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Santa Cruz Biotechnology ep2
GRK2 regulated HCC cell migration and invasion may be via modulation of <t>EP2</t> receptor. ( A ) The pictures and bar graph of EP2 in liver tissues of DEN-induced mice at different time points were shown by immunohistochemistry staining. The positive optical density values were shown as-fold change relative to week 0 (scale bar =100 μm). ( B ) The expression of EP2 in liver tissues of DEN-induced tumor mice was detected by Western blot. The data are expressed as the mean±SD from at least three independent experiments. * P
Ep2, supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 14 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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1) Product Images from "GRK2 Suppresses Hepatocellular Carcinoma Metastasis and Invasion Through Down-Regulation of Prostaglandin E Receptor 2"

Article Title: GRK2 Suppresses Hepatocellular Carcinoma Metastasis and Invasion Through Down-Regulation of Prostaglandin E Receptor 2

Journal: OncoTargets and therapy

doi: 10.2147/OTT.S266641

GRK2 regulated HCC cell migration and invasion may be via modulation of EP2 receptor. ( A ) The pictures and bar graph of EP2 in liver tissues of DEN-induced mice at different time points were shown by immunohistochemistry staining. The positive optical density values were shown as-fold change relative to week 0 (scale bar =100 μm). ( B ) The expression of EP2 in liver tissues of DEN-induced tumor mice was detected by Western blot. The data are expressed as the mean±SD from at least three independent experiments. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: GRK2 regulated HCC cell migration and invasion may be via modulation of EP2 receptor. ( A ) The pictures and bar graph of EP2 in liver tissues of DEN-induced mice at different time points were shown by immunohistochemistry staining. The positive optical density values were shown as-fold change relative to week 0 (scale bar =100 μm). ( B ) The expression of EP2 in liver tissues of DEN-induced tumor mice was detected by Western blot. The data are expressed as the mean±SD from at least three independent experiments. * P

Techniques Used: Migration, Mouse Assay, Immunohistochemistry, Staining, Expressing, Western Blot

Low GRK2 expression upregulated EP2 receptor translocation to cell membrane and downstream Akt pathway. ( A ) The membrane and cytoplasmic proteins expression of GRK2 and EP2 in HCC cells (HCCLM3, MHCC97L, and HepG2) stimulated with butaprost, a selective EP2 agonist. And the protein levels were normalized to β-actin or Na + /K + ATPase for the Western blots from the same lysate. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Low GRK2 expression upregulated EP2 receptor translocation to cell membrane and downstream Akt pathway. ( A ) The membrane and cytoplasmic proteins expression of GRK2 and EP2 in HCC cells (HCCLM3, MHCC97L, and HepG2) stimulated with butaprost, a selective EP2 agonist. And the protein levels were normalized to β-actin or Na + /K + ATPase for the Western blots from the same lysate. * P

Techniques Used: Expressing, Translocation Assay, Western Blot

2) Product Images from "GRK2 Suppresses Hepatocellular Carcinoma Metastasis and Invasion Through Down-Regulation of Prostaglandin E Receptor 2"

Article Title: GRK2 Suppresses Hepatocellular Carcinoma Metastasis and Invasion Through Down-Regulation of Prostaglandin E Receptor 2

Journal: OncoTargets and therapy

doi: 10.2147/OTT.S266641

GRK2 regulated HCC cell migration and invasion may be via modulation of EP2 receptor. ( A ) The pictures and bar graph of EP2 in liver tissues of DEN-induced mice at different time points were shown by immunohistochemistry staining. The positive optical density values were shown as-fold change relative to week 0 (scale bar =100 μm). ( B ) The expression of EP2 in liver tissues of DEN-induced tumor mice was detected by Western blot. The data are expressed as the mean±SD from at least three independent experiments. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: GRK2 regulated HCC cell migration and invasion may be via modulation of EP2 receptor. ( A ) The pictures and bar graph of EP2 in liver tissues of DEN-induced mice at different time points were shown by immunohistochemistry staining. The positive optical density values were shown as-fold change relative to week 0 (scale bar =100 μm). ( B ) The expression of EP2 in liver tissues of DEN-induced tumor mice was detected by Western blot. The data are expressed as the mean±SD from at least three independent experiments. * P

Techniques Used: Migration, Mouse Assay, Immunohistochemistry, Staining, Expressing, Western Blot

Low GRK2 expression upregulated EP2 receptor translocation to cell membrane and downstream Akt pathway. ( A ) The membrane and cytoplasmic proteins expression of GRK2 and EP2 in HCC cells (HCCLM3, MHCC97L, and HepG2) stimulated with butaprost, a selective EP2 agonist. And the protein levels were normalized to β-actin or Na + /K + ATPase for the Western blots from the same lysate. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Low GRK2 expression upregulated EP2 receptor translocation to cell membrane and downstream Akt pathway. ( A ) The membrane and cytoplasmic proteins expression of GRK2 and EP2 in HCC cells (HCCLM3, MHCC97L, and HepG2) stimulated with butaprost, a selective EP2 agonist. And the protein levels were normalized to β-actin or Na + /K + ATPase for the Western blots from the same lysate. * P

Techniques Used: Expressing, Translocation Assay, Western Blot

3) Product Images from "Prostaglandin E2 Is Required for BMP4-Induced Mesoderm Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells"

Article Title: Prostaglandin E2 Is Required for BMP4-Induced Mesoderm Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells

Journal: Stem Cell Reports

doi: 10.1016/j.stemcr.2018.01.024

PGE 2 Stimulates Mesoderm Differentiation of hESCs through the EP2-PKA-GSK3β/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway (A) cAMP level of hESCs with vehicle control, Forskolin, PGE 2 , PGE 2 + AH6809, or AH23848 treatment were determined by cAMP Glo array. ∗ p
Figure Legend Snippet: PGE 2 Stimulates Mesoderm Differentiation of hESCs through the EP2-PKA-GSK3β/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway (A) cAMP level of hESCs with vehicle control, Forskolin, PGE 2 , PGE 2 + AH6809, or AH23848 treatment were determined by cAMP Glo array. ∗ p

Techniques Used:

4) Product Images from "Prostaglandin E2 Is Required for BMP4-Induced Mesoderm Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells"

Article Title: Prostaglandin E2 Is Required for BMP4-Induced Mesoderm Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells

Journal: Stem Cell Reports

doi: 10.1016/j.stemcr.2018.01.024

PGE 2 Stimulates Mesoderm Differentiation of hESCs through the EP2-PKA-GSK3β/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway (A) cAMP level of hESCs with vehicle control, Forskolin, PGE 2 , PGE 2 + AH6809, or AH23848 treatment were determined by cAMP Glo array. ∗ p
Figure Legend Snippet: PGE 2 Stimulates Mesoderm Differentiation of hESCs through the EP2-PKA-GSK3β/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway (A) cAMP level of hESCs with vehicle control, Forskolin, PGE 2 , PGE 2 + AH6809, or AH23848 treatment were determined by cAMP Glo array. ∗ p

Techniques Used:

5) Product Images from "Therapeutic intervention of proanthocyanidins on the migration capacity of melanoma cells is mediated through PGE2 receptors and β-catenin signaling molecules"

Article Title: Therapeutic intervention of proanthocyanidins on the migration capacity of melanoma cells is mediated through PGE2 receptors and β-catenin signaling molecules

Journal: American Journal of Cancer Research

doi:

Effect of GSPs on PGE 2 receptors and PGE 2 receptors agonist-mediated effect on melanoma cell migration. A. Treatment of A375 and Hs294t cells with GSPs (0, 10, 20 and 40 µg/mL) for 24 h decreases the expression levels of PGE 2 receptors (EP2 and
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of GSPs on PGE 2 receptors and PGE 2 receptors agonist-mediated effect on melanoma cell migration. A. Treatment of A375 and Hs294t cells with GSPs (0, 10, 20 and 40 µg/mL) for 24 h decreases the expression levels of PGE 2 receptors (EP2 and

Techniques Used: Migration, Expressing

Effect of EP2 antagonist (AH6809) on the capacity of melanoma cell migration and expression levels of β-catenin in melanoma cells. Treatment of AH6809 for 24 h inhibits the capacity of A375 (A) and Hs294t (B) melanoma cell migration in a dose-dependent
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of EP2 antagonist (AH6809) on the capacity of melanoma cell migration and expression levels of β-catenin in melanoma cells. Treatment of AH6809 for 24 h inhibits the capacity of A375 (A) and Hs294t (B) melanoma cell migration in a dose-dependent

Techniques Used: Migration, Expressing

6) Product Images from "Prostaglandin E2 alters Wnt-dependent migration and proliferation in neuroectodermal stem cells: implications for autism spectrum disorders"

Article Title: Prostaglandin E2 alters Wnt-dependent migration and proliferation in neuroectodermal stem cells: implications for autism spectrum disorders

Journal: Cell Communication and Signaling : CCS

doi: 10.1186/1478-811X-12-19

Expression of EP receptors’ mRNA and protein in NE-4C cells. (A) Real-time PCR was used to determine the RQ value for EP1, EP2, EP3α, EP3β, EP3γ and EP4 receptors, which was found to be 2, 16, 1, 2, 46 and 46 respectively. The error bars represent + SEM. (B) Western blot analysis of the EP1, EP2, EP3 and EP4 receptors expression (65, 68, 62 and 53 kDa, respectively). β-Actin was used to indicate equal loading. (C) Immunocytochemistry revealed the subcellular localization of EP1-4 receptors with specific organelles visualized through the use of anti-PDI endoplasmic reticulum marker, anti-Lamin A + C nuclear envelope marker, β -Actin cell membrane marker, and anti-58 K Golgi marker. The scale bar represents 10 μm.
Figure Legend Snippet: Expression of EP receptors’ mRNA and protein in NE-4C cells. (A) Real-time PCR was used to determine the RQ value for EP1, EP2, EP3α, EP3β, EP3γ and EP4 receptors, which was found to be 2, 16, 1, 2, 46 and 46 respectively. The error bars represent + SEM. (B) Western blot analysis of the EP1, EP2, EP3 and EP4 receptors expression (65, 68, 62 and 53 kDa, respectively). β-Actin was used to indicate equal loading. (C) Immunocytochemistry revealed the subcellular localization of EP1-4 receptors with specific organelles visualized through the use of anti-PDI endoplasmic reticulum marker, anti-Lamin A + C nuclear envelope marker, β -Actin cell membrane marker, and anti-58 K Golgi marker. The scale bar represents 10 μm.

Techniques Used: Expressing, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Western Blot, Immunocytochemistry, Marker

7) Product Images from "Evidence for a Pro-Proliferative Feedback Loop in Prostate Cancer: The Role of Epac1 and COX-2-Dependent Pathways"

Article Title: Evidence for a Pro-Proliferative Feedback Loop in Prostate Cancer: The Role of Epac1 and COX-2-Dependent Pathways

Journal: PLoS ONE

doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0063150

8-CPT-2Me-cAMP-induced expression of inflammation markers in prostate cancer cells. Panel A . Upregulation of COX-2, and EP2 and EP4 receptor mRNA in 1-LN, DU-145, and PC-3 prostate cancer cells stimulated with 8-CPT-2Me-cAMP (100 μM/30 min). The lanes are (1) buffer stimulated; and, (2) 8-CPT-2Me-cAMP-stimulated. Panel B. Immunoblot showing upregulation of p-cPLA2, COX-2, EP2, and EP4 in prostate cancer cells stimulated with 8-CPT-2Me-cAMP (100 μM/30 min). Panel C. A bar diagram showing 8-CPT-2Me-cAMP-induced upregulation of PGE 2 synthesis in prostate cancer cells. Levels of PGE 2 are expressed as pg PGE 2 /μg of cell protein. Values significantly different at 5% levels from buffer and treated cells are marked with an asterisk (*). Panel D. An immunoblot showing Epac1 protein levels in 1-LN and DU-145 and PC-3 prostate cancer cells stimulated with 8-CPT-2Me-cAMP(100 μM/30 min). Lanes in Panel B, C, and D are as in Panel A . All experiments were performed in triplicate and a representative immunoblot and the respective protein loading control actin or the unphosphorylated target proteins cPLA2 and Epac1 is shown.
Figure Legend Snippet: 8-CPT-2Me-cAMP-induced expression of inflammation markers in prostate cancer cells. Panel A . Upregulation of COX-2, and EP2 and EP4 receptor mRNA in 1-LN, DU-145, and PC-3 prostate cancer cells stimulated with 8-CPT-2Me-cAMP (100 μM/30 min). The lanes are (1) buffer stimulated; and, (2) 8-CPT-2Me-cAMP-stimulated. Panel B. Immunoblot showing upregulation of p-cPLA2, COX-2, EP2, and EP4 in prostate cancer cells stimulated with 8-CPT-2Me-cAMP (100 μM/30 min). Panel C. A bar diagram showing 8-CPT-2Me-cAMP-induced upregulation of PGE 2 synthesis in prostate cancer cells. Levels of PGE 2 are expressed as pg PGE 2 /μg of cell protein. Values significantly different at 5% levels from buffer and treated cells are marked with an asterisk (*). Panel D. An immunoblot showing Epac1 protein levels in 1-LN and DU-145 and PC-3 prostate cancer cells stimulated with 8-CPT-2Me-cAMP(100 μM/30 min). Lanes in Panel B, C, and D are as in Panel A . All experiments were performed in triplicate and a representative immunoblot and the respective protein loading control actin or the unphosphorylated target proteins cPLA2 and Epac1 is shown.

Techniques Used: Cycling Probe Technology, Expressing

8) Product Images from "TGF-? Effects on Prostate Cancer Cell Migration and Invasion Are Mediated by PGE2 through Activation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR Pathway"

Article Title: TGF-? Effects on Prostate Cancer Cell Migration and Invasion Are Mediated by PGE2 through Activation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR Pathway

Journal: Endocrinology

doi: 10.1210/en.2012-2074

Effects of PGE 2 , TGF-β, and EGF on Migration in PC3 Cells with or without EP2 or EP4 Knockdown A, Steady-state mRNA levels of EP1,-2, -3, and -4 receptors in prostate cells. Total RNAs were isolated and semiquantitative RT-PCR was performed to
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of PGE 2 , TGF-β, and EGF on Migration in PC3 Cells with or without EP2 or EP4 Knockdown A, Steady-state mRNA levels of EP1,-2, -3, and -4 receptors in prostate cells. Total RNAs were isolated and semiquantitative RT-PCR was performed to

Techniques Used: Migration, Isolation, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction

9) Product Images from "Prostaglandin E2 Promotes UV Radiation-Induced Immune Suppression through DNA Hypermethylation 1"

Article Title: Prostaglandin E2 Promotes UV Radiation-Induced Immune Suppression through DNA Hypermethylation 1

Journal: Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)

doi:

COX-2 inhibitors (indomethacin and celecoxib) and an EP2 antagonist (AH6809) inhibit UVB-induced suppression of the CHS response. Mice were exposed to UVB radiation, and the CHS response was measured as described in , except that some mice were
Figure Legend Snippet: COX-2 inhibitors (indomethacin and celecoxib) and an EP2 antagonist (AH6809) inhibit UVB-induced suppression of the CHS response. Mice were exposed to UVB radiation, and the CHS response was measured as described in , except that some mice were

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

Indomethacin and EP2 antagonist (AH6809) affect UVB-induced epigenetic regulators in UVB-irradiated mouse skin. Mice were UVB exposed in the presence and absence of topical treatment of themouse skin with indomethacin or EP2 antagonist on four consecutive
Figure Legend Snippet: Indomethacin and EP2 antagonist (AH6809) affect UVB-induced epigenetic regulators in UVB-irradiated mouse skin. Mice were UVB exposed in the presence and absence of topical treatment of themouse skin with indomethacin or EP2 antagonist on four consecutive

Techniques Used: Irradiation, Mouse Assay

10) Product Images from "Prophylactic and therapeutic benefits of COX-2 inhibitor on motility dysfunction in bowel obstruction: roles of PGE2 and EP receptors"

Article Title: Prophylactic and therapeutic benefits of COX-2 inhibitor on motility dysfunction in bowel obstruction: roles of PGE2 and EP receptors

Journal: American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology

doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.00326.2011

Expression of PGE 2 receptor subtypes (E-prostanoid, EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4) in rat colon muscularis externae in sham and obstruction. Colonic muscularis externae was isolated from the midcolons of rats with sham operation and obstruction for 3 days. Western blot was applied to detect the receptor subtypes with antibodies specific to EP1 ( A ), EP2 ( B ), EP3 ( C ), and EP4 ( D ), respectively. 3 out of 4 or 5 sham and obstruction samples were shown in the upper panel of each graph. (* P
Figure Legend Snippet: Expression of PGE 2 receptor subtypes (E-prostanoid, EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4) in rat colon muscularis externae in sham and obstruction. Colonic muscularis externae was isolated from the midcolons of rats with sham operation and obstruction for 3 days. Western blot was applied to detect the receptor subtypes with antibodies specific to EP1 ( A ), EP2 ( B ), EP3 ( C ), and EP4 ( D ), respectively. 3 out of 4 or 5 sham and obstruction samples were shown in the upper panel of each graph. (* P

Techniques Used: Expressing, Isolation, Western Blot

Effects of EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4 receptor antagonists on colonic circular muscle contractility in obstruction. The colonic circular muscle strips from the sham and obstruction rats (3 days) were incubated with DMSO or individual antagonists SC-52342 ( A ), AH-6809 ( B ), L798106 ( C ), and ONO-AE3-208 ( D ). The contractility of the muscle strips was determined 24 h later and was expressed as percent change of the contractility relative to the maximal response in sham with vehicle treatment. ( n = 4, * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4 receptor antagonists on colonic circular muscle contractility in obstruction. The colonic circular muscle strips from the sham and obstruction rats (3 days) were incubated with DMSO or individual antagonists SC-52342 ( A ), AH-6809 ( B ), L798106 ( C ), and ONO-AE3-208 ( D ). The contractility of the muscle strips was determined 24 h later and was expressed as percent change of the contractility relative to the maximal response in sham with vehicle treatment. ( n = 4, * P

Techniques Used: Incubation

Expression of mRNAs for PGE 2 receptor subtypes (EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4) in rat colon muscularis externae in sham and obstruction. Colonic muscularis externae was isolated from the midcolons of rats with sham operation and obstruction for 3 days. Total RNA was isolated for real-time PCR quantitation of mRNA for EP1 ( A ), EP2 ( B ), EP3 ( C ), and EP4 ( D ), respectively. ( n = 4 in each group, * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Expression of mRNAs for PGE 2 receptor subtypes (EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4) in rat colon muscularis externae in sham and obstruction. Colonic muscularis externae was isolated from the midcolons of rats with sham operation and obstruction for 3 days. Total RNA was isolated for real-time PCR quantitation of mRNA for EP1 ( A ), EP2 ( B ), EP3 ( C ), and EP4 ( D ), respectively. ( n = 4 in each group, * P

Techniques Used: Expressing, Isolation, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Quantitation Assay

11) Product Images from "Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 2 and Gi/Src pathway mediate cell motility through cyclooxygenase 2 expression in CAOV-3 ovarian cancer cells"

Article Title: Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 2 and Gi/Src pathway mediate cell motility through cyclooxygenase 2 expression in CAOV-3 ovarian cancer cells

Journal: Experimental & Molecular Medicine

doi: 10.3858/emm.2008.40.6.607

EP2 is involved in LPA-induced cell migration. (A) The cells were pre-incubated with or without pharmacological inhibitors of COX-2 (100 µM NS-398, 50 µM celecoxib), followed by 25 µM LPA stimulation. The cell migration was assessed
Figure Legend Snippet: EP2 is involved in LPA-induced cell migration. (A) The cells were pre-incubated with or without pharmacological inhibitors of COX-2 (100 µM NS-398, 50 µM celecoxib), followed by 25 µM LPA stimulation. The cell migration was assessed

Techniques Used: Migration, Incubation

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    Santa Cruz Biotechnology ep2
    GRK2 regulated HCC cell migration and invasion may be via modulation of <t>EP2</t> receptor. ( A ) The pictures and bar graph of EP2 in liver tissues of DEN-induced mice at different time points were shown by immunohistochemistry staining. The positive optical density values were shown as-fold change relative to week 0 (scale bar =100 μm). ( B ) The expression of EP2 in liver tissues of DEN-induced tumor mice was detected by Western blot. The data are expressed as the mean±SD from at least three independent experiments. * P
    Ep2, supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 80/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/ep2/product/Santa Cruz Biotechnology
    Average 80 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    ep2 - by Bioz Stars, 2022-11
    80/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    93
    Santa Cruz Biotechnology ep2 sirna
    Overexpression and knockdown of <t>EP2</t> in Hu5/KD3 cells. a Experimental design of overexpression of EP2 in Hu5/KD3 cells. b Western blotting for EP2 (overexpression: OE1-3) and GAPDH (loading control) 3 days after transfection of the control vector (CMV-DsRed) or CMV-EP2-ires DsRed vectors. Relative expression levels of EP2 (after normalization to GAPDH) are shown below. c Representative image of myotubes (MF20, red) formed by Hu5/KD3 cells after transfection of the control vector (CMV-DsRed) or CMV-EP2-ires DsRed vectors. Scale bar, 100 µm. d Fusion index of ( c ). n = 4 samples/group. Dunnett’s multiple comparisons test. e RT-qPCR for EP2 ( PTGER2 ) of nontarget (control) short-hairpin (sh) RNA plasmid-transfected and EP2 <t>shRNA</t> plasmid-transfected Hu5/KD3 cells. Plasmids were introduced into Hu5/KD3 cells by electroporation. Data are shown as mean ± S.D. and analyzed by unpaired two-tailed Student’s t -test, n = 3 samples/group. f Immunoblot analysis for EP2 and GAPDH in nontarget and shEP2 plasmid-transfected Hu5/KD3 cells. g EP2 signals were normalized to GAPDH. h Representative immunostaining of myotubes formed by nontarget shRNA plasmid or EP2 shRNA plasmid-transfected Hu5/KD3 cells with anti-myosin heavy chain antibody, MF20 (red) and nuclei (DAPI, blue). Scale bar = 200 μm. i Fusion index of Hu5/KD3 cells four days after transfection of shRNA plasmids. Data are shown as mean ± S.D. and analyzed by unpaired two-tailed Student’s t -test, n = 4 independent experiments. Each dot is an average of 3 views/sample. Both p -value and the effect sizes of Pearson’s r ( r ) are shown. j Full, uncropped images of western blots in b and f are shown in Supplementary Fig. 10 .
    Ep2 Sirna, supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/ep2 sirna/product/Santa Cruz Biotechnology
    Average 93 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    ep2 sirna - by Bioz Stars, 2022-11
    93/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

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    GRK2 regulated HCC cell migration and invasion may be via modulation of EP2 receptor. ( A ) The pictures and bar graph of EP2 in liver tissues of DEN-induced mice at different time points were shown by immunohistochemistry staining. The positive optical density values were shown as-fold change relative to week 0 (scale bar =100 μm). ( B ) The expression of EP2 in liver tissues of DEN-induced tumor mice was detected by Western blot. The data are expressed as the mean±SD from at least three independent experiments. * P

    Journal: OncoTargets and therapy

    Article Title: GRK2 Suppresses Hepatocellular Carcinoma Metastasis and Invasion Through Down-Regulation of Prostaglandin E Receptor 2

    doi: 10.2147/OTT.S266641

    Figure Lengend Snippet: GRK2 regulated HCC cell migration and invasion may be via modulation of EP2 receptor. ( A ) The pictures and bar graph of EP2 in liver tissues of DEN-induced mice at different time points were shown by immunohistochemistry staining. The positive optical density values were shown as-fold change relative to week 0 (scale bar =100 μm). ( B ) The expression of EP2 in liver tissues of DEN-induced tumor mice was detected by Western blot. The data are expressed as the mean±SD from at least three independent experiments. * P

    Article Snippet: Slides were incubated with primary antibodies against GRK2, GRK3 and EP2 (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, CA, USA) overnight at 4°C.

    Techniques: Migration, Mouse Assay, Immunohistochemistry, Staining, Expressing, Western Blot

    Low GRK2 expression upregulated EP2 receptor translocation to cell membrane and downstream Akt pathway. ( A ) The membrane and cytoplasmic proteins expression of GRK2 and EP2 in HCC cells (HCCLM3, MHCC97L, and HepG2) stimulated with butaprost, a selective EP2 agonist. And the protein levels were normalized to β-actin or Na + /K + ATPase for the Western blots from the same lysate. * P

    Journal: OncoTargets and therapy

    Article Title: GRK2 Suppresses Hepatocellular Carcinoma Metastasis and Invasion Through Down-Regulation of Prostaglandin E Receptor 2

    doi: 10.2147/OTT.S266641

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Low GRK2 expression upregulated EP2 receptor translocation to cell membrane and downstream Akt pathway. ( A ) The membrane and cytoplasmic proteins expression of GRK2 and EP2 in HCC cells (HCCLM3, MHCC97L, and HepG2) stimulated with butaprost, a selective EP2 agonist. And the protein levels were normalized to β-actin or Na + /K + ATPase for the Western blots from the same lysate. * P

    Article Snippet: Slides were incubated with primary antibodies against GRK2, GRK3 and EP2 (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, CA, USA) overnight at 4°C.

    Techniques: Expressing, Translocation Assay, Western Blot

    Overexpression and knockdown of EP2 in Hu5/KD3 cells. a Experimental design of overexpression of EP2 in Hu5/KD3 cells. b Western blotting for EP2 (overexpression: OE1-3) and GAPDH (loading control) 3 days after transfection of the control vector (CMV-DsRed) or CMV-EP2-ires DsRed vectors. Relative expression levels of EP2 (after normalization to GAPDH) are shown below. c Representative image of myotubes (MF20, red) formed by Hu5/KD3 cells after transfection of the control vector (CMV-DsRed) or CMV-EP2-ires DsRed vectors. Scale bar, 100 µm. d Fusion index of ( c ). n = 4 samples/group. Dunnett’s multiple comparisons test. e RT-qPCR for EP2 ( PTGER2 ) of nontarget (control) short-hairpin (sh) RNA plasmid-transfected and EP2 shRNA plasmid-transfected Hu5/KD3 cells. Plasmids were introduced into Hu5/KD3 cells by electroporation. Data are shown as mean ± S.D. and analyzed by unpaired two-tailed Student’s t -test, n = 3 samples/group. f Immunoblot analysis for EP2 and GAPDH in nontarget and shEP2 plasmid-transfected Hu5/KD3 cells. g EP2 signals were normalized to GAPDH. h Representative immunostaining of myotubes formed by nontarget shRNA plasmid or EP2 shRNA plasmid-transfected Hu5/KD3 cells with anti-myosin heavy chain antibody, MF20 (red) and nuclei (DAPI, blue). Scale bar = 200 μm. i Fusion index of Hu5/KD3 cells four days after transfection of shRNA plasmids. Data are shown as mean ± S.D. and analyzed by unpaired two-tailed Student’s t -test, n = 4 independent experiments. Each dot is an average of 3 views/sample. Both p -value and the effect sizes of Pearson’s r ( r ) are shown. j Full, uncropped images of western blots in b and f are shown in Supplementary Fig. 10 .

    Journal: Communications Biology

    Article Title: Prostaglandin EP2 receptor downstream of Notch signaling inhibits differentiation of human skeletal muscle progenitors in differentiation conditions

    doi: 10.1038/s42003-020-0904-6

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Overexpression and knockdown of EP2 in Hu5/KD3 cells. a Experimental design of overexpression of EP2 in Hu5/KD3 cells. b Western blotting for EP2 (overexpression: OE1-3) and GAPDH (loading control) 3 days after transfection of the control vector (CMV-DsRed) or CMV-EP2-ires DsRed vectors. Relative expression levels of EP2 (after normalization to GAPDH) are shown below. c Representative image of myotubes (MF20, red) formed by Hu5/KD3 cells after transfection of the control vector (CMV-DsRed) or CMV-EP2-ires DsRed vectors. Scale bar, 100 µm. d Fusion index of ( c ). n = 4 samples/group. Dunnett’s multiple comparisons test. e RT-qPCR for EP2 ( PTGER2 ) of nontarget (control) short-hairpin (sh) RNA plasmid-transfected and EP2 shRNA plasmid-transfected Hu5/KD3 cells. Plasmids were introduced into Hu5/KD3 cells by electroporation. Data are shown as mean ± S.D. and analyzed by unpaired two-tailed Student’s t -test, n = 3 samples/group. f Immunoblot analysis for EP2 and GAPDH in nontarget and shEP2 plasmid-transfected Hu5/KD3 cells. g EP2 signals were normalized to GAPDH. h Representative immunostaining of myotubes formed by nontarget shRNA plasmid or EP2 shRNA plasmid-transfected Hu5/KD3 cells with anti-myosin heavy chain antibody, MF20 (red) and nuclei (DAPI, blue). Scale bar = 200 μm. i Fusion index of Hu5/KD3 cells four days after transfection of shRNA plasmids. Data are shown as mean ± S.D. and analyzed by unpaired two-tailed Student’s t -test, n = 4 independent experiments. Each dot is an average of 3 views/sample. Both p -value and the effect sizes of Pearson’s r ( r ) are shown. j Full, uncropped images of western blots in b and f are shown in Supplementary Fig. 10 .

    Article Snippet: The human EP2 shRNA plasmid (sc-40171, Lot# E0709) and control shRNA plasmid (sc-108060) were purchased from Santa Cruz Biotechnology.

    Techniques: Over Expression, Western Blot, Transfection, Plasmid Preparation, Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR, shRNA, Electroporation, Two Tailed Test, Immunostaining

    Expression level of EP2 receptors and functional tests to evaluate the effectiveness of drugs inhibiting the signaling pathway related to the IGFBP-4 release. Panel a - Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of the EP receptor expression in MSCs. The mRNA levels were normalized to GAPDH mRNA expression, which was selected as an internal control. The data are expressed as arbitrary units with standard deviation. Panels b, c - Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of EP2 and Gαs expression in MSCs treated with siRNA either against EP2 (siEP2) or against Gαs (siGαs). siCTRL indicates cells incubated with control siRNA. The mRNA levels were normalized to GAPDH mRNA expression, which was selected as an internal control. The data are expressed as arbitrary units with standard error ( ± SD, n = 3, **p

    Journal: eLife

    Article Title: Increase of circulating IGFBP-4 following genotoxic stress and its implication for senescence

    doi: 10.7554/eLife.54523

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Expression level of EP2 receptors and functional tests to evaluate the effectiveness of drugs inhibiting the signaling pathway related to the IGFBP-4 release. Panel a - Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of the EP receptor expression in MSCs. The mRNA levels were normalized to GAPDH mRNA expression, which was selected as an internal control. The data are expressed as arbitrary units with standard deviation. Panels b, c - Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of EP2 and Gαs expression in MSCs treated with siRNA either against EP2 (siEP2) or against Gαs (siGαs). siCTRL indicates cells incubated with control siRNA. The mRNA levels were normalized to GAPDH mRNA expression, which was selected as an internal control. The data are expressed as arbitrary units with standard error ( ± SD, n = 3, **p

    Article Snippet: Silencing of EP2 and gαs with siRNAs We obtained validated siRNAs targeting human EP2 (sc-40171) or Gαs (sc-29328) mRNA, as well as control siRNAs (sc-37007) from Santa Cruz Biotechnology (TX, USA).

    Techniques: Expressing, Functional Assay, Quantitative RT-PCR, Standard Deviation, Incubation