microscopic images of effective cellular internalization (THP-1 cells) of BUF2-FITC-magnetite as prepared by conjugation via glutaraldehyde (arrow in inset). Scale bar corresponds to 10 μm. ( D ) Confocal microscopic images of effective cellular internalization (THP-1 cells) of BUF2-FITC-magnetite as prepared by conjugation via EDC (arrow in inset). Scale bar corresponds to 10 μm. ( E ) Confocal microscopic image showing failed internalization of fluorescently labeled bare magnetite (negative control). ( F ) Confocal microscopic images of effective cellular internalization of BUF2-FITC (arrow in inset). Scale bar corresponds to 10 μm. ( G ) Confocal microscopic images of internalization of BUF2-FITC into E. coli (arrow in inset). The image on the right shows the threshold mask to BUF2-FITC to remove the fluorescence background. Scale bar corresponds to 10 μm. Abbreviations: BUF2, buforin II; LDH, lactate dehydrogenase; EDC, N-[3-(dimethylamino)-propyl]-N′-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride; FITC, fluorescein isothiocyanate; E. coli , Escherichia coli .

    Techniques Used: Concentration Assay, Conjugation Assay, Labeling, Negative Control, Fluorescence

    ( A ) Antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli of magnetite (brown) and BUF2-magnetite (500 μg/mL, green; 100 μg/mL, purple) as prepared by conjugation via glutaraldehyde. BUF2-magnetite as prepared by conjugation via EDC at the same concentrations (blue and red, respectively). Comparison with the antimicrobial activity of BUF2 at 100 μM (orange) and 3.125 μM (black). The positive control was Escherichia coli in gentamicin at 10 μM, and suspension containing only cells was the negative control. ( B ) Actual image of the microplate where the antimicrobial assay was conducted. BUF2 at 100 μM and the positive control showed insignificant turbidity when compared with the rest of the treatments. Abbreviations: BUF2, buforin II; EDC, N-[3-(dimethylamino)-propyl]-N′-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride; Mag, magnetite; MBE, BUF2-magnetite conjugated with EDC; MBG, BUF2-magnetite conjugated with glutaraldehyde.
    Figure Legend Snippet: ( A ) Antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli of magnetite (brown) and BUF2-magnetite (500 μg/mL, green; 100 μg/mL, purple) as prepared by conjugation via glutaraldehyde. BUF2-magnetite as prepared by conjugation via EDC at the same concentrations (blue and red, respectively). Comparison with the antimicrobial activity of BUF2 at 100 μM (orange) and 3.125 μM (black). The positive control was Escherichia coli in gentamicin at 10 μM, and suspension containing only cells was the negative control. ( B ) Actual image of the microplate where the antimicrobial assay was conducted. BUF2 at 100 μM and the positive control showed insignificant turbidity when compared with the rest of the treatments. Abbreviations: BUF2, buforin II; EDC, N-[3-(dimethylamino)-propyl]-N′-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride; Mag, magnetite; MBE, BUF2-magnetite conjugated with EDC; MBG, BUF2-magnetite conjugated with glutaraldehyde.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Conjugation Assay, Positive Control, Negative Control

    9) Product Images from "A New Synthetic Peptide Having Two Target of Antibacterial Action in E. coli ML35"

    Article Title: A New Synthetic Peptide Having Two Target of Antibacterial Action in E. coli ML35

    Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

    doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2016.02006

    Kinetics of peptide 35409 activity against Escherichia coli ML 35. Time-dependent cell growth in the absence of peptide (●) and in the presence of 22 μM peptide 35409 (Δ). No bacterial growth was seen with peptide treatment at 22 μM and 1 log reduction was produced after 120 min, whilst growth was seen in bacteria without treatment. Data was recorded in duplicate and error did not exceed 10%.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Kinetics of peptide 35409 activity against Escherichia coli ML 35. Time-dependent cell growth in the absence of peptide (●) and in the presence of 22 μM peptide 35409 (Δ). No bacterial growth was seen with peptide treatment at 22 μM and 1 log reduction was produced after 120 min, whilst growth was seen in bacteria without treatment. Data was recorded in duplicate and error did not exceed 10%.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Produced

    Escherichia coli ML 35 internal membrane permeabilization and interaction with membrane phospholipids. (A) Peptide capability for permeabilizing E. coli ML-35 internal membrane was evaluated by using ONPG substrate and treating bacteria with peptide at different concentrations, 11, 22, 44 μM and with cecropin (3 μM) and peptide 35415 (22 μM) as positive and negative control, respectively. (B) Calcein-loaded liposomes were treated with peptide 35409 (22 μM) for evaluating their interaction with phospholipids from E. coli internal membrane. Peptide 35415 was used as negative control. Greater calcein release was seen in liposomes only composed of PE.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Escherichia coli ML 35 internal membrane permeabilization and interaction with membrane phospholipids. (A) Peptide capability for permeabilizing E. coli ML-35 internal membrane was evaluated by using ONPG substrate and treating bacteria with peptide at different concentrations, 11, 22, 44 μM and with cecropin (3 μM) and peptide 35415 (22 μM) as positive and negative control, respectively. (B) Calcein-loaded liposomes were treated with peptide 35409 (22 μM) for evaluating their interaction with phospholipids from E. coli internal membrane. Peptide 35415 was used as negative control. Greater calcein release was seen in liposomes only composed of PE.

    Techniques Used: Negative Control

    10) Product Images from "Green Tea Seed Isolated Saponins Exerts Antibacterial Effects against Various Strains of Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria, a Comprehensive Study In Vitro and In Vivo"

    Article Title: Green Tea Seed Isolated Saponins Exerts Antibacterial Effects against Various Strains of Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria, a Comprehensive Study In Vitro and In Vivo

    Journal: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM

    doi: 10.1155/2018/3486106

    Antibacterial activities of Fr1 of green tea seed saponins against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella gallinarum, Salmonella choleraesuis, Salmonella pullorum, Salmonella dublin, and Staphylococcus aureus . The antibacterial activities were determined by allowing the bacteria to grow in the presence of various concentrations of saponins using 96-well microtiter plate and then checking the viability of bacteria by measuring OD 660 with spectrophotometer. Data are expressed as means of experiments in triplicate ± SEM. Data are statistically significant at P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Antibacterial activities of Fr1 of green tea seed saponins against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella gallinarum, Salmonella choleraesuis, Salmonella pullorum, Salmonella dublin, and Staphylococcus aureus . The antibacterial activities were determined by allowing the bacteria to grow in the presence of various concentrations of saponins using 96-well microtiter plate and then checking the viability of bacteria by measuring OD 660 with spectrophotometer. Data are expressed as means of experiments in triplicate ± SEM. Data are statistically significant at P

    Techniques Used: Spectrophotometry

    Antibacterial activities of Fr2 of green tea seed saponins against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella gallinarum, Salmonella choleraesuis, Salmonella pullorum, Salmonella dublin, and Staphylococcus aureus . The antibacterial activities were determined by allowing the bacteria to grow in the presence of various concentrations of saponins using 96-well microtiter plate and then checking the viability of bacteria by measuring OD 660 with spectrophotometer. Data are expressed as means of experiments in triplicate ± SEM. Data are statistically significant at P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Antibacterial activities of Fr2 of green tea seed saponins against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella gallinarum, Salmonella choleraesuis, Salmonella pullorum, Salmonella dublin, and Staphylococcus aureus . The antibacterial activities were determined by allowing the bacteria to grow in the presence of various concentrations of saponins using 96-well microtiter plate and then checking the viability of bacteria by measuring OD 660 with spectrophotometer. Data are expressed as means of experiments in triplicate ± SEM. Data are statistically significant at P

    Techniques Used: Spectrophotometry

    11) Product Images from "Green Tea Seed Isolated Saponins Exerts Antibacterial Effects against Various Strains of Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria, a Comprehensive Study In Vitro and In Vivo"

    Article Title: Green Tea Seed Isolated Saponins Exerts Antibacterial Effects against Various Strains of Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria, a Comprehensive Study In Vitro and In Vivo

    Journal: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM

    doi: 10.1155/2018/3486106

    Antibacterial activities of Fr2 of green tea seed saponins against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella gallinarum, Salmonella choleraesuis, Salmonella pullorum, Salmonella dublin, and Staphylococcus aureus . The antibacterial activities were determined by allowing the bacteria to grow in the presence of various concentrations of saponins using 96-well microtiter plate and then checking the viability of bacteria by measuring OD 660 with spectrophotometer. Data are expressed as means of experiments in triplicate ± SEM. Data are statistically significant at P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Antibacterial activities of Fr2 of green tea seed saponins against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella gallinarum, Salmonella choleraesuis, Salmonella pullorum, Salmonella dublin, and Staphylococcus aureus . The antibacterial activities were determined by allowing the bacteria to grow in the presence of various concentrations of saponins using 96-well microtiter plate and then checking the viability of bacteria by measuring OD 660 with spectrophotometer. Data are expressed as means of experiments in triplicate ± SEM. Data are statistically significant at P

    Techniques Used: Spectrophotometry

    Antibacterial activities of Fr1 of green tea seed saponins against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella gallinarum, Salmonella choleraesuis, Salmonella pullorum, Salmonella dublin, and Staphylococcus aureus . The antibacterial activities were determined by allowing the bacteria to grow in the presence of various concentrations of saponins using 96-well microtiter plate and then checking the viability of bacteria by measuring OD 660 with spectrophotometer. Data are expressed as means of experiments in triplicate ± SEM. Data are statistically significant at P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Antibacterial activities of Fr1 of green tea seed saponins against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella gallinarum, Salmonella choleraesuis, Salmonella pullorum, Salmonella dublin, and Staphylococcus aureus . The antibacterial activities were determined by allowing the bacteria to grow in the presence of various concentrations of saponins using 96-well microtiter plate and then checking the viability of bacteria by measuring OD 660 with spectrophotometer. Data are expressed as means of experiments in triplicate ± SEM. Data are statistically significant at P

    Techniques Used: Spectrophotometry

    12) Product Images from "A green single-step procedure to synthesize Ag-containing nanocomposite coatings with low cytotoxicity and efficient antibacterial properties"

    Article Title: A green single-step procedure to synthesize Ag-containing nanocomposite coatings with low cytotoxicity and efficient antibacterial properties

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S130857

    ( A1 – E2 ) SEM images of bacteria adhered on the deposited coatings. ( A3 – E4 ) Optical images of re-cultivated colonies from the antibacterial test of the coatings after 20-hour incubation. ( A5 – E6 ) Optical images of re-cultivated colonies from the anti-biofilm test after 20-hour incubation. ( A7 – E8 ) Optical images of re-cultivated colonies from the antibacterial test of the released nanoparticles after 20-hour incubation. (1, 3, 5, and 7: Staphylococcus aureus ; 2, 4, 6, and 8: Escherichia coli ; A : Ag-0, B : Ag-I, C : Ag-II, D : Ag-III, and E : Ag-IV). ( F ) The percentage reduction of antibacterial test (n=3; ** P
    Figure Legend Snippet: ( A1 – E2 ) SEM images of bacteria adhered on the deposited coatings. ( A3 – E4 ) Optical images of re-cultivated colonies from the antibacterial test of the coatings after 20-hour incubation. ( A5 – E6 ) Optical images of re-cultivated colonies from the anti-biofilm test after 20-hour incubation. ( A7 – E8 ) Optical images of re-cultivated colonies from the antibacterial test of the released nanoparticles after 20-hour incubation. (1, 3, 5, and 7: Staphylococcus aureus ; 2, 4, 6, and 8: Escherichia coli ; A : Ag-0, B : Ag-I, C : Ag-II, D : Ag-III, and E : Ag-IV). ( F ) The percentage reduction of antibacterial test (n=3; ** P

    Techniques Used: Incubation

    Optical confocal micrographs of bacteria from the ( A1 – E2 ) antibacterial test, ( A3 – E4 ) anti-biofilm test, and ( A5 – E6 ) antibacterial test of released nanoparticles after dyeing with SYTO 9 and PI (1, 3, and 5: Staphylococcus aureus ; 2, 4, and 6: Escherichia coli ; A : Ag-0, B : Ag-I, C : Ag-II, D : Ag-III, and E : Ag-IV). ( F ) Time-dependent cell viabilities of MC3T3-E1 cells cultured in the leaching liquid of CS/G and Ag-containing nanocomposite coatings up to 7 days (n=5 *** P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Optical confocal micrographs of bacteria from the ( A1 – E2 ) antibacterial test, ( A3 – E4 ) anti-biofilm test, and ( A5 – E6 ) antibacterial test of released nanoparticles after dyeing with SYTO 9 and PI (1, 3, and 5: Staphylococcus aureus ; 2, 4, and 6: Escherichia coli ; A : Ag-0, B : Ag-I, C : Ag-II, D : Ag-III, and E : Ag-IV). ( F ) Time-dependent cell viabilities of MC3T3-E1 cells cultured in the leaching liquid of CS/G and Ag-containing nanocomposite coatings up to 7 days (n=5 *** P

    Techniques Used: Cell Culture

    13) Product Images from "Antimicrobial Properties of Selected Copper Alloys on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in Different Simulations of Environmental Conditions: With vs. without Organic Contamination"

    Article Title: Antimicrobial Properties of Selected Copper Alloys on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in Different Simulations of Environmental Conditions: With vs. without Organic Contamination

    Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health

    doi: 10.3390/ijerph14070813

    Escherichia coli (EC) suspension density (CFU/mL) reduction on tested metallic materials, in the variant of the experiment simulating organic contamination. TSB, tryptic soy broth.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Escherichia coli (EC) suspension density (CFU/mL) reduction on tested metallic materials, in the variant of the experiment simulating organic contamination. TSB, tryptic soy broth.

    Techniques Used: Variant Assay

    Escherichia coli (EC) suspension density (CFU/mL) reduction on tested metallic materials, in the variant of the experiment simulating lack of organic contamination.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Escherichia coli (EC) suspension density (CFU/mL) reduction on tested metallic materials, in the variant of the experiment simulating lack of organic contamination.

    Techniques Used: Variant Assay

    14) Product Images from "Culture of dental pulp stem cells on nanoporous alumina substrates modified by carbon nanotubes"

    Article Title: Culture of dental pulp stem cells on nanoporous alumina substrates modified by carbon nanotubes

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S189730

    Results of flow cytometry analysis: ( A ) FA- E. coli , ( B ) FA- S. aureus , ( C ) NAMC- E. coli , and ( D ) NAMC- S. aureus . Abbreviations: E. coli , Escherichia coli ; FA, flat alumina; NAMC, nanoporous alumina-multiwalled carbon nanotubes; PI, propidium iodide; S. aureus , Staphylococcus aureus .
    Figure Legend Snippet: Results of flow cytometry analysis: ( A ) FA- E. coli , ( B ) FA- S. aureus , ( C ) NAMC- E. coli , and ( D ) NAMC- S. aureus . Abbreviations: E. coli , Escherichia coli ; FA, flat alumina; NAMC, nanoporous alumina-multiwalled carbon nanotubes; PI, propidium iodide; S. aureus , Staphylococcus aureus .

    Techniques Used: Flow Cytometry, Cytometry

    SEM image from ( A ) surface of FA- E.coli-S.aureus after biofilm assay, ( B ) surface of virgin FA, ( C ) FA- E.coli and FA- S.aureus and ( D ) NAMC after biofilm assay. Abbreviations: E. coli , Escherichia coli ; FA, flat alumina; NAMC, nanoporous alumina-multiwalled carbon nanotubes; S. aureus , Staphylococcus aureus .
    Figure Legend Snippet: SEM image from ( A ) surface of FA- E.coli-S.aureus after biofilm assay, ( B ) surface of virgin FA, ( C ) FA- E.coli and FA- S.aureus and ( D ) NAMC after biofilm assay. Abbreviations: E. coli , Escherichia coli ; FA, flat alumina; NAMC, nanoporous alumina-multiwalled carbon nanotubes; S. aureus , Staphylococcus aureus .

    Techniques Used: Biofilm Production Assay

    15) Product Images from "Botryococcus braunii as a bioreactor for the production of nanoparticles with antimicrobial potentialities"

    Article Title: Botryococcus braunii as a bioreactor for the production of nanoparticles with antimicrobial potentialities

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S174205

    Antimicrobial activity and shape of the intracellularly biosynthesized AgNPs against selected pathogens: ( A ) Escherichia coli , ( B ) Pseudomonas aeruginosa , ( C ) Staphylococcus aureus , and ( D ) Candida albicans compared with ampicillin and a commercial AgNPs solution. Abbreviation: AgNPs, silver nanoparticles.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Antimicrobial activity and shape of the intracellularly biosynthesized AgNPs against selected pathogens: ( A ) Escherichia coli , ( B ) Pseudomonas aeruginosa , ( C ) Staphylococcus aureus , and ( D ) Candida albicans compared with ampicillin and a commercial AgNPs solution. Abbreviation: AgNPs, silver nanoparticles.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay

    Antimicrobial activity and shape of the extracellularly biosynthesized AgNPs ( A ) Escherichia coli , ( B ) Pseudomonas aeruginosa , ( C ) Staphylococcus aureus , and ( D ) Candida albicans compared with an antibiotic solution and a commercial nanoparticle solution. Abbreviation: AgNPs, silver nanoparticles.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Antimicrobial activity and shape of the extracellularly biosynthesized AgNPs ( A ) Escherichia coli , ( B ) Pseudomonas aeruginosa , ( C ) Staphylococcus aureus , and ( D ) Candida albicans compared with an antibiotic solution and a commercial nanoparticle solution. Abbreviation: AgNPs, silver nanoparticles.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay

    16) Product Images from "Botryococcus braunii as a bioreactor for the production of nanoparticles with antimicrobial potentialities"

    Article Title: Botryococcus braunii as a bioreactor for the production of nanoparticles with antimicrobial potentialities

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S174205

    Antimicrobial activity and shape of the intracellularly biosynthesized AgNPs against selected pathogens: ( A ) Escherichia coli , ( B ) Pseudomonas aeruginosa , ( C ) Staphylococcus aureus , and ( D ) Candida albicans compared with ampicillin and a commercial AgNPs solution. Abbreviation: AgNPs, silver nanoparticles.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Antimicrobial activity and shape of the intracellularly biosynthesized AgNPs against selected pathogens: ( A ) Escherichia coli , ( B ) Pseudomonas aeruginosa , ( C ) Staphylococcus aureus , and ( D ) Candida albicans compared with ampicillin and a commercial AgNPs solution. Abbreviation: AgNPs, silver nanoparticles.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay

    Antimicrobial activity and shape of the extracellularly biosynthesized AgNPs ( A ) Escherichia coli , ( B ) Pseudomonas aeruginosa , ( C ) Staphylococcus aureus , and ( D ) Candida albicans compared with an antibiotic solution and a commercial nanoparticle solution. Abbreviation: AgNPs, silver nanoparticles.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Antimicrobial activity and shape of the extracellularly biosynthesized AgNPs ( A ) Escherichia coli , ( B ) Pseudomonas aeruginosa , ( C ) Staphylococcus aureus , and ( D ) Candida albicans compared with an antibiotic solution and a commercial nanoparticle solution. Abbreviation: AgNPs, silver nanoparticles.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay

    17) Product Images from "Botryococcus braunii as a bioreactor for the production of nanoparticles with antimicrobial potentialities"

    Article Title: Botryococcus braunii as a bioreactor for the production of nanoparticles with antimicrobial potentialities

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S174205

    Antimicrobial activity and shape of the intracellularly biosynthesized AgNPs against selected pathogens: ( A ) Escherichia coli , ( B ) Pseudomonas aeruginosa , ( C ) Staphylococcus aureus , and ( D ) Candida albicans compared with ampicillin and a commercial AgNPs solution. Abbreviation: AgNPs, silver nanoparticles.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Antimicrobial activity and shape of the intracellularly biosynthesized AgNPs against selected pathogens: ( A ) Escherichia coli , ( B ) Pseudomonas aeruginosa , ( C ) Staphylococcus aureus , and ( D ) Candida albicans compared with ampicillin and a commercial AgNPs solution. Abbreviation: AgNPs, silver nanoparticles.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay

    Antimicrobial activity and shape of the extracellularly biosynthesized AgNPs ( A ) Escherichia coli , ( B ) Pseudomonas aeruginosa , ( C ) Staphylococcus aureus , and ( D ) Candida albicans compared with an antibiotic solution and a commercial nanoparticle solution. Abbreviation: AgNPs, silver nanoparticles.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Antimicrobial activity and shape of the extracellularly biosynthesized AgNPs ( A ) Escherichia coli , ( B ) Pseudomonas aeruginosa , ( C ) Staphylococcus aureus , and ( D ) Candida albicans compared with an antibiotic solution and a commercial nanoparticle solution. Abbreviation: AgNPs, silver nanoparticles.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay

    18) Product Images from "Botryococcus braunii as a bioreactor for the production of nanoparticles with antimicrobial potentialities"

    Article Title: Botryococcus braunii as a bioreactor for the production of nanoparticles with antimicrobial potentialities

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S174205

    Antimicrobial activity and shape of the intracellularly biosynthesized AgNPs against selected pathogens: ( A ) Escherichia coli , ( B ) Pseudomonas aeruginosa , ( C ) Staphylococcus aureus , and ( D ) Candida albicans compared with ampicillin and a commercial AgNPs solution. Abbreviation: AgNPs, silver nanoparticles.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Antimicrobial activity and shape of the intracellularly biosynthesized AgNPs against selected pathogens: ( A ) Escherichia coli , ( B ) Pseudomonas aeruginosa , ( C ) Staphylococcus aureus , and ( D ) Candida albicans compared with ampicillin and a commercial AgNPs solution. Abbreviation: AgNPs, silver nanoparticles.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay

    Antimicrobial activity and shape of the extracellularly biosynthesized AgNPs ( A ) Escherichia coli , ( B ) Pseudomonas aeruginosa , ( C ) Staphylococcus aureus , and ( D ) Candida albicans compared with an antibiotic solution and a commercial nanoparticle solution. Abbreviation: AgNPs, silver nanoparticles.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Antimicrobial activity and shape of the extracellularly biosynthesized AgNPs ( A ) Escherichia coli , ( B ) Pseudomonas aeruginosa , ( C ) Staphylococcus aureus , and ( D ) Candida albicans compared with an antibiotic solution and a commercial nanoparticle solution. Abbreviation: AgNPs, silver nanoparticles.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay

    19) Product Images from "Antibacterial effects of Apis mellifera and stingless bees honeys on susceptible and resistant strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia"

    Article Title: Antibacterial effects of Apis mellifera and stingless bees honeys on susceptible and resistant strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia

    Journal: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-13-269

    Bacteria inhibitions of 50% solution (v/v) of stingless bees honey, Apis mellifera white and yellow honeys on Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Klebsiella pneumoniae (R), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and Escherichia coli (R).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Bacteria inhibitions of 50% solution (v/v) of stingless bees honey, Apis mellifera white and yellow honeys on Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Klebsiella pneumoniae (R), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and Escherichia coli (R).

    Techniques Used:

    20) Product Images from "Classification of foodborne pathogens using near infrared (NIR) laser scatter imaging system with multivariate calibration"

    Article Title: Classification of foodborne pathogens using near infrared (NIR) laser scatter imaging system with multivariate calibration

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    doi: 10.1038/srep09524

    Representative original scattering images of the four categories of bacteria (Ai: Escherichia coli ; Bi: Staphylococcus aureus ; Ci: Salmonella typhimurium ; Di: Mixed bacteria; each category presented three images, wherein, i = 1, 2, 3).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Representative original scattering images of the four categories of bacteria (Ai: Escherichia coli ; Bi: Staphylococcus aureus ; Ci: Salmonella typhimurium ; Di: Mixed bacteria; each category presented three images, wherein, i = 1, 2, 3).

    Techniques Used:

    Representative normalized scattering images with translation and scale invariances of the four categories of bacteria (Ai: Escherichia coli ; Bi: Staphylococcus aureus ; Ci: Salmonella typhimurium ; Di: Mixed bacteria; each category presented three images, wherein, i = 1, 2, 3).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Representative normalized scattering images with translation and scale invariances of the four categories of bacteria (Ai: Escherichia coli ; Bi: Staphylococcus aureus ; Ci: Salmonella typhimurium ; Di: Mixed bacteria; each category presented three images, wherein, i = 1, 2, 3).

    Techniques Used:

    21) Product Images from "Antibacterial effects of Apis mellifera and stingless bees honeys on susceptible and resistant strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia"

    Article Title: Antibacterial effects of Apis mellifera and stingless bees honeys on susceptible and resistant strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia

    Journal: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-13-269

    Bacteria inhibitions of 50% solution (v/v) of stingless bees honey, Apis mellifera white and yellow honeys on Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Klebsiella pneumoniae (R), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and Escherichia coli (R).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Bacteria inhibitions of 50% solution (v/v) of stingless bees honey, Apis mellifera white and yellow honeys on Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Klebsiella pneumoniae (R), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and Escherichia coli (R).

    Techniques Used:

    22) Product Images from "Green Tea Seed Isolated Saponins Exerts Antibacterial Effects against Various Strains of Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria, a Comprehensive Study In Vitro and In Vivo"

    Article Title: Green Tea Seed Isolated Saponins Exerts Antibacterial Effects against Various Strains of Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria, a Comprehensive Study In Vitro and In Vivo

    Journal: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM

    doi: 10.1155/2018/3486106

    Antibacterial activities of Fr2 of green tea seed saponins against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella gallinarum, Salmonella choleraesuis, Salmonella pullorum, Salmonella dublin, and Staphylococcus aureus . The antibacterial activities were determined by allowing the bacteria to grow in the presence of various concentrations of saponins using 96-well microtiter plate and then checking the viability of bacteria by measuring OD 660 with spectrophotometer. Data are expressed as means of experiments in triplicate ± SEM. Data are statistically significant at P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Antibacterial activities of Fr2 of green tea seed saponins against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella gallinarum, Salmonella choleraesuis, Salmonella pullorum, Salmonella dublin, and Staphylococcus aureus . The antibacterial activities were determined by allowing the bacteria to grow in the presence of various concentrations of saponins using 96-well microtiter plate and then checking the viability of bacteria by measuring OD 660 with spectrophotometer. Data are expressed as means of experiments in triplicate ± SEM. Data are statistically significant at P

    Techniques Used: Spectrophotometry

    Antibacterial activities of Fr1 of green tea seed saponins against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella gallinarum, Salmonella choleraesuis, Salmonella pullorum, Salmonella dublin, and Staphylococcus aureus . The antibacterial activities were determined by allowing the bacteria to grow in the presence of various concentrations of saponins using 96-well microtiter plate and then checking the viability of bacteria by measuring OD 660 with spectrophotometer. Data are expressed as means of experiments in triplicate ± SEM. Data are statistically significant at P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Antibacterial activities of Fr1 of green tea seed saponins against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella gallinarum, Salmonella choleraesuis, Salmonella pullorum, Salmonella dublin, and Staphylococcus aureus . The antibacterial activities were determined by allowing the bacteria to grow in the presence of various concentrations of saponins using 96-well microtiter plate and then checking the viability of bacteria by measuring OD 660 with spectrophotometer. Data are expressed as means of experiments in triplicate ± SEM. Data are statistically significant at P

    Techniques Used: Spectrophotometry

    23) Product Images from "Green Tea Seed Isolated Saponins Exerts Antibacterial Effects against Various Strains of Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria, a Comprehensive Study In Vitro and In Vivo"

    Article Title: Green Tea Seed Isolated Saponins Exerts Antibacterial Effects against Various Strains of Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria, a Comprehensive Study In Vitro and In Vivo

    Journal: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM

    doi: 10.1155/2018/3486106

    Antibacterial activities of Fr1 of green tea seed saponins against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella gallinarum, Salmonella choleraesuis, Salmonella pullorum, Salmonella dublin, and Staphylococcus aureus . The antibacterial activities were determined by allowing the bacteria to grow in the presence of various concentrations of saponins using 96-well microtiter plate and then checking the viability of bacteria by measuring OD 660 with spectrophotometer. Data are expressed as means of experiments in triplicate ± SEM. Data are statistically significant at P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Antibacterial activities of Fr1 of green tea seed saponins against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella gallinarum, Salmonella choleraesuis, Salmonella pullorum, Salmonella dublin, and Staphylococcus aureus . The antibacterial activities were determined by allowing the bacteria to grow in the presence of various concentrations of saponins using 96-well microtiter plate and then checking the viability of bacteria by measuring OD 660 with spectrophotometer. Data are expressed as means of experiments in triplicate ± SEM. Data are statistically significant at P

    Techniques Used: Spectrophotometry

    Antibacterial activities of Fr2 of green tea seed saponins against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella gallinarum, Salmonella choleraesuis, Salmonella pullorum, Salmonella dublin, and Staphylococcus aureus . The antibacterial activities were determined by allowing the bacteria to grow in the presence of various concentrations of saponins using 96-well microtiter plate and then checking the viability of bacteria by measuring OD 660 with spectrophotometer. Data are expressed as means of experiments in triplicate ± SEM. Data are statistically significant at P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Antibacterial activities of Fr2 of green tea seed saponins against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella gallinarum, Salmonella choleraesuis, Salmonella pullorum, Salmonella dublin, and Staphylococcus aureus . The antibacterial activities were determined by allowing the bacteria to grow in the presence of various concentrations of saponins using 96-well microtiter plate and then checking the viability of bacteria by measuring OD 660 with spectrophotometer. Data are expressed as means of experiments in triplicate ± SEM. Data are statistically significant at P

    Techniques Used: Spectrophotometry

    24) Product Images from "Quantification of Intestinal Bacterial Populations by Real-Time PCR with a Universal Primer Set and Minor Groove Binder Probes: a Global Approach to the Enteric Flora"

    Article Title: Quantification of Intestinal Bacterial Populations by Real-Time PCR with a Universal Primer Set and Minor Groove Binder Probes: a Global Approach to the Enteric Flora

    Journal: Journal of Clinical Microbiology

    doi: 10.1128/JCM.42.6.2566-2572.2004

    Recovery rates of different concentrations (0.1 and 0.001 ng) of bacterial DNA ( Escherichia coli and Bacteroides fragilis ) spiked into DNA of an intestinal biopsy sample (A) and a stool sample (B) of healthy volunteers. The mean recovery of bacterial DNA is 78.76% (range, 70.18 to 90.20%).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Recovery rates of different concentrations (0.1 and 0.001 ng) of bacterial DNA ( Escherichia coli and Bacteroides fragilis ) spiked into DNA of an intestinal biopsy sample (A) and a stool sample (B) of healthy volunteers. The mean recovery of bacterial DNA is 78.76% (range, 70.18 to 90.20%).

    Techniques Used:

    Number of cells detected by real-time PCR in clinical samples (biopsies) of five healthy controls (patients 1 to 5). (A) Total bacteria (VIC-labeled universal probe). (B, C, and D) Escherichia coli ; Bacteroides , Porphyromonas , and Prevotella ; and Enterobacteriaceae , respectively (FAM-labeled specific probes). Normalized mean values of two independent experiments ± standard deviation are shown.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Number of cells detected by real-time PCR in clinical samples (biopsies) of five healthy controls (patients 1 to 5). (A) Total bacteria (VIC-labeled universal probe). (B, C, and D) Escherichia coli ; Bacteroides , Porphyromonas , and Prevotella ; and Enterobacteriaceae , respectively (FAM-labeled specific probes). Normalized mean values of two independent experiments ± standard deviation are shown.

    Techniques Used: Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Labeling, Standard Deviation

    25) Product Images from "Low Bioavailability and High Immunogenicity of a New Brand of E. colil-Asparaginase with Active Host Contaminating Proteins"

    Article Title: Low Bioavailability and High Immunogenicity of a New Brand of E. colil-Asparaginase with Active Host Contaminating Proteins

    Journal: EBioMedicine

    doi: 10.1016/j.ebiom.2018.03.005

    Beta-lactamase and N-terminus isoforms of l -asparaginase. (A) Amino acid sequence of the beta-lactamase protein (A0A0U2Q1H4_ECOLX) identified in Leuginase® by LC-MS/MS. Analysis performed by MS Bioworks laboratory using the Escherichia coli Taxi database 562. Amino acid sequence “covered” by mass spectrometry analysis is represented in yellow and corresponds to 14 exclusive unique peptides, 17 exclusive unique spectra, 30 total spectra, and 175/284 amino acids (62% coverage). (B) N-terminus region isoforms of the l -asparaginase 2 (ASPG2_ECOLI) protein found in Aginasa® and Leuginase®. Analysis performed on the MS Bioworks raw data. Amino acid sequence “covered” by mass spectrometry analysis is represented in red letters. Arrows represent the N-terminus residues found in Aginasa® and Leuginase®.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Beta-lactamase and N-terminus isoforms of l -asparaginase. (A) Amino acid sequence of the beta-lactamase protein (A0A0U2Q1H4_ECOLX) identified in Leuginase® by LC-MS/MS. Analysis performed by MS Bioworks laboratory using the Escherichia coli Taxi database 562. Amino acid sequence “covered” by mass spectrometry analysis is represented in yellow and corresponds to 14 exclusive unique peptides, 17 exclusive unique spectra, 30 total spectra, and 175/284 amino acids (62% coverage). (B) N-terminus region isoforms of the l -asparaginase 2 (ASPG2_ECOLI) protein found in Aginasa® and Leuginase®. Analysis performed on the MS Bioworks raw data. Amino acid sequence “covered” by mass spectrometry analysis is represented in red letters. Arrows represent the N-terminus residues found in Aginasa® and Leuginase®.

    Techniques Used: Sequencing, Liquid Chromatography with Mass Spectroscopy, Mass Spectrometry

    26) Product Images from "Pharmacokinetics of Linezolid and Ertapenem in experimental parapneumonic pleural effusion"

    Article Title: Pharmacokinetics of Linezolid and Ertapenem in experimental parapneumonic pleural effusion

    Journal: Journal of Inflammation (London, England)

    doi: 10.1186/1476-9255-7-22

    Linezolid concentrations (mean ± sd, mcg/mL) in blood serum (circles) and pleural fluid (squares), in an experimental rabbit model of pleural empyema induced by inoculation with Escherichia coli (ATCC 35218), after the i.v. administration of an linezolid solution (10 mg/kg) to 10 New Zealand white rabbits .
    Figure Legend Snippet: Linezolid concentrations (mean ± sd, mcg/mL) in blood serum (circles) and pleural fluid (squares), in an experimental rabbit model of pleural empyema induced by inoculation with Escherichia coli (ATCC 35218), after the i.v. administration of an linezolid solution (10 mg/kg) to 10 New Zealand white rabbits .

    Techniques Used:

    27) Product Images from "Proderm technology: a water- based lipid delivery system for dermatitis that penetrates viable epidermis and has antibacterial effects"

    Article Title: Proderm technology: a water- based lipid delivery system for dermatitis that penetrates viable epidermis and has antibacterial effects

    Journal: BMC Dermatology

    doi: 10.1186/s12895-019-0082-8

    Antibacterial properties of Neosalus®. a Mean Log 10 Colony Counts of Staphylococcus aureus recovered from skin treated with Neosalus® or untreated skin. b Mean Log 10 Colony Counts of Escherichia coli recovered from skin treated with Neosalus® or untreated skin
    Figure Legend Snippet: Antibacterial properties of Neosalus®. a Mean Log 10 Colony Counts of Staphylococcus aureus recovered from skin treated with Neosalus® or untreated skin. b Mean Log 10 Colony Counts of Escherichia coli recovered from skin treated with Neosalus® or untreated skin

    Techniques Used:

    28) Product Images from "Proderm technology: a water- based lipid delivery system for dermatitis that penetrates viable epidermis and has antibacterial effects"

    Article Title: Proderm technology: a water- based lipid delivery system for dermatitis that penetrates viable epidermis and has antibacterial effects

    Journal: BMC Dermatology

    doi: 10.1186/s12895-019-0082-8

    Antibacterial properties of Neosalus®. a Mean Log 10 Colony Counts of Staphylococcus aureus recovered from skin treated with Neosalus® or untreated skin. b Mean Log 10 Colony Counts of Escherichia coli recovered from skin treated with Neosalus® or untreated skin
    Figure Legend Snippet: Antibacterial properties of Neosalus®. a Mean Log 10 Colony Counts of Staphylococcus aureus recovered from skin treated with Neosalus® or untreated skin. b Mean Log 10 Colony Counts of Escherichia coli recovered from skin treated with Neosalus® or untreated skin

    Techniques Used:

    29) Product Images from "Proderm technology: a water- based lipid delivery system for dermatitis that penetrates viable epidermis and has antibacterial effects"

    Article Title: Proderm technology: a water- based lipid delivery system for dermatitis that penetrates viable epidermis and has antibacterial effects

    Journal: BMC Dermatology

    doi: 10.1186/s12895-019-0082-8

    Antibacterial properties of Neosalus®. a Mean Log 10 Colony Counts of Staphylococcus aureus recovered from skin treated with Neosalus® or untreated skin. b Mean Log 10 Colony Counts of Escherichia coli recovered from skin treated with Neosalus® or untreated skin
    Figure Legend Snippet: Antibacterial properties of Neosalus®. a Mean Log 10 Colony Counts of Staphylococcus aureus recovered from skin treated with Neosalus® or untreated skin. b Mean Log 10 Colony Counts of Escherichia coli recovered from skin treated with Neosalus® or untreated skin

    Techniques Used:

    30) Product Images from "Antibacterial Activity within Degradation Products of Biological Scaffolds Composed of Extracellular Matrix"

    Article Title: Antibacterial Activity within Degradation Products of Biological Scaffolds Composed of Extracellular Matrix

    Journal: Tissue engineering

    doi: 10.1089/ten.2006.12.2949

    Effect of porcine urinary bladder (UBM-ECM) and liver (L-ECM) extracellular matrix digest ammonium sulfate fractions on Escherichia coli growth. All absorbance values were statistically significant compared with the negative control of media with p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of porcine urinary bladder (UBM-ECM) and liver (L-ECM) extracellular matrix digest ammonium sulfate fractions on Escherichia coli growth. All absorbance values were statistically significant compared with the negative control of media with p

    Techniques Used: Negative Control

    31) Product Images from "Expression of a recombinant hybrid antimicrobial peptide magainin II-cecropin B in the mycelium of the medicinal fungus Cordyceps militaris and its validation in mice"

    Article Title: Expression of a recombinant hybrid antimicrobial peptide magainin II-cecropin B in the mycelium of the medicinal fungus Cordyceps militaris and its validation in mice

    Journal: Microbial Cell Factories

    doi: 10.1186/s12934-018-0865-3

    The effects of Mag II-CB and CB treatment in the mice, as determined by intestinal histology. Representative images for the different groups are shown at ×40 magnification. a Normal control (NC); b recombinant Mag II-CB (MC); c recombinant CB (CB); d Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) (EI); e E. coli -infected mice treated with Mag II-CB (MC + EI); f E. coli -infected mice treated with CB (CB + EI)
    Figure Legend Snippet: The effects of Mag II-CB and CB treatment in the mice, as determined by intestinal histology. Representative images for the different groups are shown at ×40 magnification. a Normal control (NC); b recombinant Mag II-CB (MC); c recombinant CB (CB); d Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) (EI); e E. coli -infected mice treated with Mag II-CB (MC + EI); f E. coli -infected mice treated with CB (CB + EI)

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Recombinant, Infection

    32) Product Images from "Expression of a recombinant hybrid antimicrobial peptide magainin II-cecropin B in the mycelium of the medicinal fungus Cordyceps militaris and its validation in mice"

    Article Title: Expression of a recombinant hybrid antimicrobial peptide magainin II-cecropin B in the mycelium of the medicinal fungus Cordyceps militaris and its validation in mice

    Journal: Microbial Cell Factories

    doi: 10.1186/s12934-018-0865-3

    The effects of Mag II-CB and CB treatment in the mice, as determined by intestinal histology. Representative images for the different groups are shown at ×40 magnification. a Normal control (NC); b recombinant Mag II-CB (MC); c recombinant CB (CB); d Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) (EI); e E. coli -infected mice treated with Mag II-CB (MC + EI); f E. coli -infected mice treated with CB (CB + EI)
    Figure Legend Snippet: The effects of Mag II-CB and CB treatment in the mice, as determined by intestinal histology. Representative images for the different groups are shown at ×40 magnification. a Normal control (NC); b recombinant Mag II-CB (MC); c recombinant CB (CB); d Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) (EI); e E. coli -infected mice treated with Mag II-CB (MC + EI); f E. coli -infected mice treated with CB (CB + EI)

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Recombinant, Infection

    33) Product Images from "Expression of a recombinant hybrid antimicrobial peptide magainin II-cecropin B in the mycelium of the medicinal fungus Cordyceps militaris and its validation in mice"

    Article Title: Expression of a recombinant hybrid antimicrobial peptide magainin II-cecropin B in the mycelium of the medicinal fungus Cordyceps militaris and its validation in mice

    Journal: Microbial Cell Factories

    doi: 10.1186/s12934-018-0865-3

    The effects of Mag II-CB and CB treatment in the mice, as determined by intestinal histology. Representative images for the different groups are shown at ×40 magnification. a Normal control (NC); b recombinant Mag II-CB (MC); c recombinant CB (CB); d Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) (EI); e E. coli -infected mice treated with Mag II-CB (MC + EI); f E. coli -infected mice treated with CB (CB + EI)
    Figure Legend Snippet: The effects of Mag II-CB and CB treatment in the mice, as determined by intestinal histology. Representative images for the different groups are shown at ×40 magnification. a Normal control (NC); b recombinant Mag II-CB (MC); c recombinant CB (CB); d Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) (EI); e E. coli -infected mice treated with Mag II-CB (MC + EI); f E. coli -infected mice treated with CB (CB + EI)

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Recombinant, Infection

    34) Product Images from "Expression of a recombinant hybrid antimicrobial peptide magainin II-cecropin B in the mycelium of the medicinal fungus Cordyceps militaris and its validation in mice"

    Article Title: Expression of a recombinant hybrid antimicrobial peptide magainin II-cecropin B in the mycelium of the medicinal fungus Cordyceps militaris and its validation in mice

    Journal: Microbial Cell Factories

    doi: 10.1186/s12934-018-0865-3

    The effects of Mag II-CB and CB treatment in the mice, as determined by intestinal histology. Representative images for the different groups are shown at ×40 magnification. a Normal control (NC); b recombinant Mag II-CB (MC); c recombinant CB (CB); d Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) (EI); e E. coli -infected mice treated with Mag II-CB (MC + EI); f E. coli -infected mice treated with CB (CB + EI)
    Figure Legend Snippet: The effects of Mag II-CB and CB treatment in the mice, as determined by intestinal histology. Representative images for the different groups are shown at ×40 magnification. a Normal control (NC); b recombinant Mag II-CB (MC); c recombinant CB (CB); d Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) (EI); e E. coli -infected mice treated with Mag II-CB (MC + EI); f E. coli -infected mice treated with CB (CB + EI)

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Recombinant, Infection

    35) Product Images from "Imipenem/cilastatin encapsulated polymeric nanoparticles for destroying carbapenem-resistant bacterial isolates"

    Article Title: Imipenem/cilastatin encapsulated polymeric nanoparticles for destroying carbapenem-resistant bacterial isolates

    Journal: Journal of Nanobiotechnology

    doi: 10.1186/s12951-017-0262-9

    Effect of carbapenemases on activity of imipenem/cilastatin (IMP), imipenem/cilastatin loaded polycaprolactone nanoparticles (IMP/PCL) and imipenem/cilastatin loaded polylactide- co -glycolide nanoparticles (IMP/PLGA) against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of carbapenemases on activity of imipenem/cilastatin (IMP), imipenem/cilastatin loaded polycaprolactone nanoparticles (IMP/PCL) and imipenem/cilastatin loaded polylactide- co -glycolide nanoparticles (IMP/PLGA) against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay

    36) Product Images from "Preclinical Development and In Vivo Efficacy of Ceftiofur-PLGA Microparticles"

    Article Title: Preclinical Development and In Vivo Efficacy of Ceftiofur-PLGA Microparticles

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0123335

    Antimicrobial activity of microparticles in Escherichia coli . Evaluation of the kinetic of growth of Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) for 24 h at 25°C in presence of PLGA-cef and ceftiofur.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Antimicrobial activity of microparticles in Escherichia coli . Evaluation of the kinetic of growth of Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) for 24 h at 25°C in presence of PLGA-cef and ceftiofur.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay

    37) Product Images from "Preclinical Development and In Vivo Efficacy of Ceftiofur-PLGA Microparticles"

    Article Title: Preclinical Development and In Vivo Efficacy of Ceftiofur-PLGA Microparticles

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0123335

    Antimicrobial activity of microparticles in Escherichia coli . Evaluation of the kinetic of growth of Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) for 24 h at 25°C in presence of PLGA-cef and ceftiofur.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Antimicrobial activity of microparticles in Escherichia coli . Evaluation of the kinetic of growth of Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) for 24 h at 25°C in presence of PLGA-cef and ceftiofur.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay

    38) Product Images from "Validity of bioconjugated silica nanoparticles in comparison with direct smear, culture, and polymerase chain reaction for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum specimens"

    Article Title: Validity of bioconjugated silica nanoparticles in comparison with direct smear, culture, and polymerase chain reaction for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum specimens

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S23239

    Fluorescence images (100× oil). ( A ) negative control, phosphate-buffered saline in place of the specific monoclonal antibody, ( B ) negative control , Escherichia coli in place of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis . ( C , D and F ) Specific interaction of bioconjugated nanoparticles with M. tuberculosis ; ( E ) the nonspecific interaction (autofluorescence) despite displaying M. tuberculosis with a bright fluorescence.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Fluorescence images (100× oil). ( A ) negative control, phosphate-buffered saline in place of the specific monoclonal antibody, ( B ) negative control , Escherichia coli in place of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis . ( C , D and F ) Specific interaction of bioconjugated nanoparticles with M. tuberculosis ; ( E ) the nonspecific interaction (autofluorescence) despite displaying M. tuberculosis with a bright fluorescence.

    Techniques Used: Fluorescence, Negative Control

    39) Product Images from "Immune targeting of the pleural space by intercostal approach"

    Article Title: Immune targeting of the pleural space by intercostal approach

    Journal: BMC Pulmonary Medicine

    doi: 10.1186/s12890-015-0010-6

    Suppression of pleural space B cell function by neutralizing anti-mouse IgM antibody leads to reduced broncho-alveolar bacterial clearance. (A) Intra-pleural injection of neutralizing anti-mouse IgM antibody or IgG isotype control into wt mice and intra-tracheal (i.t.) Escherichia coli (5×10 6 CFU) airway infection with analysis after 9 hrs of infection. (B) Clinical score and body temperature. (C) Bacterial titre in the BAL. (n = 10; data are shown in means ± S.D.; *p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Suppression of pleural space B cell function by neutralizing anti-mouse IgM antibody leads to reduced broncho-alveolar bacterial clearance. (A) Intra-pleural injection of neutralizing anti-mouse IgM antibody or IgG isotype control into wt mice and intra-tracheal (i.t.) Escherichia coli (5×10 6 CFU) airway infection with analysis after 9 hrs of infection. (B) Clinical score and body temperature. (C) Bacterial titre in the BAL. (n = 10; data are shown in means ± S.D.; *p

    Techniques Used: Cell Function Assay, Injection, Mouse Assay, Infection

    40) Product Images from "A cross-sectional study on the prevalence of antibiotic use prior to laboratory tests at two Ghanaian hospitals"

    Article Title: A cross-sectional study on the prevalence of antibiotic use prior to laboratory tests at two Ghanaian hospitals

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0210716

    A model for the arrangement of filter paper and antibiotics discs on the agar plates. (A) Escherichia coli plate (ATCC 25922) (B) Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) plate.
    Figure Legend Snippet: A model for the arrangement of filter paper and antibiotics discs on the agar plates. (A) Escherichia coli plate (ATCC 25922) (B) Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) plate.

    Techniques Used:

    41) Product Images from "Beneficial effects of extracts from Lucilia sericata maggots on burn wounds in rats"

    Article Title: Beneficial effects of extracts from Lucilia sericata maggots on burn wounds in rats

    Journal: Molecular Medicine Reports

    doi: 10.3892/mmr.2017.7566

    Partial purification and characterization of antibacterial components of MAE. (A) UV absorption characteristics of the various components. (B) Antibacterial tests. Various components (P1-P7) were tested on Escherichia coli (dose, 50 µg/ml). The antibacterial activity of P2 and P6 is presented. (C) SDS-PAGE analysis of the different components. Lane 1, P1; lane 2, P2; lane 3, P3; lane 4, P4; lane 5, P5; lane 6, P6; lane 7, P7. (D) Effects of MAE P1-P7 on hydroxyproline levels in the burn wound model. Data are expressed as the mean ± standard deviation. ## P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Partial purification and characterization of antibacterial components of MAE. (A) UV absorption characteristics of the various components. (B) Antibacterial tests. Various components (P1-P7) were tested on Escherichia coli (dose, 50 µg/ml). The antibacterial activity of P2 and P6 is presented. (C) SDS-PAGE analysis of the different components. Lane 1, P1; lane 2, P2; lane 3, P3; lane 4, P4; lane 5, P5; lane 6, P6; lane 7, P7. (D) Effects of MAE P1-P7 on hydroxyproline levels in the burn wound model. Data are expressed as the mean ± standard deviation. ## P

    Techniques Used: Purification, Activity Assay, SDS Page, Standard Deviation

    42) Product Images from "Expression of a recombinant hybrid antimicrobial peptide magainin II-cecropin B in the mycelium of the medicinal fungus Cordyceps militaris and its validation in mice"

    Article Title: Expression of a recombinant hybrid antimicrobial peptide magainin II-cecropin B in the mycelium of the medicinal fungus Cordyceps militaris and its validation in mice

    Journal: Microbial Cell Factories

    doi: 10.1186/s12934-018-0865-3

    The effects of Mag II-CB and CB treatment in the mice, as determined by intestinal histology. Representative images for the different groups are shown at ×40 magnification. a Normal control (NC); b recombinant Mag II-CB (MC); c recombinant CB (CB); d Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) (EI); e E. coli -infected mice treated with Mag II-CB (MC + EI); f E. coli -infected mice treated with CB (CB + EI)
    Figure Legend Snippet: The effects of Mag II-CB and CB treatment in the mice, as determined by intestinal histology. Representative images for the different groups are shown at ×40 magnification. a Normal control (NC); b recombinant Mag II-CB (MC); c recombinant CB (CB); d Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) (EI); e E. coli -infected mice treated with Mag II-CB (MC + EI); f E. coli -infected mice treated with CB (CB + EI)

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Recombinant, Infection

    43) Product Images from "Effect of Diode Laser on Bacteria Beyond the Apex in Relation to the Size of the Apical Preparation – An In-Vitro Study"

    Article Title: Effect of Diode Laser on Bacteria Beyond the Apex in Relation to the Size of the Apical Preparation – An In-Vitro Study

    Journal: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research : JCDR

    doi: 10.7860/JCDR/2016/17759.7791

    Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922)
    Figure Legend Snippet: Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922)

    Techniques Used:

    44) Product Images from "Effect of Diode Laser on Bacteria Beyond the Apex in Relation to the Size of the Apical Preparation – An In-Vitro Study"

    Article Title: Effect of Diode Laser on Bacteria Beyond the Apex in Relation to the Size of the Apical Preparation – An In-Vitro Study

    Journal: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research : JCDR

    doi: 10.7860/JCDR/2016/17759.7791

    Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922)
    Figure Legend Snippet: Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922)

    Techniques Used:

    45) Product Images from "Effect of Diode Laser on Bacteria Beyond the Apex in Relation to the Size of the Apical Preparation – An In-Vitro Study"

    Article Title: Effect of Diode Laser on Bacteria Beyond the Apex in Relation to the Size of the Apical Preparation – An In-Vitro Study

    Journal: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research : JCDR

    doi: 10.7860/JCDR/2016/17759.7791

    Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922)
    Figure Legend Snippet: Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922)

    Techniques Used:

    46) Product Images from "SIZE-DEPENDENT IMPACTS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES ON THE LIFESPAN, FERTILITY, GROWTH, AND LOCOMOTION OF CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS"

    Article Title: SIZE-DEPENDENT IMPACTS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES ON THE LIFESPAN, FERTILITY, GROWTH, AND LOCOMOTION OF CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS

    Journal: Environmental toxicology and chemistry / SETAC

    doi: 10.1002/etc.2705

    The 24-h dose-dependent viability curve for Escherichia coli exposed to 2 silver ion sources, AgClO4 and AgNO3. The median lethal dose for AgClO4 was 0.02 mg Ag/L, and that for AgNO3 was 0.06 mg Ag/L.
    Figure Legend Snippet: The 24-h dose-dependent viability curve for Escherichia coli exposed to 2 silver ion sources, AgClO4 and AgNO3. The median lethal dose for AgClO4 was 0.02 mg Ag/L, and that for AgNO3 was 0.06 mg Ag/L.

    Techniques Used:

    47) Product Images from "Antibacterial effects of Apis mellifera and stingless bees honeys on susceptible and resistant strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia"

    Article Title: Antibacterial effects of Apis mellifera and stingless bees honeys on susceptible and resistant strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia

    Journal: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-13-269

    Bacteria inhibitions of 50% solution (v/v) of stingless bees honey, Apis mellifera white and yellow honeys on Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Klebsiella pneumoniae (R), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and Escherichia coli (R).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Bacteria inhibitions of 50% solution (v/v) of stingless bees honey, Apis mellifera white and yellow honeys on Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Klebsiella pneumoniae (R), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and Escherichia coli (R).

    Techniques Used:

    48) Product Images from "Antibacterial effects of Apis mellifera and stingless bees honeys on susceptible and resistant strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia"

    Article Title: Antibacterial effects of Apis mellifera and stingless bees honeys on susceptible and resistant strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia

    Journal: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-13-269

    Bacteria inhibitions of 50% solution (v/v) of stingless bees honey, Apis mellifera white and yellow honeys on Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Klebsiella pneumoniae (R), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and Escherichia coli (R).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Bacteria inhibitions of 50% solution (v/v) of stingless bees honey, Apis mellifera white and yellow honeys on Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Klebsiella pneumoniae (R), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and Escherichia coli (R).

    Techniques Used:

    49) Product Images from "Chinese Herbal Formula Feilin Vaginal Gel Prevents the Cervicitis in Mouse Model"

    Article Title: Chinese Herbal Formula Feilin Vaginal Gel Prevents the Cervicitis in Mouse Model

    Journal: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM

    doi: 10.1155/2019/4168126

    The FVG reduce the pathological injury of cervix induced by Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus . (a) Control group, (b) model group, (c) PS group, (d) FVG (2.2 g/kg) group, (e) FVG (1.1 g/kg) group, (f) FVG (0.55 g/kg) group, and (g) statistical analysis of histological examination. n =20, statistically significant ## p
    Figure Legend Snippet: The FVG reduce the pathological injury of cervix induced by Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus . (a) Control group, (b) model group, (c) PS group, (d) FVG (2.2 g/kg) group, (e) FVG (1.1 g/kg) group, (f) FVG (0.55 g/kg) group, and (g) statistical analysis of histological examination. n =20, statistically significant ## p

    Techniques Used:

    50) Product Images from "Negative Oxygen Ions Production by Superamphiphobic and Antibacterial TiO2/Cu2O Composite Film Anchored on Wooden Substrates"

    Article Title: Negative Oxygen Ions Production by Superamphiphobic and Antibacterial TiO2/Cu2O Composite Film Anchored on Wooden Substrates

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    doi: 10.1038/srep26055

    Antibacterial activity of ( a ) the TiO 2 -treated wood, ( b ) the Cu 2 O-treated wood and ( c ) the hydrophobized TiO 2 /Cu 2 O-treated wood in Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively, and ( d ) the magnified picture of the hydrophobized Ag/TiO 2 –coated wood in Escherichia coli.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Antibacterial activity of ( a ) the TiO 2 -treated wood, ( b ) the Cu 2 O-treated wood and ( c ) the hydrophobized TiO 2 /Cu 2 O-treated wood in Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively, and ( d ) the magnified picture of the hydrophobized Ag/TiO 2 –coated wood in Escherichia coli.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay

    51) Product Images from "Chinese Herbal Formula Feilin Vaginal Gel Prevents the Cervicitis in Mouse Model"

    Article Title: Chinese Herbal Formula Feilin Vaginal Gel Prevents the Cervicitis in Mouse Model

    Journal: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM

    doi: 10.1155/2019/4168126

    The FVG reduce the pathological injury of cervix induced by Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus . (a) Control group, (b) model group, (c) PS group, (d) FVG (2.2 g/kg) group, (e) FVG (1.1 g/kg) group, (f) FVG (0.55 g/kg) group, and (g) statistical analysis of histological examination. n =20, statistically significant ## p
    Figure Legend Snippet: The FVG reduce the pathological injury of cervix induced by Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus . (a) Control group, (b) model group, (c) PS group, (d) FVG (2.2 g/kg) group, (e) FVG (1.1 g/kg) group, (f) FVG (0.55 g/kg) group, and (g) statistical analysis of histological examination. n =20, statistically significant ## p

    Techniques Used:

    52) Product Images from "Dead Pericarps of Dry Fruits Function as Long-Term Storage for Active Hydrolytic Enzymes and Other Substances That Affect Germination and Microbial Growth"

    Article Title: Dead Pericarps of Dry Fruits Function as Long-Term Storage for Active Hydrolytic Enzymes and Other Substances That Affect Germination and Microbial Growth

    Journal: Plants

    doi: 10.3390/plants6040064

    Pericarps of S. alba dehiscent and indehiscent fruit parts release substances that promote bacterial growth. Escherichia coli was grown in a flat-bottom 96-well microtiter plate in the presence of PBS, PBS + 25% Hoagland solution, kanamycin (50 μg/mL), or in the presence of substances released from dehiscent and indehiscent seeds or pericarps. Bacterial growth was monitored by measuring the OD 595 of the culture at 30 min. intervals in the course of 20 h. Each treatment was performed in triplicates and error bars represent the standard deviation.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Pericarps of S. alba dehiscent and indehiscent fruit parts release substances that promote bacterial growth. Escherichia coli was grown in a flat-bottom 96-well microtiter plate in the presence of PBS, PBS + 25% Hoagland solution, kanamycin (50 μg/mL), or in the presence of substances released from dehiscent and indehiscent seeds or pericarps. Bacterial growth was monitored by measuring the OD 595 of the culture at 30 min. intervals in the course of 20 h. Each treatment was performed in triplicates and error bars represent the standard deviation.

    Techniques Used: Standard Deviation

    53) Product Images from "Albumin binding, anticancer and antibacterial properties of synthesized zero valent iron nanoparticles"

    Article Title: Albumin binding, anticancer and antibacterial properties of synthesized zero valent iron nanoparticles

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S188497

    ( A – C ) Photographs of the zone of inhibition produced by ZVFe NP against three strains of bacteria. Note: ( A ) Escherichia coli , ( B ) Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and ( C ) Staphylococcus aureus . Abbreviation: ZVFe NPs, zero valent iron nanoparticles.
    Figure Legend Snippet: ( A – C ) Photographs of the zone of inhibition produced by ZVFe NP against three strains of bacteria. Note: ( A ) Escherichia coli , ( B ) Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and ( C ) Staphylococcus aureus . Abbreviation: ZVFe NPs, zero valent iron nanoparticles.

    Techniques Used: Inhibition, Produced

    54) Product Images from "Biogenic pentagonal silver nanoparticles for safer and more effective antibacterial therapeutics"

    Article Title: Biogenic pentagonal silver nanoparticles for safer and more effective antibacterial therapeutics

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S168224

    Graph showing antibacterial potential of AgPgNps against Bacillus sp., Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli , and Staphylococcus aureus . Abbreviation: AgPgNps, pentagonal silver nanoparticles.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Graph showing antibacterial potential of AgPgNps against Bacillus sp., Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli , and Staphylococcus aureus . Abbreviation: AgPgNps, pentagonal silver nanoparticles.

    Techniques Used:

    55) Product Images from "Biogenic pentagonal silver nanoparticles for safer and more effective antibacterial therapeutics"

    Article Title: Biogenic pentagonal silver nanoparticles for safer and more effective antibacterial therapeutics

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S168224

    Graph showing antibacterial potential of AgPgNps against Bacillus sp., Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli , and Staphylococcus aureus . Abbreviation: AgPgNps, pentagonal silver nanoparticles.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Graph showing antibacterial potential of AgPgNps against Bacillus sp., Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli , and Staphylococcus aureus . Abbreviation: AgPgNps, pentagonal silver nanoparticles.

    Techniques Used:

    56) Product Images from "Lipopolysaccharide triggers nuclear import of Lpcat1 to regulate inducible gene expression in lung epithelia"

    Article Title: Lipopolysaccharide triggers nuclear import of Lpcat1 to regulate inducible gene expression in lung epithelia

    Journal: World Journal of Biological Chemistry

    doi: 10.4331/wjbc.v3.i7.159

    Haemophilus influenzae and Escherichia coli trigger Lpcat1 nuclear translocation. MLE cells were exposed to LPS-containing bacteria at a concentration of 10 9 /mL for 4 h. The infected cells were then washed and cytosolic and nuclear protein fractionations
    Figure Legend Snippet: Haemophilus influenzae and Escherichia coli trigger Lpcat1 nuclear translocation. MLE cells were exposed to LPS-containing bacteria at a concentration of 10 9 /mL for 4 h. The infected cells were then washed and cytosolic and nuclear protein fractionations

    Techniques Used: Translocation Assay, Concentration Assay, Infection

    57) Product Images from "Eukaryote-Made Thermostable DNA Polymerase Enables Rapid PCR-Based Detection of Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma and Other Bacteria in the Amniotic Fluid of Preterm Labor Cases"

    Article Title: Eukaryote-Made Thermostable DNA Polymerase Enables Rapid PCR-Based Detection of Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma and Other Bacteria in the Amniotic Fluid of Preterm Labor Cases

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0129032

    The strategy used for the primer design. ( A ) In an attempt to detect Mycoplasma , Ureaplasma and other bacteria, nested PCR was performed using the primer for the first PCR (Bacterial Universal Primer for 1 st PCR) at the start. For the second (nested) PCR, four kinds of primers (Bacterial Universal Primer for 2 nd PCR, Mycoplasma Specific Primer, Ureaplasma Specific Primer, and NotMycoUrea Bacterial Universal Primer) were used. *The amplicon sizes are described, and the amplified positons on Escherichia coli 16S ribosomal RNA (Accession No. J01859) are shown. Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma Specific Primers do not bind to E . coli 16S rDNA. ( B ) The sequence homology between the primers (Bacterial Universal Primer for 1 st PCR, Bacterial Universal Primer for 2 nd PCR, NotMycoUrea Bacterial Universal Primer) and the target regions of Mycoplasma , Ureaplasma and other bacteria. Seven examples are shown as representative of Mycoplasma , Ureaplasma and other bacteria, respectively. The base sequence differences between the primers and the target regions are shown in red. Two of the primers (Bacterial Universal Primer for 1 st PCR, Bacterial Universal Primer for 2 nd PCR) can detect almost all kinds of bacteria including Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma species. On the other hand, the NotMycoUrea Bacterial Universal Primer can detect almost all kinds of bacteria, but does not detect Mycoplasma or Ureaplasma species because of the primer’s low sequence homology, which is a key point of our method. ( C ) The PCR amplification products of Mycoplasma , Ureaplasma and other bacteria amplified by each primer set. Six examples are used as representative of Mycoplasma , Ureaplasma and other bacteria, respectively. The gels showed no bacterial contamination using eukaryote-made thermostable DNA polymerase and also showed the specificity of each primer set. PCR amplification products were detected precisely according to the presence or absence of the targeted bacterial DNA templates.
    Figure Legend Snippet: The strategy used for the primer design. ( A ) In an attempt to detect Mycoplasma , Ureaplasma and other bacteria, nested PCR was performed using the primer for the first PCR (Bacterial Universal Primer for 1 st PCR) at the start. For the second (nested) PCR, four kinds of primers (Bacterial Universal Primer for 2 nd PCR, Mycoplasma Specific Primer, Ureaplasma Specific Primer, and NotMycoUrea Bacterial Universal Primer) were used. *The amplicon sizes are described, and the amplified positons on Escherichia coli 16S ribosomal RNA (Accession No. J01859) are shown. Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma Specific Primers do not bind to E . coli 16S rDNA. ( B ) The sequence homology between the primers (Bacterial Universal Primer for 1 st PCR, Bacterial Universal Primer for 2 nd PCR, NotMycoUrea Bacterial Universal Primer) and the target regions of Mycoplasma , Ureaplasma and other bacteria. Seven examples are shown as representative of Mycoplasma , Ureaplasma and other bacteria, respectively. The base sequence differences between the primers and the target regions are shown in red. Two of the primers (Bacterial Universal Primer for 1 st PCR, Bacterial Universal Primer for 2 nd PCR) can detect almost all kinds of bacteria including Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma species. On the other hand, the NotMycoUrea Bacterial Universal Primer can detect almost all kinds of bacteria, but does not detect Mycoplasma or Ureaplasma species because of the primer’s low sequence homology, which is a key point of our method. ( C ) The PCR amplification products of Mycoplasma , Ureaplasma and other bacteria amplified by each primer set. Six examples are used as representative of Mycoplasma , Ureaplasma and other bacteria, respectively. The gels showed no bacterial contamination using eukaryote-made thermostable DNA polymerase and also showed the specificity of each primer set. PCR amplification products were detected precisely according to the presence or absence of the targeted bacterial DNA templates.

    Techniques Used: Nested PCR, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Amplification, Sequencing

    58) Product Images from "Albumin binding, anticancer and antibacterial properties of synthesized zero valent iron nanoparticles"

    Article Title: Albumin binding, anticancer and antibacterial properties of synthesized zero valent iron nanoparticles

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S188497

    ( A – C ) Photographs of the zone of inhibition produced by ZVFe NP against three strains of bacteria. Note: ( A ) Escherichia coli , ( B ) Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and ( C ) Staphylococcus aureus . Abbreviation: ZVFe NPs, zero valent iron nanoparticles.
    Figure Legend Snippet: ( A – C ) Photographs of the zone of inhibition produced by ZVFe NP against three strains of bacteria. Note: ( A ) Escherichia coli , ( B ) Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and ( C ) Staphylococcus aureus . Abbreviation: ZVFe NPs, zero valent iron nanoparticles.

    Techniques Used: Inhibition, Produced

    59) Product Images from "Antimicrobial Photodynamic therapy enhanced by the peptide aurein 1.2"

    Article Title: Antimicrobial Photodynamic therapy enhanced by the peptide aurein 1.2

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-22687-x

    Combined treatment against clinically relevant strains. Standardized suspensions of Staphylococcus aureus ( a ), Acinetobacter baumannii ( b ), Escherichia coli ( c ) or Enterococcus faecium VRE ( d ) were submitted to photodynamic therapy combined or not to the peptide aurein 1.2. MB-PDT: 156 µM of MB + 45 J/cm²; Ce6-PDT: 84 µM of Ce6 + 30 J/cm². Columns represent the average of at least three independent assays performed in triplicates, and bars represent the standard deviation. The asterisks indicate where there is a significant difference in comparison with the control (no treatment). One-way ANOVA with Tukey’s post hoc. (*p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Combined treatment against clinically relevant strains. Standardized suspensions of Staphylococcus aureus ( a ), Acinetobacter baumannii ( b ), Escherichia coli ( c ) or Enterococcus faecium VRE ( d ) were submitted to photodynamic therapy combined or not to the peptide aurein 1.2. MB-PDT: 156 µM of MB + 45 J/cm²; Ce6-PDT: 84 µM of Ce6 + 30 J/cm². Columns represent the average of at least three independent assays performed in triplicates, and bars represent the standard deviation. The asterisks indicate where there is a significant difference in comparison with the control (no treatment). One-way ANOVA with Tukey’s post hoc. (*p

    Techniques Used: Standard Deviation

    60) Product Images from "Comparison of methods for the identification of microorganisms isolated from blood cultures"

    Article Title: Comparison of methods for the identification of microorganisms isolated from blood cultures

    Journal: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials

    doi: 10.1186/s12941-016-0158-9

    Agarose gel electrophoresis for detection of gad A (373 bp) in Escherichia coli (stained with SYBR ® Safe) showing the amplified products positive control, negative control and some samples studied. A 100-bp ladder was used as molecular size marker
    Figure Legend Snippet: Agarose gel electrophoresis for detection of gad A (373 bp) in Escherichia coli (stained with SYBR ® Safe) showing the amplified products positive control, negative control and some samples studied. A 100-bp ladder was used as molecular size marker

    Techniques Used: Agarose Gel Electrophoresis, Staining, Amplification, Positive Control, Negative Control, Marker

    61) Product Images from "Anti-microorganism, anti-tumor, and immune activities of a novel polysaccharide isolated from Tricholoma matsutake"

    Article Title: Anti-microorganism, anti-tumor, and immune activities of a novel polysaccharide isolated from Tricholoma matsutake

    Journal: Pharmacognosy Magazine

    doi: 10.4103/0973-1296.113278

    Inhibition zone diameter of TMP-A on the growth of the eleven microorganisms 1: Staphylococcus albus, 2: Brevibacillus laterosporus, 3: Escherichia coli, 4: Bacillus subtilis, 5: Micrococcus lysodeikticus, 6: Salmonellasp, 7: Gibberella fujikuroi, 8: Fusarium graminearum
    Figure Legend Snippet: Inhibition zone diameter of TMP-A on the growth of the eleven microorganisms 1: Staphylococcus albus, 2: Brevibacillus laterosporus, 3: Escherichia coli, 4: Bacillus subtilis, 5: Micrococcus lysodeikticus, 6: Salmonellasp, 7: Gibberella fujikuroi, 8: Fusarium graminearum

    Techniques Used: Inhibition

    62) Product Images from "Antibacterial effects of Apis mellifera and stingless bees honeys on susceptible and resistant strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia"

    Article Title: Antibacterial effects of Apis mellifera and stingless bees honeys on susceptible and resistant strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia

    Journal: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-13-269

    Bacteria inhibitions of 50% solution (v/v) of stingless bees honey, Apis mellifera white and yellow honeys on Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Klebsiella pneumoniae (R), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and Escherichia coli (R).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Bacteria inhibitions of 50% solution (v/v) of stingless bees honey, Apis mellifera white and yellow honeys on Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Klebsiella pneumoniae (R), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and Escherichia coli (R).

    Techniques Used:

    63) Product Images from "Antibacterial effects of Apis mellifera and stingless bees honeys on susceptible and resistant strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia"

    Article Title: Antibacterial effects of Apis mellifera and stingless bees honeys on susceptible and resistant strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia

    Journal: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-13-269

    Bacteria inhibitions of 50% solution (v/v) of stingless bees honey, Apis mellifera white and yellow honeys on Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Klebsiella pneumoniae (R), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and Escherichia coli (R).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Bacteria inhibitions of 50% solution (v/v) of stingless bees honey, Apis mellifera white and yellow honeys on Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Klebsiella pneumoniae (R), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and Escherichia coli (R).

    Techniques Used:

    64) Product Images from "Antibacterial effects of Apis mellifera and stingless bees honeys on susceptible and resistant strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia"

    Article Title: Antibacterial effects of Apis mellifera and stingless bees honeys on susceptible and resistant strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia

    Journal: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-13-269

    Bacteria inhibitions of 50% solution (v/v) of stingless bees honey, Apis mellifera white and yellow honeys on Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Klebsiella pneumoniae (R), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and Escherichia coli (R).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Bacteria inhibitions of 50% solution (v/v) of stingless bees honey, Apis mellifera white and yellow honeys on Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Klebsiella pneumoniae (R), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and Escherichia coli (R).

    Techniques Used:

    65) Product Images from "GNPs-CS/KGM as Hemostatic First Aid Wound Dressing with Antibiotic Effect: In Vitro and In Vivo Study"

    Article Title: GNPs-CS/KGM as Hemostatic First Aid Wound Dressing with Antibiotic Effect: In Vitro and In Vivo Study

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0066890

    Inhibitory effect against the bacteria by Disc agar diffusion. A, B, and C presented C75K25 film, Drug loaded Poly (dex-GMA/AAc) nanoparticles and GNPs-CS/KGM treated with three kinds of bacteria, respectively. (a) Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923, (b) Escherichia coli ATCC25922, (c) Green copper pseudomonas ATCC27853.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Inhibitory effect against the bacteria by Disc agar diffusion. A, B, and C presented C75K25 film, Drug loaded Poly (dex-GMA/AAc) nanoparticles and GNPs-CS/KGM treated with three kinds of bacteria, respectively. (a) Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923, (b) Escherichia coli ATCC25922, (c) Green copper pseudomonas ATCC27853.

    Techniques Used: Diffusion-based Assay

    66) Product Images from "Antibacterial effects of Apis mellifera and stingless bees honeys on susceptible and resistant strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia"

    Article Title: Antibacterial effects of Apis mellifera and stingless bees honeys on susceptible and resistant strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia

    Journal: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-13-269

    Bacteria inhibitions of 50% solution (v/v) of stingless bees honey, Apis mellifera white and yellow honeys on Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Klebsiella pneumoniae (R), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and Escherichia coli (R).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Bacteria inhibitions of 50% solution (v/v) of stingless bees honey, Apis mellifera white and yellow honeys on Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Klebsiella pneumoniae (R), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and Escherichia coli (R).

    Techniques Used:

    67) Product Images from "Detection of Periprosthetic Infections With Use of Ribosomal RNA-Based Polymerase Chain Reaction"

    Article Title: Detection of Periprosthetic Infections With Use of Ribosomal RNA-Based Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Journal: The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American volume.

    doi: 10.2106/JBJS.I.00400

    Degradation of mRNA and rRNA with cell death. Cell cultures of Escherichia coli (1.4 × 10 9 CFU/mL) were treated at Day 0 with 1 mg/mL gentamicin. Over a twenty-day period, the concentration of cells (CFU/mL) was calculated by means of a traditional
    Figure Legend Snippet: Degradation of mRNA and rRNA with cell death. Cell cultures of Escherichia coli (1.4 × 10 9 CFU/mL) were treated at Day 0 with 1 mg/mL gentamicin. Over a twenty-day period, the concentration of cells (CFU/mL) was calculated by means of a traditional

    Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

    68) Product Images from "Development of a biocompatible nanodelivery system for tuberculosis drugs based on isoniazid-Mg/Al layered double hydroxide"

    Article Title: Development of a biocompatible nanodelivery system for tuberculosis drugs based on isoniazid-Mg/Al layered double hydroxide

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S63608

    Effect of isoniazid (INH) nanocomposites on the inhibition of microbial growth using plate colony counting method at two concentrations, 1 mg ( A ) and 2 mg ( B ). Notes: All experiments were carried out in triplicate and results are presented as mean ± SD. Abbreviations: CFU, colony-forming units; SA, Staphylococcus aureus ; PA, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ; EC, Escherichia coli ; CA, Candida albicans ; LDH, layered double hydroxide.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of isoniazid (INH) nanocomposites on the inhibition of microbial growth using plate colony counting method at two concentrations, 1 mg ( A ) and 2 mg ( B ). Notes: All experiments were carried out in triplicate and results are presented as mean ± SD. Abbreviations: CFU, colony-forming units; SA, Staphylococcus aureus ; PA, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ; EC, Escherichia coli ; CA, Candida albicans ; LDH, layered double hydroxide.

    Techniques Used: Inhibition

    69) Product Images from "Silver-coated gold nanorods as a promising antimicrobial agent in the treatment of cancer-related infections"

    Article Title: Silver-coated gold nanorods as a promising antimicrobial agent in the treatment of cancer-related infections

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S169489

    Bacteria growth curves for Gram-negative bacteria strains: ( A ) Pseudomonas aeruginosa and ( B ) Escherichia coli and Gram-positive bacteria strains, ( C ) Staphylococcus aureus , and ( D ) Staphylococcus epidermidis under different concentrations of Ag/AuNRs.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Bacteria growth curves for Gram-negative bacteria strains: ( A ) Pseudomonas aeruginosa and ( B ) Escherichia coli and Gram-positive bacteria strains, ( C ) Staphylococcus aureus , and ( D ) Staphylococcus epidermidis under different concentrations of Ag/AuNRs.

    Techniques Used:

    70) Product Images from "Silver-coated gold nanorods as a promising antimicrobial agent in the treatment of cancer-related infections"

    Article Title: Silver-coated gold nanorods as a promising antimicrobial agent in the treatment of cancer-related infections

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S169489

    Bacteria growth curves for Gram-negative bacteria strains: ( A ) Pseudomonas aeruginosa and ( B ) Escherichia coli and Gram-positive bacteria strains, ( C ) Staphylococcus aureus , and ( D ) Staphylococcus epidermidis under different concentrations of Ag/AuNRs.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Bacteria growth curves for Gram-negative bacteria strains: ( A ) Pseudomonas aeruginosa and ( B ) Escherichia coli and Gram-positive bacteria strains, ( C ) Staphylococcus aureus , and ( D ) Staphylococcus epidermidis under different concentrations of Ag/AuNRs.

    Techniques Used:

    71) Product Images from "Pseudomonas aeruginosa inhibits the growth of pathogenic fungi: In vitro and in vivo studies"

    Article Title: Pseudomonas aeruginosa inhibits the growth of pathogenic fungi: In vitro and in vivo studies

    Journal: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine

    doi: 10.3892/etm.2014.1631

    Disk diffusion tests. 1-24, PA1201-24; C1, Escherichia coli (ATCC 23922); C2, Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 700603); C3, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( ATCC 25923); C4, sterile water. PA, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ; ATCC, American Type Culture Collection.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Disk diffusion tests. 1-24, PA1201-24; C1, Escherichia coli (ATCC 23922); C2, Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 700603); C3, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( ATCC 25923); C4, sterile water. PA, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ; ATCC, American Type Culture Collection.

    Techniques Used: Diffusion-based Assay

    72) Product Images from "Effects triggered by platinum nanoparticles on primary keratinocytes"

    Article Title: Effects triggered by platinum nanoparticles on primary keratinocytes

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S49612

    ( A and B ) Antibacterial activity of platinum nanoparticles (Pt-NPs). Concentration-dependent antibacterial effect of Pt-NPs on Escherichia coli ( A ) and Staphylococcus aureus ( B ). Antimicrobial activity was determined using a colony-reduction assay. Bacteria were incubated alone or with PtNPs at concentrations of 2–200 μg/mL for 2 hours at 37°C, then plated onto agar plates to determine the numbers of colony-forming units. Percentage survival was calculated and compared to bacteria grown without PtNPs (100% survival). Mean values ± standard error of mean of three independent experiments performed in triplicate are shown. Notes: * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: ( A and B ) Antibacterial activity of platinum nanoparticles (Pt-NPs). Concentration-dependent antibacterial effect of Pt-NPs on Escherichia coli ( A ) and Staphylococcus aureus ( B ). Antimicrobial activity was determined using a colony-reduction assay. Bacteria were incubated alone or with PtNPs at concentrations of 2–200 μg/mL for 2 hours at 37°C, then plated onto agar plates to determine the numbers of colony-forming units. Percentage survival was calculated and compared to bacteria grown without PtNPs (100% survival). Mean values ± standard error of mean of three independent experiments performed in triplicate are shown. Notes: * P

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Concentration Assay, Incubation

    73) Product Images from "Pathogenic Bacterium Acinetobacter baumannii Inhibits the Formation of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps by Suppressing Neutrophil Adhesion"

    Article Title: Pathogenic Bacterium Acinetobacter baumannii Inhibits the Formation of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps by Suppressing Neutrophil Adhesion

    Journal: Frontiers in Immunology

    doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.00178

    Inhibition of NET formation by bacteria other than Acinetobacter baumannii . Neutrophils and A. baumannii, A. calcoaceticus, A. hemolyticus , or Escherichia coli (MOI 50) were cocultured for 3 h, in the presence or absence of 200-nM phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Extracellular DNA was stained with SYTOX green and the signal quantified. The data are shown as the mean ± SD; n ≥ 3 per group; n.s., not significant; *** p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Inhibition of NET formation by bacteria other than Acinetobacter baumannii . Neutrophils and A. baumannii, A. calcoaceticus, A. hemolyticus , or Escherichia coli (MOI 50) were cocultured for 3 h, in the presence or absence of 200-nM phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Extracellular DNA was stained with SYTOX green and the signal quantified. The data are shown as the mean ± SD; n ≥ 3 per group; n.s., not significant; *** p

    Techniques Used: Inhibition, Staining

    74) Product Images from "Time Effectiveness of Ultraviolet C Light (UVC) Emitted by Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) in Reducing Stethoscope Contamination"

    Article Title: Time Effectiveness of Ultraviolet C Light (UVC) Emitted by Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) in Reducing Stethoscope Contamination

    Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health

    doi: 10.3390/ijerph13100940

    Examples of laboratory contamination before (above) and after (below) UVC treatment: on the left Petri dishes contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus , in the middle dishes contaminated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa , on the right dishes contaminated with Escherichia coli .
    Figure Legend Snippet: Examples of laboratory contamination before (above) and after (below) UVC treatment: on the left Petri dishes contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus , in the middle dishes contaminated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa , on the right dishes contaminated with Escherichia coli .

    Techniques Used:

    75) Product Images from "Detection of Periprosthetic Infections With Use of Ribosomal RNA-Based Polymerase Chain Reaction"

    Article Title: Detection of Periprosthetic Infections With Use of Ribosomal RNA-Based Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Journal: The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American volume.

    doi: 10.2106/JBJS.I.00400

    Degradation of mRNA and rRNA with cell death. Cell cultures of Escherichia coli (1.4 × 10 9 CFU/mL) were treated at Day 0 with 1 mg/mL gentamicin. Over a twenty-day period, the concentration of cells (CFU/mL) was calculated by means of a traditional
    Figure Legend Snippet: Degradation of mRNA and rRNA with cell death. Cell cultures of Escherichia coli (1.4 × 10 9 CFU/mL) were treated at Day 0 with 1 mg/mL gentamicin. Over a twenty-day period, the concentration of cells (CFU/mL) was calculated by means of a traditional

    Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

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    Article Snippet: .. Antibacterial activity was tested against three reference strains, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and Acinetobacter baumannii AYE (ATCC BAA-1710), as well as three clinical isolates, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (0704C0134 resistant to piperacillin/tazobactam, ticarcillin, ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin), an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) Escherichia coli (9007550201) and Acinetobacter baumannii RCH, that were obtained from the University Hospital of Angers (France). ..

    Article Title: Synergistic Effect of Combinations Containing EDTA and the Antimicrobial Peptide AA230, an Arenicin-3 Derivative, on Gram-Negative Bacteria
    Article Snippet: .. Bacterial Strains Antibacterial activity was tested against three reference strains, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and Acinetobacter baumannii AYE (ATCC BAA-1710), as well as three clinical isolates, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (0704C0134 resistant to piperacillin/tazobactam, ticarcillin, ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin), an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) Escherichia coli (9007550201) and Acinetobacter baumannii RCH, that were obtained from the University Hospital of Angers (France). ..

    Derivative Assay:

    Article Title: A green single-step procedure to synthesize Ag-containing nanocomposite coatings with low cytotoxicity and efficient antibacterial properties
    Article Snippet: Gelatin (type A) derived from acid-cured tissue (G1890; Sigma-Aldrich, St Louis, MO, USA) was used as received. .. The MC3T3-E1 cell line (American Type Culture Collection [ATCC] catalog CRL-2594), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC catalog 25923), and Escherichia coli (ATCC catalog 8739) were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection.

    Spectroscopy:

    Article Title: Botryococcus braunii as a bioreactor for the production of nanoparticles with antimicrobial potentialities
    Article Snippet: The characteristic peaks in a typical Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy suggested that the exopolysaccharides were the possible reducing and capping agents. .. The antimicrobial spectrum of the newly developed AgNPs was tested against bacterial strains, both Gram-negative, Gram-positive, and yeast, ie, Escherichia coli (American Type Culture Collection [ATCC] 25922), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), and the yeast Candida albicans (ATCC 10231), respectively.

    ALP Assay:

    Article Title: Green Tea Seed Isolated Saponins Exerts Antibacterial Effects against Various Strains of Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria, a Comprehensive Study In Vitro and In Vivo
    Article Snippet: Antibacterial activities of the isolated saponins fractions were investigated against Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Streptococcus aureus (ATCC 12600), and six serovars of Salmonella. .. Antibacterial mechanism of saponins was elucidated by cell wall and membrane damaging potential of saponins determined by measuring AKP and soluble proteins levels.

    Article Title: Green Tea Seed Isolated Saponins Exerts Antibacterial Effects against Various Strains of Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria, a Comprehensive Study In Vitro and In Vivo
    Article Snippet: Antibacterial activities of the isolated saponins fractions were investigated against Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Streptococcus aureus (ATCC 12600), and six serovars of Salmonella. .. Antibacterial mechanism of saponins was elucidated by cell wall and membrane damaging potential of saponins determined by measuring AKP and soluble proteins levels.

    Electron Microscopy:

    Article Title: Botryococcus braunii as a bioreactor for the production of nanoparticles with antimicrobial potentialities
    Article Snippet: The morphological characteristics were observed using scanning electron microscopy which revealed that the newly developed AgNPs were mostly spherical in sizes starting from 168 nm. .. The antimicrobial spectrum of the newly developed AgNPs was tested against bacterial strains, both Gram-negative, Gram-positive, and yeast, ie, Escherichia coli (American Type Culture Collection [ATCC] 25922), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), and the yeast Candida albicans (ATCC 10231), respectively.

    Molecular Weight:

    Article Title: A green single-step procedure to synthesize Ag-containing nanocomposite coatings with low cytotoxicity and efficient antibacterial properties
    Article Snippet: Materials Chitosan (molecular weight 1,000,000 Da, humidity 7.86%, ash content 0.80%, deacetylation degree greater than 95%) was supplied by Golden-Shell Biochemical Co., Ltd (Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China). .. The MC3T3-E1 cell line (American Type Culture Collection [ATCC] catalog CRL-2594), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC catalog 25923), and Escherichia coli (ATCC catalog 8739) were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection.

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  • 96
    ATCC m avium
    The protective efficacy of <t>BCG::RD1</t> against M. tuberculosis infection is not diminished by presensitization with environmental mycobacteria. (A) Schematic representation of the rationale used to measure vaccine protective efficacy against aerosol infection with M. tuberculosis in animals sensitized with environmental mycobacteria. (B) Mean and standard deviation of CFU present in lungs and spleens 4 weeks after aerosol challenge in mice sensitized with M. <t>avium</t> (A), M. vaccae (V), or M. scrofulaceum (S) prior to vaccination with BCG::pYUB412 (BCG) or BCG::RD1. Controls include unvaccinated and unsensitized mice. Differences between groups ( n = 3) were analyzed by the unpaired Student t test (**, P > 0.01; NS, not significant).
    M Avium, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 96/100, based on 53 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    84
    ATCC recombinant rv3628 protein
    <t>Rv3628</t> induced Ag-specific effector/memory T cell expansion in the spleens of Mtb H37Rv-infected mice via TLR2 signaling A. and B. WT-, TLR2 KO-, and TLR4 KO-DCs were treated for 24 h with Rv3628 (5 μg/ml) or Pam3 (100 ng/ml). Untreated DCs, Rv3628-treated DCs (Rv3628-DCs) and Pam3-treated DCs (Pam3-DCs) were co-cultured for 3 days with T cells of H37Rv-infected mice at a DC to T cell ratio of 1:10. The T cells were stained with anti-CD4, CD8, CD62L, and CD44 mAbs. A. Contour and B. bar graphs show CD62L + CD44 + T cell populations in the harvested spleen cells. Bar graphs show the percentages of effector/memory T cells (CD4 + CD44 + CD62L − and CD8 + CD44 + CD62L − ) from one representative plot out of three independent experiments. The mean values ± SD of 4 samples are shown. Statistical significance (** p
    Recombinant Rv3628 Protein, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 84/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/recombinant rv3628 protein/product/ATCC
    Average 84 stars, based on 2 article reviews
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    Image Search Results


    The protective efficacy of BCG::RD1 against M. tuberculosis infection is not diminished by presensitization with environmental mycobacteria. (A) Schematic representation of the rationale used to measure vaccine protective efficacy against aerosol infection with M. tuberculosis in animals sensitized with environmental mycobacteria. (B) Mean and standard deviation of CFU present in lungs and spleens 4 weeks after aerosol challenge in mice sensitized with M. avium (A), M. vaccae (V), or M. scrofulaceum (S) prior to vaccination with BCG::pYUB412 (BCG) or BCG::RD1. Controls include unvaccinated and unsensitized mice. Differences between groups ( n = 3) were analyzed by the unpaired Student t test (**, P > 0.01; NS, not significant).

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    Article Title: Differential Effects of Prior Exposure to Environmental Mycobacteria on Vaccination with Mycobacterium bovis BCG or a Recombinant BCG Strain Expressing RD1 Antigens

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.73.4.2190-2196.2005

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The protective efficacy of BCG::RD1 against M. tuberculosis infection is not diminished by presensitization with environmental mycobacteria. (A) Schematic representation of the rationale used to measure vaccine protective efficacy against aerosol infection with M. tuberculosis in animals sensitized with environmental mycobacteria. (B) Mean and standard deviation of CFU present in lungs and spleens 4 weeks after aerosol challenge in mice sensitized with M. avium (A), M. vaccae (V), or M. scrofulaceum (S) prior to vaccination with BCG::pYUB412 (BCG) or BCG::RD1. Controls include unvaccinated and unsensitized mice. Differences between groups ( n = 3) were analyzed by the unpaired Student t test (**, P > 0.01; NS, not significant).

    Article Snippet: BCG growth is severely hampered in mice presensitized with a cocktail of M. avium , M. scrofulaceum , and M. vaccae or with M. avium alone ( ).

    Techniques: Infection, Standard Deviation, Mouse Assay

    Immunization with environmental mycobacteria generates cellular responses cross-reacting with the 30-kDa BCG antigen but not with ESAT-6. Mycobacterium -specific IFN-γ production in mice ( n = 3) infected with M. avium , M. scrofulaceum , M. vaccae , or a cocktail of the three strains (Mix) are compared. Splenocytes were stimulated in vitro with pESAT-6, Ag85B, or culture filtrate prepared from the relevant mycobacterial strain. Control cells stimulated with concanavalin A (ConA) or in the absence of stimulatory agent were included. Data are the mean and standard deviation of triplicate measurements of IFN-γ production by pooled splenocytes.

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    Article Title: Differential Effects of Prior Exposure to Environmental Mycobacteria on Vaccination with Mycobacterium bovis BCG or a Recombinant BCG Strain Expressing RD1 Antigens

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.73.4.2190-2196.2005

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Immunization with environmental mycobacteria generates cellular responses cross-reacting with the 30-kDa BCG antigen but not with ESAT-6. Mycobacterium -specific IFN-γ production in mice ( n = 3) infected with M. avium , M. scrofulaceum , M. vaccae , or a cocktail of the three strains (Mix) are compared. Splenocytes were stimulated in vitro with pESAT-6, Ag85B, or culture filtrate prepared from the relevant mycobacterial strain. Control cells stimulated with concanavalin A (ConA) or in the absence of stimulatory agent were included. Data are the mean and standard deviation of triplicate measurements of IFN-γ production by pooled splenocytes.

    Article Snippet: BCG growth is severely hampered in mice presensitized with a cocktail of M. avium , M. scrofulaceum , and M. vaccae or with M. avium alone ( ).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Infection, In Vitro, Standard Deviation

    The immunogenic components of RD1 are not expressed by the environmental mycobacteria M. avium , M. vaccae , and M. scrofulaceum. Western blot analysis of antigens cross-reacting with an anti-ESAT-6 monoclonal antibody and with polyclonal anti-sera raised against CFP-10, PPE68 and Ag85B is shown. Equivalent amounts of proteins (15 μg) were loaded for cell lysates from BCG::RD1, M. avium , M. vaccae , M. scrofulaceum , and control BCG::pYUB412 (BCGpYub).

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    Article Title: Differential Effects of Prior Exposure to Environmental Mycobacteria on Vaccination with Mycobacterium bovis BCG or a Recombinant BCG Strain Expressing RD1 Antigens

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.73.4.2190-2196.2005

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The immunogenic components of RD1 are not expressed by the environmental mycobacteria M. avium , M. vaccae , and M. scrofulaceum. Western blot analysis of antigens cross-reacting with an anti-ESAT-6 monoclonal antibody and with polyclonal anti-sera raised against CFP-10, PPE68 and Ag85B is shown. Equivalent amounts of proteins (15 μg) were loaded for cell lysates from BCG::RD1, M. avium , M. vaccae , M. scrofulaceum , and control BCG::pYUB412 (BCGpYub).

    Article Snippet: BCG growth is severely hampered in mice presensitized with a cocktail of M. avium , M. scrofulaceum , and M. vaccae or with M. avium alone ( ).

    Techniques: Western Blot

    BCG::RD1 persists significantly longer than BCG in mice presensitized with environmental mycobacteria. (A) Schematic representation of the rationale used to measure vaccine persistence in animals sensitized with environmental mycobacteria. (B) Growth of BCG::pYUB412 (BCG) and BCG::RD1 in the lungs (top) and spleens (bottom) of naive mice (uns.) and mice presensitized with M. avium (A) M. scrofulaceum (S), or M. vaccae (V). CFU measured 4 h (light bars) and 21 days (dark bars) postinfection are shown. Data are mean and standard deviation of CFU measured for three animals per group and are representative of two independent experiments.

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    Article Title: Differential Effects of Prior Exposure to Environmental Mycobacteria on Vaccination with Mycobacterium bovis BCG or a Recombinant BCG Strain Expressing RD1 Antigens

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.73.4.2190-2196.2005

    Figure Lengend Snippet: BCG::RD1 persists significantly longer than BCG in mice presensitized with environmental mycobacteria. (A) Schematic representation of the rationale used to measure vaccine persistence in animals sensitized with environmental mycobacteria. (B) Growth of BCG::pYUB412 (BCG) and BCG::RD1 in the lungs (top) and spleens (bottom) of naive mice (uns.) and mice presensitized with M. avium (A) M. scrofulaceum (S), or M. vaccae (V). CFU measured 4 h (light bars) and 21 days (dark bars) postinfection are shown. Data are mean and standard deviation of CFU measured for three animals per group and are representative of two independent experiments.

    Article Snippet: BCG growth is severely hampered in mice presensitized with a cocktail of M. avium , M. scrofulaceum , and M. vaccae or with M. avium alone ( ).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Standard Deviation

    Specific cellular responses induced by BCG::RD1 vaccination are not altered by sensitization with environmental mycobacteria. Mycobacterium -specific IFN-γ production in mice ( n = 3) vaccinated with BCG::pYUB412 (BCG) or BCG::RD1 following sensitization with M. avium , M. scrofulaceum or M. vaccae is compared. Splenocytes were prepared 3 weeks postimmunization and stimulated in vitro with pESAT-6, Ag85B, or culture filtrates prepared from BCG or BCG::RD1 (BCG CF, BCG::RD1 CF). Control cells stimulated with concanavalin A or PPD or in the absence of stimulatory agent were included (not shown). Data are mean and standard deviation of triplicate measurements of IFN-γ production by pooled splenocytes and are representative of two independent experiments.

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    Article Title: Differential Effects of Prior Exposure to Environmental Mycobacteria on Vaccination with Mycobacterium bovis BCG or a Recombinant BCG Strain Expressing RD1 Antigens

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.73.4.2190-2196.2005

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Specific cellular responses induced by BCG::RD1 vaccination are not altered by sensitization with environmental mycobacteria. Mycobacterium -specific IFN-γ production in mice ( n = 3) vaccinated with BCG::pYUB412 (BCG) or BCG::RD1 following sensitization with M. avium , M. scrofulaceum or M. vaccae is compared. Splenocytes were prepared 3 weeks postimmunization and stimulated in vitro with pESAT-6, Ag85B, or culture filtrates prepared from BCG or BCG::RD1 (BCG CF, BCG::RD1 CF). Control cells stimulated with concanavalin A or PPD or in the absence of stimulatory agent were included (not shown). Data are mean and standard deviation of triplicate measurements of IFN-γ production by pooled splenocytes and are representative of two independent experiments.

    Article Snippet: BCG growth is severely hampered in mice presensitized with a cocktail of M. avium , M. scrofulaceum , and M. vaccae or with M. avium alone ( ).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, In Vitro, Standard Deviation

    Rv3628 induced Ag-specific effector/memory T cell expansion in the spleens of Mtb H37Rv-infected mice via TLR2 signaling A. and B. WT-, TLR2 KO-, and TLR4 KO-DCs were treated for 24 h with Rv3628 (5 μg/ml) or Pam3 (100 ng/ml). Untreated DCs, Rv3628-treated DCs (Rv3628-DCs) and Pam3-treated DCs (Pam3-DCs) were co-cultured for 3 days with T cells of H37Rv-infected mice at a DC to T cell ratio of 1:10. The T cells were stained with anti-CD4, CD8, CD62L, and CD44 mAbs. A. Contour and B. bar graphs show CD62L + CD44 + T cell populations in the harvested spleen cells. Bar graphs show the percentages of effector/memory T cells (CD4 + CD44 + CD62L − and CD8 + CD44 + CD62L − ) from one representative plot out of three independent experiments. The mean values ± SD of 4 samples are shown. Statistical significance (** p

    Journal: Oncotarget

    Article Title: Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv3628 drives Th1-type T cell immunity via TLR2-mediated activation of dendritic cells and displays vaccine potential against the hyper-virulent Beijing K strain

    doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.8771

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Rv3628 induced Ag-specific effector/memory T cell expansion in the spleens of Mtb H37Rv-infected mice via TLR2 signaling A. and B. WT-, TLR2 KO-, and TLR4 KO-DCs were treated for 24 h with Rv3628 (5 μg/ml) or Pam3 (100 ng/ml). Untreated DCs, Rv3628-treated DCs (Rv3628-DCs) and Pam3-treated DCs (Pam3-DCs) were co-cultured for 3 days with T cells of H37Rv-infected mice at a DC to T cell ratio of 1:10. The T cells were stained with anti-CD4, CD8, CD62L, and CD44 mAbs. A. Contour and B. bar graphs show CD62L + CD44 + T cell populations in the harvested spleen cells. Bar graphs show the percentages of effector/memory T cells (CD4 + CD44 + CD62L − and CD8 + CD44 + CD62L − ) from one representative plot out of three independent experiments. The mean values ± SD of 4 samples are shown. Statistical significance (** p

    Article Snippet: Purification of recombinant Rv3628 protein from Escherichia coli To produce recombinant Rv3628 protein, the corresponding gene was amplified by PCR using Mtb H37Rv ATCC 27294 genomic DNA as a template and the primer sequences 5′-CAATTCGACGTGACCATCGAA-3′ and 3′-GTGTGTACCGGCCTTGAAGCG-5′.

    Techniques: Infection, Mouse Assay, Cell Culture, Staining

    Histology of representative lung lobes and CFU values for each group A. Lung sections from each immunized mouse (immunization with MPL-DDA alone, BCG alone or Rv3628/MPL-DDA) were stained with H E at 9 weeks after challenge with Mtb K. B. Differences in bacterial burden among mice immunized with BCG alone, Rv3628/MPL-DDA and those treated with the adjuvant control (MPL-DDA alone) at 4 and 9 weeks after challenge with Mtb K are shown. The results from one of two experiments producing similar results are shown ( n = 6 animals/group). * p

    Journal: Oncotarget

    Article Title: Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv3628 drives Th1-type T cell immunity via TLR2-mediated activation of dendritic cells and displays vaccine potential against the hyper-virulent Beijing K strain

    doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.8771

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Histology of representative lung lobes and CFU values for each group A. Lung sections from each immunized mouse (immunization with MPL-DDA alone, BCG alone or Rv3628/MPL-DDA) were stained with H E at 9 weeks after challenge with Mtb K. B. Differences in bacterial burden among mice immunized with BCG alone, Rv3628/MPL-DDA and those treated with the adjuvant control (MPL-DDA alone) at 4 and 9 weeks after challenge with Mtb K are shown. The results from one of two experiments producing similar results are shown ( n = 6 animals/group). * p

    Article Snippet: Purification of recombinant Rv3628 protein from Escherichia coli To produce recombinant Rv3628 protein, the corresponding gene was amplified by PCR using Mtb H37Rv ATCC 27294 genomic DNA as a template and the primer sequences 5′-CAATTCGACGTGACCATCGAA-3′ and 3′-GTGTGTACCGGCCTTGAAGCG-5′.

    Techniques: Staining, Mouse Assay

    Ag-specific responses in spleen and lung cells after final immunization with MPL-DDA alone, BCG or Rv3628/MPL-DDA A. Schematic diagram of the experimental design. B. IFN-γ production by spleen and lung cells in response to Rv3628 stimulation was measured by ELISA. ** p

    Journal: Oncotarget

    Article Title: Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv3628 drives Th1-type T cell immunity via TLR2-mediated activation of dendritic cells and displays vaccine potential against the hyper-virulent Beijing K strain

    doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.8771

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Ag-specific responses in spleen and lung cells after final immunization with MPL-DDA alone, BCG or Rv3628/MPL-DDA A. Schematic diagram of the experimental design. B. IFN-γ production by spleen and lung cells in response to Rv3628 stimulation was measured by ELISA. ** p

    Article Snippet: Purification of recombinant Rv3628 protein from Escherichia coli To produce recombinant Rv3628 protein, the corresponding gene was amplified by PCR using Mtb H37Rv ATCC 27294 genomic DNA as a template and the primer sequences 5′-CAATTCGACGTGACCATCGAA-3′ and 3′-GTGTGTACCGGCCTTGAAGCG-5′.

    Techniques: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    Rv3628/MPL-DDA induces the production of multifunctional CD4 + T cells A. and B. Cytokine production by Rv3628-specific CD4 + T cells in immunized mice ( n = 6 animals/group) was analyzed at 4 and 9 weeks after challenge with Mtb K using flow cytometry. A. The strategy for gating multifunctional CD4 + T cells is shown for a representative mouse immunized with Rv3628/MPL-DDA. B. Spleen and lung cells from immunized mice were stimulated with Rv3628 (5 μg/ml) for 12 h in the presence of GolgiStop. Rv3628-stimulated cells were identified by intracellular cytokine staining based on CD3, CD4 and CD8 expression and were further gated for CD44 + cells. The percentages of cells expressing all three cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2), two of these three cytokines, or one of these three cytokines in each group are depicted in the bar graphs (B, left panel) and pie charts (B, right panel). The results of one representative study out of at least two independent studies are presented. * p

    Journal: Oncotarget

    Article Title: Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv3628 drives Th1-type T cell immunity via TLR2-mediated activation of dendritic cells and displays vaccine potential against the hyper-virulent Beijing K strain

    doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.8771

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Rv3628/MPL-DDA induces the production of multifunctional CD4 + T cells A. and B. Cytokine production by Rv3628-specific CD4 + T cells in immunized mice ( n = 6 animals/group) was analyzed at 4 and 9 weeks after challenge with Mtb K using flow cytometry. A. The strategy for gating multifunctional CD4 + T cells is shown for a representative mouse immunized with Rv3628/MPL-DDA. B. Spleen and lung cells from immunized mice were stimulated with Rv3628 (5 μg/ml) for 12 h in the presence of GolgiStop. Rv3628-stimulated cells were identified by intracellular cytokine staining based on CD3, CD4 and CD8 expression and were further gated for CD44 + cells. The percentages of cells expressing all three cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2), two of these three cytokines, or one of these three cytokines in each group are depicted in the bar graphs (B, left panel) and pie charts (B, right panel). The results of one representative study out of at least two independent studies are presented. * p

    Article Snippet: Purification of recombinant Rv3628 protein from Escherichia coli To produce recombinant Rv3628 protein, the corresponding gene was amplified by PCR using Mtb H37Rv ATCC 27294 genomic DNA as a template and the primer sequences 5′-CAATTCGACGTGACCATCGAA-3′ and 3′-GTGTGTACCGGCCTTGAAGCG-5′.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Staining, Expressing

    Rv3628 induces DC activation by interacting with TLR2 A. Bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) from WT, TLR2 KO, and TLR4 KO mice were treated with Rv3628 for 1 h and stained with an Alexa488-conjugated anti-His mAb. The MFI of the positive cells is shown in each panel. The bar graphs show the means ± SEM of the percentages of Rv3628-treated Alexa488-positive cells among the CD11c + cells from three independent experiments. *** p

    Journal: Oncotarget

    Article Title: Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv3628 drives Th1-type T cell immunity via TLR2-mediated activation of dendritic cells and displays vaccine potential against the hyper-virulent Beijing K strain

    doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.8771

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Rv3628 induces DC activation by interacting with TLR2 A. Bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) from WT, TLR2 KO, and TLR4 KO mice were treated with Rv3628 for 1 h and stained with an Alexa488-conjugated anti-His mAb. The MFI of the positive cells is shown in each panel. The bar graphs show the means ± SEM of the percentages of Rv3628-treated Alexa488-positive cells among the CD11c + cells from three independent experiments. *** p

    Article Snippet: Purification of recombinant Rv3628 protein from Escherichia coli To produce recombinant Rv3628 protein, the corresponding gene was amplified by PCR using Mtb H37Rv ATCC 27294 genomic DNA as a template and the primer sequences 5′-CAATTCGACGTGACCATCGAA-3′ and 3′-GTGTGTACCGGCCTTGAAGCG-5′.

    Techniques: Activation Assay, Derivative Assay, Mouse Assay, Staining

    Rv3628-dependent induction of DC maturation protein involves activation of the MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways A. and B. DCs treated with Rv3628 (5 μg/ml) for the indicated periods. Cell lysates were subjected to SDS-PAGE, and immunoblot analysis was performed using specific Abs against phospho-p38 (p-p38), p38, phospho-ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2), ERK1/2, phospho-JNK (p-JNK), JNK, phospho-IκB-α (p-IκB-α), IκB-α, and p65 NF-κB. The results of one representative experiment out of three experiments producing similar results are shown. C. The effect of Rv3628 on the cellular localization of the p65 subunit of NF-κB in DCs. DCs were plated on glass chamber slides and treated with Rv3628 for 1 h. After Ag stimulation, the immunoreactivity of the p65 subunit of NF-κB in the DCs was analyzed by immunofluorescence, as described in the Materials and Methods section (original scale bar: 5 μm). The results of one representative experiment out of three experiments producing similar results are shown. D. and E. DCs were pretreated with different pharmacological inhibitors, such as SB203580 (p38 inhibitor), U0126 (ERK inhibitor), SP600125 (JNK inhibitor), or Bay11-7082 (NF-κB inhibitor) for 1 h prior to treatment with Rv3628 for 24 h; DMSO served as a vehicle control. D. CD80 and CD86 expression was analyzed by flow cytometry. E. TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β and IL-12p70 levels in the culture medium were measured by ELISA. The data points shown are the means ± SD of 3 samples. One representative plot out of three independent experiments is shown; * p

    Journal: Oncotarget

    Article Title: Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv3628 drives Th1-type T cell immunity via TLR2-mediated activation of dendritic cells and displays vaccine potential against the hyper-virulent Beijing K strain

    doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.8771

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Rv3628-dependent induction of DC maturation protein involves activation of the MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways A. and B. DCs treated with Rv3628 (5 μg/ml) for the indicated periods. Cell lysates were subjected to SDS-PAGE, and immunoblot analysis was performed using specific Abs against phospho-p38 (p-p38), p38, phospho-ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2), ERK1/2, phospho-JNK (p-JNK), JNK, phospho-IκB-α (p-IκB-α), IκB-α, and p65 NF-κB. The results of one representative experiment out of three experiments producing similar results are shown. C. The effect of Rv3628 on the cellular localization of the p65 subunit of NF-κB in DCs. DCs were plated on glass chamber slides and treated with Rv3628 for 1 h. After Ag stimulation, the immunoreactivity of the p65 subunit of NF-κB in the DCs was analyzed by immunofluorescence, as described in the Materials and Methods section (original scale bar: 5 μm). The results of one representative experiment out of three experiments producing similar results are shown. D. and E. DCs were pretreated with different pharmacological inhibitors, such as SB203580 (p38 inhibitor), U0126 (ERK inhibitor), SP600125 (JNK inhibitor), or Bay11-7082 (NF-κB inhibitor) for 1 h prior to treatment with Rv3628 for 24 h; DMSO served as a vehicle control. D. CD80 and CD86 expression was analyzed by flow cytometry. E. TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β and IL-12p70 levels in the culture medium were measured by ELISA. The data points shown are the means ± SD of 3 samples. One representative plot out of three independent experiments is shown; * p

    Article Snippet: Purification of recombinant Rv3628 protein from Escherichia coli To produce recombinant Rv3628 protein, the corresponding gene was amplified by PCR using Mtb H37Rv ATCC 27294 genomic DNA as a template and the primer sequences 5′-CAATTCGACGTGACCATCGAA-3′ and 3′-GTGTGTACCGGCCTTGAAGCG-5′.

    Techniques: Activation Assay, SDS Page, Immunofluorescence, Expressing, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    Rv3628-treated DCs stimulate T cells to produce Th1 cytokines T cell proliferation and T cell types were analyzed in OVA-specific mice as described in the Materials and Methods section. A. The proliferation of OVA-specific CD4 + and CD8 + T cells was assessed by flow cytometry. The results of one representative experiment out of three experiments producing similar results are shown. B. The culture supernatants obtained under the conditions described in part A were harvested after 24 h, and IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-4 levels were analyzed by ELISA (top panel, OT-I; lower panel, OT-II). The data are shown as the means ± SD of 3 samples. One representative plot out of three independent experiments is shown. * p

    Journal: Oncotarget

    Article Title: Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv3628 drives Th1-type T cell immunity via TLR2-mediated activation of dendritic cells and displays vaccine potential against the hyper-virulent Beijing K strain

    doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.8771

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Rv3628-treated DCs stimulate T cells to produce Th1 cytokines T cell proliferation and T cell types were analyzed in OVA-specific mice as described in the Materials and Methods section. A. The proliferation of OVA-specific CD4 + and CD8 + T cells was assessed by flow cytometry. The results of one representative experiment out of three experiments producing similar results are shown. B. The culture supernatants obtained under the conditions described in part A were harvested after 24 h, and IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-4 levels were analyzed by ELISA (top panel, OT-I; lower panel, OT-II). The data are shown as the means ± SD of 3 samples. One representative plot out of three independent experiments is shown. * p

    Article Snippet: Purification of recombinant Rv3628 protein from Escherichia coli To produce recombinant Rv3628 protein, the corresponding gene was amplified by PCR using Mtb H37Rv ATCC 27294 genomic DNA as a template and the primer sequences 5′-CAATTCGACGTGACCATCGAA-3′ and 3′-GTGTGTACCGGCCTTGAAGCG-5′.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    Ex vivo -stimulated Rv3628 induces Ag-specific IFN-γ production and memory T cell expansion in spleen and lung cells after challenge with Mtb strains A . Rv3628-specific IFN-γ production was analyzed in the spleen and lung cells of individual mice 4 and 8 weeks after challenge with aerosolized Mtb H37Rv or K. ESAT-6 was used as a positive control. The bar graphs show the means ± SD of 4 samples. One representative plot out of three independent experiments is shown. * p

    Journal: Oncotarget

    Article Title: Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv3628 drives Th1-type T cell immunity via TLR2-mediated activation of dendritic cells and displays vaccine potential against the hyper-virulent Beijing K strain

    doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.8771

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Ex vivo -stimulated Rv3628 induces Ag-specific IFN-γ production and memory T cell expansion in spleen and lung cells after challenge with Mtb strains A . Rv3628-specific IFN-γ production was analyzed in the spleen and lung cells of individual mice 4 and 8 weeks after challenge with aerosolized Mtb H37Rv or K. ESAT-6 was used as a positive control. The bar graphs show the means ± SD of 4 samples. One representative plot out of three independent experiments is shown. * p

    Article Snippet: Purification of recombinant Rv3628 protein from Escherichia coli To produce recombinant Rv3628 protein, the corresponding gene was amplified by PCR using Mtb H37Rv ATCC 27294 genomic DNA as a template and the primer sequences 5′-CAATTCGACGTGACCATCGAA-3′ and 3′-GTGTGTACCGGCCTTGAAGCG-5′.

    Techniques: Ex Vivo, Mouse Assay, Positive Control

    Rv3628 induces DC maturation in a dose-dependent manner Eight-day-old, immature DCs were treated with the indicated concentrations of Rv3628 or LPS for 24 h. A. DCs were stained with anti-CD80, anti-CD86, anti-MHC class I, or anti-MHC class II mAbs and analyzed for the expression of surface markers. The median fluorescence intensity (MFI) of the positive cells is shown for each panel. B. TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, IL-10, IL-23 and IL-12p70 levels in the culture medium were measured by ELISA. C. Dot plots of intracellular IL-12p70 and IL-10 in CD11c + DCs. D. Endocytic activity was assessed at 37°C or 4°C by flow cytometric analysis of dextran-FITC uptake. The percentages of dextran-FITC-positive and CD11c + -positive cells are indicated. All bar graphs show the means ± SD of 3 samples. One representative plot out of three independent experiments is shown; * p

    Journal: Oncotarget

    Article Title: Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv3628 drives Th1-type T cell immunity via TLR2-mediated activation of dendritic cells and displays vaccine potential against the hyper-virulent Beijing K strain

    doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.8771

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Rv3628 induces DC maturation in a dose-dependent manner Eight-day-old, immature DCs were treated with the indicated concentrations of Rv3628 or LPS for 24 h. A. DCs were stained with anti-CD80, anti-CD86, anti-MHC class I, or anti-MHC class II mAbs and analyzed for the expression of surface markers. The median fluorescence intensity (MFI) of the positive cells is shown for each panel. B. TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, IL-10, IL-23 and IL-12p70 levels in the culture medium were measured by ELISA. C. Dot plots of intracellular IL-12p70 and IL-10 in CD11c + DCs. D. Endocytic activity was assessed at 37°C or 4°C by flow cytometric analysis of dextran-FITC uptake. The percentages of dextran-FITC-positive and CD11c + -positive cells are indicated. All bar graphs show the means ± SD of 3 samples. One representative plot out of three independent experiments is shown; * p

    Article Snippet: Purification of recombinant Rv3628 protein from Escherichia coli To produce recombinant Rv3628 protein, the corresponding gene was amplified by PCR using Mtb H37Rv ATCC 27294 genomic DNA as a template and the primer sequences 5′-CAATTCGACGTGACCATCGAA-3′ and 3′-GTGTGTACCGGCCTTGAAGCG-5′.

    Techniques: Staining, Expressing, Fluorescence, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Activity Assay, Flow Cytometry