e faecium strains atcc 700221  (ATCC)


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    Name:
    Enterococcus faecium VRE
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    Catalog Number:
    700221
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    Quality control strainQuality control strain for IDEXX products
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    Structured Review

    ATCC e faecium strains atcc 700221
    a 16S rRNA nucleotide sequence alignment of Lactococcus lactis isolates S2 and S6 with the sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactic ATCC 19435 (upper and middle panels) and with Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis IL1403 (lower panel) (nucleotide differences are highlighted). b 16S rRNA nucleotide sequence alignment of Enterococcus <t>faecium</t> isolate S11 with the sequence of Enterococcus faecium type strains ATCC 700221, ATCC 19434, CECT 410 T and DSM 20477 (nucleotide differences are highlighted)

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    16s rrna gene sequences

    Images

    1) Product Images from "Diffusible substances from lactic acid bacterial cultures exert strong inhibitory effects on Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis in a co-culture model"

    Article Title: Diffusible substances from lactic acid bacterial cultures exert strong inhibitory effects on Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis in a co-culture model

    Journal: BMC Microbiology

    doi: 10.1186/s12866-017-0944-3

    a 16S rRNA nucleotide sequence alignment of Lactococcus lactis isolates S2 and S6 with the sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactic ATCC 19435 (upper and middle panels) and with Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis IL1403 (lower panel) (nucleotide differences are highlighted). b 16S rRNA nucleotide sequence alignment of Enterococcus faecium isolate S11 with the sequence of Enterococcus faecium type strains ATCC 700221, ATCC 19434, CECT 410 T and DSM 20477 (nucleotide differences are highlighted)
    Figure Legend Snippet: a 16S rRNA nucleotide sequence alignment of Lactococcus lactis isolates S2 and S6 with the sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactic ATCC 19435 (upper and middle panels) and with Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis IL1403 (lower panel) (nucleotide differences are highlighted). b 16S rRNA nucleotide sequence alignment of Enterococcus faecium isolate S11 with the sequence of Enterococcus faecium type strains ATCC 700221, ATCC 19434, CECT 410 T and DSM 20477 (nucleotide differences are highlighted)

    Techniques Used: Sequencing

    Related Articles

    Concentration Assay:

    Article Title: Phenylthiazole Antibacterial Agents Targeting Cell Wall Synthesis Exhibit Potent Activity In Vitro and In Vivo against Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci
    Article Snippet: .. Likewise, a sub-inhibitory concentration of 1 was unable to resensitize either E. faecium (ATCC 700221) or E. faecalis (ATCC 51299) to the effect of gentamicin (data not shown). ..

    Centrifugation:

    Article Title: Innovative qPCR using interfacial effects to enable low threshold cycle detection and inhibition relief
    Article Snippet: .. Vancomycin-sensitive E. faecalis (VSE, ATCC 33186) and vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VRE, Enterococcus ATCC 700221) were propagated, according to the procedure outlined in the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) product sheet, to 108 CFU/ml, pelleted by centrifugation at 6000g for 10 min, resuspended in 100 μl of molecular grade water, and heat-killed at 95°C for 15 min. Purified K. pneumoniae strain Z026 genomic DNA was purchased from ZeptoMetrix. .. The plasmid-mediated antibiotic resistance gene vanA was targeted by the following vanA primers ( ): forward, 5′-TCTGCAATAGAGATAGCCGC-3′; reverse, 5′-GGAGTAGCTATCCCAGCATT-3′.

    Mouse Assay:

    Article Title: Cooperating commensals restore colonization resistance to vancomycin- resistant Enterococcus faecium
    Article Snippet: .. For VRE challenge, 6–8 week old female C57BL/6 mice from Jackson Laboratories were treated with 0.5 g/L ampicillin (Fisher) in their drinking water and inoculated with 5x104 VRE CFUs ( E. faecium , ATCC 700221) in 200μl by gavage. ..

    Purification:

    Article Title: Innovative qPCR using interfacial effects to enable low threshold cycle detection and inhibition relief
    Article Snippet: .. Vancomycin-sensitive E. faecalis (VSE, ATCC 33186) and vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VRE, Enterococcus ATCC 700221) were propagated, according to the procedure outlined in the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) product sheet, to 108 CFU/ml, pelleted by centrifugation at 6000g for 10 min, resuspended in 100 μl of molecular grade water, and heat-killed at 95°C for 15 min. Purified K. pneumoniae strain Z026 genomic DNA was purchased from ZeptoMetrix. .. The plasmid-mediated antibiotic resistance gene vanA was targeted by the following vanA primers ( ): forward, 5′-TCTGCAATAGAGATAGCCGC-3′; reverse, 5′-GGAGTAGCTATCCCAGCATT-3′.

    Synthesized:

    Article Title: Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized by Using the Endophytic Bacterium Pantoea ananatis are Promising Antimicrobial Agents against Multidrug Resistant Bacteria
    Article Snippet: .. No significant difference was found (p < 0.05) in the mean ZOI with the synthesized AgNPs between E. faecium (ATCC 700221) and E. coli (NCTC 13351), and S. pneumoniae (ATCC700677) and S. aureus subsp. aureus (ATCC33592). .. On the other hand, the antifungal activity of the synthesized AgNPs against the pathogenic fungus, C. albicans (ATCC 10231) was promising with a ZOI of 7.16 ± 0.09 mm (MIC: 1.75 µg/mL), while the pathogen was found to be resistant in the control group treated with itraconazole (10 µg/disc).

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    ATCC e faecium
    a Blast atlas of 10 Enterococcus hirae strains isolated from bovine feces and E. hirae strain R17 mapped against E. hirae ATCC9790. b Blast atlas of the genomes of 3 Entercoccus <t>faecium</t> isolates from bovine feces and 12 complete E. faecium genomes from the NCBI database mapped against reference sequence E. faecium DO. Blast atlases were generated by GView Java package software [ 28 ] using both alignment length and percent identity cut-off values of 80%. Based on the reference genomes, phage and transposon related regions/loci are indicated on the altas diagram
    E Faecium, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 15 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    a Blast atlas of 10 Enterococcus hirae strains isolated from bovine feces and E. hirae strain R17 mapped against E. hirae ATCC9790. b Blast atlas of the genomes of 3 Entercoccus faecium isolates from bovine feces and 12 complete E. faecium genomes from the NCBI database mapped against reference sequence E. faecium DO. Blast atlases were generated by GView Java package software [ 28 ] using both alignment length and percent identity cut-off values of 80%. Based on the reference genomes, phage and transposon related regions/loci are indicated on the altas diagram

    Journal: BMC Microbiology

    Article Title: Comparative genomics of Enterococcus spp. isolated from bovine feces

    doi: 10.1186/s12866-017-0962-1

    Figure Lengend Snippet: a Blast atlas of 10 Enterococcus hirae strains isolated from bovine feces and E. hirae strain R17 mapped against E. hirae ATCC9790. b Blast atlas of the genomes of 3 Entercoccus faecium isolates from bovine feces and 12 complete E. faecium genomes from the NCBI database mapped against reference sequence E. faecium DO. Blast atlases were generated by GView Java package software [ 28 ] using both alignment length and percent identity cut-off values of 80%. Based on the reference genomes, phage and transposon related regions/loci are indicated on the altas diagram

    Article Snippet: The 27 compete genomes from NCBI included: E. hirae (2 strains; ATCC 9790, R17), E. faecium (13 strains; Aus0004, Aus0085, T110, 6E6, VRE001, E1, E745, E39, UW8175, NRRL B2354, ATCC 700221, EFE10021), E. faecalis (9 strains; LD33, L12, KB1, 62, D32, V583, DENG1, OG1RF, ATCC 29212), E. durans (1 strain; KLDS6_0933), E. gallinarum (1 strain; FDAARGOS163), and E. casseliflavus (1 strain; EC20).

    Techniques: Isolation, Sequencing, Generated, Software

    a Phylogenetic tree of Entercoccus faecium genome sequences from the present study and complete genome sequences from the NCBI database based on analysis of single-nucleotide varients (SNVs) of the core genes. b Relatedness tree of E. faecium genome sequences from present study and complete genome sequences from the NCBI database based on Pearson correlation similarity matrix analysis of accessory genes. Origin of isolates are as indicated in the figures

    Journal: BMC Microbiology

    Article Title: Comparative genomics of Enterococcus spp. isolated from bovine feces

    doi: 10.1186/s12866-017-0962-1

    Figure Lengend Snippet: a Phylogenetic tree of Entercoccus faecium genome sequences from the present study and complete genome sequences from the NCBI database based on analysis of single-nucleotide varients (SNVs) of the core genes. b Relatedness tree of E. faecium genome sequences from present study and complete genome sequences from the NCBI database based on Pearson correlation similarity matrix analysis of accessory genes. Origin of isolates are as indicated in the figures

    Article Snippet: The 27 compete genomes from NCBI included: E. hirae (2 strains; ATCC 9790, R17), E. faecium (13 strains; Aus0004, Aus0085, T110, 6E6, VRE001, E1, E745, E39, UW8175, NRRL B2354, ATCC 700221, EFE10021), E. faecalis (9 strains; LD33, L12, KB1, 62, D32, V583, DENG1, OG1RF, ATCC 29212), E. durans (1 strain; KLDS6_0933), E. gallinarum (1 strain; FDAARGOS163), and E. casseliflavus (1 strain; EC20).

    Techniques:

    Phylogenetic tree constructed based on analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the core genes of 48 entercocci genomes, including the 21 isolates obtained from bovine feces in the present study. Entercoccus faecalis , Entercoccus faecium , Enterococcus hirae , Entercoccus durans , Entercoccus casseliflavus and Entercoccus gallinarum were compared using E. faecium strain T110 as a reference

    Journal: BMC Microbiology

    Article Title: Comparative genomics of Enterococcus spp. isolated from bovine feces

    doi: 10.1186/s12866-017-0962-1

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Phylogenetic tree constructed based on analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the core genes of 48 entercocci genomes, including the 21 isolates obtained from bovine feces in the present study. Entercoccus faecalis , Entercoccus faecium , Enterococcus hirae , Entercoccus durans , Entercoccus casseliflavus and Entercoccus gallinarum were compared using E. faecium strain T110 as a reference

    Article Snippet: The 27 compete genomes from NCBI included: E. hirae (2 strains; ATCC 9790, R17), E. faecium (13 strains; Aus0004, Aus0085, T110, 6E6, VRE001, E1, E745, E39, UW8175, NRRL B2354, ATCC 700221, EFE10021), E. faecalis (9 strains; LD33, L12, KB1, 62, D32, V583, DENG1, OG1RF, ATCC 29212), E. durans (1 strain; KLDS6_0933), E. gallinarum (1 strain; FDAARGOS163), and E. casseliflavus (1 strain; EC20).

    Techniques: Construct

    Adoptive transfer of bacterial consortia containing C. bolteae and B. producta prevents VRE colonization (A–B) Ampicillin-treated mice were orally gavaged with PBS or a mixture of C. bolteae , B. producta , Blautia_unclassified, E. dolichum , A. muciniphila , P. distasonis and B. sartorii (7-mix) for three consecutive days beginning on day 2 of antibiotic treatment. Mice were challenged with VRE the day following the third gavage and fecal samples were collected at the indicated time points. (A) VRE CFUs in stool samples 1, 3 and 6/8 days post inoculation (p.i.) (**** P

    Journal: Cell host & microbe

    Article Title: Cooperating commensals restore colonization resistance to vancomycin- resistant Enterococcus faecium

    doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2017.04.002

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Adoptive transfer of bacterial consortia containing C. bolteae and B. producta prevents VRE colonization (A–B) Ampicillin-treated mice were orally gavaged with PBS or a mixture of C. bolteae , B. producta , Blautia_unclassified, E. dolichum , A. muciniphila , P. distasonis and B. sartorii (7-mix) for three consecutive days beginning on day 2 of antibiotic treatment. Mice were challenged with VRE the day following the third gavage and fecal samples were collected at the indicated time points. (A) VRE CFUs in stool samples 1, 3 and 6/8 days post inoculation (p.i.) (**** P

    Article Snippet: For VRE challenge, 6–8 week old female C57BL/6 mice from Jackson Laboratories were treated with 0.5 g/L ampicillin (Fisher) in their drinking water and inoculated with 5x104 VRE CFUs ( E. faecium , ATCC 700221) in 200μl by gavage.

    Techniques: Adoptive Transfer Assay, Mouse Assay

    Assessment of metabolic activity of biofilm cells by resazurin. Quantification of biofilm production of six bacterial strains, using three concentrations of resazurin solution (2, 4 and 8 μg/mL): ( a ) Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, ( b ) Staphylococcus aureus MRSA ATCC 43300, ( c ) Enterococcus faecium ATCC 35667, ( d ) Enterococcus faecium VRE ATCC 700221, ( e ) Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, ( F ) Enterococcus faecalis VRE ATCC 51575, incubated at 25 °C and 37 °C. Relative fluorescence measurements were taken at 20, 40, 60 and 80 min

    Journal: BMC Microbiology

    Article Title: Defining conditions for biofilm inhibition and eradication assays for Gram-positive clinical reference strains

    doi: 10.1186/s12866-018-1321-6

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Assessment of metabolic activity of biofilm cells by resazurin. Quantification of biofilm production of six bacterial strains, using three concentrations of resazurin solution (2, 4 and 8 μg/mL): ( a ) Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, ( b ) Staphylococcus aureus MRSA ATCC 43300, ( c ) Enterococcus faecium ATCC 35667, ( d ) Enterococcus faecium VRE ATCC 700221, ( e ) Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, ( F ) Enterococcus faecalis VRE ATCC 51575, incubated at 25 °C and 37 °C. Relative fluorescence measurements were taken at 20, 40, 60 and 80 min

    Article Snippet: Both E. faecium strains had the lowest biofilm mass in MHB compared with other tested strains, with an average of 0.149 for E. faecium ATCC 35667 (Fig. ) and 0.109 for vancomycin resistant E. faecium (VRE) ATCC 700221 (Fig. ).

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Incubation, Fluorescence

    Assessment of biofilm biomass by crystal violet staining and cell enumeration by colony count. Biofilm production analysis through crystal violet staining (OD 570 nm, bars) and cell enumeration (log 10 CFU/mL, lines) of six bacterial strains: ( a ) Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, ( b ) Staphylococcus aureus MRSA ATCC 43300, ( c ) Enterococcus faecium ATCC 35667, ( d ) Enterococcus faecium VRE ATCC 700221, ( e ) Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 and ( f ) Enterococcus faecalis VRE ATCC 51575, incubated in six different media: Mueller Hinton (MH), Tryptic Soy (TS), Tryptic Soy supplemented with 1% glucose (TSG), Tryptic Soy supplemented with 2% glucose (TS2G), Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) and Brain Heart Infusion supplemented with 1% glucose (BHIG). Error bars represent standard deviation of two independent experiments in triplicate. Lowercase letters indicate significant differences amongst media used for biofilm production. Similar letters denote no significant difference ( P > 0.05)

    Journal: BMC Microbiology

    Article Title: Defining conditions for biofilm inhibition and eradication assays for Gram-positive clinical reference strains

    doi: 10.1186/s12866-018-1321-6

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Assessment of biofilm biomass by crystal violet staining and cell enumeration by colony count. Biofilm production analysis through crystal violet staining (OD 570 nm, bars) and cell enumeration (log 10 CFU/mL, lines) of six bacterial strains: ( a ) Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, ( b ) Staphylococcus aureus MRSA ATCC 43300, ( c ) Enterococcus faecium ATCC 35667, ( d ) Enterococcus faecium VRE ATCC 700221, ( e ) Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 and ( f ) Enterococcus faecalis VRE ATCC 51575, incubated in six different media: Mueller Hinton (MH), Tryptic Soy (TS), Tryptic Soy supplemented with 1% glucose (TSG), Tryptic Soy supplemented with 2% glucose (TS2G), Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) and Brain Heart Infusion supplemented with 1% glucose (BHIG). Error bars represent standard deviation of two independent experiments in triplicate. Lowercase letters indicate significant differences amongst media used for biofilm production. Similar letters denote no significant difference ( P > 0.05)

    Article Snippet: Both E. faecium strains had the lowest biofilm mass in MHB compared with other tested strains, with an average of 0.149 for E. faecium ATCC 35667 (Fig. ) and 0.109 for vancomycin resistant E. faecium (VRE) ATCC 700221 (Fig. ).

    Techniques: Staining, Incubation, Standard Deviation

    Interfacial tension and fluorescence qPCR inhibition of the IE model. ( A ) Protein concentrations of the aortic, mitral, and tricuspid valve sections excised from a porcine heart and ground using a micro–mortar and pestle. The total protein concentration of the tissue model is 1.6 ± 0.1 mg/ml. ( B ) The interfacial tensions (γ) of clean and contaminated PCR mixtures are 25.55 and 27.60 mN/m, respectively. ( C ) Free-body force diagram with the interfacial layer. The forces on the droplet include the interfacial tension force ( F γ ), the buoyancy force ( F B ), the weight of the droplet ( F mg ), and the thermocouple force ( F TC ). ( D ) Fluorescence qPCR amplification curves for 16 S rRNA hypervariable regions V1-V2 and vanA gene from intact vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VRE) with and without tissue contamination. The C t values for 16 S rRNA V1-V2 without tissue, 16 S rRNA V1-V2 with tissue, vanA without tissue, and vanA with tissue are 28.4, 30.0, 34.0, and 39.4, respectively. The tissue contamination inhibits fluorescence qPCR, as seen by the upward shift of 1.6 cycles for the 16 S rRNA V1-V2 target and 5.4 cycles for the vanA target. Additionally, NTC samples for each primer set are plotted. ( E ) Protein diffusion to the interface is calculated on the basis of typical blood and tissue concentrations, using diffusivities from literature and Fick’s equation. For comparison, the diffusion of Taq polymerase to the interface is also calculated. ( F and G ) The porcine heart from which heart valves were excised, sectioned, inoculated, ground, and used as the PCR target.

    Journal: Science Advances

    Article Title: Innovative qPCR using interfacial effects to enable low threshold cycle detection and inhibition relief

    doi: 10.1126/sciadv.1400061

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Interfacial tension and fluorescence qPCR inhibition of the IE model. ( A ) Protein concentrations of the aortic, mitral, and tricuspid valve sections excised from a porcine heart and ground using a micro–mortar and pestle. The total protein concentration of the tissue model is 1.6 ± 0.1 mg/ml. ( B ) The interfacial tensions (γ) of clean and contaminated PCR mixtures are 25.55 and 27.60 mN/m, respectively. ( C ) Free-body force diagram with the interfacial layer. The forces on the droplet include the interfacial tension force ( F γ ), the buoyancy force ( F B ), the weight of the droplet ( F mg ), and the thermocouple force ( F TC ). ( D ) Fluorescence qPCR amplification curves for 16 S rRNA hypervariable regions V1-V2 and vanA gene from intact vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VRE) with and without tissue contamination. The C t values for 16 S rRNA V1-V2 without tissue, 16 S rRNA V1-V2 with tissue, vanA without tissue, and vanA with tissue are 28.4, 30.0, 34.0, and 39.4, respectively. The tissue contamination inhibits fluorescence qPCR, as seen by the upward shift of 1.6 cycles for the 16 S rRNA V1-V2 target and 5.4 cycles for the vanA target. Additionally, NTC samples for each primer set are plotted. ( E ) Protein diffusion to the interface is calculated on the basis of typical blood and tissue concentrations, using diffusivities from literature and Fick’s equation. For comparison, the diffusion of Taq polymerase to the interface is also calculated. ( F and G ) The porcine heart from which heart valves were excised, sectioned, inoculated, ground, and used as the PCR target.

    Article Snippet: Vancomycin-sensitive E. faecalis (VSE, ATCC 33186) and vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VRE, Enterococcus ATCC 700221) were propagated, according to the procedure outlined in the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) product sheet, to 108 CFU/ml, pelleted by centrifugation at 6000g for 10 min, resuspended in 100 μl of molecular grade water, and heat-killed at 95°C for 15 min. Purified K. pneumoniae strain Z026 genomic DNA was purchased from ZeptoMetrix.

    Techniques: Fluorescence, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Inhibition, Protein Concentration, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Amplification, Diffusion-based Assay

    Specificity, limit of detection, and speed of DOT thermocycling. ( A ) Gel electropherogram showing the differentiation of vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VRE) and vancomycin-sensitive E. faecalis (VSE) by multiplexed amplification of the 377-bp vanA amplicon directly from bacterial culture. Simultaneous thermocycling was achieved by mounting three droplets on different thermocouples on the same motor arm. Lane 1, 1-kb Plus DNA Ladder; lane 2, VRE; lane 3, VSE; lane 4, NTC; lane 5, 1-kb Plus DNA Ladder. ( B ) Gel electropherogram showing the limit of detection at the sub-picogram level by amplification of the 196-bp 16 S rRNA V3 amplicon from 0.7 pg of K. pneumoniae genomic DNA (equivalent to 1.4 × 10 2 genomic copies) at a speed of 48 s/cycle. Lane 1, 1-kb Plus DNA Ladder; lane 2, 0.7-pg genomic DNA. ( C ) Gel electropherogram showing rapid amplification of the 16 S rRNA V3 amplicon and vanA amplicon in the presence of tissue contaminants in 30 cycles. Lane 1, vanA amplified at 40 s/cycle (20 min) from 7 × 10 5 CFU VRE inoculated to valve tissue (V3 amplified from 7 × 10 5 CFU VRE inoculated to valve tissue); lane 2, at 40 s/cycle (20 min); lane 3, at 32 s/cycle (16 min); lane 4, at 28 s/cycle (14 min); lane 5, 1-kb Plus DNA Ladder (see Fig. 2D for V3 NTC results).

    Journal: Science Advances

    Article Title: Innovative qPCR using interfacial effects to enable low threshold cycle detection and inhibition relief

    doi: 10.1126/sciadv.1400061

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Specificity, limit of detection, and speed of DOT thermocycling. ( A ) Gel electropherogram showing the differentiation of vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VRE) and vancomycin-sensitive E. faecalis (VSE) by multiplexed amplification of the 377-bp vanA amplicon directly from bacterial culture. Simultaneous thermocycling was achieved by mounting three droplets on different thermocouples on the same motor arm. Lane 1, 1-kb Plus DNA Ladder; lane 2, VRE; lane 3, VSE; lane 4, NTC; lane 5, 1-kb Plus DNA Ladder. ( B ) Gel electropherogram showing the limit of detection at the sub-picogram level by amplification of the 196-bp 16 S rRNA V3 amplicon from 0.7 pg of K. pneumoniae genomic DNA (equivalent to 1.4 × 10 2 genomic copies) at a speed of 48 s/cycle. Lane 1, 1-kb Plus DNA Ladder; lane 2, 0.7-pg genomic DNA. ( C ) Gel electropherogram showing rapid amplification of the 16 S rRNA V3 amplicon and vanA amplicon in the presence of tissue contaminants in 30 cycles. Lane 1, vanA amplified at 40 s/cycle (20 min) from 7 × 10 5 CFU VRE inoculated to valve tissue (V3 amplified from 7 × 10 5 CFU VRE inoculated to valve tissue); lane 2, at 40 s/cycle (20 min); lane 3, at 32 s/cycle (16 min); lane 4, at 28 s/cycle (14 min); lane 5, 1-kb Plus DNA Ladder (see Fig. 2D for V3 NTC results).

    Article Snippet: Vancomycin-sensitive E. faecalis (VSE, ATCC 33186) and vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VRE, Enterococcus ATCC 700221) were propagated, according to the procedure outlined in the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) product sheet, to 108 CFU/ml, pelleted by centrifugation at 6000g for 10 min, resuspended in 100 μl of molecular grade water, and heat-killed at 95°C for 15 min. Purified K. pneumoniae strain Z026 genomic DNA was purchased from ZeptoMetrix.

    Techniques: Amplification