Structured Review

Fisher Scientific dox solution
Characterization of <t>FA-HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX/siRNA</t> FAM nanocomplexes by gel electrophoresis assay. Notes: The agarose gel electrophoresis showed the behavior of nanocomplexes with various N/P ratios (0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32). When the N/P ratio was 16:1, the siRNA was retarded completely, and this N/P ratio was used in the following experiments. siRNA FAM Ex =488 nm, Em =535 nm, and the concentration was 100 nM. The gel was 1.5% and run for 10 minutes at 150 V. Abbreviations: DOX, doxorubicin; siRNA FAM , small interfering RNA link with FAM green fluorescent dye; FA, folic acid; HP-β-CD, hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin; PEI, polyethylenimine; Ex, excitation; Em, emission.
Dox Solution, supplied by Fisher Scientific, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 89/100, based on 9 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
https://www.bioz.com/result/dox solution/product/Fisher Scientific
Average 89 stars, based on 9 article reviews
Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
dox solution - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
89/100 stars

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1) Product Images from "Reversal of multidrug resistance in MCF-7/Adr cells by codelivery of doxorubicin and BCL2 siRNA using a folic acid-conjugated polyethylenimine hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin nanocarrier"

Article Title: Reversal of multidrug resistance in MCF-7/Adr cells by codelivery of doxorubicin and BCL2 siRNA using a folic acid-conjugated polyethylenimine hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin nanocarrier

Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

doi: 10.2147/IJN.S67146

Characterization of FA-HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX/siRNA FAM nanocomplexes by gel electrophoresis assay. Notes: The agarose gel electrophoresis showed the behavior of nanocomplexes with various N/P ratios (0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32). When the N/P ratio was 16:1, the siRNA was retarded completely, and this N/P ratio was used in the following experiments. siRNA FAM Ex =488 nm, Em =535 nm, and the concentration was 100 nM. The gel was 1.5% and run for 10 minutes at 150 V. Abbreviations: DOX, doxorubicin; siRNA FAM , small interfering RNA link with FAM green fluorescent dye; FA, folic acid; HP-β-CD, hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin; PEI, polyethylenimine; Ex, excitation; Em, emission.
Figure Legend Snippet: Characterization of FA-HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX/siRNA FAM nanocomplexes by gel electrophoresis assay. Notes: The agarose gel electrophoresis showed the behavior of nanocomplexes with various N/P ratios (0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32). When the N/P ratio was 16:1, the siRNA was retarded completely, and this N/P ratio was used in the following experiments. siRNA FAM Ex =488 nm, Em =535 nm, and the concentration was 100 nM. The gel was 1.5% and run for 10 minutes at 150 V. Abbreviations: DOX, doxorubicin; siRNA FAM , small interfering RNA link with FAM green fluorescent dye; FA, folic acid; HP-β-CD, hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin; PEI, polyethylenimine; Ex, excitation; Em, emission.

Techniques Used: Nucleic Acid Electrophoresis, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis, Concentration Assay, Small Interfering RNA

Cell viability of drug-loaded nanocomplexes (HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX, HP-β-CD-PEI/siRNA, FA-HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX, FA-HP-β-CD-PEI/siRNA, HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX/siRNA, and FA-HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX/siRNA). Notes: Untreated cells and free DOX were controls. Concentrations of DOX and siRNA were 0.5 μg/mL and 100 nM, respectively. Treatment time was 48 hours. Abbreviations: FA, folic acid; HP-β-CD, hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin; PEI, polyethylenimine; DOX, doxorubicin; siRNA, small interfering RNA.
Figure Legend Snippet: Cell viability of drug-loaded nanocomplexes (HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX, HP-β-CD-PEI/siRNA, FA-HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX, FA-HP-β-CD-PEI/siRNA, HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX/siRNA, and FA-HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX/siRNA). Notes: Untreated cells and free DOX were controls. Concentrations of DOX and siRNA were 0.5 μg/mL and 100 nM, respectively. Treatment time was 48 hours. Abbreviations: FA, folic acid; HP-β-CD, hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin; PEI, polyethylenimine; DOX, doxorubicin; siRNA, small interfering RNA.

Techniques Used: Small Interfering RNA

The release behavior of the DOX from the DOX-loaded nanocomplexes in different pH conditions (pH 5.0 and pH 7.4). Notes: When the DOX-loaded nanocomplexes were in the normal pH condition (pH 7.4), the DOX released from the nanocomplexes very slowly, and compared to the normal pH condition, the DOX released very quickly at pH 5.0 from the nanocomplexes, showing that the release of the DOX from the nanocarrier can be controlled by pH. DOX concentration of 0.5 μg/mL. Abbreviations: DOX, doxorubicin; siRNA, small interfering RNA; FA, folic acid; HP-β-CD, hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin; PEI, polyethylenimine.
Figure Legend Snippet: The release behavior of the DOX from the DOX-loaded nanocomplexes in different pH conditions (pH 5.0 and pH 7.4). Notes: When the DOX-loaded nanocomplexes were in the normal pH condition (pH 7.4), the DOX released from the nanocomplexes very slowly, and compared to the normal pH condition, the DOX released very quickly at pH 5.0 from the nanocomplexes, showing that the release of the DOX from the nanocarrier can be controlled by pH. DOX concentration of 0.5 μg/mL. Abbreviations: DOX, doxorubicin; siRNA, small interfering RNA; FA, folic acid; HP-β-CD, hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin; PEI, polyethylenimine.

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay, Small Interfering RNA

Schematic representation of DOX loading and BCL2 siRNA binding with the tumor targeting co-delivery nanocarrier (FA-HP-β-CD-PEI) for forming nanocomplexes to overcome MDR and enhance apoptosis in MCF-7/Adr tumor cells. Abbreviations: DOX, doxorubicin; siRNA, small interfering RNA; mRNA, messenger RNA; MDR, multidrug resistance; FA, folic acid; HP-β-CD, hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin; PEI, polyethylenimine; RISC, RNA-induced silencing complex.
Figure Legend Snippet: Schematic representation of DOX loading and BCL2 siRNA binding with the tumor targeting co-delivery nanocarrier (FA-HP-β-CD-PEI) for forming nanocomplexes to overcome MDR and enhance apoptosis in MCF-7/Adr tumor cells. Abbreviations: DOX, doxorubicin; siRNA, small interfering RNA; mRNA, messenger RNA; MDR, multidrug resistance; FA, folic acid; HP-β-CD, hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin; PEI, polyethylenimine; RISC, RNA-induced silencing complex.

Techniques Used: Binding Assay, Small Interfering RNA

TEM images and DLS measure of drug-loaded nanocomplexes. Notes: ( A ) TEM imaging of FA-HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX nanocomplexes; ( B ) TEM imaging of FA-HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX/siRNA nanocomplexes; ( C ) DLS of FA-HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX nanocomplexes; ( D ) DLS of FA-HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX/siRNA nanocomplexes. The N/P ratio was 16:1, and the concentration of siRNA was 100 nM. The scale bar 500 nm ( A , B ). Abbreviations: TEM, transmission electron microscopy; DLS, dynamic light scattering; DOX, doxorubicin; siRNA, small interfering RNA; FA, folic acid; HP-β-CD, hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin; PEI, polyethylenimine.
Figure Legend Snippet: TEM images and DLS measure of drug-loaded nanocomplexes. Notes: ( A ) TEM imaging of FA-HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX nanocomplexes; ( B ) TEM imaging of FA-HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX/siRNA nanocomplexes; ( C ) DLS of FA-HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX nanocomplexes; ( D ) DLS of FA-HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX/siRNA nanocomplexes. The N/P ratio was 16:1, and the concentration of siRNA was 100 nM. The scale bar 500 nm ( A , B ). Abbreviations: TEM, transmission electron microscopy; DLS, dynamic light scattering; DOX, doxorubicin; siRNA, small interfering RNA; FA, folic acid; HP-β-CD, hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin; PEI, polyethylenimine.

Techniques Used: Transmission Electron Microscopy, Imaging, Concentration Assay, Transmission Assay, Electron Microscopy, Small Interfering RNA

Cell uptake of FA-HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX/siRNA FAM nanocomplexes was evaluated by CSLM ( A ) and FCM ( B ) in MCF-7/Adr cells. Notes: The free DOX, HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX/siRNA FAM , and free FA + FA-HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX/siRNA FAM were used as contrast. The tumor-targeting nanocomplexes showed the strongest fluorescence in the experiments. Incubation time, 4 hours; siRNA, 100 nM; DOX, 0.5 μg/mL; blue, Hoechst 33342, Ex 405 nm, Em 435 nm; green, siRNA FAM , Ex 488 nm, Em 535 nm; red, DOX, Ex 488 nm, Em 595 nm. Scale bars 40 μm ( A ). Abbreviations: FA, folic acid; HP-β-CD, hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin; PEI, polyethylenimine; DOX, doxorubicin; siRNA FAM , small interfering RNA link with FAM green fluorescent dye; CSLM, confocal scanning laser microscopy; FCM, flow cytometry; Ex, excitation; Em, emission.
Figure Legend Snippet: Cell uptake of FA-HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX/siRNA FAM nanocomplexes was evaluated by CSLM ( A ) and FCM ( B ) in MCF-7/Adr cells. Notes: The free DOX, HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX/siRNA FAM , and free FA + FA-HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX/siRNA FAM were used as contrast. The tumor-targeting nanocomplexes showed the strongest fluorescence in the experiments. Incubation time, 4 hours; siRNA, 100 nM; DOX, 0.5 μg/mL; blue, Hoechst 33342, Ex 405 nm, Em 435 nm; green, siRNA FAM , Ex 488 nm, Em 535 nm; red, DOX, Ex 488 nm, Em 595 nm. Scale bars 40 μm ( A ). Abbreviations: FA, folic acid; HP-β-CD, hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin; PEI, polyethylenimine; DOX, doxorubicin; siRNA FAM , small interfering RNA link with FAM green fluorescent dye; CSLM, confocal scanning laser microscopy; FCM, flow cytometry; Ex, excitation; Em, emission.

Techniques Used: Fluorescence, Incubation, Small Interfering RNA, Microscopy, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry

Cell apoptosis of different transportation modalities of a fixed concentration of 0.5 μg/mL of DOX in MCF-7/Adr cells after 48 hours’ treatment with differently treated groups. Notes: The apoptosis of cells was detected by flow cytometry after staining with annexin V-FITC and a PI cell-apoptosis kit; the untreated cell group was used as a control. Cells negative for both annexin V-FITC and PI staining were classified as alive, while cells that stained positive for annexin V-FITC and negative for PI were classified as apoptotic. Cells that stained positive for PI were classified as necrotic. The concentration of BCL2 siRNA used was 100 nM. Abbreviations: DOX, doxorubicin; FITC, fluorescein isothiocyanate; PI, propidium iodide; FA, folic acid; HP-β-CD, hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin; PEI, polyethylenimine; siRNA, small interfering RNA.
Figure Legend Snippet: Cell apoptosis of different transportation modalities of a fixed concentration of 0.5 μg/mL of DOX in MCF-7/Adr cells after 48 hours’ treatment with differently treated groups. Notes: The apoptosis of cells was detected by flow cytometry after staining with annexin V-FITC and a PI cell-apoptosis kit; the untreated cell group was used as a control. Cells negative for both annexin V-FITC and PI staining were classified as alive, while cells that stained positive for annexin V-FITC and negative for PI were classified as apoptotic. Cells that stained positive for PI were classified as necrotic. The concentration of BCL2 siRNA used was 100 nM. Abbreviations: DOX, doxorubicin; FITC, fluorescein isothiocyanate; PI, propidium iodide; FA, folic acid; HP-β-CD, hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin; PEI, polyethylenimine; siRNA, small interfering RNA.

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Staining, Small Interfering RNA

Western blot analysis showed the efficacy in suppressing BCL2 protein expression in MCF-7/Adr cells with different treatment groups (1, control; 2, naked siRNA; 3, HiPer-Fect/siRNA; 4, siPort NeoFX/siRNA; 5, HP-β-CD-PEI/siRNA; 6, HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX/siRNA; 7, FA-HP-β-CD-PEI/siRNA; 8, FA-HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX/siRNA). Notes: The purchased siRNA reagents (HiPerFect from Qiagen, siPort NeoFX from Invitrogen) were used as the positive control. A significant difference was observed between control and different treatment groups. Data shown here are the mean ± standard deviation of three independent experiments. Incubation, 72 hours; siRNA concentration, 100 nM. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Western blot analysis showed the efficacy in suppressing BCL2 protein expression in MCF-7/Adr cells with different treatment groups (1, control; 2, naked siRNA; 3, HiPer-Fect/siRNA; 4, siPort NeoFX/siRNA; 5, HP-β-CD-PEI/siRNA; 6, HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX/siRNA; 7, FA-HP-β-CD-PEI/siRNA; 8, FA-HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX/siRNA). Notes: The purchased siRNA reagents (HiPerFect from Qiagen, siPort NeoFX from Invitrogen) were used as the positive control. A significant difference was observed between control and different treatment groups. Data shown here are the mean ± standard deviation of three independent experiments. Incubation, 72 hours; siRNA concentration, 100 nM. * P

Techniques Used: Western Blot, Expressing, Positive Control, Standard Deviation, Incubation, Concentration Assay

Morphological study of MCF-7/Adr cells after treatment with different modalities for 48 hours by Bio-TEM. Notes: TEM of MCF-7/Adr cells after treatment with different modalities showed the major ultrastructural changes for each sample. Concentrations of DOX and BCL2 siRNA were 0.5 μg/mL and 100 nM, respectively. Abbreviations: TEM, transmission electron microscopy; DOX, doxorubicin; siRNA, small interfering RNA; FA, folic acid; HP-β-CD, hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin; PEI, polyethylenimine.
Figure Legend Snippet: Morphological study of MCF-7/Adr cells after treatment with different modalities for 48 hours by Bio-TEM. Notes: TEM of MCF-7/Adr cells after treatment with different modalities showed the major ultrastructural changes for each sample. Concentrations of DOX and BCL2 siRNA were 0.5 μg/mL and 100 nM, respectively. Abbreviations: TEM, transmission electron microscopy; DOX, doxorubicin; siRNA, small interfering RNA; FA, folic acid; HP-β-CD, hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin; PEI, polyethylenimine.

Techniques Used: Transmission Electron Microscopy, Transmission Assay, Electron Microscopy, Small Interfering RNA

2) Product Images from "Multifunctional Nanosystem for Targeted and Controlled Delivery of Multiple Chemotherapeutic Agents for the Treatment of Drug-Resistant Breast Cancer"

Article Title: Multifunctional Nanosystem for Targeted and Controlled Delivery of Multiple Chemotherapeutic Agents for the Treatment of Drug-Resistant Breast Cancer

Journal: ACS Omega

doi: 10.1021/acsomega.8b00949

Drug release profiles of Ch-MLNPs in PBS and the respective release parameters evaluated from the slope and intercept of the three-parameter line fitting. (A) Drug release profiles of silybin, PTX, and DOX. (B) Drug release profiles of PTX and DOX, which were both loaded in the PLGA core of Ch-MLNPs. The EC 50 is the concentration that gives a response half way between the bottom and top plateaus of the curve.
Figure Legend Snippet: Drug release profiles of Ch-MLNPs in PBS and the respective release parameters evaluated from the slope and intercept of the three-parameter line fitting. (A) Drug release profiles of silybin, PTX, and DOX. (B) Drug release profiles of PTX and DOX, which were both loaded in the PLGA core of Ch-MLNPs. The EC 50 is the concentration that gives a response half way between the bottom and top plateaus of the curve.

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

Confocal microscopic analysis of intracellular trafficking of Ch-MLNPs with DOX loaded in the core in MDA-MB-231 cells. (A) NP distribution at 3, 5, 6, and 24 h post-incubation. Nuclei were labeled with DAPI and liposomes were labeled with NBD (green). DOX, loaded in the core, is self-fluorescent (red). Arrows point to the intracellular tracking of NPs and loaded drugs at different culture times. (B) The intracellular distribution of Ch-MLNPs and PLGA in cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) after incubation for 3 h. Scale bar represents 10 μm.
Figure Legend Snippet: Confocal microscopic analysis of intracellular trafficking of Ch-MLNPs with DOX loaded in the core in MDA-MB-231 cells. (A) NP distribution at 3, 5, 6, and 24 h post-incubation. Nuclei were labeled with DAPI and liposomes were labeled with NBD (green). DOX, loaded in the core, is self-fluorescent (red). Arrows point to the intracellular tracking of NPs and loaded drugs at different culture times. (B) The intracellular distribution of Ch-MLNPs and PLGA in cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) after incubation for 3 h. Scale bar represents 10 μm.

Techniques Used: Multiple Displacement Amplification, Incubation, Labeling

3) Product Images from "Multifunctional Nanosystem for Targeted and Controlled Delivery of Multiple Chemotherapeutic Agents for the Treatment of Drug-Resistant Breast Cancer"

Article Title: Multifunctional Nanosystem for Targeted and Controlled Delivery of Multiple Chemotherapeutic Agents for the Treatment of Drug-Resistant Breast Cancer

Journal: ACS Omega

doi: 10.1021/acsomega.8b00949

Drug release profiles of Ch-MLNPs in PBS and the respective release parameters evaluated from the slope and intercept of the three-parameter line fitting. (A) Drug release profiles of silybin, PTX, and DOX. (B) Drug release profiles of PTX and DOX, which were both loaded in the PLGA core of Ch-MLNPs. The EC 50 is the concentration that gives a response half way between the bottom and top plateaus of the curve.
Figure Legend Snippet: Drug release profiles of Ch-MLNPs in PBS and the respective release parameters evaluated from the slope and intercept of the three-parameter line fitting. (A) Drug release profiles of silybin, PTX, and DOX. (B) Drug release profiles of PTX and DOX, which were both loaded in the PLGA core of Ch-MLNPs. The EC 50 is the concentration that gives a response half way between the bottom and top plateaus of the curve.

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

Confocal microscopic analysis of intracellular trafficking of Ch-MLNPs with DOX loaded in the core in MDA-MB-231 cells. (A) NP distribution at 3, 5, 6, and 24 h post-incubation. Nuclei were labeled with DAPI and liposomes were labeled with NBD (green). DOX, loaded in the core, is self-fluorescent (red). Arrows point to the intracellular tracking of NPs and loaded drugs at different culture times. (B) The intracellular distribution of Ch-MLNPs and PLGA in cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) after incubation for 3 h. Scale bar represents 10 μm.
Figure Legend Snippet: Confocal microscopic analysis of intracellular trafficking of Ch-MLNPs with DOX loaded in the core in MDA-MB-231 cells. (A) NP distribution at 3, 5, 6, and 24 h post-incubation. Nuclei were labeled with DAPI and liposomes were labeled with NBD (green). DOX, loaded in the core, is self-fluorescent (red). Arrows point to the intracellular tracking of NPs and loaded drugs at different culture times. (B) The intracellular distribution of Ch-MLNPs and PLGA in cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) after incubation for 3 h. Scale bar represents 10 μm.

Techniques Used: Multiple Displacement Amplification, Incubation, Labeling

Related Articles

Sonication:

Article Title: Multifunctional Nanosystem for Targeted and Controlled Delivery of Multiple Chemotherapeutic Agents for the Treatment of Drug-Resistant Breast Cancer
Article Snippet: .. The DOX solution was then dropped into the PLGA solution and emulsified by sonication using a sonic dismembrator (model 500; Fisher Scientific, Pittsburg, PA, USA; operating frequency: 20 kHz) at 20% for 10 min. .. The resultant emulsion was added into 10 mL solution of PVA and was sonicated again at 70% for 90 s. Liposomes were formulated at a lipid mass ratio of 80:10:10 [DSPC/cholesterol/nitrobenzoxadiazole (NBD)].

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    Fisher Scientific dox solution
    Characterization of <t>FA-HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX/siRNA</t> FAM nanocomplexes by gel electrophoresis assay. Notes: The agarose gel electrophoresis showed the behavior of nanocomplexes with various N/P ratios (0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32). When the N/P ratio was 16:1, the siRNA was retarded completely, and this N/P ratio was used in the following experiments. siRNA FAM Ex =488 nm, Em =535 nm, and the concentration was 100 nM. The gel was 1.5% and run for 10 minutes at 150 V. Abbreviations: DOX, doxorubicin; siRNA FAM , small interfering RNA link with FAM green fluorescent dye; FA, folic acid; HP-β-CD, hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin; PEI, polyethylenimine; Ex, excitation; Em, emission.
    Dox Solution, supplied by Fisher Scientific, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 89/100, based on 9 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/dox solution/product/Fisher Scientific
    Average 89 stars, based on 9 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    dox solution - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    89/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    93
    Fisher Scientific doxorubicin dox stock solution
    Characterization of <t>FA-HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX/siRNA</t> FAM nanocomplexes by gel electrophoresis assay. Notes: The agarose gel electrophoresis showed the behavior of nanocomplexes with various N/P ratios (0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32). When the N/P ratio was 16:1, the siRNA was retarded completely, and this N/P ratio was used in the following experiments. siRNA FAM Ex =488 nm, Em =535 nm, and the concentration was 100 nM. The gel was 1.5% and run for 10 minutes at 150 V. Abbreviations: DOX, doxorubicin; siRNA FAM , small interfering RNA link with FAM green fluorescent dye; FA, folic acid; HP-β-CD, hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin; PEI, polyethylenimine; Ex, excitation; Em, emission.
    Doxorubicin Dox Stock Solution, supplied by Fisher Scientific, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 5 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/doxorubicin dox stock solution/product/Fisher Scientific
    Average 93 stars, based on 5 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    doxorubicin dox stock solution - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    93/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

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    Characterization of FA-HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX/siRNA FAM nanocomplexes by gel electrophoresis assay. Notes: The agarose gel electrophoresis showed the behavior of nanocomplexes with various N/P ratios (0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32). When the N/P ratio was 16:1, the siRNA was retarded completely, and this N/P ratio was used in the following experiments. siRNA FAM Ex =488 nm, Em =535 nm, and the concentration was 100 nM. The gel was 1.5% and run for 10 minutes at 150 V. Abbreviations: DOX, doxorubicin; siRNA FAM , small interfering RNA link with FAM green fluorescent dye; FA, folic acid; HP-β-CD, hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin; PEI, polyethylenimine; Ex, excitation; Em, emission.

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Reversal of multidrug resistance in MCF-7/Adr cells by codelivery of doxorubicin and BCL2 siRNA using a folic acid-conjugated polyethylenimine hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin nanocarrier

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S67146

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Characterization of FA-HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX/siRNA FAM nanocomplexes by gel electrophoresis assay. Notes: The agarose gel electrophoresis showed the behavior of nanocomplexes with various N/P ratios (0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32). When the N/P ratio was 16:1, the siRNA was retarded completely, and this N/P ratio was used in the following experiments. siRNA FAM Ex =488 nm, Em =535 nm, and the concentration was 100 nM. The gel was 1.5% and run for 10 minutes at 150 V. Abbreviations: DOX, doxorubicin; siRNA FAM , small interfering RNA link with FAM green fluorescent dye; FA, folic acid; HP-β-CD, hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin; PEI, polyethylenimine; Ex, excitation; Em, emission.

    Article Snippet: Preparation and characterization of FA-HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX nanocomplexes Five milligrams of FA-HP-β-CD-PEI was mixed in a 5 mL DOX solution (phosphate-buffered saline [PBS], 0.5 mg/mL), followed by ultrasonic agitation in a type 60 Sonic Dismembrator (Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA) for 24 hours.

    Techniques: Nucleic Acid Electrophoresis, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis, Concentration Assay, Small Interfering RNA

    Cell viability of drug-loaded nanocomplexes (HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX, HP-β-CD-PEI/siRNA, FA-HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX, FA-HP-β-CD-PEI/siRNA, HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX/siRNA, and FA-HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX/siRNA). Notes: Untreated cells and free DOX were controls. Concentrations of DOX and siRNA were 0.5 μg/mL and 100 nM, respectively. Treatment time was 48 hours. Abbreviations: FA, folic acid; HP-β-CD, hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin; PEI, polyethylenimine; DOX, doxorubicin; siRNA, small interfering RNA.

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Reversal of multidrug resistance in MCF-7/Adr cells by codelivery of doxorubicin and BCL2 siRNA using a folic acid-conjugated polyethylenimine hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin nanocarrier

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S67146

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Cell viability of drug-loaded nanocomplexes (HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX, HP-β-CD-PEI/siRNA, FA-HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX, FA-HP-β-CD-PEI/siRNA, HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX/siRNA, and FA-HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX/siRNA). Notes: Untreated cells and free DOX were controls. Concentrations of DOX and siRNA were 0.5 μg/mL and 100 nM, respectively. Treatment time was 48 hours. Abbreviations: FA, folic acid; HP-β-CD, hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin; PEI, polyethylenimine; DOX, doxorubicin; siRNA, small interfering RNA.

    Article Snippet: Preparation and characterization of FA-HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX nanocomplexes Five milligrams of FA-HP-β-CD-PEI was mixed in a 5 mL DOX solution (phosphate-buffered saline [PBS], 0.5 mg/mL), followed by ultrasonic agitation in a type 60 Sonic Dismembrator (Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA) for 24 hours.

    Techniques: Small Interfering RNA

    The release behavior of the DOX from the DOX-loaded nanocomplexes in different pH conditions (pH 5.0 and pH 7.4). Notes: When the DOX-loaded nanocomplexes were in the normal pH condition (pH 7.4), the DOX released from the nanocomplexes very slowly, and compared to the normal pH condition, the DOX released very quickly at pH 5.0 from the nanocomplexes, showing that the release of the DOX from the nanocarrier can be controlled by pH. DOX concentration of 0.5 μg/mL. Abbreviations: DOX, doxorubicin; siRNA, small interfering RNA; FA, folic acid; HP-β-CD, hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin; PEI, polyethylenimine.

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Reversal of multidrug resistance in MCF-7/Adr cells by codelivery of doxorubicin and BCL2 siRNA using a folic acid-conjugated polyethylenimine hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin nanocarrier

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S67146

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The release behavior of the DOX from the DOX-loaded nanocomplexes in different pH conditions (pH 5.0 and pH 7.4). Notes: When the DOX-loaded nanocomplexes were in the normal pH condition (pH 7.4), the DOX released from the nanocomplexes very slowly, and compared to the normal pH condition, the DOX released very quickly at pH 5.0 from the nanocomplexes, showing that the release of the DOX from the nanocarrier can be controlled by pH. DOX concentration of 0.5 μg/mL. Abbreviations: DOX, doxorubicin; siRNA, small interfering RNA; FA, folic acid; HP-β-CD, hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin; PEI, polyethylenimine.

    Article Snippet: Preparation and characterization of FA-HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX nanocomplexes Five milligrams of FA-HP-β-CD-PEI was mixed in a 5 mL DOX solution (phosphate-buffered saline [PBS], 0.5 mg/mL), followed by ultrasonic agitation in a type 60 Sonic Dismembrator (Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA) for 24 hours.

    Techniques: Concentration Assay, Small Interfering RNA

    Schematic representation of DOX loading and BCL2 siRNA binding with the tumor targeting co-delivery nanocarrier (FA-HP-β-CD-PEI) for forming nanocomplexes to overcome MDR and enhance apoptosis in MCF-7/Adr tumor cells. Abbreviations: DOX, doxorubicin; siRNA, small interfering RNA; mRNA, messenger RNA; MDR, multidrug resistance; FA, folic acid; HP-β-CD, hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin; PEI, polyethylenimine; RISC, RNA-induced silencing complex.

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Reversal of multidrug resistance in MCF-7/Adr cells by codelivery of doxorubicin and BCL2 siRNA using a folic acid-conjugated polyethylenimine hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin nanocarrier

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S67146

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Schematic representation of DOX loading and BCL2 siRNA binding with the tumor targeting co-delivery nanocarrier (FA-HP-β-CD-PEI) for forming nanocomplexes to overcome MDR and enhance apoptosis in MCF-7/Adr tumor cells. Abbreviations: DOX, doxorubicin; siRNA, small interfering RNA; mRNA, messenger RNA; MDR, multidrug resistance; FA, folic acid; HP-β-CD, hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin; PEI, polyethylenimine; RISC, RNA-induced silencing complex.

    Article Snippet: Preparation and characterization of FA-HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX nanocomplexes Five milligrams of FA-HP-β-CD-PEI was mixed in a 5 mL DOX solution (phosphate-buffered saline [PBS], 0.5 mg/mL), followed by ultrasonic agitation in a type 60 Sonic Dismembrator (Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA) for 24 hours.

    Techniques: Binding Assay, Small Interfering RNA

    TEM images and DLS measure of drug-loaded nanocomplexes. Notes: ( A ) TEM imaging of FA-HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX nanocomplexes; ( B ) TEM imaging of FA-HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX/siRNA nanocomplexes; ( C ) DLS of FA-HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX nanocomplexes; ( D ) DLS of FA-HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX/siRNA nanocomplexes. The N/P ratio was 16:1, and the concentration of siRNA was 100 nM. The scale bar 500 nm ( A , B ). Abbreviations: TEM, transmission electron microscopy; DLS, dynamic light scattering; DOX, doxorubicin; siRNA, small interfering RNA; FA, folic acid; HP-β-CD, hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin; PEI, polyethylenimine.

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Reversal of multidrug resistance in MCF-7/Adr cells by codelivery of doxorubicin and BCL2 siRNA using a folic acid-conjugated polyethylenimine hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin nanocarrier

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S67146

    Figure Lengend Snippet: TEM images and DLS measure of drug-loaded nanocomplexes. Notes: ( A ) TEM imaging of FA-HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX nanocomplexes; ( B ) TEM imaging of FA-HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX/siRNA nanocomplexes; ( C ) DLS of FA-HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX nanocomplexes; ( D ) DLS of FA-HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX/siRNA nanocomplexes. The N/P ratio was 16:1, and the concentration of siRNA was 100 nM. The scale bar 500 nm ( A , B ). Abbreviations: TEM, transmission electron microscopy; DLS, dynamic light scattering; DOX, doxorubicin; siRNA, small interfering RNA; FA, folic acid; HP-β-CD, hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin; PEI, polyethylenimine.

    Article Snippet: Preparation and characterization of FA-HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX nanocomplexes Five milligrams of FA-HP-β-CD-PEI was mixed in a 5 mL DOX solution (phosphate-buffered saline [PBS], 0.5 mg/mL), followed by ultrasonic agitation in a type 60 Sonic Dismembrator (Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA) for 24 hours.

    Techniques: Transmission Electron Microscopy, Imaging, Concentration Assay, Transmission Assay, Electron Microscopy, Small Interfering RNA

    Cell uptake of FA-HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX/siRNA FAM nanocomplexes was evaluated by CSLM ( A ) and FCM ( B ) in MCF-7/Adr cells. Notes: The free DOX, HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX/siRNA FAM , and free FA + FA-HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX/siRNA FAM were used as contrast. The tumor-targeting nanocomplexes showed the strongest fluorescence in the experiments. Incubation time, 4 hours; siRNA, 100 nM; DOX, 0.5 μg/mL; blue, Hoechst 33342, Ex 405 nm, Em 435 nm; green, siRNA FAM , Ex 488 nm, Em 535 nm; red, DOX, Ex 488 nm, Em 595 nm. Scale bars 40 μm ( A ). Abbreviations: FA, folic acid; HP-β-CD, hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin; PEI, polyethylenimine; DOX, doxorubicin; siRNA FAM , small interfering RNA link with FAM green fluorescent dye; CSLM, confocal scanning laser microscopy; FCM, flow cytometry; Ex, excitation; Em, emission.

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Reversal of multidrug resistance in MCF-7/Adr cells by codelivery of doxorubicin and BCL2 siRNA using a folic acid-conjugated polyethylenimine hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin nanocarrier

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S67146

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Cell uptake of FA-HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX/siRNA FAM nanocomplexes was evaluated by CSLM ( A ) and FCM ( B ) in MCF-7/Adr cells. Notes: The free DOX, HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX/siRNA FAM , and free FA + FA-HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX/siRNA FAM were used as contrast. The tumor-targeting nanocomplexes showed the strongest fluorescence in the experiments. Incubation time, 4 hours; siRNA, 100 nM; DOX, 0.5 μg/mL; blue, Hoechst 33342, Ex 405 nm, Em 435 nm; green, siRNA FAM , Ex 488 nm, Em 535 nm; red, DOX, Ex 488 nm, Em 595 nm. Scale bars 40 μm ( A ). Abbreviations: FA, folic acid; HP-β-CD, hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin; PEI, polyethylenimine; DOX, doxorubicin; siRNA FAM , small interfering RNA link with FAM green fluorescent dye; CSLM, confocal scanning laser microscopy; FCM, flow cytometry; Ex, excitation; Em, emission.

    Article Snippet: Preparation and characterization of FA-HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX nanocomplexes Five milligrams of FA-HP-β-CD-PEI was mixed in a 5 mL DOX solution (phosphate-buffered saline [PBS], 0.5 mg/mL), followed by ultrasonic agitation in a type 60 Sonic Dismembrator (Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA) for 24 hours.

    Techniques: Fluorescence, Incubation, Small Interfering RNA, Microscopy, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry

    Cell apoptosis of different transportation modalities of a fixed concentration of 0.5 μg/mL of DOX in MCF-7/Adr cells after 48 hours’ treatment with differently treated groups. Notes: The apoptosis of cells was detected by flow cytometry after staining with annexin V-FITC and a PI cell-apoptosis kit; the untreated cell group was used as a control. Cells negative for both annexin V-FITC and PI staining were classified as alive, while cells that stained positive for annexin V-FITC and negative for PI were classified as apoptotic. Cells that stained positive for PI were classified as necrotic. The concentration of BCL2 siRNA used was 100 nM. Abbreviations: DOX, doxorubicin; FITC, fluorescein isothiocyanate; PI, propidium iodide; FA, folic acid; HP-β-CD, hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin; PEI, polyethylenimine; siRNA, small interfering RNA.

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Reversal of multidrug resistance in MCF-7/Adr cells by codelivery of doxorubicin and BCL2 siRNA using a folic acid-conjugated polyethylenimine hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin nanocarrier

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S67146

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Cell apoptosis of different transportation modalities of a fixed concentration of 0.5 μg/mL of DOX in MCF-7/Adr cells after 48 hours’ treatment with differently treated groups. Notes: The apoptosis of cells was detected by flow cytometry after staining with annexin V-FITC and a PI cell-apoptosis kit; the untreated cell group was used as a control. Cells negative for both annexin V-FITC and PI staining were classified as alive, while cells that stained positive for annexin V-FITC and negative for PI were classified as apoptotic. Cells that stained positive for PI were classified as necrotic. The concentration of BCL2 siRNA used was 100 nM. Abbreviations: DOX, doxorubicin; FITC, fluorescein isothiocyanate; PI, propidium iodide; FA, folic acid; HP-β-CD, hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin; PEI, polyethylenimine; siRNA, small interfering RNA.

    Article Snippet: Preparation and characterization of FA-HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX nanocomplexes Five milligrams of FA-HP-β-CD-PEI was mixed in a 5 mL DOX solution (phosphate-buffered saline [PBS], 0.5 mg/mL), followed by ultrasonic agitation in a type 60 Sonic Dismembrator (Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA) for 24 hours.

    Techniques: Concentration Assay, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Staining, Small Interfering RNA

    Western blot analysis showed the efficacy in suppressing BCL2 protein expression in MCF-7/Adr cells with different treatment groups (1, control; 2, naked siRNA; 3, HiPer-Fect/siRNA; 4, siPort NeoFX/siRNA; 5, HP-β-CD-PEI/siRNA; 6, HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX/siRNA; 7, FA-HP-β-CD-PEI/siRNA; 8, FA-HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX/siRNA). Notes: The purchased siRNA reagents (HiPerFect from Qiagen, siPort NeoFX from Invitrogen) were used as the positive control. A significant difference was observed between control and different treatment groups. Data shown here are the mean ± standard deviation of three independent experiments. Incubation, 72 hours; siRNA concentration, 100 nM. * P

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Reversal of multidrug resistance in MCF-7/Adr cells by codelivery of doxorubicin and BCL2 siRNA using a folic acid-conjugated polyethylenimine hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin nanocarrier

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S67146

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Western blot analysis showed the efficacy in suppressing BCL2 protein expression in MCF-7/Adr cells with different treatment groups (1, control; 2, naked siRNA; 3, HiPer-Fect/siRNA; 4, siPort NeoFX/siRNA; 5, HP-β-CD-PEI/siRNA; 6, HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX/siRNA; 7, FA-HP-β-CD-PEI/siRNA; 8, FA-HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX/siRNA). Notes: The purchased siRNA reagents (HiPerFect from Qiagen, siPort NeoFX from Invitrogen) were used as the positive control. A significant difference was observed between control and different treatment groups. Data shown here are the mean ± standard deviation of three independent experiments. Incubation, 72 hours; siRNA concentration, 100 nM. * P

    Article Snippet: Preparation and characterization of FA-HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX nanocomplexes Five milligrams of FA-HP-β-CD-PEI was mixed in a 5 mL DOX solution (phosphate-buffered saline [PBS], 0.5 mg/mL), followed by ultrasonic agitation in a type 60 Sonic Dismembrator (Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA) for 24 hours.

    Techniques: Western Blot, Expressing, Positive Control, Standard Deviation, Incubation, Concentration Assay

    Morphological study of MCF-7/Adr cells after treatment with different modalities for 48 hours by Bio-TEM. Notes: TEM of MCF-7/Adr cells after treatment with different modalities showed the major ultrastructural changes for each sample. Concentrations of DOX and BCL2 siRNA were 0.5 μg/mL and 100 nM, respectively. Abbreviations: TEM, transmission electron microscopy; DOX, doxorubicin; siRNA, small interfering RNA; FA, folic acid; HP-β-CD, hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin; PEI, polyethylenimine.

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Reversal of multidrug resistance in MCF-7/Adr cells by codelivery of doxorubicin and BCL2 siRNA using a folic acid-conjugated polyethylenimine hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin nanocarrier

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S67146

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Morphological study of MCF-7/Adr cells after treatment with different modalities for 48 hours by Bio-TEM. Notes: TEM of MCF-7/Adr cells after treatment with different modalities showed the major ultrastructural changes for each sample. Concentrations of DOX and BCL2 siRNA were 0.5 μg/mL and 100 nM, respectively. Abbreviations: TEM, transmission electron microscopy; DOX, doxorubicin; siRNA, small interfering RNA; FA, folic acid; HP-β-CD, hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin; PEI, polyethylenimine.

    Article Snippet: Preparation and characterization of FA-HP-β-CD-PEI/DOX nanocomplexes Five milligrams of FA-HP-β-CD-PEI was mixed in a 5 mL DOX solution (phosphate-buffered saline [PBS], 0.5 mg/mL), followed by ultrasonic agitation in a type 60 Sonic Dismembrator (Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA) for 24 hours.

    Techniques: Transmission Electron Microscopy, Transmission Assay, Electron Microscopy, Small Interfering RNA

    Drug release profiles of Ch-MLNPs in PBS and the respective release parameters evaluated from the slope and intercept of the three-parameter line fitting. (A) Drug release profiles of silybin, PTX, and DOX. (B) Drug release profiles of PTX and DOX, which were both loaded in the PLGA core of Ch-MLNPs. The EC 50 is the concentration that gives a response half way between the bottom and top plateaus of the curve.

    Journal: ACS Omega

    Article Title: Multifunctional Nanosystem for Targeted and Controlled Delivery of Multiple Chemotherapeutic Agents for the Treatment of Drug-Resistant Breast Cancer

    doi: 10.1021/acsomega.8b00949

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Drug release profiles of Ch-MLNPs in PBS and the respective release parameters evaluated from the slope and intercept of the three-parameter line fitting. (A) Drug release profiles of silybin, PTX, and DOX. (B) Drug release profiles of PTX and DOX, which were both loaded in the PLGA core of Ch-MLNPs. The EC 50 is the concentration that gives a response half way between the bottom and top plateaus of the curve.

    Article Snippet: The DOX solution was then dropped into the PLGA solution and emulsified by sonication using a sonic dismembrator (model 500; Fisher Scientific, Pittsburg, PA, USA; operating frequency: 20 kHz) at 20% for 10 min.

    Techniques: Concentration Assay

    Confocal microscopic analysis of intracellular trafficking of Ch-MLNPs with DOX loaded in the core in MDA-MB-231 cells. (A) NP distribution at 3, 5, 6, and 24 h post-incubation. Nuclei were labeled with DAPI and liposomes were labeled with NBD (green). DOX, loaded in the core, is self-fluorescent (red). Arrows point to the intracellular tracking of NPs and loaded drugs at different culture times. (B) The intracellular distribution of Ch-MLNPs and PLGA in cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) after incubation for 3 h. Scale bar represents 10 μm.

    Journal: ACS Omega

    Article Title: Multifunctional Nanosystem for Targeted and Controlled Delivery of Multiple Chemotherapeutic Agents for the Treatment of Drug-Resistant Breast Cancer

    doi: 10.1021/acsomega.8b00949

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Confocal microscopic analysis of intracellular trafficking of Ch-MLNPs with DOX loaded in the core in MDA-MB-231 cells. (A) NP distribution at 3, 5, 6, and 24 h post-incubation. Nuclei were labeled with DAPI and liposomes were labeled with NBD (green). DOX, loaded in the core, is self-fluorescent (red). Arrows point to the intracellular tracking of NPs and loaded drugs at different culture times. (B) The intracellular distribution of Ch-MLNPs and PLGA in cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) after incubation for 3 h. Scale bar represents 10 μm.

    Article Snippet: The DOX solution was then dropped into the PLGA solution and emulsified by sonication using a sonic dismembrator (model 500; Fisher Scientific, Pittsburg, PA, USA; operating frequency: 20 kHz) at 20% for 10 min.

    Techniques: Multiple Displacement Amplification, Incubation, Labeling

    Drug release profiles of Ch-MLNPs in PBS and the respective release parameters evaluated from the slope and intercept of the three-parameter line fitting. (A) Drug release profiles of silybin, PTX, and DOX. (B) Drug release profiles of PTX and DOX, which were both loaded in the PLGA core of Ch-MLNPs. The EC 50 is the concentration that gives a response half way between the bottom and top plateaus of the curve.

    Journal: ACS Omega

    Article Title: Multifunctional Nanosystem for Targeted and Controlled Delivery of Multiple Chemotherapeutic Agents for the Treatment of Drug-Resistant Breast Cancer

    doi: 10.1021/acsomega.8b00949

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Drug release profiles of Ch-MLNPs in PBS and the respective release parameters evaluated from the slope and intercept of the three-parameter line fitting. (A) Drug release profiles of silybin, PTX, and DOX. (B) Drug release profiles of PTX and DOX, which were both loaded in the PLGA core of Ch-MLNPs. The EC 50 is the concentration that gives a response half way between the bottom and top plateaus of the curve.

    Article Snippet: The DOX solution was then dropped into the PLGA solution and emulsified by sonication using a sonic dismembrator (model 500; Fisher Scientific, Pittsburg, PA, USA; operating frequency: 20 kHz) at 20% for 10 min.

    Techniques: Concentration Assay

    Confocal microscopic analysis of intracellular trafficking of Ch-MLNPs with DOX loaded in the core in MDA-MB-231 cells. (A) NP distribution at 3, 5, 6, and 24 h post-incubation. Nuclei were labeled with DAPI and liposomes were labeled with NBD (green). DOX, loaded in the core, is self-fluorescent (red). Arrows point to the intracellular tracking of NPs and loaded drugs at different culture times. (B) The intracellular distribution of Ch-MLNPs and PLGA in cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) after incubation for 3 h. Scale bar represents 10 μm.

    Journal: ACS Omega

    Article Title: Multifunctional Nanosystem for Targeted and Controlled Delivery of Multiple Chemotherapeutic Agents for the Treatment of Drug-Resistant Breast Cancer

    doi: 10.1021/acsomega.8b00949

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Confocal microscopic analysis of intracellular trafficking of Ch-MLNPs with DOX loaded in the core in MDA-MB-231 cells. (A) NP distribution at 3, 5, 6, and 24 h post-incubation. Nuclei were labeled with DAPI and liposomes were labeled with NBD (green). DOX, loaded in the core, is self-fluorescent (red). Arrows point to the intracellular tracking of NPs and loaded drugs at different culture times. (B) The intracellular distribution of Ch-MLNPs and PLGA in cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) after incubation for 3 h. Scale bar represents 10 μm.

    Article Snippet: The DOX solution was then dropped into the PLGA solution and emulsified by sonication using a sonic dismembrator (model 500; Fisher Scientific, Pittsburg, PA, USA; operating frequency: 20 kHz) at 20% for 10 min.

    Techniques: Multiple Displacement Amplification, Incubation, Labeling