escherichia coli  (atcc)


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    Structured Review

    atcc escherichia coli
    Concentration of <t>Escherichia</t> coli ((a) and (c)) and fraction of viable (V) and non-viable (NV) helminth eggs ((b) and (d)) in the different reactor compartments using ADS and EO ((a) and (b)) and EF, EF-R and EF-RPI ((c) and (d)) treatments. Dark and light colors represent viable and non-viable HE (%) , respectively. Initial concentrations for E. coli and HE correspond to log 10 8.48 CFU mL −1 and 203 L −1 , respectively. (For interpretation of the references to color in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the Web version of this article.)
    Escherichia Coli, supplied by atcc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 40 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Images

    1) Product Images from "Inactivation of helminth eggs in an electro-Fenton reactor: Towards full electrochemical disinfection of human waste using activated carbon"

    Article Title: Inactivation of helminth eggs in an electro-Fenton reactor: Towards full electrochemical disinfection of human waste using activated carbon

    Journal: Chemosphere

    doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.126260

    Concentration of Escherichia coli ((a) and (c)) and fraction of viable (V) and non-viable (NV) helminth eggs ((b) and (d)) in the different reactor compartments using ADS and EO ((a) and (b)) and EF, EF-R and EF-RPI ((c) and (d)) treatments. Dark and light colors represent viable and non-viable HE (%) , respectively. Initial concentrations for E. coli and HE correspond to log 10 8.48 CFU mL −1 and 203 L −1 , respectively. (For interpretation of the references to color in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the Web version of this article.)
    Figure Legend Snippet: Concentration of Escherichia coli ((a) and (c)) and fraction of viable (V) and non-viable (NV) helminth eggs ((b) and (d)) in the different reactor compartments using ADS and EO ((a) and (b)) and EF, EF-R and EF-RPI ((c) and (d)) treatments. Dark and light colors represent viable and non-viable HE (%) , respectively. Initial concentrations for E. coli and HE correspond to log 10 8.48 CFU mL −1 and 203 L −1 , respectively. (For interpretation of the references to color in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the Web version of this article.)

    Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

    2) Product Images from "Antibacterial effects of Apis mellifera and stingless bees honeys on susceptible and resistant strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia"

    Article Title: Antibacterial effects of Apis mellifera and stingless bees honeys on susceptible and resistant strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia

    Journal: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-13-269

    Bacteria inhibitions of 50% solution (v/v) of stingless bees honey, Apis mellifera white and yellow honeys on Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Klebsiella pneumoniae (R), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and Escherichia coli (R).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Bacteria inhibitions of 50% solution (v/v) of stingless bees honey, Apis mellifera white and yellow honeys on Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Klebsiella pneumoniae (R), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and Escherichia coli (R).

    Techniques Used:

    3) Product Images from "Green Tea Seed Isolated Saponins Exerts Antibacterial Effects against Various Strains of Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria, a Comprehensive Study In Vitro and In Vivo"

    Article Title: Green Tea Seed Isolated Saponins Exerts Antibacterial Effects against Various Strains of Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria, a Comprehensive Study In Vitro and In Vivo

    Journal: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM

    doi: 10.1155/2018/3486106

    Antibacterial activities of Fr2 of green tea seed saponins against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella gallinarum, Salmonella choleraesuis, Salmonella pullorum, Salmonella dublin, and Staphylococcus aureus . The antibacterial activities were determined by allowing the bacteria to grow in the presence of various concentrations of saponins using 96-well microtiter plate and then checking the viability of bacteria by measuring OD 660 with spectrophotometer. Data are expressed as means of experiments in triplicate ± SEM. Data are statistically significant at P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Antibacterial activities of Fr2 of green tea seed saponins against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella gallinarum, Salmonella choleraesuis, Salmonella pullorum, Salmonella dublin, and Staphylococcus aureus . The antibacterial activities were determined by allowing the bacteria to grow in the presence of various concentrations of saponins using 96-well microtiter plate and then checking the viability of bacteria by measuring OD 660 with spectrophotometer. Data are expressed as means of experiments in triplicate ± SEM. Data are statistically significant at P

    Techniques Used: Spectrophotometry

    Antibacterial activities of Fr1 of green tea seed saponins against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella gallinarum, Salmonella choleraesuis, Salmonella pullorum, Salmonella dublin, and Staphylococcus aureus . The antibacterial activities were determined by allowing the bacteria to grow in the presence of various concentrations of saponins using 96-well microtiter plate and then checking the viability of bacteria by measuring OD 660 with spectrophotometer. Data are expressed as means of experiments in triplicate ± SEM. Data are statistically significant at P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Antibacterial activities of Fr1 of green tea seed saponins against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella gallinarum, Salmonella choleraesuis, Salmonella pullorum, Salmonella dublin, and Staphylococcus aureus . The antibacterial activities were determined by allowing the bacteria to grow in the presence of various concentrations of saponins using 96-well microtiter plate and then checking the viability of bacteria by measuring OD 660 with spectrophotometer. Data are expressed as means of experiments in triplicate ± SEM. Data are statistically significant at P

    Techniques Used: Spectrophotometry

    4) Product Images from "Medical-grade honey enriched with antimicrobial peptides has enhanced activity against antibiotic-resistant pathogens"

    Article Title: Medical-grade honey enriched with antimicrobial peptides has enhanced activity against antibiotic-resistant pathogens

    Journal: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases

    doi: 10.1007/s10096-010-1077-x

    Bactericidal activity of undiluted honey against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ( white bars ) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli ( gray bars ). Inocula of approximately 10 5 CFU in 4 μl were added to 0.5 ml undiluted honey. At the indicated time points, samples were diluted with one volume of incubation buffer and, subsequently, survival was quantified as described for the liquid bactericidal assay
    Figure Legend Snippet: Bactericidal activity of undiluted honey against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ( white bars ) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli ( gray bars ). Inocula of approximately 10 5 CFU in 4 μl were added to 0.5 ml undiluted honey. At the indicated time points, samples were diluted with one volume of incubation buffer and, subsequently, survival was quantified as described for the liquid bactericidal assay

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Incubation, Serum Bactericidal Assay

    5) Product Images from "Polymicrobial Biofilm Dynamics of Multidrug-Resistant Candida albicans and Ampicillin-Resistant Escherichia coli and Antimicrobial Inhibition by Aqueous Garlic Extract"

    Article Title: Polymicrobial Biofilm Dynamics of Multidrug-Resistant Candida albicans and Ampicillin-Resistant Escherichia coli and Antimicrobial Inhibition by Aqueous Garlic Extract

    Journal: Antibiotics

    doi: 10.3390/antibiotics11050573

    3D resolution images of whole AGE-treated (1.25 mg) E. coli ATCC 39936 using CLSM at ( a ) 12 h; ( b ) 24 h. All images were captured at 40× magnification under oil immersion.
    Figure Legend Snippet: 3D resolution images of whole AGE-treated (1.25 mg) E. coli ATCC 39936 using CLSM at ( a ) 12 h; ( b ) 24 h. All images were captured at 40× magnification under oil immersion.

    Techniques Used: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy

    3D resolution images of whole AGE-treated (1.25 mg) C. albicans M207+ E. coli ATCC 39936 using CLSM at ( a ) 12 h; ( b ) 24 h. All images were captured at 40× magnification under oil immersion.
    Figure Legend Snippet: 3D resolution images of whole AGE-treated (1.25 mg) C. albicans M207+ E. coli ATCC 39936 using CLSM at ( a ) 12 h; ( b ) 24 h. All images were captured at 40× magnification under oil immersion.

    Techniques Used: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy

    ( A ) MTT Assay to confirm the antimicrobial activity of whole AGE against C. albicans M207 at different time intervals. Cell viability of 21.8% was observed at 1.25 mg at 12 h (MIC 50 ) and n = 3. The Assay was performed in triplicate. ( B ) MTT Assay to confirm the antimicrobial activity of whole AGE E. coli ATCC 39936 at different time intervals. Cell viability of 20.97% was observed at 1.25 mg at 12 h (MIC 50 ) and n = 3. The Assay was performed in triplicate. ( C ) MTT Assay to confirm the antimicrobial activity of whole AGE against C. albicans M207+ E. coli ATCC 39936 at different time intervals. Cell viability of 13.06% was observed at 1.25 mg at 12 h (MIC 50 ) and n = 3. All values are expressed as mean and standard deviation.
    Figure Legend Snippet: ( A ) MTT Assay to confirm the antimicrobial activity of whole AGE against C. albicans M207 at different time intervals. Cell viability of 21.8% was observed at 1.25 mg at 12 h (MIC 50 ) and n = 3. The Assay was performed in triplicate. ( B ) MTT Assay to confirm the antimicrobial activity of whole AGE E. coli ATCC 39936 at different time intervals. Cell viability of 20.97% was observed at 1.25 mg at 12 h (MIC 50 ) and n = 3. The Assay was performed in triplicate. ( C ) MTT Assay to confirm the antimicrobial activity of whole AGE against C. albicans M207+ E. coli ATCC 39936 at different time intervals. Cell viability of 13.06% was observed at 1.25 mg at 12 h (MIC 50 ) and n = 3. All values are expressed as mean and standard deviation.

    Techniques Used: MTT Assay, Activity Assay, Standard Deviation

    ( A ) Scanning Electron Microscopic Images of C. albicans M207 at different time intervals. Panel (A): Control at 3, 6,12, 24 h; Panel (B): Whole AGE Treated (1 mg) at 3, 6, 12, 24 h. All images were captured at 5000× magnification. ( B ) Scanning Electron Microscopic Images of E. coli ATCC 39936 at different time intervals. Panel (A): Control at 3, 6, 12, 24 h; Panel (B): Whole AGE Treated (1.25 mg) at 3, 6, 12, 24 h. All images were captured at 5000× magnification. ( C ) Scanning Electron Microscopic Images of C. albicans M207+ E. coli ATCC 39936 at different time intervals. Panel (A): Control at 3, 6,12, 24 h; Panel (B): Whole AGE Treated (1.25 mg) at 3, 6, 12, 24 h. All images were captured at 5000× magnification.
    Figure Legend Snippet: ( A ) Scanning Electron Microscopic Images of C. albicans M207 at different time intervals. Panel (A): Control at 3, 6,12, 24 h; Panel (B): Whole AGE Treated (1 mg) at 3, 6, 12, 24 h. All images were captured at 5000× magnification. ( B ) Scanning Electron Microscopic Images of E. coli ATCC 39936 at different time intervals. Panel (A): Control at 3, 6, 12, 24 h; Panel (B): Whole AGE Treated (1.25 mg) at 3, 6, 12, 24 h. All images were captured at 5000× magnification. ( C ) Scanning Electron Microscopic Images of C. albicans M207+ E. coli ATCC 39936 at different time intervals. Panel (A): Control at 3, 6,12, 24 h; Panel (B): Whole AGE Treated (1.25 mg) at 3, 6, 12, 24 h. All images were captured at 5000× magnification.

    Techniques Used:

    3D resolution images of E. coli ATCC 39936 control using CLSM at ( a ) 12 h; ( b ) 24 h. All images were captured at 40× magnification under oil immersion.
    Figure Legend Snippet: 3D resolution images of E. coli ATCC 39936 control using CLSM at ( a ) 12 h; ( b ) 24 h. All images were captured at 40× magnification under oil immersion.

    Techniques Used: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy

    ( A ) CFU for C. albicans M-207 at 24 h: ( a ) Control; ( b ) Whole AGE Treated (1 mg). ( B ) CFU for E. coli ATCC 39936 at 24 h: ( a ) Control; ( b ) Whole AGE Treated (1.25 mg). ( C ) CFU for C. albicans M207+ E. coli ATCC 39936 at 24 h: ( a ) Control; ( b ) Whole AGE Treated (1.25 mg). ( D ) Log 10 CFUmL −1 for C. albicans M-207, E. coli ATCC 39936, C. albicans M207+ E. coli ATCC 39936 at 24 h. The absence of bar for C. albicans M207 whole AGE-treated sample indicates complete inhibition and therefore no colonies on the plate and n = 3. All values are expressed as mean and standard deviation.
    Figure Legend Snippet: ( A ) CFU for C. albicans M-207 at 24 h: ( a ) Control; ( b ) Whole AGE Treated (1 mg). ( B ) CFU for E. coli ATCC 39936 at 24 h: ( a ) Control; ( b ) Whole AGE Treated (1.25 mg). ( C ) CFU for C. albicans M207+ E. coli ATCC 39936 at 24 h: ( a ) Control; ( b ) Whole AGE Treated (1.25 mg). ( D ) Log 10 CFUmL −1 for C. albicans M-207, E. coli ATCC 39936, C. albicans M207+ E. coli ATCC 39936 at 24 h. The absence of bar for C. albicans M207 whole AGE-treated sample indicates complete inhibition and therefore no colonies on the plate and n = 3. All values are expressed as mean and standard deviation.

    Techniques Used: Inhibition, Standard Deviation

    3D resolution images of C. albicans M207+ E. coli ATCC 39936 control using CLSM at ( a ) 12 h; ( b ) 24 h. All images were captured at 40× magnification under oil immersion.
    Figure Legend Snippet: 3D resolution images of C. albicans M207+ E. coli ATCC 39936 control using CLSM at ( a ) 12 h; ( b ) 24 h. All images were captured at 40× magnification under oil immersion.

    Techniques Used: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy

    Point Inoculation at 16 h: ( a ) C. albicans M-207; ( b ) E. coli ATCC 39936; ( c ) C. albicans M-207 + E. coli ATCC 39936. The arrowhead indicate the point of inoculation of the culture.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Point Inoculation at 16 h: ( a ) C. albicans M-207; ( b ) E. coli ATCC 39936; ( c ) C. albicans M-207 + E. coli ATCC 39936. The arrowhead indicate the point of inoculation of the culture.

    Techniques Used:

    ( A ) Growth OD measurement to assess the antimicrobial activity of whole AGE against C. albicans M207 at different time intervals. MIC 50 was observed at 1 mg at 12 h with a mean value and s.d. of (0.459 ± 0002) and n = 3. ( B ) Growth OD measurement to assess the antimicrobial activity of whole AGE against E. coli ATCC 39936 at different time intervals. MIC 50 was observed at 1.25 mg at 12 h with a mean value and s.d. of (0.475 ± 004) and n = 3. ( C ) Growth OD measurement to assess the antimicrobial activity of whole AGE against C. albicans M207+ E. coli ATCC 39936 at different time intervals. MIC 50 was observed at 1.25 mg at 12 h with a mean value and s.d. of (0.341 ± 008) and n = 3. All values are expressed as mean and standard deviation.
    Figure Legend Snippet: ( A ) Growth OD measurement to assess the antimicrobial activity of whole AGE against C. albicans M207 at different time intervals. MIC 50 was observed at 1 mg at 12 h with a mean value and s.d. of (0.459 ± 0002) and n = 3. ( B ) Growth OD measurement to assess the antimicrobial activity of whole AGE against E. coli ATCC 39936 at different time intervals. MIC 50 was observed at 1.25 mg at 12 h with a mean value and s.d. of (0.475 ± 004) and n = 3. ( C ) Growth OD measurement to assess the antimicrobial activity of whole AGE against C. albicans M207+ E. coli ATCC 39936 at different time intervals. MIC 50 was observed at 1.25 mg at 12 h with a mean value and s.d. of (0.341 ± 008) and n = 3. All values are expressed as mean and standard deviation.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Standard Deviation

    6) Product Images from "Detection of Unamplified E. coli O157 DNA Extracted from Large Food Samples Using a Gold Nanoparticle Colorimetric Biosensor"

    Article Title: Detection of Unamplified E. coli O157 DNA Extracted from Large Food Samples Using a Gold Nanoparticle Colorimetric Biosensor

    Journal: Biosensors

    doi: 10.3390/bios12050274

    Visual results for one specificity trial using specific E. coli O157 biosensor.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Visual results for one specificity trial using specific E. coli O157 biosensor.

    Techniques Used:

    E. coli O157 specificity results in flour, analyzed by peak wavelength shift from 520 nm. Six replicates total with DNA concentrations of 60 ± 5 ng/µL unless otherwise noted. Error bars represent 95% confidence intervals. C, water; T, E. coli O157 at 83.4 ng/µL; T60, E. coli O157 at 60 ng/µL; NT1, E. coli C-3000; NT2, Listeria monocytogenes ; NT3, flour without artificial inoculation.
    Figure Legend Snippet: E. coli O157 specificity results in flour, analyzed by peak wavelength shift from 520 nm. Six replicates total with DNA concentrations of 60 ± 5 ng/µL unless otherwise noted. Error bars represent 95% confidence intervals. C, water; T, E. coli O157 at 83.4 ng/µL; T60, E. coli O157 at 60 ng/µL; NT1, E. coli C-3000; NT2, Listeria monocytogenes ; NT3, flour without artificial inoculation.

    Techniques Used:

    Target ( E. coli O157) and non-target ( Listeria spp.) peak wavelength shift from 520 nm at varying concentrations, 1.25–20 ng/µL. Error bars represent 95% confidence intervals of 9 replicates.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Target ( E. coli O157) and non-target ( Listeria spp.) peak wavelength shift from 520 nm at varying concentrations, 1.25–20 ng/µL. Error bars represent 95% confidence intervals of 9 replicates.

    Techniques Used:

    Paired mean difference between target ( E. coli O157) and non-target ( Listeria spp.) peak wavelength , 20–1.25 ng/µL. Nine replicates. Error bars represent 95% confidence intervals.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Paired mean difference between target ( E. coli O157) and non-target ( Listeria spp.) peak wavelength , 20–1.25 ng/µL. Nine replicates. Error bars represent 95% confidence intervals.

    Techniques Used:

    ( a ) Normalized average absorbance spectra for 9 replicates of E. coli O157 biosensor; ( b ) E. coli O157 specificity results analyzed by peak wavelength shift from 520 nm and conducted with 10 ng/µL of DNA, 9 replicates per sample ( n = 9). Error bars represent 95% confidence intervals. (C, water; NT1, E. coli C-3000; NT2, S. Enteritidis; NT3, Listeria spp.; NT4, B. cereus ).
    Figure Legend Snippet: ( a ) Normalized average absorbance spectra for 9 replicates of E. coli O157 biosensor; ( b ) E. coli O157 specificity results analyzed by peak wavelength shift from 520 nm and conducted with 10 ng/µL of DNA, 9 replicates per sample ( n = 9). Error bars represent 95% confidence intervals. (C, water; NT1, E. coli C-3000; NT2, S. Enteritidis; NT3, Listeria spp.; NT4, B. cereus ).

    Techniques Used:

    7) Product Images from "Water Treatment Using High Performance Antifouling Ultrafiltration Polyether Sulfone Membranes Incorporated with Activated Carbon"

    Article Title: Water Treatment Using High Performance Antifouling Ultrafiltration Polyether Sulfone Membranes Incorporated with Activated Carbon

    Journal: Polymers

    doi: 10.3390/polym14112264

    Images of surfaces of agar diffusion studies of the fabricated membranes to ( a ) S. aureus and ( b ) E. coli inoculums, respectively.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Images of surfaces of agar diffusion studies of the fabricated membranes to ( a ) S. aureus and ( b ) E. coli inoculums, respectively.

    Techniques Used: Diffusion-based Assay

    The normalized width of the antimicrobial halo for the gram-negative E. coli and gram-positive S. aureus bacteria. (**** p
    Figure Legend Snippet: The normalized width of the antimicrobial halo for the gram-negative E. coli and gram-positive S. aureus bacteria. (**** p

    Techniques Used:

    8) Product Images from "Effect of germicidal short wave-length ultraviolet light on the polyphenols, vitamins, and microbial inactivation in highly opaque apple juice"

    Article Title: Effect of germicidal short wave-length ultraviolet light on the polyphenols, vitamins, and microbial inactivation in highly opaque apple juice

    Journal: bioRxiv

    doi: 10.1101/2022.07.29.502038

    UV-C Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple juice using a collimated Light Emitting Diode UV system at 263 nm wave-length; the fluence intensity gradients were adjusted (i.e. optical properties of apple juice). Triplicate irradiations were performed for each dose; all replicates shown on plot, and values shown are averages of duplicate plating of each irradiated sample. Error bars represent range of data.
    Figure Legend Snippet: UV-C Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple juice using a collimated Light Emitting Diode UV system at 263 nm wave-length; the fluence intensity gradients were adjusted (i.e. optical properties of apple juice). Triplicate irradiations were performed for each dose; all replicates shown on plot, and values shown are averages of duplicate plating of each irradiated sample. Error bars represent range of data.

    Techniques Used: Irradiation

    9) Product Images from "Antioxidative, Cytotoxic, and Antibacterial Properties of Self-assembled Glycine-histidine-based Dipeptides with or Without Silver Nanoparticles in Bio-inspired Film"

    Article Title: Antioxidative, Cytotoxic, and Antibacterial Properties of Self-assembled Glycine-histidine-based Dipeptides with or Without Silver Nanoparticles in Bio-inspired Film

    Journal: Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology

    doi: 10.2478/aiht-2022-73-3658

    Antibacterial activity of Gly-His dipeptides with or without AgNPs against a) Escherichia coli , b) Staphylococcus aureus , and c) Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    Figure Legend Snippet: Antibacterial activity of Gly-His dipeptides with or without AgNPs against a) Escherichia coli , b) Staphylococcus aureus , and c) Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay

    10) Product Images from "Evaluation of a strawberry fermented beverage with potential health benefits"

    Article Title: Evaluation of a strawberry fermented beverage with potential health benefits

    Journal: PeerJ

    doi: 10.7717/peerj.11974

    Fluorescence microscopy with biofilm coverslips. Biofilms were stained with acridine orange. Barequals 100 µm. Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 biofilm (A), control coverslip; Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 biofilm treated with 0.15 mL/mL fermented beverage (B); Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 biofilm (C), control coverslip; Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 biofilm treated with 0.15 mL/mL fermented beverage (D).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Fluorescence microscopy with biofilm coverslips. Biofilms were stained with acridine orange. Barequals 100 µm. Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 biofilm (A), control coverslip; Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 biofilm treated with 0.15 mL/mL fermented beverage (B); Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 biofilm (C), control coverslip; Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 biofilm treated with 0.15 mL/mL fermented beverage (D).

    Techniques Used: Fluorescence, Microscopy, Staining

    Effects of fermented beverage on growth curve of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 (A) and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 (B).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of fermented beverage on growth curve of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 (A) and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 (B).

    Techniques Used:

    11) Product Images from "Imipenem/cilastatin encapsulated polymeric nanoparticles for destroying carbapenem-resistant bacterial isolates"

    Article Title: Imipenem/cilastatin encapsulated polymeric nanoparticles for destroying carbapenem-resistant bacterial isolates

    Journal: Journal of Nanobiotechnology

    doi: 10.1186/s12951-017-0262-9

    Effect of carbapenemases on activity of imipenem/cilastatin (IMP), imipenem/cilastatin loaded polycaprolactone nanoparticles (IMP/PCL) and imipenem/cilastatin loaded polylactide- co -glycolide nanoparticles (IMP/PLGA) against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of carbapenemases on activity of imipenem/cilastatin (IMP), imipenem/cilastatin loaded polycaprolactone nanoparticles (IMP/PCL) and imipenem/cilastatin loaded polylactide- co -glycolide nanoparticles (IMP/PLGA) against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay

    12) Product Images from "Bacterial Extracellular DNA Promotes β-Amyloid Aggregation"

    Article Title: Bacterial Extracellular DNA Promotes β-Amyloid Aggregation

    Journal: Microorganisms

    doi: 10.3390/microorganisms9061301

    Effect of eDNA and RNA of different Escherichia coli strains on amyloid β (Aβ) aggregation. To study the effect of DNA on Aβ aggregation, Aβ1-42 oligomers were incubated with preparations containing 1000 ng of nucleic acids extracted from different strains of E. coli . eDNA of E. coli ATCC29522 (EC25), E. coli ATCC472217 (EC47), E. coli G39 (ECG39), E. coli dPHF (ECdPHF), and E. coli MUP6 (ECMup6), RNA of E. coli ATCC29522 (EC25_RNA), and eDNA of E. coli ATCC29522 treated with DNase (EC25+DNase) were used. ( A ). ThT fluorescence as a function of time in the presence of indicated DNA and RNA probes (h); ( B ) t1/2 values of aggregation. Values represent the mean ± SD of experiments performed in triplicate. *** p ≤ 0.001, ** p ≤ 0.01 * p ≤ 0.05. ( C ) Bioanalyzer gel image for eDNA extracted from different strains of E. coli .
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of eDNA and RNA of different Escherichia coli strains on amyloid β (Aβ) aggregation. To study the effect of DNA on Aβ aggregation, Aβ1-42 oligomers were incubated with preparations containing 1000 ng of nucleic acids extracted from different strains of E. coli . eDNA of E. coli ATCC29522 (EC25), E. coli ATCC472217 (EC47), E. coli G39 (ECG39), E. coli dPHF (ECdPHF), and E. coli MUP6 (ECMup6), RNA of E. coli ATCC29522 (EC25_RNA), and eDNA of E. coli ATCC29522 treated with DNase (EC25+DNase) were used. ( A ). ThT fluorescence as a function of time in the presence of indicated DNA and RNA probes (h); ( B ) t1/2 values of aggregation. Values represent the mean ± SD of experiments performed in triplicate. *** p ≤ 0.001, ** p ≤ 0.01 * p ≤ 0.05. ( C ) Bioanalyzer gel image for eDNA extracted from different strains of E. coli .

    Techniques Used: Incubation, Fluorescence

    Dose-dependent effect of eDNA on amyloid β (Aβ) aggregation. Dose-dependent effect of DNA from Escherichia coli ATCC29522 and Porphyromonas gingivalis on Aβ aggregation. Effect of the eDNA of E. coli ATCC29522 on ( A ) the aggregation of ThT fluorescence as a function of time, ( B ) normalized ThT fluorescence (relative aggregate concentration) as a function of time (h), and ( C ) t1/2 values of the aggregation. Effect of the eDNA of P. gingivalis on ( D ) the aggregation of ThT fluorescence as a function of time, ( E ) normalized ThT fluorescence (relative aggregate concentration) as a function of time (h), and ( F ) t1/2 values of aggregation. For the images ( A , C , D , F ) symbols represent averages and error bars represent the standard deviation of experiments performed in triplicate. * p ≤ 0.05; For the images ( B , E ) all replicates from three experiments are shown in the plot.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Dose-dependent effect of eDNA on amyloid β (Aβ) aggregation. Dose-dependent effect of DNA from Escherichia coli ATCC29522 and Porphyromonas gingivalis on Aβ aggregation. Effect of the eDNA of E. coli ATCC29522 on ( A ) the aggregation of ThT fluorescence as a function of time, ( B ) normalized ThT fluorescence (relative aggregate concentration) as a function of time (h), and ( C ) t1/2 values of the aggregation. Effect of the eDNA of P. gingivalis on ( D ) the aggregation of ThT fluorescence as a function of time, ( E ) normalized ThT fluorescence (relative aggregate concentration) as a function of time (h), and ( F ) t1/2 values of aggregation. For the images ( A , C , D , F ) symbols represent averages and error bars represent the standard deviation of experiments performed in triplicate. * p ≤ 0.05; For the images ( B , E ) all replicates from three experiments are shown in the plot.

    Techniques Used: Fluorescence, Concentration Assay, Standard Deviation

    13) Product Images from "Genomic features of a multidrug-resistant and mercury-tolerant environmental Escherichia coli recovered after a mining dam disaster in South America"

    Article Title: Genomic features of a multidrug-resistant and mercury-tolerant environmental Escherichia coli recovered after a mining dam disaster in South America

    Journal: The Science of the Total Environment

    doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.153590

    In A, phylogenetic tree of 34 Escherichia coli strains belonging to ST219. Genome sequences and epidemiological information (i.e., sources of isolation, predicted antimicrobial resistance phenotype, country, and year of collection) were downloaded from Enterobase ( www.enterobase.warwick.ac.uk ). ISO 3166-1 Alpha-2 country codes: BR, Brazil; CA, Canada; DE, Germany; DK, Denmark; EE, Estonia; FR, France; GB, United Kingdom; IN, India; JP, Japan; KE, Kenya; NL, Netherlands; QA, Qatar; SE, Sweden; TW, Taiwan; US, United States. In B, a subtree of the highlighted cluster shows the resistome and plasmidome of the isolates.
    Figure Legend Snippet: In A, phylogenetic tree of 34 Escherichia coli strains belonging to ST219. Genome sequences and epidemiological information (i.e., sources of isolation, predicted antimicrobial resistance phenotype, country, and year of collection) were downloaded from Enterobase ( www.enterobase.warwick.ac.uk ). ISO 3166-1 Alpha-2 country codes: BR, Brazil; CA, Canada; DE, Germany; DK, Denmark; EE, Estonia; FR, France; GB, United Kingdom; IN, India; JP, Japan; KE, Kenya; NL, Netherlands; QA, Qatar; SE, Sweden; TW, Taiwan; US, United States. In B, a subtree of the highlighted cluster shows the resistome and plasmidome of the isolates.

    Techniques Used: Isolation

    In A, a circular graphical plot of Escherichia coli strain B2C shows the genome annotation distribution. From outer to inner rings: the contigs, CDS (forward strand), CDS (reverse strand), RNA genes, CDS with homology to known antimicrobial resistance genes, CDS with homology to known virulence factors, GC content, and GC skew. In B, PATRIC functional annotation and overview of subsystems genes in the environmental E. coli strain B2C. The color scheme also indicates the subsystem that belongs to each CDS gene on the forward and reverse strand.
    Figure Legend Snippet: In A, a circular graphical plot of Escherichia coli strain B2C shows the genome annotation distribution. From outer to inner rings: the contigs, CDS (forward strand), CDS (reverse strand), RNA genes, CDS with homology to known antimicrobial resistance genes, CDS with homology to known virulence factors, GC content, and GC skew. In B, PATRIC functional annotation and overview of subsystems genes in the environmental E. coli strain B2C. The color scheme also indicates the subsystem that belongs to each CDS gene on the forward and reverse strand.

    Techniques Used: Functional Assay

    Schematic representation E. coli B2C IncFIB plasmid (this study), and Salmonella Kentucky plasmid isolated from chicken wing in USA (Genbank accession no. CP082700 ). The bla CTX-M-2 gene is associated with IS 91 insertion sequence, along with the mercury resistance operon ( merETPCADE ), antibiotic [ sul1 , tet(A) , aac(3)-Vla ] and quaternary ammonium compounds ( qacEΔ1 ). Arrows represents coding sequences (CDS) labeled with gene name or product and displayed according to gene orientation; the gray shades indicates regions of homology.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Schematic representation E. coli B2C IncFIB plasmid (this study), and Salmonella Kentucky plasmid isolated from chicken wing in USA (Genbank accession no. CP082700 ). The bla CTX-M-2 gene is associated with IS 91 insertion sequence, along with the mercury resistance operon ( merETPCADE ), antibiotic [ sul1 , tet(A) , aac(3)-Vla ] and quaternary ammonium compounds ( qacEΔ1 ). Arrows represents coding sequences (CDS) labeled with gene name or product and displayed according to gene orientation; the gray shades indicates regions of homology.

    Techniques Used: Plasmid Preparation, Isolation, Sequencing, Labeling

    14) Product Images from "Photo-induced antibacterial activity of four graphene based nanomaterials on a wide range of bacteria †"

    Article Title: Photo-induced antibacterial activity of four graphene based nanomaterials on a wide range of bacteria †

    Journal: RSC Advances

    doi: 10.1039/c8ra04664f

    Presence of 260-nm-absorbing material in the filtrates of: (a) E. coli after treatment with GO, GQD, CQDCA and CQDNH at 24 h, compared to E. coli control suspension under AL and (b) E. coli after treatment with GO, GQD, CQDCA and CQDNH at 24 h, compared to E. coli control suspension under BL. The mean ± SD for three replicates are illustrated.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Presence of 260-nm-absorbing material in the filtrates of: (a) E. coli after treatment with GO, GQD, CQDCA and CQDNH at 24 h, compared to E. coli control suspension under AL and (b) E. coli after treatment with GO, GQD, CQDCA and CQDNH at 24 h, compared to E. coli control suspension under BL. The mean ± SD for three replicates are illustrated.

    Techniques Used:

    15) Product Images from "Janus N,N-dimethylformamide as a solvent for a gradient porous wound dressing of poly(vinylidene fluoride) and as a reducer for in situ nano-silver production: anti-permeation, antibacterial and antifouling activities against multi-drug-resistant bacteria both in vitro and in vivo †"

    Article Title: Janus N,N-dimethylformamide as a solvent for a gradient porous wound dressing of poly(vinylidene fluoride) and as a reducer for in situ nano-silver production: anti-permeation, antibacterial and antifouling activities against multi-drug-resistant bacteria both in vitro and in vivo †

    Journal: RSC Advances

    doi: 10.1039/c8ra03234c

    OD 600 values of (A) A. baumannii and (B) E. coli bacterial suspensions after 24 h incubation with PVDF, PVDF/NS10, PVDF/NS25 or PVDF/NS50 films, or antibiotics. (C) Representative photographs of bacterial colonies of A. baumannii and E. coli . The quantitative number of bacteria for (D) A. baumannii and (E) E. coli . The values are shown as the mean ± SD ( n = 3).
    Figure Legend Snippet: OD 600 values of (A) A. baumannii and (B) E. coli bacterial suspensions after 24 h incubation with PVDF, PVDF/NS10, PVDF/NS25 or PVDF/NS50 films, or antibiotics. (C) Representative photographs of bacterial colonies of A. baumannii and E. coli . The quantitative number of bacteria for (D) A. baumannii and (E) E. coli . The values are shown as the mean ± SD ( n = 3).

    Techniques Used: Incubation

    Bacterial penetration of Vaseline gauze, PVDF, PVDF/NS10, PVDF/NS25 and PVDF/NS50 films for (A) A. baumannii and (B) E. coli . (E) The values are shown as the mean ± SD ( n = 3).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Bacterial penetration of Vaseline gauze, PVDF, PVDF/NS10, PVDF/NS25 and PVDF/NS50 films for (A) A. baumannii and (B) E. coli . (E) The values are shown as the mean ± SD ( n = 3).

    Techniques Used:

    16) Product Images from "Determination of synergistic effects of antibiotics and Zno NPs against isolated E. Coli and A. Baumannii bacterial strains from clinical samples"

    Article Title: Determination of synergistic effects of antibiotics and Zno NPs against isolated E. Coli and A. Baumannii bacterial strains from clinical samples

    Journal: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences

    doi: 10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.05.057

    Time-Kill Curve for Escherichia coli (KPC-18–24). This Figure shows growth curves against Ciprofloxacin alone, ZnO alone, and the combination of different concentrations of Ciprofloxacin (4,8,16,32) µg/mL with 0.125 mg/mL ZnO NPs at different time intervals. (Cipro) Ciprofloxacin, (ZnO) ZnO NPs suspension.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Time-Kill Curve for Escherichia coli (KPC-18–24). This Figure shows growth curves against Ciprofloxacin alone, ZnO alone, and the combination of different concentrations of Ciprofloxacin (4,8,16,32) µg/mL with 0.125 mg/mL ZnO NPs at different time intervals. (Cipro) Ciprofloxacin, (ZnO) ZnO NPs suspension.

    Techniques Used:

    Time-Kill Curve for Escherichia coli (01UR19006568-01), shows growth curves against Ciprofloxacin alone, ZnO alone, and the combination of different concentrations of Ciprofloxacin (4,8,16,32) µg/mL with 0.125 mg/mL ZnO NPs at different time intervals. (Cipro) Ciprofloxacin, (ZnO) ZnO NPs suspension.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Time-Kill Curve for Escherichia coli (01UR19006568-01), shows growth curves against Ciprofloxacin alone, ZnO alone, and the combination of different concentrations of Ciprofloxacin (4,8,16,32) µg/mL with 0.125 mg/mL ZnO NPs at different time intervals. (Cipro) Ciprofloxacin, (ZnO) ZnO NPs suspension.

    Techniques Used:

    Time-Kill Curve for Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922). This Figure shows the growth curves against Ciprofloxacin alone, ZnO alone, and the combination of different concentrations of Ciprofloxacin (0.004, 0.008, 0.016, 0.032) µg/mL with 0.125 mg/mL ZnO NPs at different time intervals. (Cipro) Ciprofloxacin, (ZnO) ZnO NPs suspension.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Time-Kill Curve for Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922). This Figure shows the growth curves against Ciprofloxacin alone, ZnO alone, and the combination of different concentrations of Ciprofloxacin (0.004, 0.008, 0.016, 0.032) µg/mL with 0.125 mg/mL ZnO NPs at different time intervals. (Cipro) Ciprofloxacin, (ZnO) ZnO NPs suspension.

    Techniques Used:

    17) Product Images from "Programmable biological state-switching photoelectric nanosheets for the treatment of infected wounds"

    Article Title: Programmable biological state-switching photoelectric nanosheets for the treatment of infected wounds

    Journal: Materials Today Bio

    doi: 10.1016/j.mtbio.2022.100292

    In vitro antibacterial assay of BiOCl photoelectric nanosheets under light switch off/on states. Plate counting assay of (a) E. coli . and (d) S. aureus cultured in the presence of BiOCl. The corresponding antibacterial ratio of the nanosheets from the surviving colony fractions of E. coli (b) and from S. aureus (e) under one of the bimodal conditions of light activation. The ROS levels in E. coli (c) and S. aureus (f) were analyzed by DCFH-DA probe assay by switching the bimodal light trigger. Fluorescent intensity was normalized by initial fluorescent intensity of the Blank (F L /F L0 ). (g–h) Representative SEM images of bacteria treated with BiOCl nanosheets under light switch off and on states. The scale bar is 200 ​nm. The experiment was performed in independent triplicates. Data is presented as mean ​± ​SD (∗P ​
    Figure Legend Snippet: In vitro antibacterial assay of BiOCl photoelectric nanosheets under light switch off/on states. Plate counting assay of (a) E. coli . and (d) S. aureus cultured in the presence of BiOCl. The corresponding antibacterial ratio of the nanosheets from the surviving colony fractions of E. coli (b) and from S. aureus (e) under one of the bimodal conditions of light activation. The ROS levels in E. coli (c) and S. aureus (f) were analyzed by DCFH-DA probe assay by switching the bimodal light trigger. Fluorescent intensity was normalized by initial fluorescent intensity of the Blank (F L /F L0 ). (g–h) Representative SEM images of bacteria treated with BiOCl nanosheets under light switch off and on states. The scale bar is 200 ​nm. The experiment was performed in independent triplicates. Data is presented as mean ​± ​SD (∗P ​

    Techniques Used: In Vitro, Cell Culture, Activation Assay

    18) Product Images from "Loading of Polydimethylsiloxane with a Human ApoB-Derived Antimicrobial Peptide to Prevent Bacterial Infections"

    Article Title: Loading of Polydimethylsiloxane with a Human ApoB-Derived Antimicrobial Peptide to Prevent Bacterial Infections

    Journal: International Journal of Molecular Sciences

    doi: 10.3390/ijms23095219

    Analysis of the bactericidal activity of PDMS-r(P)ApoB L Pro ( a ). Evaluation of PDMS-r(P)ApoB L Pro ability to interfere with bacterial cells adhesion ( b ). SEM analyses of unfunctionalized PDMS and of PDMS-r(P)ApoB L Pro upon incubation with E. coli ATCC 25922 bacterial cells ( c ). Cells debris (red arrows) is visible. Statistical analyses were performed by using Student’s t -test. Significant differences were indicated as ** ( p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Analysis of the bactericidal activity of PDMS-r(P)ApoB L Pro ( a ). Evaluation of PDMS-r(P)ApoB L Pro ability to interfere with bacterial cells adhesion ( b ). SEM analyses of unfunctionalized PDMS and of PDMS-r(P)ApoB L Pro upon incubation with E. coli ATCC 25922 bacterial cells ( c ). Cells debris (red arrows) is visible. Statistical analyses were performed by using Student’s t -test. Significant differences were indicated as ** ( p

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Incubation

    Kinetic analyses of r(P)ApoB L Pro release from PDMS ( a ). The obtained red curve is the best fit of the experimental values (black squares) obtained by a logistic function. Evaluation of the antibacterial activity of PDMS functionalized with two different concentrations (30 and 160 μM) of r(P)ApoB L Pro peptide and incubated with 0.5X nutrient broth (NB) for 400 min at 37 °C. Upon incubation, both PDMS ( b ) and the medium containing released peptide ( c ) were tested for their activity towards E. coli ATCC 25922. Data represent the mean (±SD) of at least two independent experiments, each one carried out with triplicate determinations. Significant differences were indicated as *** ( p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Kinetic analyses of r(P)ApoB L Pro release from PDMS ( a ). The obtained red curve is the best fit of the experimental values (black squares) obtained by a logistic function. Evaluation of the antibacterial activity of PDMS functionalized with two different concentrations (30 and 160 μM) of r(P)ApoB L Pro peptide and incubated with 0.5X nutrient broth (NB) for 400 min at 37 °C. Upon incubation, both PDMS ( b ) and the medium containing released peptide ( c ) were tested for their activity towards E. coli ATCC 25922. Data represent the mean (±SD) of at least two independent experiments, each one carried out with triplicate determinations. Significant differences were indicated as *** ( p

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Incubation

    Time killing curves obtained by incubating E. coli ATCC 25922 cells alone (control) or in the presence of unfunctionalized PDMS or with PDMS-r(P)ApoB L Pro (10 µM). Data represent the mean (±SD) of at least two independent experiments, each one carried out with triplicate determinations.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Time killing curves obtained by incubating E. coli ATCC 25922 cells alone (control) or in the presence of unfunctionalized PDMS or with PDMS-r(P)ApoB L Pro (10 µM). Data represent the mean (±SD) of at least two independent experiments, each one carried out with triplicate determinations.

    Techniques Used:

    19) Product Images from "Loading of Polydimethylsiloxane with a Human ApoB-Derived Antimicrobial Peptide to Prevent Bacterial Infections"

    Article Title: Loading of Polydimethylsiloxane with a Human ApoB-Derived Antimicrobial Peptide to Prevent Bacterial Infections

    Journal: International Journal of Molecular Sciences

    doi: 10.3390/ijms23095219

    Analysis of the bactericidal activity of PDMS-r(P)ApoB L Pro ( a ). Evaluation of PDMS-r(P)ApoB L Pro ability to interfere with bacterial cells adhesion ( b ). SEM analyses of unfunctionalized PDMS and of PDMS-r(P)ApoB L Pro upon incubation with E. coli ATCC 25922 bacterial cells ( c ). Cells debris (red arrows) is visible. Statistical analyses were performed by using Student’s t -test. Significant differences were indicated as ** ( p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Analysis of the bactericidal activity of PDMS-r(P)ApoB L Pro ( a ). Evaluation of PDMS-r(P)ApoB L Pro ability to interfere with bacterial cells adhesion ( b ). SEM analyses of unfunctionalized PDMS and of PDMS-r(P)ApoB L Pro upon incubation with E. coli ATCC 25922 bacterial cells ( c ). Cells debris (red arrows) is visible. Statistical analyses were performed by using Student’s t -test. Significant differences were indicated as ** ( p

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Incubation

    Kinetic analyses of r(P)ApoB L Pro release from PDMS ( a ). The obtained red curve is the best fit of the experimental values (black squares) obtained by a logistic function. Evaluation of the antibacterial activity of PDMS functionalized with two different concentrations (30 and 160 μM) of r(P)ApoB L Pro peptide and incubated with 0.5X nutrient broth (NB) for 400 min at 37 °C. Upon incubation, both PDMS ( b ) and the medium containing released peptide ( c ) were tested for their activity towards E. coli ATCC 25922. Data represent the mean (±SD) of at least two independent experiments, each one carried out with triplicate determinations. Significant differences were indicated as *** ( p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Kinetic analyses of r(P)ApoB L Pro release from PDMS ( a ). The obtained red curve is the best fit of the experimental values (black squares) obtained by a logistic function. Evaluation of the antibacterial activity of PDMS functionalized with two different concentrations (30 and 160 μM) of r(P)ApoB L Pro peptide and incubated with 0.5X nutrient broth (NB) for 400 min at 37 °C. Upon incubation, both PDMS ( b ) and the medium containing released peptide ( c ) were tested for their activity towards E. coli ATCC 25922. Data represent the mean (±SD) of at least two independent experiments, each one carried out with triplicate determinations. Significant differences were indicated as *** ( p

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Incubation

    Time killing curves obtained by incubating E. coli ATCC 25922 cells alone (control) or in the presence of unfunctionalized PDMS or with PDMS-r(P)ApoB L Pro (10 µM). Data represent the mean (±SD) of at least two independent experiments, each one carried out with triplicate determinations.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Time killing curves obtained by incubating E. coli ATCC 25922 cells alone (control) or in the presence of unfunctionalized PDMS or with PDMS-r(P)ApoB L Pro (10 µM). Data represent the mean (±SD) of at least two independent experiments, each one carried out with triplicate determinations.

    Techniques Used:

    20) Product Images from "Clinico-microbiological study and antibiotic resistance profile of mecA and ESBL gene prevalence in patients with diabetic foot infections"

    Article Title: Clinico-microbiological study and antibiotic resistance profile of mecA and ESBL gene prevalence in patients with diabetic foot infections

    Journal: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine

    doi: 10.3892/etm.2016.2996

    Microbiology of DFUs. Distribution of microbes isolated from DFU samples. DFU, diabetic foot ulcer; SA, Staphylococcus aureus; E. coli, Escherichia coli ; PA, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ; KP, Klebsiella pneumoniae ; spp, species.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Microbiology of DFUs. Distribution of microbes isolated from DFU samples. DFU, diabetic foot ulcer; SA, Staphylococcus aureus; E. coli, Escherichia coli ; PA, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ; KP, Klebsiella pneumoniae ; spp, species.

    Techniques Used: Isolation

    21) Product Images from "Quantification of Intestinal Bacterial Populations by Real-Time PCR with a Universal Primer Set and Minor Groove Binder Probes: a Global Approach to the Enteric Flora"

    Article Title: Quantification of Intestinal Bacterial Populations by Real-Time PCR with a Universal Primer Set and Minor Groove Binder Probes: a Global Approach to the Enteric Flora

    Journal: Journal of Clinical Microbiology

    doi: 10.1128/JCM.42.6.2566-2572.2004

    Recovery rates of different concentrations (0.1 and 0.001 ng) of bacterial DNA ( Escherichia coli and Bacteroides fragilis ) spiked into DNA of an intestinal biopsy sample (A) and a stool sample (B) of healthy volunteers. The mean recovery of bacterial DNA is 78.76% (range, 70.18 to 90.20%).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Recovery rates of different concentrations (0.1 and 0.001 ng) of bacterial DNA ( Escherichia coli and Bacteroides fragilis ) spiked into DNA of an intestinal biopsy sample (A) and a stool sample (B) of healthy volunteers. The mean recovery of bacterial DNA is 78.76% (range, 70.18 to 90.20%).

    Techniques Used:

    Number of cells detected by real-time PCR in clinical samples (biopsies) of five healthy controls (patients 1 to 5). (A) Total bacteria (VIC-labeled universal probe). (B, C, and D) Escherichia coli ; Bacteroides , Porphyromonas , and Prevotella ; and Enterobacteriaceae , respectively (FAM-labeled specific probes). Normalized mean values of two independent experiments ± standard deviation are shown.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Number of cells detected by real-time PCR in clinical samples (biopsies) of five healthy controls (patients 1 to 5). (A) Total bacteria (VIC-labeled universal probe). (B, C, and D) Escherichia coli ; Bacteroides , Porphyromonas , and Prevotella ; and Enterobacteriaceae , respectively (FAM-labeled specific probes). Normalized mean values of two independent experiments ± standard deviation are shown.

    Techniques Used: Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Labeling, Standard Deviation

    22) Product Images from "Synergistic Effect of Combinations Containing EDTA and the Antimicrobial Peptide AA230, an Arenicin-3 Derivative, on Gram-Negative Bacteria"

    Article Title: Synergistic Effect of Combinations Containing EDTA and the Antimicrobial Peptide AA230, an Arenicin-3 Derivative, on Gram-Negative Bacteria

    Journal: Biomolecules

    doi: 10.3390/biom8040122

    Time-kill curves of antimicrobial peptide AA230 against ( a ) Escherichia coli ATCC (American Type Culture Collection); ( b ) Escherichia coli ESBL (extended spectrum beta lactamase).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Time-kill curves of antimicrobial peptide AA230 against ( a ) Escherichia coli ATCC (American Type Culture Collection); ( b ) Escherichia coli ESBL (extended spectrum beta lactamase).

    Techniques Used:

    Time-kill curves of antimicrobial peptide AA230 and EDTA used alone and in combination against ( a , b ) Escherichia coli ATCC; ( c , d ) Escherichia coli ESBL.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Time-kill curves of antimicrobial peptide AA230 and EDTA used alone and in combination against ( a , b ) Escherichia coli ATCC; ( c , d ) Escherichia coli ESBL.

    Techniques Used:

    Time-kill curves of EDTA (etlylenediaminetetraacetic acid) against ( a ) Escherichia coli ATCC (American Type Culture Collection); ( b ) Escherichia coli ESBL (extended spectrum beta lactamase).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Time-kill curves of EDTA (etlylenediaminetetraacetic acid) against ( a ) Escherichia coli ATCC (American Type Culture Collection); ( b ) Escherichia coli ESBL (extended spectrum beta lactamase).

    Techniques Used:

    23) Product Images from "Optimizing a Screening Protocol for Potential Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase Escherichia coli on MacConkey Agar for Use in a Global Surveillance Program"

    Article Title: Optimizing a Screening Protocol for Potential Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase Escherichia coli on MacConkey Agar for Use in a Global Surveillance Program

    Journal: Journal of Clinical Microbiology

    doi: 10.1128/JCM.01039-19

    Phenotypic appearance of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae strains plated in cocktail combinations (C1, C2, C3, and C4) onto US-1 MacConkey agar supplemented with 1, 2, or 4 μg/ml cefotaxime.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Phenotypic appearance of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae strains plated in cocktail combinations (C1, C2, C3, and C4) onto US-1 MacConkey agar supplemented with 1, 2, or 4 μg/ml cefotaxime.

    Techniques Used:

    Phenotypic appearance of pure cultures of Escherichia coli (EC) 13457 and E. coli 10455 on MacConkey agar manufactured in Canada (CA), India (IN), and China (CH) supplemented with 4 μg/ml either cefotaxime (TOX) or ceftriaxone (AXO).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Phenotypic appearance of pure cultures of Escherichia coli (EC) 13457 and E. coli 10455 on MacConkey agar manufactured in Canada (CA), India (IN), and China (CH) supplemented with 4 μg/ml either cefotaxime (TOX) or ceftriaxone (AXO).

    Techniques Used:

    24) Product Images from "A cross-sectional study on the prevalence of antibiotic use prior to laboratory tests at two Ghanaian hospitals"

    Article Title: A cross-sectional study on the prevalence of antibiotic use prior to laboratory tests at two Ghanaian hospitals

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0210716

    A model for the arrangement of filter paper and antibiotics discs on the agar plates. (A) Escherichia coli plate (ATCC 25922) (B) Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) plate.
    Figure Legend Snippet: A model for the arrangement of filter paper and antibiotics discs on the agar plates. (A) Escherichia coli plate (ATCC 25922) (B) Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) plate.

    Techniques Used:

    25) Product Images from "Comparative evaluation of silver‐containing antimicrobial dressings and drugs"

    Article Title: Comparative evaluation of silver‐containing antimicrobial dressings and drugs

    Journal: International Wound Journal

    doi: 10.1111/j.1742-481X.2007.00316.x

    Average zone of inhibition of eight silver dressings and antimicrobial creams Escherichia coli .
    Figure Legend Snippet: Average zone of inhibition of eight silver dressings and antimicrobial creams Escherichia coli .

    Techniques Used: Inhibition

    26) Product Images from "The Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Anticancer Activity of Greenly Synthesized Selenium and Zinc Composite Nanoparticles Using Ephedra aphylla Extract"

    Article Title: The Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Anticancer Activity of Greenly Synthesized Selenium and Zinc Composite Nanoparticles Using Ephedra aphylla Extract

    Journal: Biomolecules

    doi: 10.3390/biom11030470

    Photos of the antimicrobial activity of the wild Ephedra aphylla water extract and the synthesized nanoparticles using well diffusion assay against different pathogenic microbial starins as presented in subfigures ( a ): Salmonella typhimurium , ( b ): Bacillus cereus , ( c ): Klebsiella pneumoniae , ( d ): Escherichia coli , ( e ): Staphylococcus epidermidis , ( f ): Pseudomonas aeruginosa , ( g ): Staphylococcus aureus , ( h ): Listeria monocytogenes and ( i ): Candida albicans where, Code 1 = Ephedra aphylla aqueous extract; Code 1 Se = greenly synthesized selenium nanoparticles; Code 1 Zn = greenly synthesized zinc nanoparticles.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Photos of the antimicrobial activity of the wild Ephedra aphylla water extract and the synthesized nanoparticles using well diffusion assay against different pathogenic microbial starins as presented in subfigures ( a ): Salmonella typhimurium , ( b ): Bacillus cereus , ( c ): Klebsiella pneumoniae , ( d ): Escherichia coli , ( e ): Staphylococcus epidermidis , ( f ): Pseudomonas aeruginosa , ( g ): Staphylococcus aureus , ( h ): Listeria monocytogenes and ( i ): Candida albicans where, Code 1 = Ephedra aphylla aqueous extract; Code 1 Se = greenly synthesized selenium nanoparticles; Code 1 Zn = greenly synthesized zinc nanoparticles.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Synthesized, Diffusion-based Assay

    27) Product Images from "Comparative Study of Polycaprolactone Electrospun Fibers and Casting Films Enriched with Carbon and Nitrogen Sources and Their Potential Use in Water Bioremediation"

    Article Title: Comparative Study of Polycaprolactone Electrospun Fibers and Casting Films Enriched with Carbon and Nitrogen Sources and Their Potential Use in Water Bioremediation

    Journal: Membranes

    doi: 10.3390/membranes12030327

    Comparative growth of Escherichia coli exposed to ( A ) PCL/Cs fibers and films and ( B ) PCL/Ns fibers and films.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Comparative growth of Escherichia coli exposed to ( A ) PCL/Cs fibers and films and ( B ) PCL/Ns fibers and films.

    Techniques Used:

    28) Product Images from "Revealing the Effect of Synthesis Conditions on the Structural, Optical, and Antibacterial Properties of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles"

    Article Title: Revealing the Effect of Synthesis Conditions on the Structural, Optical, and Antibacterial Properties of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles

    Journal: Nanomaterials

    doi: 10.3390/nano11102596

    Growth curves of Escherichia coli treated with cerium oxide nanoparticles.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Growth curves of Escherichia coli treated with cerium oxide nanoparticles.

    Techniques Used:

    29) Product Images from "Molecular Targets of β-Lactam-Based Antimicrobials: Beyond the Usual Suspects"

    Article Title: Molecular Targets of β-Lactam-Based Antimicrobials: Beyond the Usual Suspects

    Journal: Antibiotics

    doi: 10.3390/antibiotics3020128

    β-Lactams active against Escherichia coli leader peptidase.
    Figure Legend Snippet: β-Lactams active against Escherichia coli leader peptidase.

    Techniques Used:

    30) Product Images from "Polymeric Inserts Containing Eudragit® L100 Nanoparticle for Improved Ocular Delivery of Azithromycin"

    Article Title: Polymeric Inserts Containing Eudragit® L100 Nanoparticle for Improved Ocular Delivery of Azithromycin

    Journal: Biomedicines

    doi: 10.3390/biomedicines8110466

    The areas of inhibited growth of ( a ) Escherichia coli and ( b ) Staphylococcus aureus around AZM film-HPMC and AZM film-HEC. Note: Scale: 1 mm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: The areas of inhibited growth of ( a ) Escherichia coli and ( b ) Staphylococcus aureus around AZM film-HPMC and AZM film-HEC. Note: Scale: 1 mm.

    Techniques Used:

    31) Product Images from "Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification for Detection of Staphylococcus aureus in Dairy Cow Suffering from Mastitis"

    Article Title: Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification for Detection of Staphylococcus aureus in Dairy Cow Suffering from Mastitis

    Journal: Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology

    doi: 10.1155/2012/435982

    Specificity of LAMP. M: DL2000 DNA marker; 1: negative control; 2: Staphylococcus aureus ; 3: Escherichia coli ; 4: Streptococcus agalactiae ; 5: Salmonella typhimurium ; 6: Staphylococcus epidermidis .
    Figure Legend Snippet: Specificity of LAMP. M: DL2000 DNA marker; 1: negative control; 2: Staphylococcus aureus ; 3: Escherichia coli ; 4: Streptococcus agalactiae ; 5: Salmonella typhimurium ; 6: Staphylococcus epidermidis .

    Techniques Used: Marker, Negative Control

    32) Product Images from "Antibacterial effects of Apis mellifera and stingless bees honeys on susceptible and resistant strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia"

    Article Title: Antibacterial effects of Apis mellifera and stingless bees honeys on susceptible and resistant strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia

    Journal: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-13-269

    Bacteria inhibitions of 50% solution (v/v) of stingless bees honey, Apis mellifera white and yellow honeys on Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Klebsiella pneumoniae (R), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and Escherichia coli (R).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Bacteria inhibitions of 50% solution (v/v) of stingless bees honey, Apis mellifera white and yellow honeys on Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Klebsiella pneumoniae (R), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and Escherichia coli (R).

    Techniques Used:

    33) Product Images from "Evidence of Community-Wide Spread of Multi-Drug Resistant Escherichia coli in Young Children in Lusaka and Ndola Districts, Zambia"

    Article Title: Evidence of Community-Wide Spread of Multi-Drug Resistant Escherichia coli in Young Children in Lusaka and Ndola Districts, Zambia

    Journal: Microorganisms

    doi: 10.3390/microorganisms10081684

    Resistance profile of 1020 E. coli isolates; ( a ) Overall and ( b ) healthy versus diarrhoeic children; AMC: Amoxicillin-Clavulanic acid; AMP: Ampicillin; CTX: Cefotaxime; CHL: Chloramphenicol; CIP: Ciprofloxacin; GEN: Gentamicin; NAL: Nalidixic acid; TCY: Tetracycline; SXT: Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole; IPM: Imipenem.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Resistance profile of 1020 E. coli isolates; ( a ) Overall and ( b ) healthy versus diarrhoeic children; AMC: Amoxicillin-Clavulanic acid; AMP: Ampicillin; CTX: Cefotaxime; CHL: Chloramphenicol; CIP: Ciprofloxacin; GEN: Gentamicin; NAL: Nalidixic acid; TCY: Tetracycline; SXT: Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole; IPM: Imipenem.

    Techniques Used:

    34) Product Images from "Development of Dicationic Bisguanidine-Arylfuran Derivatives as Potent Agents against Gram-Negative Bacteria"

    Article Title: Development of Dicationic Bisguanidine-Arylfuran Derivatives as Potent Agents against Gram-Negative Bacteria

    Journal: Antibiotics

    doi: 10.3390/antibiotics11081115

    Antibacterial activity dose–response curves of compounds showing the most promising antimicrobial effects against the 10 Gram-negative bacteria, E. coli CCUG #17620/ATCC #25922 (control strain) ( A ) and CCUG #67180 ( B ), K. pneumoniae CCUG #58547 ( C ) and CCUG #225T ( D ), P. aeruginosa CCUG #17619 ( E ) and CCUG #59347 ( F ), A. baumannii CCUG #57035 ( G ) and CCUG #57250 ( H ), E. cloacae CCUG #6323T ( I ) and E. hormaechei CCUG #58962 ( J ). Compounds with the highest selectivity indices (SI ≥ 20×) are shown in blue and the lead compound in red. EC 50 , EC 90 and SI values (in µM) can be found in Table 2 and Table S2 .
    Figure Legend Snippet: Antibacterial activity dose–response curves of compounds showing the most promising antimicrobial effects against the 10 Gram-negative bacteria, E. coli CCUG #17620/ATCC #25922 (control strain) ( A ) and CCUG #67180 ( B ), K. pneumoniae CCUG #58547 ( C ) and CCUG #225T ( D ), P. aeruginosa CCUG #17619 ( E ) and CCUG #59347 ( F ), A. baumannii CCUG #57035 ( G ) and CCUG #57250 ( H ), E. cloacae CCUG #6323T ( I ) and E. hormaechei CCUG #58962 ( J ). Compounds with the highest selectivity indices (SI ≥ 20×) are shown in blue and the lead compound in red. EC 50 , EC 90 and SI values (in µM) can be found in Table 2 and Table S2 .

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay

    High-resolution microbial phenomics profiling of synthesized compounds 1 , 4 , 6 , 10 , 16, and known antibiotic CTX against two E. coli libraries (ECOR and ESBL). Heatmap clustering of the growth yield upon exposure to the compounds relative to our reference strain ( E. coli CCUG #17620/ATCC #25922) normalized for growth without added compound for the 92 strains of the ESBL library ( A ) and for the 72 strains of the ECOR library ( B ), using complete linkage hierarchical clustering method and Pearson’s distance measure method for computing distance between rows and columns. The values are expressed on a log(2) scale where positive and negative values indicate better (i.e., more resistant) and worse (i.e., more sensitive) yield compared to the control. The clustering and construction of the heatmaps was performed using the R package ComplexHeatmap v. 2.8.0 [ 27 ].
    Figure Legend Snippet: High-resolution microbial phenomics profiling of synthesized compounds 1 , 4 , 6 , 10 , 16, and known antibiotic CTX against two E. coli libraries (ECOR and ESBL). Heatmap clustering of the growth yield upon exposure to the compounds relative to our reference strain ( E. coli CCUG #17620/ATCC #25922) normalized for growth without added compound for the 92 strains of the ESBL library ( A ) and for the 72 strains of the ECOR library ( B ), using complete linkage hierarchical clustering method and Pearson’s distance measure method for computing distance between rows and columns. The values are expressed on a log(2) scale where positive and negative values indicate better (i.e., more resistant) and worse (i.e., more sensitive) yield compared to the control. The clustering and construction of the heatmaps was performed using the R package ComplexHeatmap v. 2.8.0 [ 27 ].

    Techniques Used: Synthesized

    35) Product Images from "Occurrence and distribution of extended-spectrum β-lactamase in clinical Escherichia coli isolates at Ho Teaching Hospital in Ghana"

    Article Title: Occurrence and distribution of extended-spectrum β-lactamase in clinical Escherichia coli isolates at Ho Teaching Hospital in Ghana

    Journal: Ghana Medical Journal

    doi: 10.4314/gmj.v55i4.11

    Occurrence of ESBL genotypes in E. coli isolates in Ho Teaching Hospital.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Occurrence of ESBL genotypes in E. coli isolates in Ho Teaching Hospital.

    Techniques Used:

    36) Product Images from "Alteration of microbiota antibody‐mediated immune selection contributes to dysbiosis in inflammatory bowel diseases"

    Article Title: Alteration of microbiota antibody‐mediated immune selection contributes to dysbiosis in inflammatory bowel diseases

    Journal: EMBO Molecular Medicine

    doi: 10.15252/emmm.202115386

    IBD IgA are less neutralizing than non‐IBD IgAs against pathogenic bacteria Optical density (600 nm) variations during in vitro growth assay of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium (SL1344) co‐cultured with stool‐purified IgA1 (A) or IgA2 (B) from non‐IBD ( n = 4), CD ( n = 6) and UC ( n = 3). Comparison between IgA1 and IgA2 coculture in non‐IBD (C), CD (D), and UC (E). Optical density (600 nm) during in vitro growth assay of Escherichia coli (25,922 strain from ATCC) cocultured with stool‐purified IgA1 (F) or IgA2 (G) from non‐IBD ( n = 2) and CD ( n = 2). All patient samples (biological replicates) have been tested in technical duplicates. Comparison between IgA1 and IgA2 co‐culture in non‐IBD (H), and CD (I). These IgA samples were from the same patients throughout each experiment. Data information: Two‐way ANOVA with Holm–Sidak correction after D'Agostino–Pearson nomality test, P ‐values are as follows: (A) UC curve: 2 h – P = 0.0024, 3 h – P = 0.003; CD curve: 2 and 3 h P
    Figure Legend Snippet: IBD IgA are less neutralizing than non‐IBD IgAs against pathogenic bacteria Optical density (600 nm) variations during in vitro growth assay of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium (SL1344) co‐cultured with stool‐purified IgA1 (A) or IgA2 (B) from non‐IBD ( n = 4), CD ( n = 6) and UC ( n = 3). Comparison between IgA1 and IgA2 coculture in non‐IBD (C), CD (D), and UC (E). Optical density (600 nm) during in vitro growth assay of Escherichia coli (25,922 strain from ATCC) cocultured with stool‐purified IgA1 (F) or IgA2 (G) from non‐IBD ( n = 2) and CD ( n = 2). All patient samples (biological replicates) have been tested in technical duplicates. Comparison between IgA1 and IgA2 co‐culture in non‐IBD (H), and CD (I). These IgA samples were from the same patients throughout each experiment. Data information: Two‐way ANOVA with Holm–Sidak correction after D'Agostino–Pearson nomality test, P ‐values are as follows: (A) UC curve: 2 h – P = 0.0024, 3 h – P = 0.003; CD curve: 2 and 3 h P

    Techniques Used: In Vitro, Growth Assay, Cell Culture, Purification, Co-Culture Assay

    37) Product Images from "Lactoferricins impair the cytosolic membrane of Escherichia coli within a few seconds and accumulate inside the cell"

    Article Title: Lactoferricins impair the cytosolic membrane of Escherichia coli within a few seconds and accumulate inside the cell

    Journal: eLife

    doi: 10.7554/eLife.72850

    ζ-potential and size measurements of O-LF11-215. Comparison between ζ-potential ( A, C ) and size ( B, D ) measurements of O-LF11-215 antimicrobial peptide (AMP) alone and mixed with E. coli as a function of peptide concentration (normalized by the minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] of O-LF11-215). This partitioning behavior was also mirrored in the ϕ IG dependence of K e f f . K e f f was nearly constant for LF11-324, increased only slightly for LF11-215, and showed the largest variation for O-LF11-215, reaching about 2.5 times higher levels than the other two peptides ( Figure 5B ). The approximate equal K e ⁢ f ⁢ f values of LF11-324 and LF11-215 for ϕ I G > 0.5 demonstrate that both peptides partition about equally well into E. coli , not only at the MIC, but in a wide range of ϕ IG values. Error bars are the given by the median-absolute-deviation around the median of at least 18 different measurements.
    Figure Legend Snippet: ζ-potential and size measurements of O-LF11-215. Comparison between ζ-potential ( A, C ) and size ( B, D ) measurements of O-LF11-215 antimicrobial peptide (AMP) alone and mixed with E. coli as a function of peptide concentration (normalized by the minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] of O-LF11-215). This partitioning behavior was also mirrored in the ϕ IG dependence of K e f f . K e f f was nearly constant for LF11-324, increased only slightly for LF11-215, and showed the largest variation for O-LF11-215, reaching about 2.5 times higher levels than the other two peptides ( Figure 5B ). The approximate equal K e ⁢ f ⁢ f values of LF11-324 and LF11-215 for ϕ I G > 0.5 demonstrate that both peptides partition about equally well into E. coli , not only at the MIC, but in a wide range of ϕ IG values. Error bars are the given by the median-absolute-deviation around the median of at least 18 different measurements.

    Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations for LF11-215, LF11-324, and O-LF11-215 at the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and sub-MICs. TEM images of E. coli ATCC ( A ) and end states in the presence of LF11-215 ( B, E ), LF11-324 ( C, F ), and O-LF11-215 ( D, G ). All systems were probed at the MICs ( B–D ) and half the MICs ( E–G ).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations for LF11-215, LF11-324, and O-LF11-215 at the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and sub-MICs. TEM images of E. coli ATCC ( A ) and end states in the presence of LF11-215 ( B, E ), LF11-324 ( C, F ), and O-LF11-215 ( D, G ). All systems were probed at the MICs ( B–D ) and half the MICs ( E–G ).

    Techniques Used: Transmission Assay, Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy

    38) Product Images from "Effects of Taro (Colocasia esculenta) Water-Soluble Non-Starch Polysaccharide, Lactobacillusacidophilus, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium infantis, and Their Synbiotic Mixtures on Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Interleukin-8 Production"

    Article Title: Effects of Taro (Colocasia esculenta) Water-Soluble Non-Starch Polysaccharide, Lactobacillusacidophilus, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium infantis, and Their Synbiotic Mixtures on Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Interleukin-8 Production

    Journal: Nutrients

    doi: 10.3390/nu14102128

    IL-8 produced by TNF-α stimulated HT-29 cells incubated with the probiotics L. acidophilus , B. breve , and B. infantis in the presence of non-pathogenic E. coli and NEC-positive associated pathogen K. oxytoca . Bars that do not share the same letter are significantly ( p ≤ 0.05) different (ANOVA with Tukey pairwise comparison).
    Figure Legend Snippet: IL-8 produced by TNF-α stimulated HT-29 cells incubated with the probiotics L. acidophilus , B. breve , and B. infantis in the presence of non-pathogenic E. coli and NEC-positive associated pathogen K. oxytoca . Bars that do not share the same letter are significantly ( p ≤ 0.05) different (ANOVA with Tukey pairwise comparison).

    Techniques Used: Produced, Incubation

    Viable TNF-α-stimulated HT-29 cells (%) incubated with non-heat killed and heat killed K. oxytoca and E. coli at different bacterial concentrations (CFU/mL). Bars that do not share the same letter are significantly ( p ≤ 0.05) different (ANOVA with Tukey pairwise comparison). Grouping information for significant differences: A–D, viable cells among treatments compared to control samples.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Viable TNF-α-stimulated HT-29 cells (%) incubated with non-heat killed and heat killed K. oxytoca and E. coli at different bacterial concentrations (CFU/mL). Bars that do not share the same letter are significantly ( p ≤ 0.05) different (ANOVA with Tukey pairwise comparison). Grouping information for significant differences: A–D, viable cells among treatments compared to control samples.

    Techniques Used: Incubation

    IL-8 produced by TNF-α stimulated HT-29 cells incubated with the synbiotic mixtures of water-soluble non-starch polysaccharide from taro corm (Tc-WS-NSP) extracted using the conventional extraction (CE) and improved conventional extraction (ICE) methods and each of the probiotics L. acidophilus , B. breve , and B. infantis in the presence of non-pathogenic E. coli and NEC-positive associated pathogen K. oxytoca . Bars that do not share the same letter are significantly ( p ≤ 0.05) different (ANOVA with Tukey pairwise comparison).
    Figure Legend Snippet: IL-8 produced by TNF-α stimulated HT-29 cells incubated with the synbiotic mixtures of water-soluble non-starch polysaccharide from taro corm (Tc-WS-NSP) extracted using the conventional extraction (CE) and improved conventional extraction (ICE) methods and each of the probiotics L. acidophilus , B. breve , and B. infantis in the presence of non-pathogenic E. coli and NEC-positive associated pathogen K. oxytoca . Bars that do not share the same letter are significantly ( p ≤ 0.05) different (ANOVA with Tukey pairwise comparison).

    Techniques Used: Produced, Incubation

    39) Product Images from "How Bacteria Change after Exposure to Silver Nanoformulations: Analysis of the Genome and Outer Membrane Proteome"

    Article Title: How Bacteria Change after Exposure to Silver Nanoformulations: Analysis of the Genome and Outer Membrane Proteome

    Journal: Pathogens

    doi: 10.3390/pathogens10070817

    Comparative analysis of two-dimensional electropherograms of Escherichia coli BW25113 and its mutant AgR resistant to silver ions and Escherichia coli ATCC 11229 and its variants: S2 and S7. Legend: reference spot; selected spots not found in tested sample; spot with increased optical density; spot with decreased optical density.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Comparative analysis of two-dimensional electropherograms of Escherichia coli BW25113 and its mutant AgR resistant to silver ions and Escherichia coli ATCC 11229 and its variants: S2 and S7. Legend: reference spot; selected spots not found in tested sample; spot with increased optical density; spot with decreased optical density.

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis

    40) Product Images from "NDM-1 Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae are Highly Susceptible to Ceragenins CSA-13, CSA-44, and CSA-131"

    Article Title: NDM-1 Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae are Highly Susceptible to Ceragenins CSA-13, CSA-44, and CSA-131

    Journal: Infection and Drug Resistance

    doi: 10.2147/IDR.S261579

    Disruption of the outer membrane of Escherichia coli BAA 2471 ( A ), Enterobacter cloacae BAA 2468 ( B ), Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae BAA 2472 ( C ), and Klebsiella pneumoniae BAA 2473 ( D ) upon treatment with CSA-13, CSA-44, and CSA-131 at doses of 1–10 μg/mL was investigated using NPN uptake assay. Results show mean±SD, n=3; * indicates statistical significance ≤0.05, ** ≤0.01, and *** ≤0.001.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Disruption of the outer membrane of Escherichia coli BAA 2471 ( A ), Enterobacter cloacae BAA 2468 ( B ), Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae BAA 2472 ( C ), and Klebsiella pneumoniae BAA 2473 ( D ) upon treatment with CSA-13, CSA-44, and CSA-131 at doses of 1–10 μg/mL was investigated using NPN uptake assay. Results show mean±SD, n=3; * indicates statistical significance ≤0.05, ** ≤0.01, and *** ≤0.001.

    Techniques Used:

    Disruption of the biofilms formed by Escherichia coli BAA 2471 ( A – C ), Enterobacter cloacae BAA 2468 ( D – F ), Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae BAA 2472 ( G – I ), and Klebsiella pneumoniae BAA 2473 ( J – L ) using CSA-13, CSA-44, and CSA-131 compounds. Reduction of the biofilm formed at 24, 48, and 72 hours incubation with CSAs in concentration of 1–100 µg/mL was performed using killing assay method. Results show mean±SD from 3–6 measurements. * indicates statistical significance ≤0.05, ** ≤0.01, and *** ≤0.001.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Disruption of the biofilms formed by Escherichia coli BAA 2471 ( A – C ), Enterobacter cloacae BAA 2468 ( D – F ), Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae BAA 2472 ( G – I ), and Klebsiella pneumoniae BAA 2473 ( J – L ) using CSA-13, CSA-44, and CSA-131 compounds. Reduction of the biofilm formed at 24, 48, and 72 hours incubation with CSAs in concentration of 1–100 µg/mL was performed using killing assay method. Results show mean±SD from 3–6 measurements. * indicates statistical significance ≤0.05, ** ≤0.01, and *** ≤0.001.

    Techniques Used: Incubation, Concentration Assay

    Prevention of biofilm formation by Escherichia coli BAA 2471 ( A ), Enterobacter cloacae BAA 2468 ( B ), Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae BAA 2472 ( C ), and Klebsiella pneumoniae BAA 2473 ( D ) during treatment with CSA-13, CSA-44, and CSA-131 compounds. Formation of biofilm in the presence of CSAs ranging from 1–100 μg/mL was assessed using the resazurin-based fluorimetric method after 24, 48, and 72 hours incubation. Results show mean±SD from 3–6 measurements. * indicates statistical significance ≤0.05, ** ≤0.01, and *** ≤0.001.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Prevention of biofilm formation by Escherichia coli BAA 2471 ( A ), Enterobacter cloacae BAA 2468 ( B ), Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae BAA 2472 ( C ), and Klebsiella pneumoniae BAA 2473 ( D ) during treatment with CSA-13, CSA-44, and CSA-131 compounds. Formation of biofilm in the presence of CSAs ranging from 1–100 μg/mL was assessed using the resazurin-based fluorimetric method after 24, 48, and 72 hours incubation. Results show mean±SD from 3–6 measurements. * indicates statistical significance ≤0.05, ** ≤0.01, and *** ≤0.001.

    Techniques Used: Incubation

    Induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by Escherichia coli BAA 2471 ( A ), Enterobacter cloacae BAA 2468 ( B ), Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae BAA 2472 ( C ), and Klebsiella pneumoniae BAA 2473 ( D ) was evaluated by DFCH-DA fluorimetric assay. Formation of ROS upon treatment with CSA-13, CSA-44, and CSA-131 at a concentration of 1–10 μg/mL was presented. Results show: mean±SD, n=3; * indicates statistical significance ≤0.05, ** ≤0.01, and *** ≤0.001.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by Escherichia coli BAA 2471 ( A ), Enterobacter cloacae BAA 2468 ( B ), Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae BAA 2472 ( C ), and Klebsiella pneumoniae BAA 2473 ( D ) was evaluated by DFCH-DA fluorimetric assay. Formation of ROS upon treatment with CSA-13, CSA-44, and CSA-131 at a concentration of 1–10 μg/mL was presented. Results show: mean±SD, n=3; * indicates statistical significance ≤0.05, ** ≤0.01, and *** ≤0.001.

    Techniques Used: Fluorimetry Assay, Concentration Assay

    Bactericidal activity of CSA-13 (black squares), CSA-44 (red circles), and CSA-131 (blue triangles) against Escherichia coli BAA 2471 ( A ), Enterobacter cloacae BAA 2468 ( B ), Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae BAA 2472 ( C ), and Klebsiella pneumoniae BAA 2473 ( D ). Killing activities of CSAs studied at 1–100 µg/mL was determined using a standard colony counting assay. Results show mean±SD from six measurements. * indicates statistical significance at ≤0.05, ** ≤0.01, and *** ≤0.001.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Bactericidal activity of CSA-13 (black squares), CSA-44 (red circles), and CSA-131 (blue triangles) against Escherichia coli BAA 2471 ( A ), Enterobacter cloacae BAA 2468 ( B ), Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae BAA 2472 ( C ), and Klebsiella pneumoniae BAA 2473 ( D ). Killing activities of CSAs studied at 1–100 µg/mL was determined using a standard colony counting assay. Results show mean±SD from six measurements. * indicates statistical significance at ≤0.05, ** ≤0.01, and *** ≤0.001.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Colony Assay

    Permeability of the inner bacterial membrane of Escherichia coli BAA 2471 ( A ), Enterobacter cloacae BAA 2468 ( B ), Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae BAA 2472 ( C ), and Klebsiella pneumoniae BAA 2473 ( D ) was assessed using ONPG hydrolysis assay. The insertion of CSA-13, CSA-44, and CSA-131 ranging 1–10 μg/mL into the bacterial membrane was monitored by the enhancement of β-galactosidase activity. Results show: mean±SD, n=3; * indicates statistical significance ≤0.05, ** ≤0.01, and *** ≤0.001.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Permeability of the inner bacterial membrane of Escherichia coli BAA 2471 ( A ), Enterobacter cloacae BAA 2468 ( B ), Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae BAA 2472 ( C ), and Klebsiella pneumoniae BAA 2473 ( D ) was assessed using ONPG hydrolysis assay. The insertion of CSA-13, CSA-44, and CSA-131 ranging 1–10 μg/mL into the bacterial membrane was monitored by the enhancement of β-galactosidase activity. Results show: mean±SD, n=3; * indicates statistical significance ≤0.05, ** ≤0.01, and *** ≤0.001.

    Techniques Used: Permeability, Hydrolysis Assay, Activity Assay

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  • 90
    ATCC aeruginosa
    C . albicans secreted factors inhibit P . <t>aeruginosa</t> pyochelin and pyoverdine gene expression and pyoverdine production in vitro . A) Pyochelin and pyoverdine gene expression by RT qPCR of P . aeruginosa PAO1 grown in vitro to mid-log phase in iron-limited GGP media ± live C . albicans (grown in YPD media) or YPD media alone control. P . aeruginosa and C . albicans co-cultures were mixed in a 1:1 ratio and co-incubated at 37°C for 10 minutes before RNA isolation. B) Total iron content of media (YPD, LB, GGP, PBS), supernatant of C . albicans cultures grown in YPD, and C . albicans supernatant protein preparations (pre and post iron depletion). Total iron content (Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ ) was determined by ferrozine assay [ 48 ]. All data shown are means ± SEM. Assays were performed in triplicate. Statistical analysis was performed by unpaired Student’s t-test . C, D, E ) Pyochelin and pyoverdine gene expression by RT qPCR of P . aeruginosa PAO1 grown in vitro to mid-log phase in iron-limited GGP media with or without the following: C) Heat-killed (HK) C . albicans cells (suspended in PBS) or PBS alone control. D) C . albicans supernatant (stationary cultures grown in YPD at 30°C), C . albicans supernatant protein (supernatants of C . albicans stationary cultures grown in YPD; precipitated with ammonium sulfate, desalted, and dialyzed against PBS precipitation; final concentration of 100 μg/mL), and YPD subjected to the same protein purification process as C . albicans supernatant proteins. E) C . albicans supernatant proteins ± physical (boiled for 60 minutes) or chemical (treated with protease from Streptomyces griseus for 60 minutes) denaturation. HK C . albicans cells, PBS, and C . albicans supernatant were mixed in a 1:1 ratio with live P . aeruginosa culture. C . albicans supernatant protein was added to a final concentration of 100 ug/mL. All co-cultures were incubated at 37°C for 10 minutes before RNA isolation. All data shown for pyoverdine and pyochelin RT qPCR assay (Fig 5A, 5C, 5D and 5E) are means ± SEM. Assays were performed in triplicate. Statistical analysis was performed by unpaired Student’s t-test . F) Dose dependent effect of C . albicans supernatant protein on pyoverdine production (as determined by measuring fluorescence at 400±10/460±40 nm excitation/emission and normalizing to cell density measured at 600 nm) by P . aeruginosa PAO1 grown in GGP media at 37°C over 24 hours. G, H ) Representative picture of ( G ) and pyoverdine levels of ( H ) a wild-type PAO1 stationary culture (after 24 hours of growth in GGP media) compared to cultures of pyochelin deletional mutant PAO1Δ pchBA , pyoverdine deletional mutant PAO1Δ pvdS , pyochelin/pyoverdine double mutant PAO1Δ pchBA Δ pvdS , PAO1 ± C . albicans SC5314 supernatant protein (final concentration 100 ug/mL), PAO1 ± C . albicans SC5314 supernatant protein boiled, and PAO1 ± C . albicans SC5314 supernatant protein treated with Streptomyces griseus protease. Bars shown are the means ± SEM. Assays were performed in triplicate. Statistical analysis performed by unpaired Student’s t-test , * p
    Aeruginosa, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    88
    atcc escherichia coli
    Concentration of <t>Escherichia</t> coli ((a) and (c)) and fraction of viable (V) and non-viable (NV) helminth eggs ((b) and (d)) in the different reactor compartments using ADS and EO ((a) and (b)) and EF, EF-R and EF-RPI ((c) and (d)) treatments. Dark and light colors represent viable and non-viable HE (%) , respectively. Initial concentrations for E. coli and HE correspond to log 10 8.48 CFU mL −1 and 203 L −1 , respectively. (For interpretation of the references to color in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the Web version of this article.)
    Escherichia Coli, supplied by atcc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    90
    ATCC e coli dhdps
    Phylogenetic tree of CgNal and alignment of key residues. The phylogenetic tree was constructed and visualized with MEGA 5.2 39 . BLAST identified <t>DHDPS</t> and <t>NAL</t> homologous to CgNal to construct the phylogenetic tree, Pseudomonas putida KDGDH (GenBank accession: P42233.1) was defined as the outgroup. The details of alignment outputs are shown in the middle of the figure. The schematic diagram showing modulation of residues within the active site of NAL and DHDPS is shown on the right side of the figure.
    E Coli Dhdps, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    lps  (atcc)
    88
    atcc lps
    Conditioned medium isolated from pancreastatin (PST) pretreated naïve macrophages delays intestinal epithelial homeostasis. Peritoneal macrophages were isolated from naïve Chga +/+ and Chga −/− mice. Macrophages were pretreated with PST or sPST (200 ng/mL) or 1% PBS for four hours, then stimulated by interleukin (IL)-4/IL-13 (20 ng/mL) for six hours and conditioned medium was harvested. <t>Caco-2</t> cells were cultured in 2 mL supernatants of 1% phosphate buffer saline (PBS) or conditioned medium for 24 h, then challenged with <t>LPS</t> (1μg/mL) or 5% DSS for 24 h. ( A , B ) Epithelial cell migration assessed by wound healing assay (100×), ( C ) intestinal epithelial cell proliferation, ( D ) epithelial cell viability assessed by the 3-(4, 5-dimethyl thiazolyl-2yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, and ( E ) epithelial cells oxidative stress assay from cultures treated with normal medium (control) or 200 mmol/L H 2 O 2 . One-way ANOVA was used to analyze the data, followed by multiple comparison tests. Data represent mean ± SEM ( n = 6). # refers to significance compared to control groups. Each experiment was repeated at least three times.
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    C . albicans secreted factors inhibit P . aeruginosa pyochelin and pyoverdine gene expression and pyoverdine production in vitro . A) Pyochelin and pyoverdine gene expression by RT qPCR of P . aeruginosa PAO1 grown in vitro to mid-log phase in iron-limited GGP media ± live C . albicans (grown in YPD media) or YPD media alone control. P . aeruginosa and C . albicans co-cultures were mixed in a 1:1 ratio and co-incubated at 37°C for 10 minutes before RNA isolation. B) Total iron content of media (YPD, LB, GGP, PBS), supernatant of C . albicans cultures grown in YPD, and C . albicans supernatant protein preparations (pre and post iron depletion). Total iron content (Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ ) was determined by ferrozine assay [ 48 ]. All data shown are means ± SEM. Assays were performed in triplicate. Statistical analysis was performed by unpaired Student’s t-test . C, D, E ) Pyochelin and pyoverdine gene expression by RT qPCR of P . aeruginosa PAO1 grown in vitro to mid-log phase in iron-limited GGP media with or without the following: C) Heat-killed (HK) C . albicans cells (suspended in PBS) or PBS alone control. D) C . albicans supernatant (stationary cultures grown in YPD at 30°C), C . albicans supernatant protein (supernatants of C . albicans stationary cultures grown in YPD; precipitated with ammonium sulfate, desalted, and dialyzed against PBS precipitation; final concentration of 100 μg/mL), and YPD subjected to the same protein purification process as C . albicans supernatant proteins. E) C . albicans supernatant proteins ± physical (boiled for 60 minutes) or chemical (treated with protease from Streptomyces griseus for 60 minutes) denaturation. HK C . albicans cells, PBS, and C . albicans supernatant were mixed in a 1:1 ratio with live P . aeruginosa culture. C . albicans supernatant protein was added to a final concentration of 100 ug/mL. All co-cultures were incubated at 37°C for 10 minutes before RNA isolation. All data shown for pyoverdine and pyochelin RT qPCR assay (Fig 5A, 5C, 5D and 5E) are means ± SEM. Assays were performed in triplicate. Statistical analysis was performed by unpaired Student’s t-test . F) Dose dependent effect of C . albicans supernatant protein on pyoverdine production (as determined by measuring fluorescence at 400±10/460±40 nm excitation/emission and normalizing to cell density measured at 600 nm) by P . aeruginosa PAO1 grown in GGP media at 37°C over 24 hours. G, H ) Representative picture of ( G ) and pyoverdine levels of ( H ) a wild-type PAO1 stationary culture (after 24 hours of growth in GGP media) compared to cultures of pyochelin deletional mutant PAO1Δ pchBA , pyoverdine deletional mutant PAO1Δ pvdS , pyochelin/pyoverdine double mutant PAO1Δ pchBA Δ pvdS , PAO1 ± C . albicans SC5314 supernatant protein (final concentration 100 ug/mL), PAO1 ± C . albicans SC5314 supernatant protein boiled, and PAO1 ± C . albicans SC5314 supernatant protein treated with Streptomyces griseus protease. Bars shown are the means ± SEM. Assays were performed in triplicate. Statistical analysis performed by unpaired Student’s t-test , * p

    Journal: PLoS Pathogens

    Article Title: Candida albicans Inhibits Pseudomonas aeruginosa Virulence through Suppression of Pyochelin and Pyoverdine Biosynthesis

    doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005129

    Figure Lengend Snippet: C . albicans secreted factors inhibit P . aeruginosa pyochelin and pyoverdine gene expression and pyoverdine production in vitro . A) Pyochelin and pyoverdine gene expression by RT qPCR of P . aeruginosa PAO1 grown in vitro to mid-log phase in iron-limited GGP media ± live C . albicans (grown in YPD media) or YPD media alone control. P . aeruginosa and C . albicans co-cultures were mixed in a 1:1 ratio and co-incubated at 37°C for 10 minutes before RNA isolation. B) Total iron content of media (YPD, LB, GGP, PBS), supernatant of C . albicans cultures grown in YPD, and C . albicans supernatant protein preparations (pre and post iron depletion). Total iron content (Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ ) was determined by ferrozine assay [ 48 ]. All data shown are means ± SEM. Assays were performed in triplicate. Statistical analysis was performed by unpaired Student’s t-test . C, D, E ) Pyochelin and pyoverdine gene expression by RT qPCR of P . aeruginosa PAO1 grown in vitro to mid-log phase in iron-limited GGP media with or without the following: C) Heat-killed (HK) C . albicans cells (suspended in PBS) or PBS alone control. D) C . albicans supernatant (stationary cultures grown in YPD at 30°C), C . albicans supernatant protein (supernatants of C . albicans stationary cultures grown in YPD; precipitated with ammonium sulfate, desalted, and dialyzed against PBS precipitation; final concentration of 100 μg/mL), and YPD subjected to the same protein purification process as C . albicans supernatant proteins. E) C . albicans supernatant proteins ± physical (boiled for 60 minutes) or chemical (treated with protease from Streptomyces griseus for 60 minutes) denaturation. HK C . albicans cells, PBS, and C . albicans supernatant were mixed in a 1:1 ratio with live P . aeruginosa culture. C . albicans supernatant protein was added to a final concentration of 100 ug/mL. All co-cultures were incubated at 37°C for 10 minutes before RNA isolation. All data shown for pyoverdine and pyochelin RT qPCR assay (Fig 5A, 5C, 5D and 5E) are means ± SEM. Assays were performed in triplicate. Statistical analysis was performed by unpaired Student’s t-test . F) Dose dependent effect of C . albicans supernatant protein on pyoverdine production (as determined by measuring fluorescence at 400±10/460±40 nm excitation/emission and normalizing to cell density measured at 600 nm) by P . aeruginosa PAO1 grown in GGP media at 37°C over 24 hours. G, H ) Representative picture of ( G ) and pyoverdine levels of ( H ) a wild-type PAO1 stationary culture (after 24 hours of growth in GGP media) compared to cultures of pyochelin deletional mutant PAO1Δ pchBA , pyoverdine deletional mutant PAO1Δ pvdS , pyochelin/pyoverdine double mutant PAO1Δ pchBA Δ pvdS , PAO1 ± C . albicans SC5314 supernatant protein (final concentration 100 ug/mL), PAO1 ± C . albicans SC5314 supernatant protein boiled, and PAO1 ± C . albicans SC5314 supernatant protein treated with Streptomyces griseus protease. Bars shown are the means ± SEM. Assays were performed in triplicate. Statistical analysis performed by unpaired Student’s t-test , * p

    Article Snippet: PA = P . aeruginosa , EC = Escherichia coli ATCC 10798D, EF = Enterococcus faecalis clinical isolate, BT = Bacteroides thetaiotamicron VPI-5482, BP = Blautia producta ATCC 27340D. (TIF) Click here for additional data file.

    Techniques: Expressing, In Vitro, Quantitative RT-PCR, Incubation, Isolation, Ferrozine Assay, Concentration Assay, Protein Purification, Fluorescence, Mutagenesis

    The addition of C . albicans to a P . aeruginosa -colonized murine gut does not significantly increase gut iron levels. A ) Total iron content of antibiotic water (penicillin/streptomycin), mouse chow (Teklad Global 16% Protein Rodent Diet, Harlan), and fecal specimens of C3H/HeN mice treated ± antibiotics and colonized ± P . aeruginosa and/or C . albicans . Total iron content (Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ ) was determined by ferrozine assay [ 48 ]. All data shown are means ± SEM. Assays for mouse chow and antibiotic water were performed in triplicate. For fecal measurements, feces from individual mice (n = 4 mice per group) were analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed by Mann-Whitney test. * p

    Journal: PLoS Pathogens

    Article Title: Candida albicans Inhibits Pseudomonas aeruginosa Virulence through Suppression of Pyochelin and Pyoverdine Biosynthesis

    doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005129

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The addition of C . albicans to a P . aeruginosa -colonized murine gut does not significantly increase gut iron levels. A ) Total iron content of antibiotic water (penicillin/streptomycin), mouse chow (Teklad Global 16% Protein Rodent Diet, Harlan), and fecal specimens of C3H/HeN mice treated ± antibiotics and colonized ± P . aeruginosa and/or C . albicans . Total iron content (Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ ) was determined by ferrozine assay [ 48 ]. All data shown are means ± SEM. Assays for mouse chow and antibiotic water were performed in triplicate. For fecal measurements, feces from individual mice (n = 4 mice per group) were analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed by Mann-Whitney test. * p

    Article Snippet: PA = P . aeruginosa , EC = Escherichia coli ATCC 10798D, EF = Enterococcus faecalis clinical isolate, BT = Bacteroides thetaiotamicron VPI-5482, BP = Blautia producta ATCC 27340D. (TIF) Click here for additional data file.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Ferrozine Assay, MANN-WHITNEY

    Deletion of P . aeruginosa pyochelin and pyoverdine genes attenuates P . aeruginosa virulence. A ) GI colonization levels of wild type P . aeruginosa PAO1(circles); pyochelin deletional mutants (squares; Δ fptA , Δ pchE , Δ pchBA ); pyoverdine deletional mutants (triangles; Δ pvdF , Δ pvdH , Δ pvdS ); and pyochelin/pyoverdine deletional mutants (diamonds; Δ pchBA Δ pvdF , Δ pchBA Δ pvdS , Δ pchBA Δ pvdH ) in C3H/HeN mice. n = 8 mice per group. Points represent results from individual animals. Horizontal lines with bars represent the median with interquartile range. Statistical analysis performed by Mann-Whitney test. * p

    Journal: PLoS Pathogens

    Article Title: Candida albicans Inhibits Pseudomonas aeruginosa Virulence through Suppression of Pyochelin and Pyoverdine Biosynthesis

    doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005129

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Deletion of P . aeruginosa pyochelin and pyoverdine genes attenuates P . aeruginosa virulence. A ) GI colonization levels of wild type P . aeruginosa PAO1(circles); pyochelin deletional mutants (squares; Δ fptA , Δ pchE , Δ pchBA ); pyoverdine deletional mutants (triangles; Δ pvdF , Δ pvdH , Δ pvdS ); and pyochelin/pyoverdine deletional mutants (diamonds; Δ pchBA Δ pvdF , Δ pchBA Δ pvdS , Δ pchBA Δ pvdH ) in C3H/HeN mice. n = 8 mice per group. Points represent results from individual animals. Horizontal lines with bars represent the median with interquartile range. Statistical analysis performed by Mann-Whitney test. * p

    Article Snippet: PA = P . aeruginosa , EC = Escherichia coli ATCC 10798D, EF = Enterococcus faecalis clinical isolate, BT = Bacteroides thetaiotamicron VPI-5482, BP = Blautia producta ATCC 27340D. (TIF) Click here for additional data file.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, MANN-WHITNEY

    C . albicans secreted factors inhibit P . aeruginosa mediated cytotoxicity in vitro . A ) Protective effect of C . albicans secreted protein on P . aeruginosa supernatant protein-induced cytotoxicity. Human colonocytes, HT-29, were exposed to in vitro microbial culture supernatant proteins (1 μg/uL) for 3 hours. Cell toxicity was measured by CytoTox-Glo assay (Promega). Microbial culture supernatant proteins were isolated from overnight stationary cultures of wild type PAO1, pyochelin deletional mutant PAO1Δ pchBA , pyoverdine deletional mutant PAO1Δ pvdS , C . albicans SC5314, E . coli ATCC 10798, PAO1 grown with C . albicans SC5314 supernatant protein (final concentration 100 ug/mL). Bars shown are the means ± SEM. Assays were performed in triplicate. Statistical analysis performed by unpaired Student’s t-test , * p

    Journal: PLoS Pathogens

    Article Title: Candida albicans Inhibits Pseudomonas aeruginosa Virulence through Suppression of Pyochelin and Pyoverdine Biosynthesis

    doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005129

    Figure Lengend Snippet: C . albicans secreted factors inhibit P . aeruginosa mediated cytotoxicity in vitro . A ) Protective effect of C . albicans secreted protein on P . aeruginosa supernatant protein-induced cytotoxicity. Human colonocytes, HT-29, were exposed to in vitro microbial culture supernatant proteins (1 μg/uL) for 3 hours. Cell toxicity was measured by CytoTox-Glo assay (Promega). Microbial culture supernatant proteins were isolated from overnight stationary cultures of wild type PAO1, pyochelin deletional mutant PAO1Δ pchBA , pyoverdine deletional mutant PAO1Δ pvdS , C . albicans SC5314, E . coli ATCC 10798, PAO1 grown with C . albicans SC5314 supernatant protein (final concentration 100 ug/mL). Bars shown are the means ± SEM. Assays were performed in triplicate. Statistical analysis performed by unpaired Student’s t-test , * p

    Article Snippet: PA = P . aeruginosa , EC = Escherichia coli ATCC 10798D, EF = Enterococcus faecalis clinical isolate, BT = Bacteroides thetaiotamicron VPI-5482, BP = Blautia producta ATCC 27340D. (TIF) Click here for additional data file.

    Techniques: In Vitro, Glo Assay, Isolation, Mutagenesis, Concentration Assay

    C . albicans inhibits P . aeruginosa virulence in mice. A , E ) C . albicans SC5314 (red triangles) and P . aeruginosa PAO1 (black circles) GI colonization levels in ( A ) adult antibiotic-treated mice (C3H/HeN) and ( E ) germ-free adult mice (C57BL/6). n = 8 per group for antibiotic-treated mice. n = 4 per group for germ-free mice. Points represent results from individual animals. Horizontal lines with bars represent the median with interquartile range. Statistical analysis performed by Mann-Whitney test. B , F ) Survival curves of neutropenic antibiotic-treated ( B ) and germ-free ( F ) mice colonized with P . aeruginosa ± C . albicans . Mice were made neutropenic with intraperitoneal injection of 0.200 mg RB6-8C5 rat anti-mouse Ly-6G, Ly-6C monoclonal antibody. n = 8 for antibiotic-treated mice. n = 4 for germ-free mice. Statistical analysis performed by log-rank test. C, D, G, H ) P . aeruginosa and C . albicans levels in spleens ( C , G ) and livers ( D , H ) of deceased neutropenic antibiotic-treated and germ-free mice colonized with P . aeruginosa ± C . albicans . Organ homogenates were plated on cetrimide, MacConkey (aerobic), TSA (aerobic,), BHI/Blood (anaerobic), and YVG (YPD agar with vancomycin and gentamicin) plates. The presence of a homogeneous population of green, oxidase-positive colonies on cetrimide agar and an absence of other bacterial growth on the MacConkey, TSA and BHI/Blood plates was used for confirmation of P . aeruginosa dissemination. The presence of a homogeneous population of creamy white colonies on YVG agar was used for confirmation of C . albicans dissemination. Points represent results from individual animals. Horizontal lines with bars represent the median with interquartile range. * p

    Journal: PLoS Pathogens

    Article Title: Candida albicans Inhibits Pseudomonas aeruginosa Virulence through Suppression of Pyochelin and Pyoverdine Biosynthesis

    doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005129

    Figure Lengend Snippet: C . albicans inhibits P . aeruginosa virulence in mice. A , E ) C . albicans SC5314 (red triangles) and P . aeruginosa PAO1 (black circles) GI colonization levels in ( A ) adult antibiotic-treated mice (C3H/HeN) and ( E ) germ-free adult mice (C57BL/6). n = 8 per group for antibiotic-treated mice. n = 4 per group for germ-free mice. Points represent results from individual animals. Horizontal lines with bars represent the median with interquartile range. Statistical analysis performed by Mann-Whitney test. B , F ) Survival curves of neutropenic antibiotic-treated ( B ) and germ-free ( F ) mice colonized with P . aeruginosa ± C . albicans . Mice were made neutropenic with intraperitoneal injection of 0.200 mg RB6-8C5 rat anti-mouse Ly-6G, Ly-6C monoclonal antibody. n = 8 for antibiotic-treated mice. n = 4 for germ-free mice. Statistical analysis performed by log-rank test. C, D, G, H ) P . aeruginosa and C . albicans levels in spleens ( C , G ) and livers ( D , H ) of deceased neutropenic antibiotic-treated and germ-free mice colonized with P . aeruginosa ± C . albicans . Organ homogenates were plated on cetrimide, MacConkey (aerobic), TSA (aerobic,), BHI/Blood (anaerobic), and YVG (YPD agar with vancomycin and gentamicin) plates. The presence of a homogeneous population of green, oxidase-positive colonies on cetrimide agar and an absence of other bacterial growth on the MacConkey, TSA and BHI/Blood plates was used for confirmation of P . aeruginosa dissemination. The presence of a homogeneous population of creamy white colonies on YVG agar was used for confirmation of C . albicans dissemination. Points represent results from individual animals. Horizontal lines with bars represent the median with interquartile range. * p

    Article Snippet: PA = P . aeruginosa , EC = Escherichia coli ATCC 10798D, EF = Enterococcus faecalis clinical isolate, BT = Bacteroides thetaiotamicron VPI-5482, BP = Blautia producta ATCC 27340D. (TIF) Click here for additional data file.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, MANN-WHITNEY, Injection

    C . albicans suppresses pyochelin and pyoverdine biosynthetic pathways in P . aeruginosa . A ) Experimental schema of in vivo P . aeruginosa transcriptome analysis experiments. PA, P . aeruginosa . CA, C . albicans . B ) Heatmap of RNA-Seq analysis of P . aeruginosa strain PAO1 transcripts recovered from cecums of neutropenic mice co-colonized with P . aeruginosa and C . albicans compared to mice mono-colonized with P . aeruginosa . Prokaryotic mRNA from 8 mice pooled for each biological replicate; 2 biological replicates performed. RNA-Seq analysis performed with DESeq. C , D ) Summary tables of P . aeruginosa pyochelin ( C ) and pyoverdine ( D ) gene expression (data from RNA-Seq analysis). E ) RT qPCR of P . aeruginosa pyochelin and pyoverdine biosynthetic genes (performed on the same RNA samples used for RNA-Seq analysis). All data shown are means ± SEM. Assays were performed in triplicate. Statistical analysis was performed by unpaired Student’s t-test . * p

    Journal: PLoS Pathogens

    Article Title: Candida albicans Inhibits Pseudomonas aeruginosa Virulence through Suppression of Pyochelin and Pyoverdine Biosynthesis

    doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005129

    Figure Lengend Snippet: C . albicans suppresses pyochelin and pyoverdine biosynthetic pathways in P . aeruginosa . A ) Experimental schema of in vivo P . aeruginosa transcriptome analysis experiments. PA, P . aeruginosa . CA, C . albicans . B ) Heatmap of RNA-Seq analysis of P . aeruginosa strain PAO1 transcripts recovered from cecums of neutropenic mice co-colonized with P . aeruginosa and C . albicans compared to mice mono-colonized with P . aeruginosa . Prokaryotic mRNA from 8 mice pooled for each biological replicate; 2 biological replicates performed. RNA-Seq analysis performed with DESeq. C , D ) Summary tables of P . aeruginosa pyochelin ( C ) and pyoverdine ( D ) gene expression (data from RNA-Seq analysis). E ) RT qPCR of P . aeruginosa pyochelin and pyoverdine biosynthetic genes (performed on the same RNA samples used for RNA-Seq analysis). All data shown are means ± SEM. Assays were performed in triplicate. Statistical analysis was performed by unpaired Student’s t-test . * p

    Article Snippet: PA = P . aeruginosa , EC = Escherichia coli ATCC 10798D, EF = Enterococcus faecalis clinical isolate, BT = Bacteroides thetaiotamicron VPI-5482, BP = Blautia producta ATCC 27340D. (TIF) Click here for additional data file.

    Techniques: In Vivo, RNA Sequencing Assay, Mouse Assay, Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR

    Iron supplementation restores P . aeruginosa virulence in P . aeruginosa and C . albicans colonized mice. A ) Oral FeSO 4 increases fecal total iron levels (as assessed by ferrozine assay) in C3H/HeN mice treated with oral antibiotics (penicillin, streptomycin) and then co-colonized with P . aeruginosa PAO1 and C . albicans SC5314. Bars shown are means ± SEM. n = 7 mice per group. Points represent results from individual animals. Statistical analysis was performed by Mann-Whitney test. * p

    Journal: PLoS Pathogens

    Article Title: Candida albicans Inhibits Pseudomonas aeruginosa Virulence through Suppression of Pyochelin and Pyoverdine Biosynthesis

    doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005129

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Iron supplementation restores P . aeruginosa virulence in P . aeruginosa and C . albicans colonized mice. A ) Oral FeSO 4 increases fecal total iron levels (as assessed by ferrozine assay) in C3H/HeN mice treated with oral antibiotics (penicillin, streptomycin) and then co-colonized with P . aeruginosa PAO1 and C . albicans SC5314. Bars shown are means ± SEM. n = 7 mice per group. Points represent results from individual animals. Statistical analysis was performed by Mann-Whitney test. * p

    Article Snippet: PA = P . aeruginosa , EC = Escherichia coli ATCC 10798D, EF = Enterococcus faecalis clinical isolate, BT = Bacteroides thetaiotamicron VPI-5482, BP = Blautia producta ATCC 27340D. (TIF) Click here for additional data file.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Ferrozine Assay, MANN-WHITNEY

    Concentration of Escherichia coli ((a) and (c)) and fraction of viable (V) and non-viable (NV) helminth eggs ((b) and (d)) in the different reactor compartments using ADS and EO ((a) and (b)) and EF, EF-R and EF-RPI ((c) and (d)) treatments. Dark and light colors represent viable and non-viable HE (%) , respectively. Initial concentrations for E. coli and HE correspond to log 10 8.48 CFU mL −1 and 203 L −1 , respectively. (For interpretation of the references to color in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the Web version of this article.)

    Journal: Chemosphere

    Article Title: Inactivation of helminth eggs in an electro-Fenton reactor: Towards full electrochemical disinfection of human waste using activated carbon

    doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.126260

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Concentration of Escherichia coli ((a) and (c)) and fraction of viable (V) and non-viable (NV) helminth eggs ((b) and (d)) in the different reactor compartments using ADS and EO ((a) and (b)) and EF, EF-R and EF-RPI ((c) and (d)) treatments. Dark and light colors represent viable and non-viable HE (%) , respectively. Initial concentrations for E. coli and HE correspond to log 10 8.48 CFU mL −1 and 203 L −1 , respectively. (For interpretation of the references to color in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the Web version of this article.)

    Article Snippet: The Escherichia coli was previously inoculated, cultivated and isolated on McConkey agar (DIFCO brand) at 35 °C for 24 h. Subsequently, it was re-suspended in saline solution (NaCl at 0.85%), thus obtaining a comparable turbidity to the tube number one on the McFarland scale.

    Techniques: Concentration Assay

    Phylogenetic tree of CgNal and alignment of key residues. The phylogenetic tree was constructed and visualized with MEGA 5.2 39 . BLAST identified DHDPS and NAL homologous to CgNal to construct the phylogenetic tree, Pseudomonas putida KDGDH (GenBank accession: P42233.1) was defined as the outgroup. The details of alignment outputs are shown in the middle of the figure. The schematic diagram showing modulation of residues within the active site of NAL and DHDPS is shown on the right side of the figure.

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Characterization of a novel N-acetylneuraminic acid lyase favoring N-acetylneuraminic acid synthesis

    doi: 10.1038/srep09341

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Phylogenetic tree of CgNal and alignment of key residues. The phylogenetic tree was constructed and visualized with MEGA 5.2 39 . BLAST identified DHDPS and NAL homologous to CgNal to construct the phylogenetic tree, Pseudomonas putida KDGDH (GenBank accession: P42233.1) was defined as the outgroup. The details of alignment outputs are shown in the middle of the figure. The schematic diagram showing modulation of residues within the active site of NAL and DHDPS is shown on the right side of the figure.

    Article Snippet: It showed only 22.8% identity with Haemophilus influenzae NAL (PDB ID: 1F5Z) , 26.4% identity with E. coli DHDPS (PDB ID: 1DHP) and 22.9% identity with C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 DHDPS (PDB ID: 3CPR) .

    Techniques: Construct

    Reactions catalyzed by (a) Nal and (b) DHDPS.

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Characterization of a novel N-acetylneuraminic acid lyase favoring N-acetylneuraminic acid synthesis

    doi: 10.1038/srep09341

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Reactions catalyzed by (a) Nal and (b) DHDPS.

    Article Snippet: It showed only 22.8% identity with Haemophilus influenzae NAL (PDB ID: 1F5Z) , 26.4% identity with E. coli DHDPS (PDB ID: 1DHP) and 22.9% identity with C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 DHDPS (PDB ID: 3CPR) .

    Techniques:

    Conditioned medium isolated from pancreastatin (PST) pretreated naïve macrophages delays intestinal epithelial homeostasis. Peritoneal macrophages were isolated from naïve Chga +/+ and Chga −/− mice. Macrophages were pretreated with PST or sPST (200 ng/mL) or 1% PBS for four hours, then stimulated by interleukin (IL)-4/IL-13 (20 ng/mL) for six hours and conditioned medium was harvested. Caco-2 cells were cultured in 2 mL supernatants of 1% phosphate buffer saline (PBS) or conditioned medium for 24 h, then challenged with LPS (1μg/mL) or 5% DSS for 24 h. ( A , B ) Epithelial cell migration assessed by wound healing assay (100×), ( C ) intestinal epithelial cell proliferation, ( D ) epithelial cell viability assessed by the 3-(4, 5-dimethyl thiazolyl-2yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, and ( E ) epithelial cells oxidative stress assay from cultures treated with normal medium (control) or 200 mmol/L H 2 O 2 . One-way ANOVA was used to analyze the data, followed by multiple comparison tests. Data represent mean ± SEM ( n = 6). # refers to significance compared to control groups. Each experiment was repeated at least three times.

    Journal: Biomedicines

    Article Title: Pancreastatin Reduces Alternatively Activated Macrophages, Disrupts the Epithelial Homeostasis and Aggravates Colonic Inflammation. A Descriptive Analysis

    doi: 10.3390/biomedicines9020134

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Conditioned medium isolated from pancreastatin (PST) pretreated naïve macrophages delays intestinal epithelial homeostasis. Peritoneal macrophages were isolated from naïve Chga +/+ and Chga −/− mice. Macrophages were pretreated with PST or sPST (200 ng/mL) or 1% PBS for four hours, then stimulated by interleukin (IL)-4/IL-13 (20 ng/mL) for six hours and conditioned medium was harvested. Caco-2 cells were cultured in 2 mL supernatants of 1% phosphate buffer saline (PBS) or conditioned medium for 24 h, then challenged with LPS (1μg/mL) or 5% DSS for 24 h. ( A , B ) Epithelial cell migration assessed by wound healing assay (100×), ( C ) intestinal epithelial cell proliferation, ( D ) epithelial cell viability assessed by the 3-(4, 5-dimethyl thiazolyl-2yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, and ( E ) epithelial cells oxidative stress assay from cultures treated with normal medium (control) or 200 mmol/L H 2 O 2 . One-way ANOVA was used to analyze the data, followed by multiple comparison tests. Data represent mean ± SEM ( n = 6). # refers to significance compared to control groups. Each experiment was repeated at least three times.

    Article Snippet: Lipopolysaccharides (LPS)- and DSS- Stimulated Epithelial Cells in the Presence or Absence of PST-Treated Polarized AAM SupernatantsTwo mL of AAM supernatant or naïve PBS-treated macrophage supernatant was added to the Caco-2 cell line for 24 h. Then, Caco-2 cells were challenged with LPS (1 μg/mL) (Escherichia coli serotype 127: B8, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) or 5% DSS for an additional 24 h [ ].

    Techniques: Isolation, Mouse Assay, Cell Culture, Migration, Wound Healing Assay, MTT Assay

    Conditioned medium isolated from pancreastatin (PST) pretreated naïve macrophages polarized toward an alternative-activated macrophages profile (AAM) increases IL-8 and IL-18 release and disrupts TJ proteins expression in Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-stimulated colonic epithelial cells. Peritoneal macrophages were isolated from naïve Chga +/+ and Chga −/− mice. Macrophages were pretreated with PST or sPST (200 ng/mL) or 1% PBS for four hours, then stimulated by interleukin (IL)-4/IL-13 (20 ng/mL) for six hours and conditioned medium was harvested. Caco-2 cells were cultured in 2 mL supernatants of 1% phosphate buffer saline (PBS) or conditioned medium for 24 h, then challenged with LPS (1μg/mL) or 5% DSS for 24 h. Cells and supernatants were harvested for analysis. ( A ) Medium IL-8 and IL-18 protein levels and cell mRNA expression. ( B ) Cell mRNA expression of TJ protein (Claudin [ CLDN1 ], zonula occludens-1 [ ZO1 ], E-cadherin [ CDH1 ], occludin [ OCLN ]). ELISA quantified protein level. Quantitative real-time RT–PCR quantified mRNA expression. The relative mRNA expression was determined by calculating the difference in the threshold cycle (ΔCt) method. One-way ANOVA followed by multiple comparison tests. Data represent mean ± SEM ( n = 6). # refers to significance compared with control groups (naïve macrophage medium). Each experiment was repeated at least three times.

    Journal: Biomedicines

    Article Title: Pancreastatin Reduces Alternatively Activated Macrophages, Disrupts the Epithelial Homeostasis and Aggravates Colonic Inflammation. A Descriptive Analysis

    doi: 10.3390/biomedicines9020134

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Conditioned medium isolated from pancreastatin (PST) pretreated naïve macrophages polarized toward an alternative-activated macrophages profile (AAM) increases IL-8 and IL-18 release and disrupts TJ proteins expression in Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-stimulated colonic epithelial cells. Peritoneal macrophages were isolated from naïve Chga +/+ and Chga −/− mice. Macrophages were pretreated with PST or sPST (200 ng/mL) or 1% PBS for four hours, then stimulated by interleukin (IL)-4/IL-13 (20 ng/mL) for six hours and conditioned medium was harvested. Caco-2 cells were cultured in 2 mL supernatants of 1% phosphate buffer saline (PBS) or conditioned medium for 24 h, then challenged with LPS (1μg/mL) or 5% DSS for 24 h. Cells and supernatants were harvested for analysis. ( A ) Medium IL-8 and IL-18 protein levels and cell mRNA expression. ( B ) Cell mRNA expression of TJ protein (Claudin [ CLDN1 ], zonula occludens-1 [ ZO1 ], E-cadherin [ CDH1 ], occludin [ OCLN ]). ELISA quantified protein level. Quantitative real-time RT–PCR quantified mRNA expression. The relative mRNA expression was determined by calculating the difference in the threshold cycle (ΔCt) method. One-way ANOVA followed by multiple comparison tests. Data represent mean ± SEM ( n = 6). # refers to significance compared with control groups (naïve macrophage medium). Each experiment was repeated at least three times.

    Article Snippet: Lipopolysaccharides (LPS)- and DSS- Stimulated Epithelial Cells in the Presence or Absence of PST-Treated Polarized AAM SupernatantsTwo mL of AAM supernatant or naïve PBS-treated macrophage supernatant was added to the Caco-2 cell line for 24 h. Then, Caco-2 cells were challenged with LPS (1 μg/mL) (Escherichia coli serotype 127: B8, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) or 5% DSS for an additional 24 h [ ].

    Techniques: Isolation, Expressing, Mouse Assay, Cell Culture, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Quantitative RT-PCR