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    Structured Review

    ATCC e faecium strains
    E. <t>faecium</t> in the gut causes colitis in Il10 −/− mice. Fecal transplantation from selected subjects (HD55 and IBD36) and inoculation of E. faecium strain ATCC 19434 was performed in microbiota-depleted Il10 −/− mice. The control group was treated with antibiotics (VCM/DRPM) in the absence of transplantation. a Changes in body weight (%) throughout the course of the experiment and b on day 28. c Representative histological sections of the murine colon at the time of euthanasia. Bars, 100 μm. d Mean pathology scores for each group of mice. †, average pathology score of 0. e mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines in the colon as analyzed by real-time PCR. Values shown in a , b , d , and e are the mean ± SE. Statistical differences between two values were analyzed using a Mann-Whitney U test. * P
    E Faecium Strains, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    1) Product Images from "Gut-derived Enterococcus faecium from ulcerative colitis patients promotes colitis in a genetically susceptible mouse host"

    Article Title: Gut-derived Enterococcus faecium from ulcerative colitis patients promotes colitis in a genetically susceptible mouse host

    Journal: Genome Biology

    doi: 10.1186/s13059-019-1879-9

    E. faecium in the gut causes colitis in Il10 −/− mice. Fecal transplantation from selected subjects (HD55 and IBD36) and inoculation of E. faecium strain ATCC 19434 was performed in microbiota-depleted Il10 −/− mice. The control group was treated with antibiotics (VCM/DRPM) in the absence of transplantation. a Changes in body weight (%) throughout the course of the experiment and b on day 28. c Representative histological sections of the murine colon at the time of euthanasia. Bars, 100 μm. d Mean pathology scores for each group of mice. †, average pathology score of 0. e mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines in the colon as analyzed by real-time PCR. Values shown in a , b , d , and e are the mean ± SE. Statistical differences between two values were analyzed using a Mann-Whitney U test. * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: E. faecium in the gut causes colitis in Il10 −/− mice. Fecal transplantation from selected subjects (HD55 and IBD36) and inoculation of E. faecium strain ATCC 19434 was performed in microbiota-depleted Il10 −/− mice. The control group was treated with antibiotics (VCM/DRPM) in the absence of transplantation. a Changes in body weight (%) throughout the course of the experiment and b on day 28. c Representative histological sections of the murine colon at the time of euthanasia. Bars, 100 μm. d Mean pathology scores for each group of mice. †, average pathology score of 0. e mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines in the colon as analyzed by real-time PCR. Values shown in a , b , d , and e are the mean ± SE. Statistical differences between two values were analyzed using a Mann-Whitney U test. * P

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Transplantation Assay, Expressing, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, MANN-WHITNEY

    The presence of E. faecium is associated with disease extent and the requirement for combination therapy. The disease characteristics and treatment regimens of the 16 UC patients enrolled in this study were obtained from medical records and assessed to identify any association with the presence or absence of E. faecium in the gut microbiota as determined by PCR. a Proportions of UC patients with pancolitis or left-sided colitis are shown relative to the presence of E. faecium in the feces. b Proportions of UC patients treated with single or multiple mediations are shown relative to the presence of E. faecium in the feces. Medications included mesalazine, corticosteroids, azathioprine, mercaptopurine, tacrolimus, infliximab, and adalimumab. The number of subjects per category ( n ) is indicated. * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: The presence of E. faecium is associated with disease extent and the requirement for combination therapy. The disease characteristics and treatment regimens of the 16 UC patients enrolled in this study were obtained from medical records and assessed to identify any association with the presence or absence of E. faecium in the gut microbiota as determined by PCR. a Proportions of UC patients with pancolitis or left-sided colitis are shown relative to the presence of E. faecium in the feces. b Proportions of UC patients treated with single or multiple mediations are shown relative to the presence of E. faecium in the feces. Medications included mesalazine, corticosteroids, azathioprine, mercaptopurine, tacrolimus, infliximab, and adalimumab. The number of subjects per category ( n ) is indicated. * P

    Techniques Used: Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Subject-derived E. faecium strains lead to different pathology and cytokine expression profiles in the colon. Fecal suspensions from selected subjects (HD55 and IBD36) and E. faecium strain IB18a, IB51a, or HD26a suspensions were transplanted or inoculated into microbiota-depleted Il10 −/− mice. The control group was treated with antibiotics (VCM/DRPM) in the absence of transplantation. a Changes in body weight (%) throughout the course of the experiment and b on day 28. c Mean pathology scores of mice from each treatment group. d mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines in the colon as analyzed by real-time PCR. e , f Suspension of HD55 or IBD51 feces or strain IB51a was gavaged into germ-free Il10 −/− mice. e Mean pathology scores of mice from each treatment group. f mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines in the colon as analyzed by real-time PCR. Values shown in a – f are the mean ± SE. Statistical differences between a value and the HD55 control were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Dunn’s test. * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Subject-derived E. faecium strains lead to different pathology and cytokine expression profiles in the colon. Fecal suspensions from selected subjects (HD55 and IBD36) and E. faecium strain IB18a, IB51a, or HD26a suspensions were transplanted or inoculated into microbiota-depleted Il10 −/− mice. The control group was treated with antibiotics (VCM/DRPM) in the absence of transplantation. a Changes in body weight (%) throughout the course of the experiment and b on day 28. c Mean pathology scores of mice from each treatment group. d mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines in the colon as analyzed by real-time PCR. e , f Suspension of HD55 or IBD51 feces or strain IB51a was gavaged into germ-free Il10 −/− mice. e Mean pathology scores of mice from each treatment group. f mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines in the colon as analyzed by real-time PCR. Values shown in a – f are the mean ± SE. Statistical differences between a value and the HD55 control were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Dunn’s test. * P

    Techniques Used: Derivative Assay, Expressing, Mouse Assay, Transplantation Assay, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Genome analysis of 10 E. faecium strains reveals inflammatory and probiotic clusters. a Three (HD26a, HD50a, and HD59a) and 4 (IB6a, IB18a, IB44a, and IB50a) E. faecium strains were isolated from the feces of HD subjects and UC patients, respectively. The genotypes of 10 E. faecium strains, including the 3 HD-derived and 4 UC-derived strains, inflammatory strain ATCC 19434, and probiotic strains NCIMB 11181 and SF68, were examined by sequencing. All 1683 identified genes (except for those coding for hypothetical proteins) were used for hierarchical clustering analysis of the 10 E. faecium strains. b LDA was performed using LEfSe to identify significant differences in KEGG-based metabolic pathways in the genomes of the 10 strains to compare between the inflammatory cluster in which ATCC 19434 was included and the probiotic cluster in which NCIMB 11181 and SF68 were included. Differentially abundant pathways for which the corresponding LDA scores indicate P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Genome analysis of 10 E. faecium strains reveals inflammatory and probiotic clusters. a Three (HD26a, HD50a, and HD59a) and 4 (IB6a, IB18a, IB44a, and IB50a) E. faecium strains were isolated from the feces of HD subjects and UC patients, respectively. The genotypes of 10 E. faecium strains, including the 3 HD-derived and 4 UC-derived strains, inflammatory strain ATCC 19434, and probiotic strains NCIMB 11181 and SF68, were examined by sequencing. All 1683 identified genes (except for those coding for hypothetical proteins) were used for hierarchical clustering analysis of the 10 E. faecium strains. b LDA was performed using LEfSe to identify significant differences in KEGG-based metabolic pathways in the genomes of the 10 strains to compare between the inflammatory cluster in which ATCC 19434 was included and the probiotic cluster in which NCIMB 11181 and SF68 were included. Differentially abundant pathways for which the corresponding LDA scores indicate P

    Techniques Used: Isolation, Derivative Assay, Sequencing

    Related Articles

    Isolation:

    Article Title: Gut-derived Enterococcus faecium from ulcerative colitis patients promotes colitis in a genetically susceptible mouse host
    Article Snippet: E. faecium strain ATCC 19434 (Fig. c–e), along with strains isolated from UC patients (Fig. c, d), caused pathological inflammation and upregulation of cytokine expression in the colon. .. The genotypes of 10 analyzed E. faecium strains were different and could be separated into two major clusters: one containing two probiotic strains and the other containing pro-inflammatory strain ATCC 19434 (Fig. a).

    Expressing:

    Article Title: Gut-derived Enterococcus faecium from ulcerative colitis patients promotes colitis in a genetically susceptible mouse host
    Article Snippet: E. faecium strain ATCC 19434 (Fig. c–e), along with strains isolated from UC patients (Fig. c, d), caused pathological inflammation and upregulation of cytokine expression in the colon. .. The genotypes of 10 analyzed E. faecium strains were different and could be separated into two major clusters: one containing two probiotic strains and the other containing pro-inflammatory strain ATCC 19434 (Fig. a).

    Mouse Assay:

    Article Title: Gut-derived Enterococcus faecium from ulcerative colitis patients promotes colitis in a genetically susceptible mouse host
    Article Snippet: Enterococcus was differentially abundant in the microbiota of UC patients compared with the HD group (Fig. a), which was replicated in the mice transplanted with the UC microbiota (Fig. a and Additional file : Figure S5). .. The genotypes of 10 analyzed E. faecium strains were different and could be separated into two major clusters: one containing two probiotic strains and the other containing pro-inflammatory strain ATCC 19434 (Fig. a).

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    ATCC 5x104 vre cfus
    Adoptive transfer of bacterial consortia containing C. bolteae and B. producta prevents <t>VRE</t> colonization (A–B) Ampicillin-treated mice were orally gavaged with PBS or a mixture of C. bolteae , B. producta , Blautia_unclassified, E. dolichum , A. muciniphila , P. distasonis and B. sartorii (7-mix) for three consecutive days beginning on day 2 of antibiotic treatment. Mice were challenged with VRE the day following the third gavage and fecal samples were collected at the indicated time points. (A) VRE <t>CFUs</t> in stool samples 1, 3 and 6/8 days post inoculation (p.i.) (**** P
    5x104 Vre Cfus, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 5 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    94
    ATCC e faecium strains
    E. <t>faecium</t> in the gut causes colitis in Il10 −/− mice. Fecal transplantation from selected subjects (HD55 and IBD36) and inoculation of E. faecium strain ATCC 19434 was performed in microbiota-depleted Il10 −/− mice. The control group was treated with antibiotics (VCM/DRPM) in the absence of transplantation. a Changes in body weight (%) throughout the course of the experiment and b on day 28. c Representative histological sections of the murine colon at the time of euthanasia. Bars, 100 μm. d Mean pathology scores for each group of mice. †, average pathology score of 0. e mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines in the colon as analyzed by real-time PCR. Values shown in a , b , d , and e are the mean ± SE. Statistical differences between two values were analyzed using a Mann-Whitney U test. * P
    E Faecium Strains, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    ATCC e faecium atcc 35667
    Assessment of metabolic activity of biofilm cells by resazurin. Quantification of biofilm production of six bacterial strains, using three concentrations of resazurin solution (2, 4 and 8 μg/mL): ( a ) Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, ( b ) Staphylococcus aureus MRSA ATCC 43300, ( c ) Enterococcus <t>faecium</t> ATCC 35667, ( d ) Enterococcus faecium VRE ATCC 700221, ( e ) Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, ( F ) Enterococcus faecalis VRE ATCC 51575, incubated at 25 °C and 37 °C. Relative fluorescence measurements were taken at 20, 40, 60 and 80 min
    E Faecium Atcc 35667, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Image Search Results


    Adoptive transfer of bacterial consortia containing C. bolteae and B. producta prevents VRE colonization (A–B) Ampicillin-treated mice were orally gavaged with PBS or a mixture of C. bolteae , B. producta , Blautia_unclassified, E. dolichum , A. muciniphila , P. distasonis and B. sartorii (7-mix) for three consecutive days beginning on day 2 of antibiotic treatment. Mice were challenged with VRE the day following the third gavage and fecal samples were collected at the indicated time points. (A) VRE CFUs in stool samples 1, 3 and 6/8 days post inoculation (p.i.) (**** P

    Journal: Cell host & microbe

    Article Title: Cooperating commensals restore colonization resistance to vancomycin- resistant Enterococcus faecium

    doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2017.04.002

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Adoptive transfer of bacterial consortia containing C. bolteae and B. producta prevents VRE colonization (A–B) Ampicillin-treated mice were orally gavaged with PBS or a mixture of C. bolteae , B. producta , Blautia_unclassified, E. dolichum , A. muciniphila , P. distasonis and B. sartorii (7-mix) for three consecutive days beginning on day 2 of antibiotic treatment. Mice were challenged with VRE the day following the third gavage and fecal samples were collected at the indicated time points. (A) VRE CFUs in stool samples 1, 3 and 6/8 days post inoculation (p.i.) (**** P

    Article Snippet: For VRE challenge, 6–8 week old female C57BL/6 mice from Jackson Laboratories were treated with 0.5 g/L ampicillin (Fisher) in their drinking water and inoculated with 5x104 VRE CFUs ( E. faecium , ATCC 700221) in 200μl by gavage.

    Techniques: Adoptive Transfer Assay, Mouse Assay

    Assessment of metabolic activity of biofilm cells by resazurin. Quantification of biofilm production of six bacterial strains, using three concentrations of resazurin solution (2, 4 and 8 μg/mL): ( a ) Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, ( b ) Staphylococcus aureus MRSA ATCC 43300, ( c ) Enterococcus faecium ATCC 35667, ( d ) Enterococcus faecium VRE ATCC 700221, ( e ) Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, ( F ) Enterococcus faecalis VRE ATCC 51575, incubated at 25 °C and 37 °C. Relative fluorescence measurements were taken at 20, 40, 60 and 80 min

    Journal: BMC Microbiology

    Article Title: Defining conditions for biofilm inhibition and eradication assays for Gram-positive clinical reference strains

    doi: 10.1186/s12866-018-1321-6

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Assessment of metabolic activity of biofilm cells by resazurin. Quantification of biofilm production of six bacterial strains, using three concentrations of resazurin solution (2, 4 and 8 μg/mL): ( a ) Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, ( b ) Staphylococcus aureus MRSA ATCC 43300, ( c ) Enterococcus faecium ATCC 35667, ( d ) Enterococcus faecium VRE ATCC 700221, ( e ) Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, ( F ) Enterococcus faecalis VRE ATCC 51575, incubated at 25 °C and 37 °C. Relative fluorescence measurements were taken at 20, 40, 60 and 80 min

    Article Snippet: Both E. faecium strains had the lowest biofilm mass in MHB compared with other tested strains, with an average of 0.149 for E. faecium ATCC 35667 (Fig. ) and 0.109 for vancomycin resistant E. faecium (VRE) ATCC 700221 (Fig. ).

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Incubation, Fluorescence

    Assessment of biofilm biomass by crystal violet staining and cell enumeration by colony count. Biofilm production analysis through crystal violet staining (OD 570 nm, bars) and cell enumeration (log 10 CFU/mL, lines) of six bacterial strains: ( a ) Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, ( b ) Staphylococcus aureus MRSA ATCC 43300, ( c ) Enterococcus faecium ATCC 35667, ( d ) Enterococcus faecium VRE ATCC 700221, ( e ) Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 and ( f ) Enterococcus faecalis VRE ATCC 51575, incubated in six different media: Mueller Hinton (MH), Tryptic Soy (TS), Tryptic Soy supplemented with 1% glucose (TSG), Tryptic Soy supplemented with 2% glucose (TS2G), Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) and Brain Heart Infusion supplemented with 1% glucose (BHIG). Error bars represent standard deviation of two independent experiments in triplicate. Lowercase letters indicate significant differences amongst media used for biofilm production. Similar letters denote no significant difference ( P > 0.05)

    Journal: BMC Microbiology

    Article Title: Defining conditions for biofilm inhibition and eradication assays for Gram-positive clinical reference strains

    doi: 10.1186/s12866-018-1321-6

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Assessment of biofilm biomass by crystal violet staining and cell enumeration by colony count. Biofilm production analysis through crystal violet staining (OD 570 nm, bars) and cell enumeration (log 10 CFU/mL, lines) of six bacterial strains: ( a ) Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, ( b ) Staphylococcus aureus MRSA ATCC 43300, ( c ) Enterococcus faecium ATCC 35667, ( d ) Enterococcus faecium VRE ATCC 700221, ( e ) Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 and ( f ) Enterococcus faecalis VRE ATCC 51575, incubated in six different media: Mueller Hinton (MH), Tryptic Soy (TS), Tryptic Soy supplemented with 1% glucose (TSG), Tryptic Soy supplemented with 2% glucose (TS2G), Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) and Brain Heart Infusion supplemented with 1% glucose (BHIG). Error bars represent standard deviation of two independent experiments in triplicate. Lowercase letters indicate significant differences amongst media used for biofilm production. Similar letters denote no significant difference ( P > 0.05)

    Article Snippet: Both E. faecium strains had the lowest biofilm mass in MHB compared with other tested strains, with an average of 0.149 for E. faecium ATCC 35667 (Fig. ) and 0.109 for vancomycin resistant E. faecium (VRE) ATCC 700221 (Fig. ).

    Techniques: Staining, Incubation, Standard Deviation

    E. faecium in the gut causes colitis in Il10 −/− mice. Fecal transplantation from selected subjects (HD55 and IBD36) and inoculation of E. faecium strain ATCC 19434 was performed in microbiota-depleted Il10 −/− mice. The control group was treated with antibiotics (VCM/DRPM) in the absence of transplantation. a Changes in body weight (%) throughout the course of the experiment and b on day 28. c Representative histological sections of the murine colon at the time of euthanasia. Bars, 100 μm. d Mean pathology scores for each group of mice. †, average pathology score of 0. e mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines in the colon as analyzed by real-time PCR. Values shown in a , b , d , and e are the mean ± SE. Statistical differences between two values were analyzed using a Mann-Whitney U test. * P

    Journal: Genome Biology

    Article Title: Gut-derived Enterococcus faecium from ulcerative colitis patients promotes colitis in a genetically susceptible mouse host

    doi: 10.1186/s13059-019-1879-9

    Figure Lengend Snippet: E. faecium in the gut causes colitis in Il10 −/− mice. Fecal transplantation from selected subjects (HD55 and IBD36) and inoculation of E. faecium strain ATCC 19434 was performed in microbiota-depleted Il10 −/− mice. The control group was treated with antibiotics (VCM/DRPM) in the absence of transplantation. a Changes in body weight (%) throughout the course of the experiment and b on day 28. c Representative histological sections of the murine colon at the time of euthanasia. Bars, 100 μm. d Mean pathology scores for each group of mice. †, average pathology score of 0. e mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines in the colon as analyzed by real-time PCR. Values shown in a , b , d , and e are the mean ± SE. Statistical differences between two values were analyzed using a Mann-Whitney U test. * P

    Article Snippet: The genotypes of 10 analyzed E. faecium strains were different and could be separated into two major clusters: one containing two probiotic strains and the other containing pro-inflammatory strain ATCC 19434 (Fig. a).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Transplantation Assay, Expressing, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, MANN-WHITNEY

    The presence of E. faecium is associated with disease extent and the requirement for combination therapy. The disease characteristics and treatment regimens of the 16 UC patients enrolled in this study were obtained from medical records and assessed to identify any association with the presence or absence of E. faecium in the gut microbiota as determined by PCR. a Proportions of UC patients with pancolitis or left-sided colitis are shown relative to the presence of E. faecium in the feces. b Proportions of UC patients treated with single or multiple mediations are shown relative to the presence of E. faecium in the feces. Medications included mesalazine, corticosteroids, azathioprine, mercaptopurine, tacrolimus, infliximab, and adalimumab. The number of subjects per category ( n ) is indicated. * P

    Journal: Genome Biology

    Article Title: Gut-derived Enterococcus faecium from ulcerative colitis patients promotes colitis in a genetically susceptible mouse host

    doi: 10.1186/s13059-019-1879-9

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The presence of E. faecium is associated with disease extent and the requirement for combination therapy. The disease characteristics and treatment regimens of the 16 UC patients enrolled in this study were obtained from medical records and assessed to identify any association with the presence or absence of E. faecium in the gut microbiota as determined by PCR. a Proportions of UC patients with pancolitis or left-sided colitis are shown relative to the presence of E. faecium in the feces. b Proportions of UC patients treated with single or multiple mediations are shown relative to the presence of E. faecium in the feces. Medications included mesalazine, corticosteroids, azathioprine, mercaptopurine, tacrolimus, infliximab, and adalimumab. The number of subjects per category ( n ) is indicated. * P

    Article Snippet: The genotypes of 10 analyzed E. faecium strains were different and could be separated into two major clusters: one containing two probiotic strains and the other containing pro-inflammatory strain ATCC 19434 (Fig. a).

    Techniques: Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Subject-derived E. faecium strains lead to different pathology and cytokine expression profiles in the colon. Fecal suspensions from selected subjects (HD55 and IBD36) and E. faecium strain IB18a, IB51a, or HD26a suspensions were transplanted or inoculated into microbiota-depleted Il10 −/− mice. The control group was treated with antibiotics (VCM/DRPM) in the absence of transplantation. a Changes in body weight (%) throughout the course of the experiment and b on day 28. c Mean pathology scores of mice from each treatment group. d mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines in the colon as analyzed by real-time PCR. e , f Suspension of HD55 or IBD51 feces or strain IB51a was gavaged into germ-free Il10 −/− mice. e Mean pathology scores of mice from each treatment group. f mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines in the colon as analyzed by real-time PCR. Values shown in a – f are the mean ± SE. Statistical differences between a value and the HD55 control were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Dunn’s test. * P

    Journal: Genome Biology

    Article Title: Gut-derived Enterococcus faecium from ulcerative colitis patients promotes colitis in a genetically susceptible mouse host

    doi: 10.1186/s13059-019-1879-9

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Subject-derived E. faecium strains lead to different pathology and cytokine expression profiles in the colon. Fecal suspensions from selected subjects (HD55 and IBD36) and E. faecium strain IB18a, IB51a, or HD26a suspensions were transplanted or inoculated into microbiota-depleted Il10 −/− mice. The control group was treated with antibiotics (VCM/DRPM) in the absence of transplantation. a Changes in body weight (%) throughout the course of the experiment and b on day 28. c Mean pathology scores of mice from each treatment group. d mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines in the colon as analyzed by real-time PCR. e , f Suspension of HD55 or IBD51 feces or strain IB51a was gavaged into germ-free Il10 −/− mice. e Mean pathology scores of mice from each treatment group. f mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines in the colon as analyzed by real-time PCR. Values shown in a – f are the mean ± SE. Statistical differences between a value and the HD55 control were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Dunn’s test. * P

    Article Snippet: The genotypes of 10 analyzed E. faecium strains were different and could be separated into two major clusters: one containing two probiotic strains and the other containing pro-inflammatory strain ATCC 19434 (Fig. a).

    Techniques: Derivative Assay, Expressing, Mouse Assay, Transplantation Assay, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Genome analysis of 10 E. faecium strains reveals inflammatory and probiotic clusters. a Three (HD26a, HD50a, and HD59a) and 4 (IB6a, IB18a, IB44a, and IB50a) E. faecium strains were isolated from the feces of HD subjects and UC patients, respectively. The genotypes of 10 E. faecium strains, including the 3 HD-derived and 4 UC-derived strains, inflammatory strain ATCC 19434, and probiotic strains NCIMB 11181 and SF68, were examined by sequencing. All 1683 identified genes (except for those coding for hypothetical proteins) were used for hierarchical clustering analysis of the 10 E. faecium strains. b LDA was performed using LEfSe to identify significant differences in KEGG-based metabolic pathways in the genomes of the 10 strains to compare between the inflammatory cluster in which ATCC 19434 was included and the probiotic cluster in which NCIMB 11181 and SF68 were included. Differentially abundant pathways for which the corresponding LDA scores indicate P

    Journal: Genome Biology

    Article Title: Gut-derived Enterococcus faecium from ulcerative colitis patients promotes colitis in a genetically susceptible mouse host

    doi: 10.1186/s13059-019-1879-9

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Genome analysis of 10 E. faecium strains reveals inflammatory and probiotic clusters. a Three (HD26a, HD50a, and HD59a) and 4 (IB6a, IB18a, IB44a, and IB50a) E. faecium strains were isolated from the feces of HD subjects and UC patients, respectively. The genotypes of 10 E. faecium strains, including the 3 HD-derived and 4 UC-derived strains, inflammatory strain ATCC 19434, and probiotic strains NCIMB 11181 and SF68, were examined by sequencing. All 1683 identified genes (except for those coding for hypothetical proteins) were used for hierarchical clustering analysis of the 10 E. faecium strains. b LDA was performed using LEfSe to identify significant differences in KEGG-based metabolic pathways in the genomes of the 10 strains to compare between the inflammatory cluster in which ATCC 19434 was included and the probiotic cluster in which NCIMB 11181 and SF68 were included. Differentially abundant pathways for which the corresponding LDA scores indicate P

    Article Snippet: The genotypes of 10 analyzed E. faecium strains were different and could be separated into two major clusters: one containing two probiotic strains and the other containing pro-inflammatory strain ATCC 19434 (Fig. a).

    Techniques: Isolation, Derivative Assay, Sequencing

    Assessment of metabolic activity of biofilm cells by resazurin. Quantification of biofilm production of six bacterial strains, using three concentrations of resazurin solution (2, 4 and 8 μg/mL): ( a ) Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, ( b ) Staphylococcus aureus MRSA ATCC 43300, ( c ) Enterococcus faecium ATCC 35667, ( d ) Enterococcus faecium VRE ATCC 700221, ( e ) Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, ( F ) Enterococcus faecalis VRE ATCC 51575, incubated at 25 °C and 37 °C. Relative fluorescence measurements were taken at 20, 40, 60 and 80 min

    Journal: BMC Microbiology

    Article Title: Defining conditions for biofilm inhibition and eradication assays for Gram-positive clinical reference strains

    doi: 10.1186/s12866-018-1321-6

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Assessment of metabolic activity of biofilm cells by resazurin. Quantification of biofilm production of six bacterial strains, using three concentrations of resazurin solution (2, 4 and 8 μg/mL): ( a ) Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, ( b ) Staphylococcus aureus MRSA ATCC 43300, ( c ) Enterococcus faecium ATCC 35667, ( d ) Enterococcus faecium VRE ATCC 700221, ( e ) Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, ( F ) Enterococcus faecalis VRE ATCC 51575, incubated at 25 °C and 37 °C. Relative fluorescence measurements were taken at 20, 40, 60 and 80 min

    Article Snippet: Both E. faecium strains had the lowest biofilm mass in MHB compared with other tested strains, with an average of 0.149 for E. faecium ATCC 35667 (Fig. ) and 0.109 for vancomycin resistant E. faecium (VRE) ATCC 700221 (Fig. ).

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Incubation, Fluorescence

    Assessment of biofilm biomass by crystal violet staining and cell enumeration by colony count. Biofilm production analysis through crystal violet staining (OD 570 nm, bars) and cell enumeration (log 10 CFU/mL, lines) of six bacterial strains: ( a ) Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, ( b ) Staphylococcus aureus MRSA ATCC 43300, ( c ) Enterococcus faecium ATCC 35667, ( d ) Enterococcus faecium VRE ATCC 700221, ( e ) Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 and ( f ) Enterococcus faecalis VRE ATCC 51575, incubated in six different media: Mueller Hinton (MH), Tryptic Soy (TS), Tryptic Soy supplemented with 1% glucose (TSG), Tryptic Soy supplemented with 2% glucose (TS2G), Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) and Brain Heart Infusion supplemented with 1% glucose (BHIG). Error bars represent standard deviation of two independent experiments in triplicate. Lowercase letters indicate significant differences amongst media used for biofilm production. Similar letters denote no significant difference ( P > 0.05)

    Journal: BMC Microbiology

    Article Title: Defining conditions for biofilm inhibition and eradication assays for Gram-positive clinical reference strains

    doi: 10.1186/s12866-018-1321-6

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Assessment of biofilm biomass by crystal violet staining and cell enumeration by colony count. Biofilm production analysis through crystal violet staining (OD 570 nm, bars) and cell enumeration (log 10 CFU/mL, lines) of six bacterial strains: ( a ) Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, ( b ) Staphylococcus aureus MRSA ATCC 43300, ( c ) Enterococcus faecium ATCC 35667, ( d ) Enterococcus faecium VRE ATCC 700221, ( e ) Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 and ( f ) Enterococcus faecalis VRE ATCC 51575, incubated in six different media: Mueller Hinton (MH), Tryptic Soy (TS), Tryptic Soy supplemented with 1% glucose (TSG), Tryptic Soy supplemented with 2% glucose (TS2G), Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) and Brain Heart Infusion supplemented with 1% glucose (BHIG). Error bars represent standard deviation of two independent experiments in triplicate. Lowercase letters indicate significant differences amongst media used for biofilm production. Similar letters denote no significant difference ( P > 0.05)

    Article Snippet: Both E. faecium strains had the lowest biofilm mass in MHB compared with other tested strains, with an average of 0.149 for E. faecium ATCC 35667 (Fig. ) and 0.109 for vancomycin resistant E. faecium (VRE) ATCC 700221 (Fig. ).

    Techniques: Staining, Incubation, Standard Deviation