enteroinvasive e coli  (ATCC)


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    ATCC enteroinvasive e coli
    Bacterial strains used in the study.
    Enteroinvasive E Coli, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    1) Product Images from "Development of a recombinase polymerase amplification assay with lateral flow dipstick (RPA-LFD) for rapid detection of Shigella spp. and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli"

    Article Title: Development of a recombinase polymerase amplification assay with lateral flow dipstick (RPA-LFD) for rapid detection of Shigella spp. and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli

    Journal: PLOS ONE

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0278869

    Bacterial strains used in the study.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Bacterial strains used in the study.

    Techniques Used:

    enteroinvasive e coli atcc 43892  (ATCC)


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    ATCC enteroinvasive e coli atcc 43892
    Enteroinvasive E Coli Atcc 43892, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    enteroinvasive e coli eiec cp66  (ATCC)


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    ATCC enteroinvasive e coli eiec cp66
    <t>E.</t> <t>coli</t> ATCC 25922 cell density ( a ) and phage Φ1, Φ2, Φ3, and total phage (sum of phage Φ1, Φ2, and Φ3): <t>E.</t> <t>coli</t> DNA ratios (/mL) ( b – e ) upon 24 h growth in Lysogeny Broth (LB) medium supplemented with 1% L -arabinose (Ara) or D -xylose (Xyl) ( n = 3, respectively). f Cell density of E. coli ATCC 25922 and total phage: E. coli DNA ratio (/mL) upon 24 h growth in MOPS minimal medium supplemented with 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 mM D -xylose ( n = 3). g Phage Φ1, Φ2, and Φ3: E. coli DNA ratios (/mL) upon 24 h growth in MOPS minimal medium supplemented with 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 mM D -xylose ( n = 3). ‒: No E. coli growth. h Experimental timeline examining the effect of dietary D -xylose on prophage induction in E. coli ATCC 25922. Six/seven mice were used for each treatment group. See “Methods” for more details. Body weight change ( i ), representative H&E staining images (scale bars = 100 μm) of jejunum ( j ) and colon ( k ) and corresponding local high magnification images (Scale bars = 50 μm), colon length ( l ), and representative colon images ( m ). Number of E. coli ATCC 25922 ( n ) and phage Φ1, Φ2, Φ3, and total phage: E. coli DNA ratios (/100 mg) ( o – r ) in feces during an experimental period of 7 days. Each dot in ( i ) represents the mean value of 6/7 mice per group daily. Each dot in ( l ) represents a single data point from a single mouse. Each dot in ( n – r ) represents a single data point from a single mouse fecal sample on one day. nd not detectable. Data in ( a – e , i , l , n – r ) were analyzed using unpaired Studentʼs t test. Data in ( g ) were analyzed using one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s test. ns not statistically significant. * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001. Data were expressed as mean ± SD.
    Enteroinvasive E Coli Eiec Cp66, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    1) Product Images from "Dietary D -xylose promotes intestinal health by inducing phage production in Escherichia coli"

    Article Title: Dietary D -xylose promotes intestinal health by inducing phage production in Escherichia coli

    Journal: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes

    doi: 10.1038/s41522-023-00445-w

    E. coli ATCC 25922 cell density ( a ) and phage Φ1, Φ2, Φ3, and total phage (sum of phage Φ1, Φ2, and Φ3): E. coli DNA ratios (/mL) ( b – e ) upon 24 h growth in Lysogeny Broth (LB) medium supplemented with 1% L -arabinose (Ara) or D -xylose (Xyl) ( n = 3, respectively). f Cell density of E. coli ATCC 25922 and total phage: E. coli DNA ratio (/mL) upon 24 h growth in MOPS minimal medium supplemented with 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 mM D -xylose ( n = 3). g Phage Φ1, Φ2, and Φ3: E. coli DNA ratios (/mL) upon 24 h growth in MOPS minimal medium supplemented with 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 mM D -xylose ( n = 3). ‒: No E. coli growth. h Experimental timeline examining the effect of dietary D -xylose on prophage induction in E. coli ATCC 25922. Six/seven mice were used for each treatment group. See “Methods” for more details. Body weight change ( i ), representative H&E staining images (scale bars = 100 μm) of jejunum ( j ) and colon ( k ) and corresponding local high magnification images (Scale bars = 50 μm), colon length ( l ), and representative colon images ( m ). Number of E. coli ATCC 25922 ( n ) and phage Φ1, Φ2, Φ3, and total phage: E. coli DNA ratios (/100 mg) ( o – r ) in feces during an experimental period of 7 days. Each dot in ( i ) represents the mean value of 6/7 mice per group daily. Each dot in ( l ) represents a single data point from a single mouse. Each dot in ( n – r ) represents a single data point from a single mouse fecal sample on one day. nd not detectable. Data in ( a – e , i , l , n – r ) were analyzed using unpaired Studentʼs t test. Data in ( g ) were analyzed using one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s test. ns not statistically significant. * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001. Data were expressed as mean ± SD.
    Figure Legend Snippet: E. coli ATCC 25922 cell density ( a ) and phage Φ1, Φ2, Φ3, and total phage (sum of phage Φ1, Φ2, and Φ3): E. coli DNA ratios (/mL) ( b – e ) upon 24 h growth in Lysogeny Broth (LB) medium supplemented with 1% L -arabinose (Ara) or D -xylose (Xyl) ( n = 3, respectively). f Cell density of E. coli ATCC 25922 and total phage: E. coli DNA ratio (/mL) upon 24 h growth in MOPS minimal medium supplemented with 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 mM D -xylose ( n = 3). g Phage Φ1, Φ2, and Φ3: E. coli DNA ratios (/mL) upon 24 h growth in MOPS minimal medium supplemented with 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 mM D -xylose ( n = 3). ‒: No E. coli growth. h Experimental timeline examining the effect of dietary D -xylose on prophage induction in E. coli ATCC 25922. Six/seven mice were used for each treatment group. See “Methods” for more details. Body weight change ( i ), representative H&E staining images (scale bars = 100 μm) of jejunum ( j ) and colon ( k ) and corresponding local high magnification images (Scale bars = 50 μm), colon length ( l ), and representative colon images ( m ). Number of E. coli ATCC 25922 ( n ) and phage Φ1, Φ2, Φ3, and total phage: E. coli DNA ratios (/100 mg) ( o – r ) in feces during an experimental period of 7 days. Each dot in ( i ) represents the mean value of 6/7 mice per group daily. Each dot in ( l ) represents a single data point from a single mouse. Each dot in ( n – r ) represents a single data point from a single mouse fecal sample on one day. nd not detectable. Data in ( a – e , i , l , n – r ) were analyzed using unpaired Studentʼs t test. Data in ( g ) were analyzed using one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s test. ns not statistically significant. * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001. Data were expressed as mean ± SD.

    Techniques Used: Staining

    a Growth curves of E. coli ATCC 25922 in MOPS minimal medium supplemented with 20 mM D -xylose or glucose ( n = 3). Total phage (sum of phage Φ1, Φ2, and Φ3): E. coli DNA ratio (/mL) ( b ) and metabolic end products ( c ) of E. coli ATCC 25922 upon 24 h growth in MOPS minimal medium containing 20 mM D -xylose or glucose ( n = 3, respectively). d D -Lactic acid production of E. coli ATCC 25922 upon 24 h growth in MOPS minimal medium containing 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 mM D -xylose ( n = 3). e Correlation analysis between D -lactic acid and total phage: E. coli DNA ratio (/mL) ( n = 3). f Growth of wild-type (WT) and ldhA -deficient (Δ ldhA ) strains of E. coli ATCC 25922 in MOPS minimal medium containing 100 mM D -xylose ( n = 3). D -Lactic acid production ( g ) and total phage: E. coli DNA ratio (/mL) ( h ) of wild-type and ldhA -deficient strains of E. coli ATCC 25922 upon 24 h growth in MOPS minimal medium supplemented with 100 mM D -xylose ( n = 3, respectively). i – n Characterization of fecal metabolites in mice during an experimental period of 7 days. Six/seven mice were used for each treatment group. See “Methods” section for more details. Each dot in ( i – n ) represents a single data point from a single mouse fecal sample on one day. nd not detectable. Data in ( a – c , f – n ) were analyzed using unpaired Studentʼs t test. Data in ( e ) were analyzed using linear regression analysis. ns not statistically significant. * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001. Data were expressed as mean ± SD.
    Figure Legend Snippet: a Growth curves of E. coli ATCC 25922 in MOPS minimal medium supplemented with 20 mM D -xylose or glucose ( n = 3). Total phage (sum of phage Φ1, Φ2, and Φ3): E. coli DNA ratio (/mL) ( b ) and metabolic end products ( c ) of E. coli ATCC 25922 upon 24 h growth in MOPS minimal medium containing 20 mM D -xylose or glucose ( n = 3, respectively). d D -Lactic acid production of E. coli ATCC 25922 upon 24 h growth in MOPS minimal medium containing 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 mM D -xylose ( n = 3). e Correlation analysis between D -lactic acid and total phage: E. coli DNA ratio (/mL) ( n = 3). f Growth of wild-type (WT) and ldhA -deficient (Δ ldhA ) strains of E. coli ATCC 25922 in MOPS minimal medium containing 100 mM D -xylose ( n = 3). D -Lactic acid production ( g ) and total phage: E. coli DNA ratio (/mL) ( h ) of wild-type and ldhA -deficient strains of E. coli ATCC 25922 upon 24 h growth in MOPS minimal medium supplemented with 100 mM D -xylose ( n = 3, respectively). i – n Characterization of fecal metabolites in mice during an experimental period of 7 days. Six/seven mice were used for each treatment group. See “Methods” section for more details. Each dot in ( i – n ) represents a single data point from a single mouse fecal sample on one day. nd not detectable. Data in ( a – c , f – n ) were analyzed using unpaired Studentʼs t test. Data in ( e ) were analyzed using linear regression analysis. ns not statistically significant. * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001. Data were expressed as mean ± SD.

    Techniques Used:

    a Experimental timeline examining effects of E. coli ATCC 25922 challenge on D -lactic acid and L -lactic acid production in the wild-type mice. Six mice were used for each treatment group. Fecal L -lactic acid ( b ) and D -lactic acid production ( c ) during an experimental period of 7 days. d Experimental timeline examining the effect of E. coli ATCC 25922 challenge on L -lactic acid production in the gut microbiota-depleted mice. Six mice were used for each treatment group. e Fecal L -lactic acid production. f Experimental timeline examining effects of sodium oxamate on propionic acid production and prophage induction. Mice were intragastrically administered daily with either 100 µL (12 mg) sodium oxamate or phosphate buffer saline 2 h prior to E. coli challenge. Six mice were used for each treatment group. g D -Lactic acid production of E. coli ATCC 25922 upon 24 h growth in MOPS + D -xylose (Xyl) (100 mM) medium containing 0, 25, 50, and 75 mM sodium oxamate. Fecal propionic acid concentration ( h ) and total phage (sum of phage Φ1, Φ2, and Φ3): E. coli DNA ratio (/100 mg) ( i ) during an experimental period of 7 days. j Experimental timeline examining effects of the ldhA gene of E. coli ATCC 25922 on propionic acid production and phage production in response to D -xylose. Mice were administered with 10 8 CFU of wild-type (WT), ldhA -deficient (Δ ldhA ), or ldhA -overexpressing ( ldhA + ) strain of E. coli ATCC 25922 daily for 7 consecutive days while having free access to D -xylose in drinking water. Six mice were used for each treatment group. Fecal propionic acid concentration ( k ) and total phage production ( l ) during an experimental period of 7 days. m D -Lactic acid production of E. coli ATCC 25922 wild-type strain and ldhA -overexpressing strain upon 24 h growth in MOPS minimal medium containing 100 mM D -xylose ( n = 3). Each dot in ( b , c , e , h , i , k , l ) represents a single data point from a single mouse fecal sample on one day. nd not detectable. Data in ( b , c , e , h , i , k – m ) were analyzed using unpaired Studentʼs t test. Data in ( g ) were analyzed using one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s test. ns not statistically significant. * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001. Data were expressed as mean ± SD.
    Figure Legend Snippet: a Experimental timeline examining effects of E. coli ATCC 25922 challenge on D -lactic acid and L -lactic acid production in the wild-type mice. Six mice were used for each treatment group. Fecal L -lactic acid ( b ) and D -lactic acid production ( c ) during an experimental period of 7 days. d Experimental timeline examining the effect of E. coli ATCC 25922 challenge on L -lactic acid production in the gut microbiota-depleted mice. Six mice were used for each treatment group. e Fecal L -lactic acid production. f Experimental timeline examining effects of sodium oxamate on propionic acid production and prophage induction. Mice were intragastrically administered daily with either 100 µL (12 mg) sodium oxamate or phosphate buffer saline 2 h prior to E. coli challenge. Six mice were used for each treatment group. g D -Lactic acid production of E. coli ATCC 25922 upon 24 h growth in MOPS + D -xylose (Xyl) (100 mM) medium containing 0, 25, 50, and 75 mM sodium oxamate. Fecal propionic acid concentration ( h ) and total phage (sum of phage Φ1, Φ2, and Φ3): E. coli DNA ratio (/100 mg) ( i ) during an experimental period of 7 days. j Experimental timeline examining effects of the ldhA gene of E. coli ATCC 25922 on propionic acid production and phage production in response to D -xylose. Mice were administered with 10 8 CFU of wild-type (WT), ldhA -deficient (Δ ldhA ), or ldhA -overexpressing ( ldhA + ) strain of E. coli ATCC 25922 daily for 7 consecutive days while having free access to D -xylose in drinking water. Six mice were used for each treatment group. Fecal propionic acid concentration ( k ) and total phage production ( l ) during an experimental period of 7 days. m D -Lactic acid production of E. coli ATCC 25922 wild-type strain and ldhA -overexpressing strain upon 24 h growth in MOPS minimal medium containing 100 mM D -xylose ( n = 3). Each dot in ( b , c , e , h , i , k , l ) represents a single data point from a single mouse fecal sample on one day. nd not detectable. Data in ( b , c , e , h , i , k – m ) were analyzed using unpaired Studentʼs t test. Data in ( g ) were analyzed using one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s test. ns not statistically significant. * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001. Data were expressed as mean ± SD.

    Techniques Used: Saline, Concentration Assay

    a Wilcoxon rank-sum test bar plot at the class level. b Correlation analysis between propionic acid production and fecal microbiota composition in D -xylose (Xyl) + E. coli treatment group. c Experimental timeline examining effects of streptomycin (Strep) or kanamycin (Kana) treatment on intestinal D -lactic acid and propionic acid concentrations. Six mice were used for each treatment group. See “Methods” for more details. d RT-qPCR analysis of fecal Clostridia copies after streptomycin treatment. Fecal D -lactic acid concentration ( e ), propionic acid concentration ( f ), E. coli ATCC 25922 number ( g ), and total phage (sum of phage Φ1, Φ2, and Φ3): E. coli DNA ratio (/100 mg) ( h ). i Experimental timeline examining the effect of oral administration of D -lactic acid on intestinal propionic acid concentration. Six mice were used for each treatment group. Fecal propionic acid concentration on day 1 ( j ) and day 2 ( k ). Data in ( a ) represent the mean values of 7 fecal samples. Each dot in ( d – h , j , k ) represents a single data point from a single mouse fecal sample. Data in ( b ) were analyzed using Spearman correlation analysis. Data in ( d ) were analyzed using one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s test. Data in ( e – h , j , k ) were analyzed using unpaired Studentʼs t test. ns not statistically significant. * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001. Data were expressed as mean ± SD.
    Figure Legend Snippet: a Wilcoxon rank-sum test bar plot at the class level. b Correlation analysis between propionic acid production and fecal microbiota composition in D -xylose (Xyl) + E. coli treatment group. c Experimental timeline examining effects of streptomycin (Strep) or kanamycin (Kana) treatment on intestinal D -lactic acid and propionic acid concentrations. Six mice were used for each treatment group. See “Methods” for more details. d RT-qPCR analysis of fecal Clostridia copies after streptomycin treatment. Fecal D -lactic acid concentration ( e ), propionic acid concentration ( f ), E. coli ATCC 25922 number ( g ), and total phage (sum of phage Φ1, Φ2, and Φ3): E. coli DNA ratio (/100 mg) ( h ). i Experimental timeline examining the effect of oral administration of D -lactic acid on intestinal propionic acid concentration. Six mice were used for each treatment group. Fecal propionic acid concentration on day 1 ( j ) and day 2 ( k ). Data in ( a ) represent the mean values of 7 fecal samples. Each dot in ( d – h , j , k ) represents a single data point from a single mouse fecal sample. Data in ( b ) were analyzed using Spearman correlation analysis. Data in ( d ) were analyzed using one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s test. Data in ( e – h , j , k ) were analyzed using unpaired Studentʼs t test. ns not statistically significant. * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001. Data were expressed as mean ± SD.

    Techniques Used: Quantitative RT-PCR, Concentration Assay

    Cell density of E. coli ATCC 25922 ( a ) and total phage (sum of phage Φ1, Φ2, and Φ3): E. coli DNA ratio (/mL) ( b ) upon 24 h growth in Lysogeny Broth (LB) medium supplemented with 0, 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 mM propionic acid ( n = 3, respectively). Cell density of E. coli ATCC 25922 ( c ) and total phage: E. coli DNA ratio (/mL) ( d ) upon 24 h growth in LB medium supplemented with 0, 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 mM sodium propionate ( n = 3, respectively). e Experimental timeline examining the effect of sodium propionate (SP) on prophage induction in E. coli ATCC 25922. Seven mice were used for each treatment group. See “Methods” for more details. Representative H&E staining images (Scale bars = 100 μm) of jejunum ( f ) and colon ( g ) and corresponding local high magnification images (Scale bars = 50 μm), body weight change ( h ), colon length ( i ), and representative colon images ( j ). Number of E. coli ATCC 25922 ( k ) and phage Φ1, Φ2, Φ3, and total phage: E. coli DNA ratios (/100 mg) ( l – o ) in feces during an experimental period of 7 days. Each dot in ( h ) represents the mean value of 7 mice per group daily. Each dot in ( i ) represents a single data point from a single mouse. Each dot in ( k – o ) represents a single data point from a single mouse fecal sample on one day. nd not detectable. Data in ( a – d ) were analyzed using one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s test. Data in ( h , i , k – o ) were analyzed using unpaired Studentʼs t test. ns not statistically significant. * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001. Data were expressed as mean ± SD.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Cell density of E. coli ATCC 25922 ( a ) and total phage (sum of phage Φ1, Φ2, and Φ3): E. coli DNA ratio (/mL) ( b ) upon 24 h growth in Lysogeny Broth (LB) medium supplemented with 0, 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 mM propionic acid ( n = 3, respectively). Cell density of E. coli ATCC 25922 ( c ) and total phage: E. coli DNA ratio (/mL) ( d ) upon 24 h growth in LB medium supplemented with 0, 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 mM sodium propionate ( n = 3, respectively). e Experimental timeline examining the effect of sodium propionate (SP) on prophage induction in E. coli ATCC 25922. Seven mice were used for each treatment group. See “Methods” for more details. Representative H&E staining images (Scale bars = 100 μm) of jejunum ( f ) and colon ( g ) and corresponding local high magnification images (Scale bars = 50 μm), body weight change ( h ), colon length ( i ), and representative colon images ( j ). Number of E. coli ATCC 25922 ( k ) and phage Φ1, Φ2, Φ3, and total phage: E. coli DNA ratios (/100 mg) ( l – o ) in feces during an experimental period of 7 days. Each dot in ( h ) represents the mean value of 7 mice per group daily. Each dot in ( i ) represents a single data point from a single mouse. Each dot in ( k – o ) represents a single data point from a single mouse fecal sample on one day. nd not detectable. Data in ( a – d ) were analyzed using one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s test. Data in ( h , i , k – o ) were analyzed using unpaired Studentʼs t test. ns not statistically significant. * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001. Data were expressed as mean ± SD.

    Techniques Used: Staining

    a Total phage (sum of phage Φ1, Φ2, and Φ3): E. coli DNA ratio (/mL) in culture medium supplemented with mitomycin C (0.5 µg/mL), 100 mM D -xylose (Xyl), and 7.5 mM sodium propionate (SP) ( n = 3). D -Lactic acid production ( b ) and cell density ( c ) of E. coli ATCC 25922 wild-type (WT) and Δ recA -type upon 24 h growth in MOPS minimal medium supplemented with 100 mM D -xylose ( n = 3, respectively). d Cell density of E. coli ATCC 25922 wild-type and Δ recA -type upon 24 h growth in LB medium supplemented with 7.5 mM sodium propionate ( n = 3). All data were analyzed using unpaired Studentʼs t test. ns not statistically significant. * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001. Data were expressed as mean ± SD.
    Figure Legend Snippet: a Total phage (sum of phage Φ1, Φ2, and Φ3): E. coli DNA ratio (/mL) in culture medium supplemented with mitomycin C (0.5 µg/mL), 100 mM D -xylose (Xyl), and 7.5 mM sodium propionate (SP) ( n = 3). D -Lactic acid production ( b ) and cell density ( c ) of E. coli ATCC 25922 wild-type (WT) and Δ recA -type upon 24 h growth in MOPS minimal medium supplemented with 100 mM D -xylose ( n = 3, respectively). d Cell density of E. coli ATCC 25922 wild-type and Δ recA -type upon 24 h growth in LB medium supplemented with 7.5 mM sodium propionate ( n = 3). All data were analyzed using unpaired Studentʼs t test. ns not statistically significant. * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001. Data were expressed as mean ± SD.

    Techniques Used:

    a Experimental timeline examining the effect of recA -knockout on E. coli ATCC 25922-mediated intestinal inflammation response. Seven mice were used for each treatment group. Body weight change ( b ), colon length ( c ), representative colon images ( d ), and representative H&E staining images (Scale bars = 100 μm) of jejunum ( e ) and colon ( f ) and corresponding local high magnification images (scale bars = 50 μm). g E. coli ATCC 25922 number in feces during an experimental period of 7 days. Phage Φ1, Φ2, Φ3, and total phage (sum of phage Φ1, Φ2, and Φ3): E. coli DNA ratios (/100 mg) ( h – k ) in feces during an experimental period of 7 days. Each dot in ( b ) represents the mean value of 7 mice per group daily. Each dot in ( c ) represents a single data point from a single mouse. Each dot in ( g – k ) represents a single data point from a single mouse fecal sample on one day. All data were analyzed using unpaired Studentʼs t test. ns not statistically significant. * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001. Data were expressed as mean ± SD.
    Figure Legend Snippet: a Experimental timeline examining the effect of recA -knockout on E. coli ATCC 25922-mediated intestinal inflammation response. Seven mice were used for each treatment group. Body weight change ( b ), colon length ( c ), representative colon images ( d ), and representative H&E staining images (Scale bars = 100 μm) of jejunum ( e ) and colon ( f ) and corresponding local high magnification images (scale bars = 50 μm). g E. coli ATCC 25922 number in feces during an experimental period of 7 days. Phage Φ1, Φ2, Φ3, and total phage (sum of phage Φ1, Φ2, and Φ3): E. coli DNA ratios (/100 mg) ( h – k ) in feces during an experimental period of 7 days. Each dot in ( b ) represents the mean value of 7 mice per group daily. Each dot in ( c ) represents a single data point from a single mouse. Each dot in ( g – k ) represents a single data point from a single mouse fecal sample on one day. All data were analyzed using unpaired Studentʼs t test. ns not statistically significant. * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001. Data were expressed as mean ± SD.

    Techniques Used: Knock-Out, Staining

    enteroinvasive e coli  (ATCC)


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    ATCC enteroinvasive e coli
    Enteroinvasive E Coli, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    enteroinvasive e coli  (ATCC)


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    ATCC enteroinvasive e coli
    Bacterial strains used in the study.
    Enteroinvasive E Coli, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    1) Product Images from "Development of a recombinase polymerase amplification assay with lateral flow dipstick (RPA-LFD) for rapid detection of Shigella spp. and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli"

    Article Title: Development of a recombinase polymerase amplification assay with lateral flow dipstick (RPA-LFD) for rapid detection of Shigella spp. and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli

    Journal: PLOS ONE

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0278869

    Bacterial strains used in the study.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Bacterial strains used in the study.

    Techniques Used:

    enteroinvasive e coli atcc 43893  (ATCC)


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    ATCC enteroinvasive e coli atcc 43893
    Enteroinvasive E Coli Atcc 43893, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    enteroinvasive e coli atcc 43893  (ATCC)


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    ATCC enteroinvasive e coli atcc 43893
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    enteroinvasive e coli shigella high  (ATCC)


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    1) Product Images from "Performance of a new molecular assay for the detection of gastrointestinal pathogens"

    Article Title: Performance of a new molecular assay for the detection of gastrointestinal pathogens

    Journal: Access Microbiology

    doi: 10.1099/acmi.0.000160


    Figure Legend Snippet: Results of GI-MAP testing

    Techniques Used: Negative Control

    enteroinvasive e coli shigella high  (ATCC)


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    Article Title: Performance of a new molecular assay for the detection of gastrointestinal pathogens

    Journal: Access Microbiology

    doi: 10.1099/acmi.0.000160


    Figure Legend Snippet: Results of GI-MAP testing

    Techniques Used: Negative Control

    enteroinvasive e coli eiec 85b  (ATCC)


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    ATCC enteroinvasive e coli
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    ATCC enteroinvasive e coli atcc 43892
    Bacterial strains used in the study.
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    ATCC enteroinvasive e coli eiec cp66
    <t>E.</t> <t>coli</t> ATCC 25922 cell density ( a ) and phage Φ1, Φ2, Φ3, and total phage (sum of phage Φ1, Φ2, and Φ3): <t>E.</t> <t>coli</t> DNA ratios (/mL) ( b – e ) upon 24 h growth in Lysogeny Broth (LB) medium supplemented with 1% L -arabinose (Ara) or D -xylose (Xyl) ( n = 3, respectively). f Cell density of E. coli ATCC 25922 and total phage: E. coli DNA ratio (/mL) upon 24 h growth in MOPS minimal medium supplemented with 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 mM D -xylose ( n = 3). g Phage Φ1, Φ2, and Φ3: E. coli DNA ratios (/mL) upon 24 h growth in MOPS minimal medium supplemented with 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 mM D -xylose ( n = 3). ‒: No E. coli growth. h Experimental timeline examining the effect of dietary D -xylose on prophage induction in E. coli ATCC 25922. Six/seven mice were used for each treatment group. See “Methods” for more details. Body weight change ( i ), representative H&E staining images (scale bars = 100 μm) of jejunum ( j ) and colon ( k ) and corresponding local high magnification images (Scale bars = 50 μm), colon length ( l ), and representative colon images ( m ). Number of E. coli ATCC 25922 ( n ) and phage Φ1, Φ2, Φ3, and total phage: E. coli DNA ratios (/100 mg) ( o – r ) in feces during an experimental period of 7 days. Each dot in ( i ) represents the mean value of 6/7 mice per group daily. Each dot in ( l ) represents a single data point from a single mouse. Each dot in ( n – r ) represents a single data point from a single mouse fecal sample on one day. nd not detectable. Data in ( a – e , i , l , n – r ) were analyzed using unpaired Studentʼs t test. Data in ( g ) were analyzed using one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s test. ns not statistically significant. * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001. Data were expressed as mean ± SD.
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    ATCC enteroinvasive e coli atcc 43893
    <t>E.</t> <t>coli</t> ATCC 25922 cell density ( a ) and phage Φ1, Φ2, Φ3, and total phage (sum of phage Φ1, Φ2, and Φ3): <t>E.</t> <t>coli</t> DNA ratios (/mL) ( b – e ) upon 24 h growth in Lysogeny Broth (LB) medium supplemented with 1% L -arabinose (Ara) or D -xylose (Xyl) ( n = 3, respectively). f Cell density of E. coli ATCC 25922 and total phage: E. coli DNA ratio (/mL) upon 24 h growth in MOPS minimal medium supplemented with 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 mM D -xylose ( n = 3). g Phage Φ1, Φ2, and Φ3: E. coli DNA ratios (/mL) upon 24 h growth in MOPS minimal medium supplemented with 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 mM D -xylose ( n = 3). ‒: No E. coli growth. h Experimental timeline examining the effect of dietary D -xylose on prophage induction in E. coli ATCC 25922. Six/seven mice were used for each treatment group. See “Methods” for more details. Body weight change ( i ), representative H&E staining images (scale bars = 100 μm) of jejunum ( j ) and colon ( k ) and corresponding local high magnification images (Scale bars = 50 μm), colon length ( l ), and representative colon images ( m ). Number of E. coli ATCC 25922 ( n ) and phage Φ1, Φ2, Φ3, and total phage: E. coli DNA ratios (/100 mg) ( o – r ) in feces during an experimental period of 7 days. Each dot in ( i ) represents the mean value of 6/7 mice per group daily. Each dot in ( l ) represents a single data point from a single mouse. Each dot in ( n – r ) represents a single data point from a single mouse fecal sample on one day. nd not detectable. Data in ( a – e , i , l , n – r ) were analyzed using unpaired Studentʼs t test. Data in ( g ) were analyzed using one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s test. ns not statistically significant. * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001. Data were expressed as mean ± SD.
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    ATCC enteroinvasive e coli shigella high
    Results of GI-MAP testing
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    ATCC enteroinvasive e coli eiec 85b
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    Image Search Results


    Bacterial strains used in the study.

    Journal: PLOS ONE

    Article Title: Development of a recombinase polymerase amplification assay with lateral flow dipstick (RPA-LFD) for rapid detection of Shigella spp. and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0278869

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Bacterial strains used in the study.

    Article Snippet: Enteroinvasive E . coli , ATCC 43893.

    Techniques:

    E. coli ATCC 25922 cell density ( a ) and phage Φ1, Φ2, Φ3, and total phage (sum of phage Φ1, Φ2, and Φ3): E. coli DNA ratios (/mL) ( b – e ) upon 24 h growth in Lysogeny Broth (LB) medium supplemented with 1% L -arabinose (Ara) or D -xylose (Xyl) ( n = 3, respectively). f Cell density of E. coli ATCC 25922 and total phage: E. coli DNA ratio (/mL) upon 24 h growth in MOPS minimal medium supplemented with 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 mM D -xylose ( n = 3). g Phage Φ1, Φ2, and Φ3: E. coli DNA ratios (/mL) upon 24 h growth in MOPS minimal medium supplemented with 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 mM D -xylose ( n = 3). ‒: No E. coli growth. h Experimental timeline examining the effect of dietary D -xylose on prophage induction in E. coli ATCC 25922. Six/seven mice were used for each treatment group. See “Methods” for more details. Body weight change ( i ), representative H&E staining images (scale bars = 100 μm) of jejunum ( j ) and colon ( k ) and corresponding local high magnification images (Scale bars = 50 μm), colon length ( l ), and representative colon images ( m ). Number of E. coli ATCC 25922 ( n ) and phage Φ1, Φ2, Φ3, and total phage: E. coli DNA ratios (/100 mg) ( o – r ) in feces during an experimental period of 7 days. Each dot in ( i ) represents the mean value of 6/7 mice per group daily. Each dot in ( l ) represents a single data point from a single mouse. Each dot in ( n – r ) represents a single data point from a single mouse fecal sample on one day. nd not detectable. Data in ( a – e , i , l , n – r ) were analyzed using unpaired Studentʼs t test. Data in ( g ) were analyzed using one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s test. ns not statistically significant. * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001. Data were expressed as mean ± SD.

    Journal: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes

    Article Title: Dietary D -xylose promotes intestinal health by inducing phage production in Escherichia coli

    doi: 10.1038/s41522-023-00445-w

    Figure Lengend Snippet: E. coli ATCC 25922 cell density ( a ) and phage Φ1, Φ2, Φ3, and total phage (sum of phage Φ1, Φ2, and Φ3): E. coli DNA ratios (/mL) ( b – e ) upon 24 h growth in Lysogeny Broth (LB) medium supplemented with 1% L -arabinose (Ara) or D -xylose (Xyl) ( n = 3, respectively). f Cell density of E. coli ATCC 25922 and total phage: E. coli DNA ratio (/mL) upon 24 h growth in MOPS minimal medium supplemented with 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 mM D -xylose ( n = 3). g Phage Φ1, Φ2, and Φ3: E. coli DNA ratios (/mL) upon 24 h growth in MOPS minimal medium supplemented with 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 mM D -xylose ( n = 3). ‒: No E. coli growth. h Experimental timeline examining the effect of dietary D -xylose on prophage induction in E. coli ATCC 25922. Six/seven mice were used for each treatment group. See “Methods” for more details. Body weight change ( i ), representative H&E staining images (scale bars = 100 μm) of jejunum ( j ) and colon ( k ) and corresponding local high magnification images (Scale bars = 50 μm), colon length ( l ), and representative colon images ( m ). Number of E. coli ATCC 25922 ( n ) and phage Φ1, Φ2, Φ3, and total phage: E. coli DNA ratios (/100 mg) ( o – r ) in feces during an experimental period of 7 days. Each dot in ( i ) represents the mean value of 6/7 mice per group daily. Each dot in ( l ) represents a single data point from a single mouse. Each dot in ( n – r ) represents a single data point from a single mouse fecal sample on one day. nd not detectable. Data in ( a – e , i , l , n – r ) were analyzed using unpaired Studentʼs t test. Data in ( g ) were analyzed using one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s test. ns not statistically significant. * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001. Data were expressed as mean ± SD.

    Article Snippet: To investigate whether D -xylose is specific to E. coli ATCC 25922, we also tested enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) LHM10-1 which encodes three complete prophages and enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) CP66-6 which is lysogenized with two complete prophages.

    Techniques: Staining

    a Growth curves of E. coli ATCC 25922 in MOPS minimal medium supplemented with 20 mM D -xylose or glucose ( n = 3). Total phage (sum of phage Φ1, Φ2, and Φ3): E. coli DNA ratio (/mL) ( b ) and metabolic end products ( c ) of E. coli ATCC 25922 upon 24 h growth in MOPS minimal medium containing 20 mM D -xylose or glucose ( n = 3, respectively). d D -Lactic acid production of E. coli ATCC 25922 upon 24 h growth in MOPS minimal medium containing 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 mM D -xylose ( n = 3). e Correlation analysis between D -lactic acid and total phage: E. coli DNA ratio (/mL) ( n = 3). f Growth of wild-type (WT) and ldhA -deficient (Δ ldhA ) strains of E. coli ATCC 25922 in MOPS minimal medium containing 100 mM D -xylose ( n = 3). D -Lactic acid production ( g ) and total phage: E. coli DNA ratio (/mL) ( h ) of wild-type and ldhA -deficient strains of E. coli ATCC 25922 upon 24 h growth in MOPS minimal medium supplemented with 100 mM D -xylose ( n = 3, respectively). i – n Characterization of fecal metabolites in mice during an experimental period of 7 days. Six/seven mice were used for each treatment group. See “Methods” section for more details. Each dot in ( i – n ) represents a single data point from a single mouse fecal sample on one day. nd not detectable. Data in ( a – c , f – n ) were analyzed using unpaired Studentʼs t test. Data in ( e ) were analyzed using linear regression analysis. ns not statistically significant. * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001. Data were expressed as mean ± SD.

    Journal: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes

    Article Title: Dietary D -xylose promotes intestinal health by inducing phage production in Escherichia coli

    doi: 10.1038/s41522-023-00445-w

    Figure Lengend Snippet: a Growth curves of E. coli ATCC 25922 in MOPS minimal medium supplemented with 20 mM D -xylose or glucose ( n = 3). Total phage (sum of phage Φ1, Φ2, and Φ3): E. coli DNA ratio (/mL) ( b ) and metabolic end products ( c ) of E. coli ATCC 25922 upon 24 h growth in MOPS minimal medium containing 20 mM D -xylose or glucose ( n = 3, respectively). d D -Lactic acid production of E. coli ATCC 25922 upon 24 h growth in MOPS minimal medium containing 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 mM D -xylose ( n = 3). e Correlation analysis between D -lactic acid and total phage: E. coli DNA ratio (/mL) ( n = 3). f Growth of wild-type (WT) and ldhA -deficient (Δ ldhA ) strains of E. coli ATCC 25922 in MOPS minimal medium containing 100 mM D -xylose ( n = 3). D -Lactic acid production ( g ) and total phage: E. coli DNA ratio (/mL) ( h ) of wild-type and ldhA -deficient strains of E. coli ATCC 25922 upon 24 h growth in MOPS minimal medium supplemented with 100 mM D -xylose ( n = 3, respectively). i – n Characterization of fecal metabolites in mice during an experimental period of 7 days. Six/seven mice were used for each treatment group. See “Methods” section for more details. Each dot in ( i – n ) represents a single data point from a single mouse fecal sample on one day. nd not detectable. Data in ( a – c , f – n ) were analyzed using unpaired Studentʼs t test. Data in ( e ) were analyzed using linear regression analysis. ns not statistically significant. * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001. Data were expressed as mean ± SD.

    Article Snippet: To investigate whether D -xylose is specific to E. coli ATCC 25922, we also tested enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) LHM10-1 which encodes three complete prophages and enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) CP66-6 which is lysogenized with two complete prophages.

    Techniques:

    a Experimental timeline examining effects of E. coli ATCC 25922 challenge on D -lactic acid and L -lactic acid production in the wild-type mice. Six mice were used for each treatment group. Fecal L -lactic acid ( b ) and D -lactic acid production ( c ) during an experimental period of 7 days. d Experimental timeline examining the effect of E. coli ATCC 25922 challenge on L -lactic acid production in the gut microbiota-depleted mice. Six mice were used for each treatment group. e Fecal L -lactic acid production. f Experimental timeline examining effects of sodium oxamate on propionic acid production and prophage induction. Mice were intragastrically administered daily with either 100 µL (12 mg) sodium oxamate or phosphate buffer saline 2 h prior to E. coli challenge. Six mice were used for each treatment group. g D -Lactic acid production of E. coli ATCC 25922 upon 24 h growth in MOPS + D -xylose (Xyl) (100 mM) medium containing 0, 25, 50, and 75 mM sodium oxamate. Fecal propionic acid concentration ( h ) and total phage (sum of phage Φ1, Φ2, and Φ3): E. coli DNA ratio (/100 mg) ( i ) during an experimental period of 7 days. j Experimental timeline examining effects of the ldhA gene of E. coli ATCC 25922 on propionic acid production and phage production in response to D -xylose. Mice were administered with 10 8 CFU of wild-type (WT), ldhA -deficient (Δ ldhA ), or ldhA -overexpressing ( ldhA + ) strain of E. coli ATCC 25922 daily for 7 consecutive days while having free access to D -xylose in drinking water. Six mice were used for each treatment group. Fecal propionic acid concentration ( k ) and total phage production ( l ) during an experimental period of 7 days. m D -Lactic acid production of E. coli ATCC 25922 wild-type strain and ldhA -overexpressing strain upon 24 h growth in MOPS minimal medium containing 100 mM D -xylose ( n = 3). Each dot in ( b , c , e , h , i , k , l ) represents a single data point from a single mouse fecal sample on one day. nd not detectable. Data in ( b , c , e , h , i , k – m ) were analyzed using unpaired Studentʼs t test. Data in ( g ) were analyzed using one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s test. ns not statistically significant. * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001. Data were expressed as mean ± SD.

    Journal: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes

    Article Title: Dietary D -xylose promotes intestinal health by inducing phage production in Escherichia coli

    doi: 10.1038/s41522-023-00445-w

    Figure Lengend Snippet: a Experimental timeline examining effects of E. coli ATCC 25922 challenge on D -lactic acid and L -lactic acid production in the wild-type mice. Six mice were used for each treatment group. Fecal L -lactic acid ( b ) and D -lactic acid production ( c ) during an experimental period of 7 days. d Experimental timeline examining the effect of E. coli ATCC 25922 challenge on L -lactic acid production in the gut microbiota-depleted mice. Six mice were used for each treatment group. e Fecal L -lactic acid production. f Experimental timeline examining effects of sodium oxamate on propionic acid production and prophage induction. Mice were intragastrically administered daily with either 100 µL (12 mg) sodium oxamate or phosphate buffer saline 2 h prior to E. coli challenge. Six mice were used for each treatment group. g D -Lactic acid production of E. coli ATCC 25922 upon 24 h growth in MOPS + D -xylose (Xyl) (100 mM) medium containing 0, 25, 50, and 75 mM sodium oxamate. Fecal propionic acid concentration ( h ) and total phage (sum of phage Φ1, Φ2, and Φ3): E. coli DNA ratio (/100 mg) ( i ) during an experimental period of 7 days. j Experimental timeline examining effects of the ldhA gene of E. coli ATCC 25922 on propionic acid production and phage production in response to D -xylose. Mice were administered with 10 8 CFU of wild-type (WT), ldhA -deficient (Δ ldhA ), or ldhA -overexpressing ( ldhA + ) strain of E. coli ATCC 25922 daily for 7 consecutive days while having free access to D -xylose in drinking water. Six mice were used for each treatment group. Fecal propionic acid concentration ( k ) and total phage production ( l ) during an experimental period of 7 days. m D -Lactic acid production of E. coli ATCC 25922 wild-type strain and ldhA -overexpressing strain upon 24 h growth in MOPS minimal medium containing 100 mM D -xylose ( n = 3). Each dot in ( b , c , e , h , i , k , l ) represents a single data point from a single mouse fecal sample on one day. nd not detectable. Data in ( b , c , e , h , i , k – m ) were analyzed using unpaired Studentʼs t test. Data in ( g ) were analyzed using one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s test. ns not statistically significant. * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001. Data were expressed as mean ± SD.

    Article Snippet: To investigate whether D -xylose is specific to E. coli ATCC 25922, we also tested enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) LHM10-1 which encodes three complete prophages and enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) CP66-6 which is lysogenized with two complete prophages.

    Techniques: Saline, Concentration Assay

    a Wilcoxon rank-sum test bar plot at the class level. b Correlation analysis between propionic acid production and fecal microbiota composition in D -xylose (Xyl) + E. coli treatment group. c Experimental timeline examining effects of streptomycin (Strep) or kanamycin (Kana) treatment on intestinal D -lactic acid and propionic acid concentrations. Six mice were used for each treatment group. See “Methods” for more details. d RT-qPCR analysis of fecal Clostridia copies after streptomycin treatment. Fecal D -lactic acid concentration ( e ), propionic acid concentration ( f ), E. coli ATCC 25922 number ( g ), and total phage (sum of phage Φ1, Φ2, and Φ3): E. coli DNA ratio (/100 mg) ( h ). i Experimental timeline examining the effect of oral administration of D -lactic acid on intestinal propionic acid concentration. Six mice were used for each treatment group. Fecal propionic acid concentration on day 1 ( j ) and day 2 ( k ). Data in ( a ) represent the mean values of 7 fecal samples. Each dot in ( d – h , j , k ) represents a single data point from a single mouse fecal sample. Data in ( b ) were analyzed using Spearman correlation analysis. Data in ( d ) were analyzed using one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s test. Data in ( e – h , j , k ) were analyzed using unpaired Studentʼs t test. ns not statistically significant. * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001. Data were expressed as mean ± SD.

    Journal: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes

    Article Title: Dietary D -xylose promotes intestinal health by inducing phage production in Escherichia coli

    doi: 10.1038/s41522-023-00445-w

    Figure Lengend Snippet: a Wilcoxon rank-sum test bar plot at the class level. b Correlation analysis between propionic acid production and fecal microbiota composition in D -xylose (Xyl) + E. coli treatment group. c Experimental timeline examining effects of streptomycin (Strep) or kanamycin (Kana) treatment on intestinal D -lactic acid and propionic acid concentrations. Six mice were used for each treatment group. See “Methods” for more details. d RT-qPCR analysis of fecal Clostridia copies after streptomycin treatment. Fecal D -lactic acid concentration ( e ), propionic acid concentration ( f ), E. coli ATCC 25922 number ( g ), and total phage (sum of phage Φ1, Φ2, and Φ3): E. coli DNA ratio (/100 mg) ( h ). i Experimental timeline examining the effect of oral administration of D -lactic acid on intestinal propionic acid concentration. Six mice were used for each treatment group. Fecal propionic acid concentration on day 1 ( j ) and day 2 ( k ). Data in ( a ) represent the mean values of 7 fecal samples. Each dot in ( d – h , j , k ) represents a single data point from a single mouse fecal sample. Data in ( b ) were analyzed using Spearman correlation analysis. Data in ( d ) were analyzed using one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s test. Data in ( e – h , j , k ) were analyzed using unpaired Studentʼs t test. ns not statistically significant. * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001. Data were expressed as mean ± SD.

    Article Snippet: To investigate whether D -xylose is specific to E. coli ATCC 25922, we also tested enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) LHM10-1 which encodes three complete prophages and enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) CP66-6 which is lysogenized with two complete prophages.

    Techniques: Quantitative RT-PCR, Concentration Assay

    Cell density of E. coli ATCC 25922 ( a ) and total phage (sum of phage Φ1, Φ2, and Φ3): E. coli DNA ratio (/mL) ( b ) upon 24 h growth in Lysogeny Broth (LB) medium supplemented with 0, 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 mM propionic acid ( n = 3, respectively). Cell density of E. coli ATCC 25922 ( c ) and total phage: E. coli DNA ratio (/mL) ( d ) upon 24 h growth in LB medium supplemented with 0, 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 mM sodium propionate ( n = 3, respectively). e Experimental timeline examining the effect of sodium propionate (SP) on prophage induction in E. coli ATCC 25922. Seven mice were used for each treatment group. See “Methods” for more details. Representative H&E staining images (Scale bars = 100 μm) of jejunum ( f ) and colon ( g ) and corresponding local high magnification images (Scale bars = 50 μm), body weight change ( h ), colon length ( i ), and representative colon images ( j ). Number of E. coli ATCC 25922 ( k ) and phage Φ1, Φ2, Φ3, and total phage: E. coli DNA ratios (/100 mg) ( l – o ) in feces during an experimental period of 7 days. Each dot in ( h ) represents the mean value of 7 mice per group daily. Each dot in ( i ) represents a single data point from a single mouse. Each dot in ( k – o ) represents a single data point from a single mouse fecal sample on one day. nd not detectable. Data in ( a – d ) were analyzed using one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s test. Data in ( h , i , k – o ) were analyzed using unpaired Studentʼs t test. ns not statistically significant. * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001. Data were expressed as mean ± SD.

    Journal: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes

    Article Title: Dietary D -xylose promotes intestinal health by inducing phage production in Escherichia coli

    doi: 10.1038/s41522-023-00445-w

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Cell density of E. coli ATCC 25922 ( a ) and total phage (sum of phage Φ1, Φ2, and Φ3): E. coli DNA ratio (/mL) ( b ) upon 24 h growth in Lysogeny Broth (LB) medium supplemented with 0, 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 mM propionic acid ( n = 3, respectively). Cell density of E. coli ATCC 25922 ( c ) and total phage: E. coli DNA ratio (/mL) ( d ) upon 24 h growth in LB medium supplemented with 0, 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 mM sodium propionate ( n = 3, respectively). e Experimental timeline examining the effect of sodium propionate (SP) on prophage induction in E. coli ATCC 25922. Seven mice were used for each treatment group. See “Methods” for more details. Representative H&E staining images (Scale bars = 100 μm) of jejunum ( f ) and colon ( g ) and corresponding local high magnification images (Scale bars = 50 μm), body weight change ( h ), colon length ( i ), and representative colon images ( j ). Number of E. coli ATCC 25922 ( k ) and phage Φ1, Φ2, Φ3, and total phage: E. coli DNA ratios (/100 mg) ( l – o ) in feces during an experimental period of 7 days. Each dot in ( h ) represents the mean value of 7 mice per group daily. Each dot in ( i ) represents a single data point from a single mouse. Each dot in ( k – o ) represents a single data point from a single mouse fecal sample on one day. nd not detectable. Data in ( a – d ) were analyzed using one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s test. Data in ( h , i , k – o ) were analyzed using unpaired Studentʼs t test. ns not statistically significant. * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001. Data were expressed as mean ± SD.

    Article Snippet: To investigate whether D -xylose is specific to E. coli ATCC 25922, we also tested enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) LHM10-1 which encodes three complete prophages and enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) CP66-6 which is lysogenized with two complete prophages.

    Techniques: Staining

    a Total phage (sum of phage Φ1, Φ2, and Φ3): E. coli DNA ratio (/mL) in culture medium supplemented with mitomycin C (0.5 µg/mL), 100 mM D -xylose (Xyl), and 7.5 mM sodium propionate (SP) ( n = 3). D -Lactic acid production ( b ) and cell density ( c ) of E. coli ATCC 25922 wild-type (WT) and Δ recA -type upon 24 h growth in MOPS minimal medium supplemented with 100 mM D -xylose ( n = 3, respectively). d Cell density of E. coli ATCC 25922 wild-type and Δ recA -type upon 24 h growth in LB medium supplemented with 7.5 mM sodium propionate ( n = 3). All data were analyzed using unpaired Studentʼs t test. ns not statistically significant. * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001. Data were expressed as mean ± SD.

    Journal: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes

    Article Title: Dietary D -xylose promotes intestinal health by inducing phage production in Escherichia coli

    doi: 10.1038/s41522-023-00445-w

    Figure Lengend Snippet: a Total phage (sum of phage Φ1, Φ2, and Φ3): E. coli DNA ratio (/mL) in culture medium supplemented with mitomycin C (0.5 µg/mL), 100 mM D -xylose (Xyl), and 7.5 mM sodium propionate (SP) ( n = 3). D -Lactic acid production ( b ) and cell density ( c ) of E. coli ATCC 25922 wild-type (WT) and Δ recA -type upon 24 h growth in MOPS minimal medium supplemented with 100 mM D -xylose ( n = 3, respectively). d Cell density of E. coli ATCC 25922 wild-type and Δ recA -type upon 24 h growth in LB medium supplemented with 7.5 mM sodium propionate ( n = 3). All data were analyzed using unpaired Studentʼs t test. ns not statistically significant. * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001. Data were expressed as mean ± SD.

    Article Snippet: To investigate whether D -xylose is specific to E. coli ATCC 25922, we also tested enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) LHM10-1 which encodes three complete prophages and enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) CP66-6 which is lysogenized with two complete prophages.

    Techniques:

    a Experimental timeline examining the effect of recA -knockout on E. coli ATCC 25922-mediated intestinal inflammation response. Seven mice were used for each treatment group. Body weight change ( b ), colon length ( c ), representative colon images ( d ), and representative H&E staining images (Scale bars = 100 μm) of jejunum ( e ) and colon ( f ) and corresponding local high magnification images (scale bars = 50 μm). g E. coli ATCC 25922 number in feces during an experimental period of 7 days. Phage Φ1, Φ2, Φ3, and total phage (sum of phage Φ1, Φ2, and Φ3): E. coli DNA ratios (/100 mg) ( h – k ) in feces during an experimental period of 7 days. Each dot in ( b ) represents the mean value of 7 mice per group daily. Each dot in ( c ) represents a single data point from a single mouse. Each dot in ( g – k ) represents a single data point from a single mouse fecal sample on one day. All data were analyzed using unpaired Studentʼs t test. ns not statistically significant. * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001. Data were expressed as mean ± SD.

    Journal: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes

    Article Title: Dietary D -xylose promotes intestinal health by inducing phage production in Escherichia coli

    doi: 10.1038/s41522-023-00445-w

    Figure Lengend Snippet: a Experimental timeline examining the effect of recA -knockout on E. coli ATCC 25922-mediated intestinal inflammation response. Seven mice were used for each treatment group. Body weight change ( b ), colon length ( c ), representative colon images ( d ), and representative H&E staining images (Scale bars = 100 μm) of jejunum ( e ) and colon ( f ) and corresponding local high magnification images (scale bars = 50 μm). g E. coli ATCC 25922 number in feces during an experimental period of 7 days. Phage Φ1, Φ2, Φ3, and total phage (sum of phage Φ1, Φ2, and Φ3): E. coli DNA ratios (/100 mg) ( h – k ) in feces during an experimental period of 7 days. Each dot in ( b ) represents the mean value of 7 mice per group daily. Each dot in ( c ) represents a single data point from a single mouse. Each dot in ( g – k ) represents a single data point from a single mouse fecal sample on one day. All data were analyzed using unpaired Studentʼs t test. ns not statistically significant. * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001. Data were expressed as mean ± SD.

    Article Snippet: To investigate whether D -xylose is specific to E. coli ATCC 25922, we also tested enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) LHM10-1 which encodes three complete prophages and enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) CP66-6 which is lysogenized with two complete prophages.

    Techniques: Knock-Out, Staining

    Journal: Access Microbiology

    Article Title: Performance of a new molecular assay for the detection of gastrointestinal pathogens

    doi: 10.1099/acmi.0.000160

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Results of GI-MAP testing

    Article Snippet: Shigella sonnei ATCC 29930 , Enteroinvasive E. coli/Shigella – High, 4.22×10 6 c.f.u. gm −1 , TP.

    Techniques: Negative Control