Structured Review

Cayman Chemical doxorubicin hydrochloride
SP-2509 but not GSK-LSD1 significantly reduces the proliferative capacity of Ewing sarcoma cell lines (A) SP-2509 hypersensitive (A673, TC252) and sensitive (ES-2) Ewing sarcoma cell lines treated with the indicated concentrations of SP-2509, GSK-LSD1, <t>Doxorubicin</t> or vehicle control (DMSO) for 96hrs. Proliferative capacity and induction of apoptosis (caspase 3/7 activity) was measured in real-time through IncuCyte ZOOM live cell imaging. Data represents mean ± SEM confluency or green object count, from three independent experiments. (B) Statistical analysis of proliferation or caspase 3/7 induction compared to vehicle control cells (ns: not significant). (C) Representative phase contrast and green fluorescence (caspase 3/7) images following 72hrs of treatment with the indicated agents.
Doxorubicin Hydrochloride, supplied by Cayman Chemical, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 95/100, based on 5 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
https://www.bioz.com/result/doxorubicin hydrochloride/product/Cayman Chemical
Average 95 stars, based on 5 article reviews
Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
doxorubicin hydrochloride - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
95/100 stars

Images

1) Product Images from "Therapeutic targeting of KDM1A/LSD1 in Ewing sarcoma with SP-2509 engages the endoplasmic reticulum stress response"

Article Title: Therapeutic targeting of KDM1A/LSD1 in Ewing sarcoma with SP-2509 engages the endoplasmic reticulum stress response

Journal: Molecular cancer therapeutics

doi: 10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-18-0373

SP-2509 but not GSK-LSD1 significantly reduces the proliferative capacity of Ewing sarcoma cell lines (A) SP-2509 hypersensitive (A673, TC252) and sensitive (ES-2) Ewing sarcoma cell lines treated with the indicated concentrations of SP-2509, GSK-LSD1, Doxorubicin or vehicle control (DMSO) for 96hrs. Proliferative capacity and induction of apoptosis (caspase 3/7 activity) was measured in real-time through IncuCyte ZOOM live cell imaging. Data represents mean ± SEM confluency or green object count, from three independent experiments. (B) Statistical analysis of proliferation or caspase 3/7 induction compared to vehicle control cells (ns: not significant). (C) Representative phase contrast and green fluorescence (caspase 3/7) images following 72hrs of treatment with the indicated agents.
Figure Legend Snippet: SP-2509 but not GSK-LSD1 significantly reduces the proliferative capacity of Ewing sarcoma cell lines (A) SP-2509 hypersensitive (A673, TC252) and sensitive (ES-2) Ewing sarcoma cell lines treated with the indicated concentrations of SP-2509, GSK-LSD1, Doxorubicin or vehicle control (DMSO) for 96hrs. Proliferative capacity and induction of apoptosis (caspase 3/7 activity) was measured in real-time through IncuCyte ZOOM live cell imaging. Data represents mean ± SEM confluency or green object count, from three independent experiments. (B) Statistical analysis of proliferation or caspase 3/7 induction compared to vehicle control cells (ns: not significant). (C) Representative phase contrast and green fluorescence (caspase 3/7) images following 72hrs of treatment with the indicated agents.

Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Live Cell Imaging, Fluorescence

2) Product Images from "Doxorubicin Loading on Functional Graphene as a Promising Nanocarrier Using Ternary Deep Eutectic Solvent Systems"

Article Title: Doxorubicin Loading on Functional Graphene as a Promising Nanocarrier Using Ternary Deep Eutectic Solvent Systems

Journal: ACS Omega

doi: 10.1021/acsomega.9b03709

UV–vis spectra of doxorubicin solution (50 μg/mL) and mixture of doxorubicin (50 μg/mL) with Gr samples (100 μg/mL).
Figure Legend Snippet: UV–vis spectra of doxorubicin solution (50 μg/mL) and mixture of doxorubicin (50 μg/mL) with Gr samples (100 μg/mL).

Techniques Used:

Related Articles

Cytometry:

Article Title: Long-lasting reduction in clonogenic potential of colorectal cancer cells by sequential treatments with 5-azanucleosides and topoisomerase inhibitors
Article Snippet: The cells were seeded at densities of 4 × 103 cells/0.1 ml (0.32 cm2 ) (cell viability assay), 6 × 103 –1 × 104 cells/0.3 ml (0.7 cm2 ) (microscopic images), 2 × 104 cells/0.5 ml (1.9 cm2 ) (flow cytometry), 1 × 105 cells/3 ml (9.5 cm2 ) (long-term colony formation assay, serial replating assay), 3.5 × 105 cells/3–4 ml (21 cm2 ) (Western blotting). .. After 2 days, the culture medium was changed and the cells were treated either with 5-aza-dC or 5-aza-C along either with irinotecan (5–75 μM; Cayman Chemical), etoposide (5–50 μM; Sigma-Aldrich), doxorubicin (0.05–0.9 μM; Cayman Chemical), or mitoxantrone (0.05–1 μM; Cayman Chemical).

Drug Transport Assay:

Article Title: Cold Atmospheric Plasma Restores Paclitaxel Sensitivity to Paclitaxel-Resistant Breast Cancer Cells by Reversing Expression of Resistance-Related Genes
Article Snippet: Fluorescene Activated Cell Sorter (FACS) Analysis Apoptosis and drug transport were evaluated by FACS. .. To monitor drug uptake by cells, 1 × 106 cells seeded in a 60 mm dish were treated with Flutax (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA, USA, sc-203958) for 4 h or doxorubicin (Cayman Chemical, Ann Arbor, MI, USA, 15007) for 24 h, respectively, at final concentration of 10 μM.

Cell Culture:

Article Title: Long-lasting reduction in clonogenic potential of colorectal cancer cells by sequential treatments with 5-azanucleosides and topoisomerase inhibitors
Article Snippet: Paragraph title: Cell culture and treatment ... After 2 days, the culture medium was changed and the cells were treated either with 5-aza-dC or 5-aza-C along either with irinotecan (5–75 μM; Cayman Chemical), etoposide (5–50 μM; Sigma-Aldrich), doxorubicin (0.05–0.9 μM; Cayman Chemical), or mitoxantrone (0.05–1 μM; Cayman Chemical).

Article Title: Cold Atmospheric Plasma Restores Paclitaxel Sensitivity to Paclitaxel-Resistant Breast Cancer Cells by Reversing Expression of Resistance-Related Genes
Article Snippet: For the apoptosis analysis, 1 × 106 cells were seeded in a 60 mm dish, treated with CAP, and cultured for 24 h. 1 × 105 washed cells were treated with 5 μL of FITC Annexin V and 5 μL of propidium iodide (PI) using an FITC Annexin Apoptosis Detection Kit (BD Technologies, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA). .. To monitor drug uptake by cells, 1 × 106 cells seeded in a 60 mm dish were treated with Flutax (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA, USA, sc-203958) for 4 h or doxorubicin (Cayman Chemical, Ann Arbor, MI, USA, 15007) for 24 h, respectively, at final concentration of 10 μM.

Expressing:

Article Title: Long-lasting reduction in clonogenic potential of colorectal cancer cells by sequential treatments with 5-azanucleosides and topoisomerase inhibitors
Article Snippet: After 2 days, the culture medium was changed and the cells were treated either with 5-aza-dC or 5-aza-C along either with irinotecan (5–75 μM; Cayman Chemical), etoposide (5–50 μM; Sigma-Aldrich), doxorubicin (0.05–0.9 μM; Cayman Chemical), or mitoxantrone (0.05–1 μM; Cayman Chemical). .. In Western blotting analyses of Akt, phospho-Akt, mTOR, phospho-mTOR, p70S6K, and phospho-p70S6K expression, the cells were treated with 5-aza-dC (0.1–1 μM) 1 day post-seeding.

Western Blot:

Article Title: Long-lasting reduction in clonogenic potential of colorectal cancer cells by sequential treatments with 5-azanucleosides and topoisomerase inhibitors
Article Snippet: The cells were seeded at densities of 4 × 103 cells/0.1 ml (0.32 cm2 ) (cell viability assay), 6 × 103 –1 × 104 cells/0.3 ml (0.7 cm2 ) (microscopic images), 2 × 104 cells/0.5 ml (1.9 cm2 ) (flow cytometry), 1 × 105 cells/3 ml (9.5 cm2 ) (long-term colony formation assay, serial replating assay), 3.5 × 105 cells/3–4 ml (21 cm2 ) (Western blotting). .. After 2 days, the culture medium was changed and the cells were treated either with 5-aza-dC or 5-aza-C along either with irinotecan (5–75 μM; Cayman Chemical), etoposide (5–50 μM; Sigma-Aldrich), doxorubicin (0.05–0.9 μM; Cayman Chemical), or mitoxantrone (0.05–1 μM; Cayman Chemical).

Modification:

Article Title: Allele-specific silencing of mutant p53 attenuates dominant-negative and gain-of-function activities
Article Snippet: Cell lines All of the following human cell lines (with different p53 status) were maintained in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM) or Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI) medium with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and 1% penicillin-streptomycin: human osteosarcoma KHOS/NP (p53R156P ), U2OS (p53wt ), colorectal carcinoma HCT116 (p53wt ), colorectal adenocarcinoma SW48 (p53wt ), tongue squamous cell carcinoma CAL33 (p53R175H ), pancreatic carcinoma MiaPaCa2 (p53R248W ), colorectal adenocarcinoma SW620 (p53R273H ), and mouse osteosarcoma 318-1 (p53R172H ) as described in [ ]. .. When required, cells were treated with 5 μM of a MDM2 inhibitor Nutlin-3a (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) or doxorubicin at different concentrations (Cayman Chemical, Ann Arbor, Michigan) for 24 to 48h to activate p53 [ , ].

Planar Chromatography:

Article Title: Allele-specific silencing of mutant p53 attenuates dominant-negative and gain-of-function activities
Article Snippet: HCT116wt/R248W and SW48wt/R273H cell lines, which were genetically engineered to have a heterozygous mutation at the endogenous p53 locus, were purchased from Horizon Discovery Group plc (Cambridge, United Kingdom). .. When required, cells were treated with 5 μM of a MDM2 inhibitor Nutlin-3a (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) or doxorubicin at different concentrations (Cayman Chemical, Ann Arbor, Michigan) for 24 to 48h to activate p53 [ , ].

Transfection:

Article Title: WDR23 regulates NRF2 independently of KEAP1
Article Snippet: Chemotherapy treatment and cytology HEK-293T cells were transiently transfected with indicated plasmids. .. Forty-eight hours post-transfection, cells were treated with the indicated chemical: Etoposide (Cayman), Doxorubicin (Cayman), or Cisplatin (Cayman).

Infection:

Article Title: Therapeutic targeting of KDM1A/LSD1 in Ewing sarcoma with SP-2509 engages the endoplasmic reticulum stress response
Article Snippet: Cell cultures were not used beyond 2 months from initial thawing with culture supernatants tested yearly for Mycoplasma infection using a PCR based detection kit (Southern Biotech, USA). .. SP-2509 was provided by Dr Sunil Sharma (TGen Clinical Sciences), Doxorubicin hydrochloride and GSK-LSD1 ( ) were purchased from Cayman Chemical, Thapsigargin and AraC (Cytosine Arabinoside) were sourced from Sigma-Aldrich.

other:

Article Title: Identification of the APC/C co-factor FZR1 as a novel therapeutic target for multiple myeloma
Article Snippet: Etoposide, doxorubicin and vincristine were purchased from Cayman Chemical (Cambridge, UK), reconstituted in DMSO and stored at −20°C.

Article Title: The Efficacy of Puromycin and Adriamycin for Induction of Glomerular Failure in Larval Zebrafish Validated by an Assay of Glomerular Permeability Dynamics
Article Snippet: PAN (#15509; Cayman Chemical Company) was administered at 5 or 25 mg mL− (17.0–85.0 mM) and adriamycin (doxorubicin hydrochloride) (#15007; Cayman Chemical Company) at 1, 2, or 4 mg mL− (1.7, 3.4, 6.9 mM).

Article Title: Antitumor profile of the PI3K inhibitor ZSTK474 in human sarcoma cell lines
Article Snippet: Sorafenib, doxorubicin and gemcitabine were purchased from Cayman Chemical Company (Ann Arbor, MI).

Article Title: Doxorubicin Loading on Functional Graphene as a Promising Nanocarrier Using Ternary Deep Eutectic Solvent Systems
Article Snippet: Doxorubicin (hydrochloride) with a purity of ≥98% was obtained from Cayman Chemical.

Polymerase Chain Reaction:

Article Title: Therapeutic targeting of KDM1A/LSD1 in Ewing sarcoma with SP-2509 engages the endoplasmic reticulum stress response
Article Snippet: Cell cultures were not used beyond 2 months from initial thawing with culture supernatants tested yearly for Mycoplasma infection using a PCR based detection kit (Southern Biotech, USA). .. SP-2509 was provided by Dr Sunil Sharma (TGen Clinical Sciences), Doxorubicin hydrochloride and GSK-LSD1 ( ) were purchased from Cayman Chemical, Thapsigargin and AraC (Cytosine Arabinoside) were sourced from Sigma-Aldrich.

MTT Assay:

Article Title: WDR23 regulates NRF2 independently of KEAP1
Article Snippet: Forty-eight hours post-transfection, cells were treated with the indicated chemical: Etoposide (Cayman), Doxorubicin (Cayman), or Cisplatin (Cayman). .. For viability assays, after forty-eight hours of treatment, cells were assayed using the Vybrant MTT Cell Proliferation Assay Kit (Thermo Scientific), performed according to the manufacturer’s protocol.

In Vivo:

Article Title: Antitumor profile of the PI3K inhibitor ZSTK474 in human sarcoma cell lines
Article Snippet: ZSTK474, ZSTK534, ZSTK778, ZSTK1741 and ZSTK2209 were kindly gifted from Zenyaku Kogyo Co., Ltd. For in vivo studies, a solid dispersion form of ZSTK474 was suspended with distilled water (Otsuka Pharmaceutical Factory, Inc., Tokushima, Japan). .. Doxorubicin was purchased from Cayman Chemical Company (Ann Arbor, MI) and dissolved with saline (Otsuka Pharmaceutical Factory, Inc., Tokushima, Japan).

Mutagenesis:

Article Title: Allele-specific silencing of mutant p53 attenuates dominant-negative and gain-of-function activities
Article Snippet: HCT116wt/R248W and SW48wt/R273H cell lines, which were genetically engineered to have a heterozygous mutation at the endogenous p53 locus, were purchased from Horizon Discovery Group plc (Cambridge, United Kingdom). .. When required, cells were treated with 5 μM of a MDM2 inhibitor Nutlin-3a (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) or doxorubicin at different concentrations (Cayman Chemical, Ann Arbor, Michigan) for 24 to 48h to activate p53 [ , ].

Flow Cytometry:

Article Title: Long-lasting reduction in clonogenic potential of colorectal cancer cells by sequential treatments with 5-azanucleosides and topoisomerase inhibitors
Article Snippet: The cells were seeded at densities of 4 × 103 cells/0.1 ml (0.32 cm2 ) (cell viability assay), 6 × 103 –1 × 104 cells/0.3 ml (0.7 cm2 ) (microscopic images), 2 × 104 cells/0.5 ml (1.9 cm2 ) (flow cytometry), 1 × 105 cells/3 ml (9.5 cm2 ) (long-term colony formation assay, serial replating assay), 3.5 × 105 cells/3–4 ml (21 cm2 ) (Western blotting). .. After 2 days, the culture medium was changed and the cells were treated either with 5-aza-dC or 5-aza-C along either with irinotecan (5–75 μM; Cayman Chemical), etoposide (5–50 μM; Sigma-Aldrich), doxorubicin (0.05–0.9 μM; Cayman Chemical), or mitoxantrone (0.05–1 μM; Cayman Chemical).

Article Title: Cold Atmospheric Plasma Restores Paclitaxel Sensitivity to Paclitaxel-Resistant Breast Cancer Cells by Reversing Expression of Resistance-Related Genes
Article Snippet: Samples were analyzed using a FACS Canto II flow cytometer (BD Technologies). .. To monitor drug uptake by cells, 1 × 106 cells seeded in a 60 mm dish were treated with Flutax (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA, USA, sc-203958) for 4 h or doxorubicin (Cayman Chemical, Ann Arbor, MI, USA, 15007) for 24 h, respectively, at final concentration of 10 μM.

Viability Assay:

Article Title: Long-lasting reduction in clonogenic potential of colorectal cancer cells by sequential treatments with 5-azanucleosides and topoisomerase inhibitors
Article Snippet: The cells were seeded at densities of 4 × 103 cells/0.1 ml (0.32 cm2 ) (cell viability assay), 6 × 103 –1 × 104 cells/0.3 ml (0.7 cm2 ) (microscopic images), 2 × 104 cells/0.5 ml (1.9 cm2 ) (flow cytometry), 1 × 105 cells/3 ml (9.5 cm2 ) (long-term colony formation assay, serial replating assay), 3.5 × 105 cells/3–4 ml (21 cm2 ) (Western blotting). .. After 2 days, the culture medium was changed and the cells were treated either with 5-aza-dC or 5-aza-C along either with irinotecan (5–75 μM; Cayman Chemical), etoposide (5–50 μM; Sigma-Aldrich), doxorubicin (0.05–0.9 μM; Cayman Chemical), or mitoxantrone (0.05–1 μM; Cayman Chemical).

Proliferation Assay:

Article Title: WDR23 regulates NRF2 independently of KEAP1
Article Snippet: Forty-eight hours post-transfection, cells were treated with the indicated chemical: Etoposide (Cayman), Doxorubicin (Cayman), or Cisplatin (Cayman). .. For viability assays, after forty-eight hours of treatment, cells were assayed using the Vybrant MTT Cell Proliferation Assay Kit (Thermo Scientific), performed according to the manufacturer’s protocol.

Software:

Article Title: Cold Atmospheric Plasma Restores Paclitaxel Sensitivity to Paclitaxel-Resistant Breast Cancer Cells by Reversing Expression of Resistance-Related Genes
Article Snippet: To monitor drug uptake by cells, 1 × 106 cells seeded in a 60 mm dish were treated with Flutax (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA, USA, sc-203958) for 4 h or doxorubicin (Cayman Chemical, Ann Arbor, MI, USA, 15007) for 24 h, respectively, at final concentration of 10 μM. .. Fluorescene was detected with FACSAria III (BD Technologies) and analyzed with BD FACSDiva software.

Antioxidant Activity Assay:

Article Title: Mechanistically elucidating the in vitro safety and efficacy of a novel doxorubicin derivative
Article Snippet: .. The antioxidant activity of DoxQ, doxorubicin, quercetin, or a mixture of doxorubicin and quercetin was examined using the antioxidant kit from Cayman Chemical. ..

In Vitro:

Article Title: Antitumor profile of the PI3K inhibitor ZSTK474 in human sarcoma cell lines
Article Snippet: Doxorubicin was purchased from Cayman Chemical Company (Ann Arbor, MI) and dissolved with saline (Otsuka Pharmaceutical Factory, Inc., Tokushima, Japan). .. Pazopanib was purchased from Cellagen Technology (San Diego, CA), dissolved with DMSO for in vitro studies, and suspended with 5% hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) for in vivo studies.

Colony Assay:

Article Title: Long-lasting reduction in clonogenic potential of colorectal cancer cells by sequential treatments with 5-azanucleosides and topoisomerase inhibitors
Article Snippet: The cells were seeded at densities of 4 × 103 cells/0.1 ml (0.32 cm2 ) (cell viability assay), 6 × 103 –1 × 104 cells/0.3 ml (0.7 cm2 ) (microscopic images), 2 × 104 cells/0.5 ml (1.9 cm2 ) (flow cytometry), 1 × 105 cells/3 ml (9.5 cm2 ) (long-term colony formation assay, serial replating assay), 3.5 × 105 cells/3–4 ml (21 cm2 ) (Western blotting). .. After 2 days, the culture medium was changed and the cells were treated either with 5-aza-dC or 5-aza-C along either with irinotecan (5–75 μM; Cayman Chemical), etoposide (5–50 μM; Sigma-Aldrich), doxorubicin (0.05–0.9 μM; Cayman Chemical), or mitoxantrone (0.05–1 μM; Cayman Chemical).

Produced:

Article Title: Mechanistically elucidating the in vitro safety and efficacy of a novel doxorubicin derivative
Article Snippet: The antioxidant activity of DoxQ, doxorubicin, quercetin, or a mixture of doxorubicin and quercetin was examined using the antioxidant kit from Cayman Chemical. .. The amount of ABTS produced is measured by absorbance at 750 nm.

Concentration Assay:

Article Title: Cold Atmospheric Plasma Restores Paclitaxel Sensitivity to Paclitaxel-Resistant Breast Cancer Cells by Reversing Expression of Resistance-Related Genes
Article Snippet: .. To monitor drug uptake by cells, 1 × 106 cells seeded in a 60 mm dish were treated with Flutax (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA, USA, sc-203958) for 4 h or doxorubicin (Cayman Chemical, Ann Arbor, MI, USA, 15007) for 24 h, respectively, at final concentration of 10 μM. .. Fluorescene was detected with FACSAria III (BD Technologies) and analyzed with BD FACSDiva software.

FACS:

Article Title: Cold Atmospheric Plasma Restores Paclitaxel Sensitivity to Paclitaxel-Resistant Breast Cancer Cells by Reversing Expression of Resistance-Related Genes
Article Snippet: Paragraph title: 4.8. Fluorescene Activated Cell Sorter (FACS) Analysis ... To monitor drug uptake by cells, 1 × 106 cells seeded in a 60 mm dish were treated with Flutax (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA, USA, sc-203958) for 4 h or doxorubicin (Cayman Chemical, Ann Arbor, MI, USA, 15007) for 24 h, respectively, at final concentration of 10 μM.

Activity Assay:

Article Title: Therapeutic targeting of KDM1A/LSD1 in Ewing sarcoma with SP-2509 engages the endoplasmic reticulum stress response
Article Snippet: SP-2509 was provided by Dr Sunil Sharma (TGen Clinical Sciences), Doxorubicin hydrochloride and GSK-LSD1 ( ) were purchased from Cayman Chemical, Thapsigargin and AraC (Cytosine Arabinoside) were sourced from Sigma-Aldrich. .. [3 H]GSK-LSD1 (specific activity, 9 Ci/mmol) was purchased from ViTrax Radiochemicals.

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    Cayman Chemical c2c12 myotubes
    Leucine stimulates SIRT1 activity, AMPK phosphorylation, and cellular NAD + in a time-dependent manner. <t>C2C12</t> <t>myotubes</t> were serum starved overnight and treated with leucine (0.5 mM). Cell lysate was collected and analyzed for cellular SIRT1 activity, western blotting of p-AMPK and cellular NAD + levels at indicated certain time points. (a) SIRT1 activity. (b) Cellular NAD + . Both SIRT1 activity and NAD + level were normalized to cellular protein for each sample. (c) Phosphorylation level of AMPK was detected using western blotting following the same time course in C2C12 cells, with resveratrol serving as positive control. Data are mean ± SE ( n = 3). Different letters indicate significant differences between dark or gray bars. *Significantly different from point 0, and **significantly different from time point 1.
    C2c12 Myotubes, supplied by Cayman Chemical, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/c2c12 myotubes/product/Cayman Chemical
    Average 94 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    c2c12 myotubes - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
    94/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    95
    Cayman Chemical doxorubicin
    WDR23 overexpression enhances chemotherapy toxicity. ( A-C ) Cells overexpressing GFP:WDR23 isoform 1 (pink) or GFP:WDR23 isoform 2 (orange) are more sensitive to increasing concentrations of ( A ) etoposide (25uM n = 12 each, 50um n = 8 each, 75um n = 8 each), ( B ) <t>doxorubicin</t> (1uM n = 12 each, 2uM n = 8 each), or ( C ) cisplatin (50uM n = 12 each, 75uM n = 8 each, 100uM n = 8 each) as compared to cells expressing GFP alone (black). ( D,E ) The percentage of cells carrying DNA double strand breaks (DSB), as indicated by dual phospho-H2Ax and phospho-ATM staining, is increased when WDR23 isoform 1 or WDR23 isoform 2 is overexpressed (Control n = 3, Iso 1 n = 3, Iso 2 n = 3) and ( E ) enhances DSB incidence following etoposide treatment (Control n = 3, Iso 1 n = 3, Iso 2 n = 3). ( F ) Cellular apoptosis (Annexin V positive) is increased in cells overexpressing WDR23 isoform 1 or WDR23 isoform 2 as compared to control cells overexpressing GFP alone (Control n = 3, Iso 1 n = 3, Iso 2 n = 3). Data are mean ± s.e.m.; one-tailed t -test relative to control GFP overexpression for each treatment condition. * P
    Doxorubicin, supplied by Cayman Chemical, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 95/100, based on 7 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/doxorubicin/product/Cayman Chemical
    Average 95 stars, based on 7 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    doxorubicin - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
    95/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

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    Leucine stimulates SIRT1 activity, AMPK phosphorylation, and cellular NAD + in a time-dependent manner. C2C12 myotubes were serum starved overnight and treated with leucine (0.5 mM). Cell lysate was collected and analyzed for cellular SIRT1 activity, western blotting of p-AMPK and cellular NAD + levels at indicated certain time points. (a) SIRT1 activity. (b) Cellular NAD + . Both SIRT1 activity and NAD + level were normalized to cellular protein for each sample. (c) Phosphorylation level of AMPK was detected using western blotting following the same time course in C2C12 cells, with resveratrol serving as positive control. Data are mean ± SE ( n = 3). Different letters indicate significant differences between dark or gray bars. *Significantly different from point 0, and **significantly different from time point 1.

    Journal: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism

    Article Title: Leucine Modulates Mitochondrial Biogenesis and SIRT1-AMPK Signaling in C2C12 Myotubes

    doi: 10.1155/2014/239750

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Leucine stimulates SIRT1 activity, AMPK phosphorylation, and cellular NAD + in a time-dependent manner. C2C12 myotubes were serum starved overnight and treated with leucine (0.5 mM). Cell lysate was collected and analyzed for cellular SIRT1 activity, western blotting of p-AMPK and cellular NAD + levels at indicated certain time points. (a) SIRT1 activity. (b) Cellular NAD + . Both SIRT1 activity and NAD + level were normalized to cellular protein for each sample. (c) Phosphorylation level of AMPK was detected using western blotting following the same time course in C2C12 cells, with resveratrol serving as positive control. Data are mean ± SE ( n = 3). Different letters indicate significant differences between dark or gray bars. *Significantly different from point 0, and **significantly different from time point 1.

    Article Snippet: Cellular NAD+ NAD+ was measured in C2C12 myotubes using a colorimetric assay (Cayman Chemical Company, Ann Arbor, MI, USA) that uses an alcohol dehydrogenase reaction to reduce NAD+ in cell lysates to NADH and the NADH is used to reduce a tretrazolium salt substrate (WST-1) to formazan.

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Western Blot, Positive Control

    Leucine-induced mitochondrial biogenesis in C2C12 myotubes requires AMPK. (a) C2C12 myotubes were treated with leucine (0.5 mM), AICAR (20 μ M), and Compound C (25 μ M) for 24 hours. mtDNA levels of the cells were analyzed by the mitochondrial markers gene expression, Hspd1 and COX2 , using real-time PCR. (b) Sirt1 and mitochondrial biogenesis related mRNA level of PGC-1α and COX5b were evaluated also by RT-PCR after treating with leucine and Compound C for 24 hours was measured; all the mRNA levels were normalized to 18S housekeeping gene. Data are mean ± SE ( n = 4). Dark bars are vehicle control; grey bars are Compound C. *Significantly different from controls. # Significant Compound C effects.

    Journal: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism

    Article Title: Leucine Modulates Mitochondrial Biogenesis and SIRT1-AMPK Signaling in C2C12 Myotubes

    doi: 10.1155/2014/239750

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Leucine-induced mitochondrial biogenesis in C2C12 myotubes requires AMPK. (a) C2C12 myotubes were treated with leucine (0.5 mM), AICAR (20 μ M), and Compound C (25 μ M) for 24 hours. mtDNA levels of the cells were analyzed by the mitochondrial markers gene expression, Hspd1 and COX2 , using real-time PCR. (b) Sirt1 and mitochondrial biogenesis related mRNA level of PGC-1α and COX5b were evaluated also by RT-PCR after treating with leucine and Compound C for 24 hours was measured; all the mRNA levels were normalized to 18S housekeeping gene. Data are mean ± SE ( n = 4). Dark bars are vehicle control; grey bars are Compound C. *Significantly different from controls. # Significant Compound C effects.

    Article Snippet: Cellular NAD+ NAD+ was measured in C2C12 myotubes using a colorimetric assay (Cayman Chemical Company, Ann Arbor, MI, USA) that uses an alcohol dehydrogenase reaction to reduce NAD+ in cell lysates to NADH and the NADH is used to reduce a tretrazolium salt substrate (WST-1) to formazan.

    Techniques: Expressing, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Leucine improves mitochondrial biogenesis in C2C12 myotubes in a SIRT1-dependent manner. (a) Mitochondrial content was measured using NAO (10 μ M) dye after 48-hour leucine (dark bars), leucine plus SIRT1 inhibitor (EX527 25 μ M; grey bars) for 48 hours in C2C12 myotubes. (b, c) SIRT1 activity and mitochondrial biogenesis- related genes ( PGC-1 α , Sirt3, and COX5b ) mRNA levels were measured after the same treatments. The relative SIRT1 activity was normalized to cellular protein level, and mRNA level was normalized to housekeeper gene 18S . (b) Dark bars are DMSO control, grey bars are EX527. (c) Dark bars are PGC-1α , grey bars are Sirt3 ; striped bars are COX5b . (d) Palmitate oxidation level was detected after the same treatment, and the results were normalized to cellular protein for each sample. Data are mean ± SE ( n = 4). Different letters indicate significant differences within a given variable. Dark bars are DMSO control and grey bars are EX527. *Significantly different from controls, and **significantly different from control and EX527 groups with P

    Journal: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism

    Article Title: Leucine Modulates Mitochondrial Biogenesis and SIRT1-AMPK Signaling in C2C12 Myotubes

    doi: 10.1155/2014/239750

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Leucine improves mitochondrial biogenesis in C2C12 myotubes in a SIRT1-dependent manner. (a) Mitochondrial content was measured using NAO (10 μ M) dye after 48-hour leucine (dark bars), leucine plus SIRT1 inhibitor (EX527 25 μ M; grey bars) for 48 hours in C2C12 myotubes. (b, c) SIRT1 activity and mitochondrial biogenesis- related genes ( PGC-1 α , Sirt3, and COX5b ) mRNA levels were measured after the same treatments. The relative SIRT1 activity was normalized to cellular protein level, and mRNA level was normalized to housekeeper gene 18S . (b) Dark bars are DMSO control, grey bars are EX527. (c) Dark bars are PGC-1α , grey bars are Sirt3 ; striped bars are COX5b . (d) Palmitate oxidation level was detected after the same treatment, and the results were normalized to cellular protein for each sample. Data are mean ± SE ( n = 4). Different letters indicate significant differences within a given variable. Dark bars are DMSO control and grey bars are EX527. *Significantly different from controls, and **significantly different from control and EX527 groups with P

    Article Snippet: Cellular NAD+ NAD+ was measured in C2C12 myotubes using a colorimetric assay (Cayman Chemical Company, Ann Arbor, MI, USA) that uses an alcohol dehydrogenase reaction to reduce NAD+ in cell lysates to NADH and the NADH is used to reduce a tretrazolium salt substrate (WST-1) to formazan.

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography

    Leucine-induced phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC requires SIRT1 in C2C12 myotubes. (a) C2C12 myotubes were serum starved overnight and treated with leucine (0.5 mM), alanine (0.5 mM), valine (0.5 mM), and DMSO for 6 hours. The cell lysates were assessed by western blotting analysis with specific antibodies against phosphor-AMPK α (Thr 172), phosphor-ACC (Ser 79), total AMPK α (Thr 172), and beta-actin. Integrated density values for the p-AMPK and p-ACC were normalized to total-AMPK band density and represented as dark or gray bars. (b) C2C12 myotubes were treated with 0.2% FBS medium overnight and then treated with leucine (0.5 mM), resveratrol (100 nM), and leucine plus EX527 (25 μ M) for 6 hours. Whole cell lysates were prepared and detected by western blotting with specific antibodies against phosphor-AMPK α , AMPK α , and beta-actin. Integrated density value for phosphor-AMPK was normalized to total-AMPK. *Significantly different from controls with P

    Journal: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism

    Article Title: Leucine Modulates Mitochondrial Biogenesis and SIRT1-AMPK Signaling in C2C12 Myotubes

    doi: 10.1155/2014/239750

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Leucine-induced phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC requires SIRT1 in C2C12 myotubes. (a) C2C12 myotubes were serum starved overnight and treated with leucine (0.5 mM), alanine (0.5 mM), valine (0.5 mM), and DMSO for 6 hours. The cell lysates were assessed by western blotting analysis with specific antibodies against phosphor-AMPK α (Thr 172), phosphor-ACC (Ser 79), total AMPK α (Thr 172), and beta-actin. Integrated density values for the p-AMPK and p-ACC were normalized to total-AMPK band density and represented as dark or gray bars. (b) C2C12 myotubes were treated with 0.2% FBS medium overnight and then treated with leucine (0.5 mM), resveratrol (100 nM), and leucine plus EX527 (25 μ M) for 6 hours. Whole cell lysates were prepared and detected by western blotting with specific antibodies against phosphor-AMPK α , AMPK α , and beta-actin. Integrated density value for phosphor-AMPK was normalized to total-AMPK. *Significantly different from controls with P

    Article Snippet: Cellular NAD+ NAD+ was measured in C2C12 myotubes using a colorimetric assay (Cayman Chemical Company, Ann Arbor, MI, USA) that uses an alcohol dehydrogenase reaction to reduce NAD+ in cell lysates to NADH and the NADH is used to reduce a tretrazolium salt substrate (WST-1) to formazan.

    Techniques: Western Blot

    Leucine treatment induces mitochondrial biogenesis and SIRT1 enzymatic activity in C2C12 myotubes. (a) Mitochondrial content was quantitated with NAO dye (10 μ M) 48 hours after treatment with leucine (0.5 mM), alanine (0.5 mM), and valine (0.5 mM); (b) mRNA expression levels of PGC-1α and Sirt3 with the same treatments were evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR. The relative mRNA expression was normalized to 18S and expressed as dark bars for PGC-1α and grey bars for Sirt3 . (c) Cellular SIRT1 activity and (d) palmitate oxidation were measured after treatment for 48 hours. The results were normalized to cellular protein level for each sample. Data are mean ± SE ( n = 4). *Significantly different from controls with P

    Journal: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism

    Article Title: Leucine Modulates Mitochondrial Biogenesis and SIRT1-AMPK Signaling in C2C12 Myotubes

    doi: 10.1155/2014/239750

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Leucine treatment induces mitochondrial biogenesis and SIRT1 enzymatic activity in C2C12 myotubes. (a) Mitochondrial content was quantitated with NAO dye (10 μ M) 48 hours after treatment with leucine (0.5 mM), alanine (0.5 mM), and valine (0.5 mM); (b) mRNA expression levels of PGC-1α and Sirt3 with the same treatments were evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR. The relative mRNA expression was normalized to 18S and expressed as dark bars for PGC-1α and grey bars for Sirt3 . (c) Cellular SIRT1 activity and (d) palmitate oxidation were measured after treatment for 48 hours. The results were normalized to cellular protein level for each sample. Data are mean ± SE ( n = 4). *Significantly different from controls with P

    Article Snippet: Cellular NAD+ NAD+ was measured in C2C12 myotubes using a colorimetric assay (Cayman Chemical Company, Ann Arbor, MI, USA) that uses an alcohol dehydrogenase reaction to reduce NAD+ in cell lysates to NADH and the NADH is used to reduce a tretrazolium salt substrate (WST-1) to formazan.

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Expressing, Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography, Quantitative RT-PCR

    Proposed mechanism of leucine-induced mitochondrial biogenesis. In C2C12 myotubes, leucine treatment leads to activation of SIRT1. SIRT1 then deacetylates and activates LKB1, which subsequently induces AMPK phosphorylation and activation. In turn, activated AMPK could promote SIRT1 activation via intracellular NAD + level by changing expression and activity of Nampt. Activated AMPK and SIRT1 further activate PGC-1 α via phosphorylation and deacetylation, resulting in elevated mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative function.

    Journal: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism

    Article Title: Leucine Modulates Mitochondrial Biogenesis and SIRT1-AMPK Signaling in C2C12 Myotubes

    doi: 10.1155/2014/239750

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Proposed mechanism of leucine-induced mitochondrial biogenesis. In C2C12 myotubes, leucine treatment leads to activation of SIRT1. SIRT1 then deacetylates and activates LKB1, which subsequently induces AMPK phosphorylation and activation. In turn, activated AMPK could promote SIRT1 activation via intracellular NAD + level by changing expression and activity of Nampt. Activated AMPK and SIRT1 further activate PGC-1 α via phosphorylation and deacetylation, resulting in elevated mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative function.

    Article Snippet: Cellular NAD+ NAD+ was measured in C2C12 myotubes using a colorimetric assay (Cayman Chemical Company, Ann Arbor, MI, USA) that uses an alcohol dehydrogenase reaction to reduce NAD+ in cell lysates to NADH and the NADH is used to reduce a tretrazolium salt substrate (WST-1) to formazan.

    Techniques: Activation Assay, Expressing, Activity Assay, Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography

    Effects of yam extract and allantoin on the phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC protein inC2C12 myotubes. Differentiated C2C12 myotubes were treated with or without yam extract (0.5 and 1.0 mg/mL) or allantoin (0.2 and 0.5 mM) for 24 h and the phosphorylation of AMPK ( A ) and ACC ( B ) protein was investigated by western blot. Metformin (2.5 mM) was used as a positive control. Each band was presented as a representative figure and a histogram was calculated from the band density value of each experiment. β-actin were used as an internal control. All data were presented as the means ± SEM of three independent experiments. Y, yam extract; A, allantoin; and M, metformin. * p

    Journal: Molecules : A Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry

    Article Title: Effects of Rhizome Extract of Dioscorea batatas and Its Active Compound, Allantoin, on the Regulation of Myoblast Differentiation and Mitochondrial Biogenesis in C2C12 Myotubes

    doi: 10.3390/molecules23082023

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of yam extract and allantoin on the phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC protein inC2C12 myotubes. Differentiated C2C12 myotubes were treated with or without yam extract (0.5 and 1.0 mg/mL) or allantoin (0.2 and 0.5 mM) for 24 h and the phosphorylation of AMPK ( A ) and ACC ( B ) protein was investigated by western blot. Metformin (2.5 mM) was used as a positive control. Each band was presented as a representative figure and a histogram was calculated from the band density value of each experiment. β-actin were used as an internal control. All data were presented as the means ± SEM of three independent experiments. Y, yam extract; A, allantoin; and M, metformin. * p

    Article Snippet: Next, the cellular levels of glucose were measured in C2C12 myotubes using a glucose uptake cell-based assay kit (Cayman Chemical Co., Ann Arbor, MI, USA).

    Techniques: Western Blot, Positive Control

    Effects of yam extract and allantoin on the expression of mitochondrial biogenesis-regulating factors in C2C12 myotubes. Differentiated myotubes were treated with or without yam extract (0.5 and 1.0 mg/mL) or allantoin (0.2 and 0.5 mM) for 24 h, after which the expression of PGC1α ( A , B ), NRF-1 ( C , D ), TFAM ( E , F ) and Sirt-1 ( G , H ) mRNA ( A , C , E , G ) and protein ( B , D , F , H ) was analyzed by RT-PCR ( A , C , E ) and western blot ( B , D , F ), respectively. Metformin (2.5 mM) was used as a positive control. GAPDH and β-actin were used as internal controls. Each band was presented as a representative figure and the histogram was calculated from the band density value of each experiment. All data were presented as the means ± SEM of three independent experiments. Y, yam extract; A, allantoin; and M, metformin. * p

    Journal: Molecules : A Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry

    Article Title: Effects of Rhizome Extract of Dioscorea batatas and Its Active Compound, Allantoin, on the Regulation of Myoblast Differentiation and Mitochondrial Biogenesis in C2C12 Myotubes

    doi: 10.3390/molecules23082023

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of yam extract and allantoin on the expression of mitochondrial biogenesis-regulating factors in C2C12 myotubes. Differentiated myotubes were treated with or without yam extract (0.5 and 1.0 mg/mL) or allantoin (0.2 and 0.5 mM) for 24 h, after which the expression of PGC1α ( A , B ), NRF-1 ( C , D ), TFAM ( E , F ) and Sirt-1 ( G , H ) mRNA ( A , C , E , G ) and protein ( B , D , F , H ) was analyzed by RT-PCR ( A , C , E ) and western blot ( B , D , F ), respectively. Metformin (2.5 mM) was used as a positive control. GAPDH and β-actin were used as internal controls. Each band was presented as a representative figure and the histogram was calculated from the band density value of each experiment. All data were presented as the means ± SEM of three independent experiments. Y, yam extract; A, allantoin; and M, metformin. * p

    Article Snippet: Next, the cellular levels of glucose were measured in C2C12 myotubes using a glucose uptake cell-based assay kit (Cayman Chemical Co., Ann Arbor, MI, USA).

    Techniques: Expressing, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Western Blot, Positive Control

    Effects of yam extract and allantoin on the expression of MyHC protein and mRNA in C2C12 myotubes. C2C12 myoblasts were differentiated with DMEM containing 2% HS for 5 days, then treated with or without yam extract (0.5 and 1.0 mg/mL) or allantoin (0.2 and 0.5 mM) for 24 h. Metformin (2.5 mM) was used as a positive control. The expression of MyHC mRNA ( A ) and protein ( B ) was determined by RT-PCR and western blot, respectively. GAPDH and β-actin were used as internal controls. All data were presented as the means ± SEM of three independent experiments. Y, yam extract; A, allantoin; and M, metformin. * p

    Journal: Molecules : A Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry

    Article Title: Effects of Rhizome Extract of Dioscorea batatas and Its Active Compound, Allantoin, on the Regulation of Myoblast Differentiation and Mitochondrial Biogenesis in C2C12 Myotubes

    doi: 10.3390/molecules23082023

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of yam extract and allantoin on the expression of MyHC protein and mRNA in C2C12 myotubes. C2C12 myoblasts were differentiated with DMEM containing 2% HS for 5 days, then treated with or without yam extract (0.5 and 1.0 mg/mL) or allantoin (0.2 and 0.5 mM) for 24 h. Metformin (2.5 mM) was used as a positive control. The expression of MyHC mRNA ( A ) and protein ( B ) was determined by RT-PCR and western blot, respectively. GAPDH and β-actin were used as internal controls. All data were presented as the means ± SEM of three independent experiments. Y, yam extract; A, allantoin; and M, metformin. * p

    Article Snippet: Next, the cellular levels of glucose were measured in C2C12 myotubes using a glucose uptake cell-based assay kit (Cayman Chemical Co., Ann Arbor, MI, USA).

    Techniques: Expressing, Positive Control, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Western Blot

    Effects of yam extract and allantoin on the expression of GLUT-4 and the levels of glucose in C2C12 myotubes. Differentiated myotubes were treated with or without yam extract (0.5 and 1 mg/mL) or allantoin (0.2 and 0.5 mM) for 24 h. ( A ) The expression of GLUT-4 protein was determined by western blot. Metformin (2.5 mM) was used as a positive control and β-actin was used as an internal control. Each band was presented as a representative figure and a histogram was calculated from the band density value of each experiment. The levels of glucose in culture medium ( B ) and in the cells ( C ) were measured by a glucose consumption assay and glucose uptake assay, respectively. The contents of ATP in the myotubes were measured using an ATP assay kit ( D ). All data were presented as the means ± SEM of three independent experiments. Y, yam extract; A, allantoin; and M, metformin. * p

    Journal: Molecules : A Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry

    Article Title: Effects of Rhizome Extract of Dioscorea batatas and Its Active Compound, Allantoin, on the Regulation of Myoblast Differentiation and Mitochondrial Biogenesis in C2C12 Myotubes

    doi: 10.3390/molecules23082023

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of yam extract and allantoin on the expression of GLUT-4 and the levels of glucose in C2C12 myotubes. Differentiated myotubes were treated with or without yam extract (0.5 and 1 mg/mL) or allantoin (0.2 and 0.5 mM) for 24 h. ( A ) The expression of GLUT-4 protein was determined by western blot. Metformin (2.5 mM) was used as a positive control and β-actin was used as an internal control. Each band was presented as a representative figure and a histogram was calculated from the band density value of each experiment. The levels of glucose in culture medium ( B ) and in the cells ( C ) were measured by a glucose consumption assay and glucose uptake assay, respectively. The contents of ATP in the myotubes were measured using an ATP assay kit ( D ). All data were presented as the means ± SEM of three independent experiments. Y, yam extract; A, allantoin; and M, metformin. * p

    Article Snippet: Next, the cellular levels of glucose were measured in C2C12 myotubes using a glucose uptake cell-based assay kit (Cayman Chemical Co., Ann Arbor, MI, USA).

    Techniques: Expressing, Western Blot, Positive Control, ATP Assay

    WDR23 overexpression enhances chemotherapy toxicity. ( A-C ) Cells overexpressing GFP:WDR23 isoform 1 (pink) or GFP:WDR23 isoform 2 (orange) are more sensitive to increasing concentrations of ( A ) etoposide (25uM n = 12 each, 50um n = 8 each, 75um n = 8 each), ( B ) doxorubicin (1uM n = 12 each, 2uM n = 8 each), or ( C ) cisplatin (50uM n = 12 each, 75uM n = 8 each, 100uM n = 8 each) as compared to cells expressing GFP alone (black). ( D,E ) The percentage of cells carrying DNA double strand breaks (DSB), as indicated by dual phospho-H2Ax and phospho-ATM staining, is increased when WDR23 isoform 1 or WDR23 isoform 2 is overexpressed (Control n = 3, Iso 1 n = 3, Iso 2 n = 3) and ( E ) enhances DSB incidence following etoposide treatment (Control n = 3, Iso 1 n = 3, Iso 2 n = 3). ( F ) Cellular apoptosis (Annexin V positive) is increased in cells overexpressing WDR23 isoform 1 or WDR23 isoform 2 as compared to control cells overexpressing GFP alone (Control n = 3, Iso 1 n = 3, Iso 2 n = 3). Data are mean ± s.e.m.; one-tailed t -test relative to control GFP overexpression for each treatment condition. * P

    Journal: PLoS Genetics

    Article Title: WDR23 regulates NRF2 independently of KEAP1

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1006762

    Figure Lengend Snippet: WDR23 overexpression enhances chemotherapy toxicity. ( A-C ) Cells overexpressing GFP:WDR23 isoform 1 (pink) or GFP:WDR23 isoform 2 (orange) are more sensitive to increasing concentrations of ( A ) etoposide (25uM n = 12 each, 50um n = 8 each, 75um n = 8 each), ( B ) doxorubicin (1uM n = 12 each, 2uM n = 8 each), or ( C ) cisplatin (50uM n = 12 each, 75uM n = 8 each, 100uM n = 8 each) as compared to cells expressing GFP alone (black). ( D,E ) The percentage of cells carrying DNA double strand breaks (DSB), as indicated by dual phospho-H2Ax and phospho-ATM staining, is increased when WDR23 isoform 1 or WDR23 isoform 2 is overexpressed (Control n = 3, Iso 1 n = 3, Iso 2 n = 3) and ( E ) enhances DSB incidence following etoposide treatment (Control n = 3, Iso 1 n = 3, Iso 2 n = 3). ( F ) Cellular apoptosis (Annexin V positive) is increased in cells overexpressing WDR23 isoform 1 or WDR23 isoform 2 as compared to control cells overexpressing GFP alone (Control n = 3, Iso 1 n = 3, Iso 2 n = 3). Data are mean ± s.e.m.; one-tailed t -test relative to control GFP overexpression for each treatment condition. * P

    Article Snippet: Forty-eight hours post-transfection, cells were treated with the indicated chemical: Etoposide (Cayman), Doxorubicin (Cayman), or Cisplatin (Cayman).

    Techniques: Over Expression, Expressing, Staining, One-tailed Test

    Effect of doxorubicin and DoxQ on adult rat cardiomyocyte viability. a Dox versus DoxQ dose response. N = 3; mean ± SEM. * P

    Journal: Drug delivery and translational research

    Article Title: Mechanistically elucidating the in vitro safety and efficacy of a novel doxorubicin derivative

    doi: 10.1007/s13346-017-0379-2

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of doxorubicin and DoxQ on adult rat cardiomyocyte viability. a Dox versus DoxQ dose response. N = 3; mean ± SEM. * P

    Article Snippet: The antioxidant activity of DoxQ, doxorubicin, quercetin, or a mixture of doxorubicin and quercetin was examined using the antioxidant kit from Cayman Chemical.

    Techniques:

    Fold change in P-gp ATPase activity of doxorubicin, DoxQ, a mixture of doxorubicin and quercetin, or quercetin at 1, 10, 50, 100, and 200 µM relative to basal activity. N = 4; mean ± SEM. * P

    Journal: Drug delivery and translational research

    Article Title: Mechanistically elucidating the in vitro safety and efficacy of a novel doxorubicin derivative

    doi: 10.1007/s13346-017-0379-2

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Fold change in P-gp ATPase activity of doxorubicin, DoxQ, a mixture of doxorubicin and quercetin, or quercetin at 1, 10, 50, 100, and 200 µM relative to basal activity. N = 4; mean ± SEM. * P

    Article Snippet: The antioxidant activity of DoxQ, doxorubicin, quercetin, or a mixture of doxorubicin and quercetin was examined using the antioxidant kit from Cayman Chemical.

    Techniques: Activity Assay

    The cytotoxic effects of doxorubicin, a mixture of doxorubicin and quercetin, or DoxQ determined by resazurin blue assay expressed as IC 50 after 5 µM treatment for 72 h. N = 4; mean ± SD

    Journal: Drug delivery and translational research

    Article Title: Mechanistically elucidating the in vitro safety and efficacy of a novel doxorubicin derivative

    doi: 10.1007/s13346-017-0379-2

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The cytotoxic effects of doxorubicin, a mixture of doxorubicin and quercetin, or DoxQ determined by resazurin blue assay expressed as IC 50 after 5 µM treatment for 72 h. N = 4; mean ± SD

    Article Snippet: The antioxidant activity of DoxQ, doxorubicin, quercetin, or a mixture of doxorubicin and quercetin was examined using the antioxidant kit from Cayman Chemical.

    Techniques:

    Fold expression of oxidative stress markers in RL-14 cells after treatment at 10 µM for 24 h of doxorubicin, DoxQ, or quercetin. The mRNA expression of a GST-A1 and b HO-1 in RL-14 cells. The mRNA expression was quantified by RT-PCR and normalized to β-actin as a housekeeping gene. N = 6; mean ± SEM. * P

    Journal: Drug delivery and translational research

    Article Title: Mechanistically elucidating the in vitro safety and efficacy of a novel doxorubicin derivative

    doi: 10.1007/s13346-017-0379-2

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Fold expression of oxidative stress markers in RL-14 cells after treatment at 10 µM for 24 h of doxorubicin, DoxQ, or quercetin. The mRNA expression of a GST-A1 and b HO-1 in RL-14 cells. The mRNA expression was quantified by RT-PCR and normalized to β-actin as a housekeeping gene. N = 6; mean ± SEM. * P

    Article Snippet: The antioxidant activity of DoxQ, doxorubicin, quercetin, or a mixture of doxorubicin and quercetin was examined using the antioxidant kit from Cayman Chemical.

    Techniques: Expressing, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction

    A schematic representation of the release of doxorubicin and quercetin from DoxQ

    Journal: Drug delivery and translational research

    Article Title: Mechanistically elucidating the in vitro safety and efficacy of a novel doxorubicin derivative

    doi: 10.1007/s13346-017-0379-2

    Figure Lengend Snippet: A schematic representation of the release of doxorubicin and quercetin from DoxQ

    Article Snippet: The antioxidant activity of DoxQ, doxorubicin, quercetin, or a mixture of doxorubicin and quercetin was examined using the antioxidant kit from Cayman Chemical.

    Techniques:

    In vitro release of doxorubicin and quercetin from DoxQ quantified by HPLC. N = 3; mean ± SEM

    Journal: Drug delivery and translational research

    Article Title: Mechanistically elucidating the in vitro safety and efficacy of a novel doxorubicin derivative

    doi: 10.1007/s13346-017-0379-2

    Figure Lengend Snippet: In vitro release of doxorubicin and quercetin from DoxQ quantified by HPLC. N = 3; mean ± SEM

    Article Snippet: The antioxidant activity of DoxQ, doxorubicin, quercetin, or a mixture of doxorubicin and quercetin was examined using the antioxidant kit from Cayman Chemical.

    Techniques: In Vitro, High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Fluorescence imaging study of cell uptake of doxorubicin by MDCK-MDR cells (P-gp positive). Cells were treated with a 50 nM free doxorubicin, b 50 nM doxorubicin and 50 nM quercetin, and c 50 nM DoxQ

    Journal: Drug delivery and translational research

    Article Title: Mechanistically elucidating the in vitro safety and efficacy of a novel doxorubicin derivative

    doi: 10.1007/s13346-017-0379-2

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Fluorescence imaging study of cell uptake of doxorubicin by MDCK-MDR cells (P-gp positive). Cells were treated with a 50 nM free doxorubicin, b 50 nM doxorubicin and 50 nM quercetin, and c 50 nM DoxQ

    Article Snippet: The antioxidant activity of DoxQ, doxorubicin, quercetin, or a mixture of doxorubicin and quercetin was examined using the antioxidant kit from Cayman Chemical.

    Techniques: Fluorescence, Imaging

    Antioxidant activity of DoxQ in comparison to doxorubicin, a mixture of doxorubicin and quercetin, or quercetin alone expressed as Trolox equivalents ( N = 4; mean ± SEM). + P

    Journal: Drug delivery and translational research

    Article Title: Mechanistically elucidating the in vitro safety and efficacy of a novel doxorubicin derivative

    doi: 10.1007/s13346-017-0379-2

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Antioxidant activity of DoxQ in comparison to doxorubicin, a mixture of doxorubicin and quercetin, or quercetin alone expressed as Trolox equivalents ( N = 4; mean ± SEM). + P

    Article Snippet: The antioxidant activity of DoxQ, doxorubicin, quercetin, or a mixture of doxorubicin and quercetin was examined using the antioxidant kit from Cayman Chemical.

    Techniques: Antioxidant Activity Assay

    Fold expression of cardiac hypertrophy markers in RL-14 cells after treatment at 10 µM for 24 h of doxorubicin, DoxQ, or quercetin. The mRNA expression of a BNP, b α-MHC, and c β-MHC in RL-14 cells. The mRNA expression was quantified by RT-PCR and normalized to β-actin as a housekeeping gene. N = 6; mean ± SEM.* P

    Journal: Drug delivery and translational research

    Article Title: Mechanistically elucidating the in vitro safety and efficacy of a novel doxorubicin derivative

    doi: 10.1007/s13346-017-0379-2

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Fold expression of cardiac hypertrophy markers in RL-14 cells after treatment at 10 µM for 24 h of doxorubicin, DoxQ, or quercetin. The mRNA expression of a BNP, b α-MHC, and c β-MHC in RL-14 cells. The mRNA expression was quantified by RT-PCR and normalized to β-actin as a housekeeping gene. N = 6; mean ± SEM.* P

    Article Snippet: The antioxidant activity of DoxQ, doxorubicin, quercetin, or a mixture of doxorubicin and quercetin was examined using the antioxidant kit from Cayman Chemical.

    Techniques: Expressing, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction