dextran sodium sulfate dss  (Valiant)

 
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    Name:
    Dextran sodium sulfate
    Description:
    Dextran sulfate is a polyanionic derivative of dextran produced by esterification of Dextran with chlorosulphonic acid The sulfur content is approximately 17 which corresponds to an average of 1 9 sulfate groups per glucosyl residue of the dextran molecule Dextran sulfate sodium DSS is the sodium salt which is a white to off white powder freely soluble in water and salt solutions to form a stable clear solution The high purity and reproducible quality enables its application in pharmaceuticals and biotechnology industry
    Catalog Number:
    02101518-CF
    Price:
    None
    Category:
    Life Sciences Biochemicals Carbohydrates Polysaccharides
    Applications:
    Immunology, Antiviral, Anticoagulant
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    Structured Review

    Valiant dextran sodium sulfate dss
    Effects of KIOM-2015E on body weight, colon length, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in the dextran sodium sulfate- <t>(DSS-)</t> induced colitis model. (a) Body weight. (b and c) Colon length. (d) Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Mice were orally administered KIOM-2015E or <t>5-aminosalicylic</t> acid (5-ASA) (100 mg/kg) before DSS treatment. The body weights were monitored before KIOM-2015E or 5-ASA treatment during the experimental periods. The colonic lengths of mice were measured after being isolated from the sacrificed mice. The MPO activity was measured using MPO activity assay kit according to the manufacturer's protocol. The results represent the mean ± standard error of the mean values of each mouse in the same group. ∗∗∗ p
    Dextran sulfate is a polyanionic derivative of dextran produced by esterification of Dextran with chlorosulphonic acid The sulfur content is approximately 17 which corresponds to an average of 1 9 sulfate groups per glucosyl residue of the dextran molecule Dextran sulfate sodium DSS is the sodium salt which is a white to off white powder freely soluble in water and salt solutions to form a stable clear solution The high purity and reproducible quality enables its application in pharmaceuticals and biotechnology industry
    https://www.bioz.com/result/dextran sodium sulfate dss/product/Valiant
    Average 99 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    dextran sodium sulfate dss - by Bioz Stars, 2021-07
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    Images

    1) Product Images from "Acer palmatum thumb. Ethanol Extract Alleviates Interleukin-6-Induced Barrier Dysfunction and Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colitis by Improving Intestinal Barrier Function and Reducing Inflammation"

    Article Title: Acer palmatum thumb. Ethanol Extract Alleviates Interleukin-6-Induced Barrier Dysfunction and Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colitis by Improving Intestinal Barrier Function and Reducing Inflammation

    Journal: Journal of Immunology Research

    doi: 10.1155/2018/5718396

    Effects of KIOM-2015E on body weight, colon length, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in the dextran sodium sulfate- (DSS-) induced colitis model. (a) Body weight. (b and c) Colon length. (d) Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Mice were orally administered KIOM-2015E or 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) (100 mg/kg) before DSS treatment. The body weights were monitored before KIOM-2015E or 5-ASA treatment during the experimental periods. The colonic lengths of mice were measured after being isolated from the sacrificed mice. The MPO activity was measured using MPO activity assay kit according to the manufacturer's protocol. The results represent the mean ± standard error of the mean values of each mouse in the same group. ∗∗∗ p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of KIOM-2015E on body weight, colon length, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in the dextran sodium sulfate- (DSS-) induced colitis model. (a) Body weight. (b and c) Colon length. (d) Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Mice were orally administered KIOM-2015E or 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) (100 mg/kg) before DSS treatment. The body weights were monitored before KIOM-2015E or 5-ASA treatment during the experimental periods. The colonic lengths of mice were measured after being isolated from the sacrificed mice. The MPO activity was measured using MPO activity assay kit according to the manufacturer's protocol. The results represent the mean ± standard error of the mean values of each mouse in the same group. ∗∗∗ p

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Mouse Assay, Isolation

    2) Product Images from "Bacterial immunogenic α-galactosylceramide identified in the murine large intestine: dependency on diet and inflammation [S]"

    Article Title: Bacterial immunogenic α-galactosylceramide identified in the murine large intestine: dependency on diet and inflammation [S]

    Journal: Journal of Lipid Research

    doi: 10.1194/jlr.RA119000236

    Levels of intestinal and fecal αGalCer MLI are influenced by diet (A), inflammation (B), and viral infection (C). A: Male C57BL/6N mice (23–36 weeks old) were fed for 7 days with control or WTD and total cecum was analyzed for the presence of αGalCer(d18:0/βh16:0), i.e., αGalCer MLI (n = 8). B: Male C57BL/6 mice (9–11 weeks old) were treated with DSS to induce colitis. After 2 and 4 days, liver and the content of the colon were isolated and analyzed for αGalCer MLI (control and 2d DSS, n = 3; 4d DSS, n = 5). C: Male C57BL/6 mice (8 weeks old) were infected with influence virus A. Total cecum and feces were analyzed at day 0 (mock-treated noninfected mice) and at day 7 (cecum, n = 6; feces, n = 5). Data of A and B were obtained with RP18-LC-MS 2 and data of C with the HILIC-MS 2 method. For absolute values see supplemental Fig. S9.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Levels of intestinal and fecal αGalCer MLI are influenced by diet (A), inflammation (B), and viral infection (C). A: Male C57BL/6N mice (23–36 weeks old) were fed for 7 days with control or WTD and total cecum was analyzed for the presence of αGalCer(d18:0/βh16:0), i.e., αGalCer MLI (n = 8). B: Male C57BL/6 mice (9–11 weeks old) were treated with DSS to induce colitis. After 2 and 4 days, liver and the content of the colon were isolated and analyzed for αGalCer MLI (control and 2d DSS, n = 3; 4d DSS, n = 5). C: Male C57BL/6 mice (8 weeks old) were infected with influence virus A. Total cecum and feces were analyzed at day 0 (mock-treated noninfected mice) and at day 7 (cecum, n = 6; feces, n = 5). Data of A and B were obtained with RP18-LC-MS 2 and data of C with the HILIC-MS 2 method. For absolute values see supplemental Fig. S9.

    Techniques Used: Infection, Mouse Assay, Isolation, Liquid Chromatography with Mass Spectroscopy, Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography

    3) Product Images from "Gut Dysbiosis and Abnormal Bile Acid Metabolism in Colitis-Associated Cancer"

    Article Title: Gut Dysbiosis and Abnormal Bile Acid Metabolism in Colitis-Associated Cancer

    Journal: Gastroenterology Research and Practice

    doi: 10.1155/2021/6645970

    The alteration of gut microbiota during colitis-associated cancer development. (a) The PCoA plot showed a significant distinction in microbial composition among the two groups at 10 weeks. (b) Unweighted Unifrac Anosim analysis suggested a reasonable grouping after AOM/DSS treatment. (c) The LefSe analysis listed bacteria with significant differences at different levels in each group. C0 and C10: control group at 0 and 10 weeks. AD0 and AD10: AOM/DSS group at 0 and 10 weeks. n = 5 in each group.
    Figure Legend Snippet: The alteration of gut microbiota during colitis-associated cancer development. (a) The PCoA plot showed a significant distinction in microbial composition among the two groups at 10 weeks. (b) Unweighted Unifrac Anosim analysis suggested a reasonable grouping after AOM/DSS treatment. (c) The LefSe analysis listed bacteria with significant differences at different levels in each group. C0 and C10: control group at 0 and 10 weeks. AD0 and AD10: AOM/DSS group at 0 and 10 weeks. n = 5 in each group.

    Techniques Used:

    The bile acid profile alteration in feces after AOM/DSS treatment. (a) Levels of fecal bile acids including CA, DCA, and LCA were reduced in the AOM/DSS group. (b) The conversion of primary bile acids to secondary bile acids was reduced in the AOM/DSS group, as evidenced by a decreased ratio of DCA/CA and LCA/CDCA. ∗ p
    Figure Legend Snippet: The bile acid profile alteration in feces after AOM/DSS treatment. (a) Levels of fecal bile acids including CA, DCA, and LCA were reduced in the AOM/DSS group. (b) The conversion of primary bile acids to secondary bile acids was reduced in the AOM/DSS group, as evidenced by a decreased ratio of DCA/CA and LCA/CDCA. ∗ p

    Techniques Used:

    Intestinal barrier was disrupted in the CAC model. (a) The mRNA level of Occludin, Claudin1, Claudin3, and ZO-1 was reduced in the colon after AOM/DSS treatment. (b) Immunofluorescent staining for ZO-1 in colon tissues of the control and AOM/DSS group. (c) Colon sections from the two groups were stained with TUNEL. Data were quantified as the mean percentage of positive-stained cells in five randomly selected fields in each sample. Scale bars, 50 μ m. ∗ p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Intestinal barrier was disrupted in the CAC model. (a) The mRNA level of Occludin, Claudin1, Claudin3, and ZO-1 was reduced in the colon after AOM/DSS treatment. (b) Immunofluorescent staining for ZO-1 in colon tissues of the control and AOM/DSS group. (c) Colon sections from the two groups were stained with TUNEL. Data were quantified as the mean percentage of positive-stained cells in five randomly selected fields in each sample. Scale bars, 50 μ m. ∗ p

    Techniques Used: Staining, TUNEL Assay

    Gut dysbiosis and abnormal bile acid metabolism in colitis-associated cancer. Synthesized in the liver, bile acids are transported to the intestine in the form of conjugated bile acids. In the distal ileum, most of them are reabsorbed and conveyed to the liver in the presence of the FXR-FGF15 axis and bile acid transport receptors. In the colon, the gut microbiota promotes bile acid deconjugation and the conversion of primary bile acids to secondary bile acids. After AOM/DSS treatment, the BSH containing bacteria is reduced. Thus, dysbiosis inhibits bile acid metabolism and induces decreased secondary bile acids. Considering the bile acid receptors, the expression of FXR-FGF15 axis, OST α , and OST β is decreased, while ASBT is increased, which limits the reabsorption of bile acids and leads to the accumulation of bile acids in enterocytes. The colon of the CAC model shows a severe inflammatory response, disrupted barrier function, and elevated expression of TGR5 in tumor tissues. BAs: bile acids; ASBT: apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter; FXR: farnesoid X receptor; FGF15: fibroblast growth factor 15; TGR5: G-protein coupled receptor; OST α and OST β : organic solute transporter subunit α and β ; BSH: bile salt hydrolase; CAC: colitis-associated cancer; TJ: tight junction.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Gut dysbiosis and abnormal bile acid metabolism in colitis-associated cancer. Synthesized in the liver, bile acids are transported to the intestine in the form of conjugated bile acids. In the distal ileum, most of them are reabsorbed and conveyed to the liver in the presence of the FXR-FGF15 axis and bile acid transport receptors. In the colon, the gut microbiota promotes bile acid deconjugation and the conversion of primary bile acids to secondary bile acids. After AOM/DSS treatment, the BSH containing bacteria is reduced. Thus, dysbiosis inhibits bile acid metabolism and induces decreased secondary bile acids. Considering the bile acid receptors, the expression of FXR-FGF15 axis, OST α , and OST β is decreased, while ASBT is increased, which limits the reabsorption of bile acids and leads to the accumulation of bile acids in enterocytes. The colon of the CAC model shows a severe inflammatory response, disrupted barrier function, and elevated expression of TGR5 in tumor tissues. BAs: bile acids; ASBT: apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter; FXR: farnesoid X receptor; FGF15: fibroblast growth factor 15; TGR5: G-protein coupled receptor; OST α and OST β : organic solute transporter subunit α and β ; BSH: bile salt hydrolase; CAC: colitis-associated cancer; TJ: tight junction.

    Techniques Used: Synthesized, Expressing

    The gut microbiota composition at 0 and 10 weeks. (a) Venn diagram in the control and AOM/DSS group. (b) The abundance of Bacteroidetes decreased in the AOM/DSS group at 10 weeks, and the Firmicutes increased. (c) The α -diversity (observed species, chao1, and Shannon) showed no significant distinction between the two groups at 0 weeks, but it was dramatically reduced in the AOM/DSS group compared with the control group at 10 weeks. C0 and C10: control group at 0 and 10 weeks. AD0 and AD10: AOM/DSS group at 0 and 10 weeks. n = 5 in each group.
    Figure Legend Snippet: The gut microbiota composition at 0 and 10 weeks. (a) Venn diagram in the control and AOM/DSS group. (b) The abundance of Bacteroidetes decreased in the AOM/DSS group at 10 weeks, and the Firmicutes increased. (c) The α -diversity (observed species, chao1, and Shannon) showed no significant distinction between the two groups at 0 weeks, but it was dramatically reduced in the AOM/DSS group compared with the control group at 10 weeks. C0 and C10: control group at 0 and 10 weeks. AD0 and AD10: AOM/DSS group at 0 and 10 weeks. n = 5 in each group.

    Techniques Used:

    Tumor formation and severe inflammatory response in the colon of mice treated with AOM/DSS. (a) Mice received intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg/kg AOM on day 1 and followed by three circles of 1.5% DSS drinking water in the AOM/DSS group. And all mice were killed on day 70. (b) Body weight, colon lumen appearance image, and tumor load of the two groups. (c) AOM/DSS treatment shortened the colon length and increased the weight of the spleen. (d) H E staining revealed colon tumor formation and inflammatory cell infiltration in the AOM/DSS group. Real-time PCR showed the increased levels of several inflammatory cytokines (IL-1 β , IL-6, and TNF- α ) in the colon. ∗ p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Tumor formation and severe inflammatory response in the colon of mice treated with AOM/DSS. (a) Mice received intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg/kg AOM on day 1 and followed by three circles of 1.5% DSS drinking water in the AOM/DSS group. And all mice were killed on day 70. (b) Body weight, colon lumen appearance image, and tumor load of the two groups. (c) AOM/DSS treatment shortened the colon length and increased the weight of the spleen. (d) H E staining revealed colon tumor formation and inflammatory cell infiltration in the AOM/DSS group. Real-time PCR showed the increased levels of several inflammatory cytokines (IL-1 β , IL-6, and TNF- α ) in the colon. ∗ p

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Injection, Staining, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction

    The expression of bile acid receptors in the colitis-associated cancer model. (a) The mRNA expression of ileum FXR and FGF15 was reduced in the AOM/DSS group. (b) Real-time PCR showed an increased expression of ASBT and a decreased level of OST α and OST β in the ileum of the AOM/DSS group. (c) The mRNA expression of colon TGR5 was elevated in the tumor of the AOM/DSS group by Real-time PCR. (d) Immunohistochemical staining showed higher expression of TGR5 in mice with AOM/DSS treatment than in the control group. ASBT: apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter. OST α and OST β : organic solute transporter subunit α and β . Scale bars: 50 μ m. ∗ p
    Figure Legend Snippet: The expression of bile acid receptors in the colitis-associated cancer model. (a) The mRNA expression of ileum FXR and FGF15 was reduced in the AOM/DSS group. (b) Real-time PCR showed an increased expression of ASBT and a decreased level of OST α and OST β in the ileum of the AOM/DSS group. (c) The mRNA expression of colon TGR5 was elevated in the tumor of the AOM/DSS group by Real-time PCR. (d) Immunohistochemical staining showed higher expression of TGR5 in mice with AOM/DSS treatment than in the control group. ASBT: apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter. OST α and OST β : organic solute transporter subunit α and β . Scale bars: 50 μ m. ∗ p

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Immunohistochemistry, Staining, Mouse Assay

    4) Product Images from "Effect of Angelica sinensis Root Extract on Cancer Prevention in Different Stages of an AOM/DSS Mouse Model"

    Article Title: Effect of Angelica sinensis Root Extract on Cancer Prevention in Different Stages of an AOM/DSS Mouse Model

    Journal: International Journal of Molecular Sciences

    doi: 10.3390/ijms18081750

    The effect of Angelica sinensis root (ASR) extract on body weight in the Azoxymethane/Dextran sodium sulphate (AOM/DSS) mouse model. Body weights across all groups were measured once a week at a fixed time. Experimental treatments of each group are described as Materials and Methods; AOM/DSS Colitis Associated Carcinoma Mouse Model; and Experimental Procedures.
    Figure Legend Snippet: The effect of Angelica sinensis root (ASR) extract on body weight in the Azoxymethane/Dextran sodium sulphate (AOM/DSS) mouse model. Body weights across all groups were measured once a week at a fixed time. Experimental treatments of each group are described as Materials and Methods; AOM/DSS Colitis Associated Carcinoma Mouse Model; and Experimental Procedures.

    Techniques Used:

    Pathological examination of colorectums of mice in each group. ( a ) Macroscopic examination showed that AOM/DSS treatment led to shorter colorectums. Tumors arose mainly in the distal colon. Colon weight was measured by electronic balance (Sartorius, Göttingen, Germany); ( b ) histopathological examin+ation showed the following five pathological status based on Cooper’s inflammatory grading criteria: 1. Normal gland; 2. Mild inflammation; 3. Moderate inflammation; 4. Low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (LGIN); 5. High-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HGIN).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Pathological examination of colorectums of mice in each group. ( a ) Macroscopic examination showed that AOM/DSS treatment led to shorter colorectums. Tumors arose mainly in the distal colon. Colon weight was measured by electronic balance (Sartorius, Göttingen, Germany); ( b ) histopathological examin+ation showed the following five pathological status based on Cooper’s inflammatory grading criteria: 1. Normal gland; 2. Mild inflammation; 3. Moderate inflammation; 4. Low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (LGIN); 5. High-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HGIN).

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

    5) Product Images from "Notch signalling regulates asymmetric division and inter-conversion between lgr5 and bmi1 expressing intestinal stem cells"

    Article Title: Notch signalling regulates asymmetric division and inter-conversion between lgr5 and bmi1 expressing intestinal stem cells

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    doi: 10.1038/srep26069

    NOTCH regulates BMI1+/LGR5+ ISC division. ( a ) LGR5-EGFP mice were administered 3% DSS in the drinking water for 5 days, followed by plain water for 5 days. During the last three days of the plain water diet, mice were injected i.p. with DMSO or DAPT every 12 hours. Shown are duodenal intestinal crypts: LGR5 (green), BMI1 (red), α-TUBULIN (purple), Ki67 (green), γ-TUBULIN (green). Scale bar: 20 μm. ( b ) Quantitative analysis from mice (n = 5/treatment) for conditions in ( a ). Shown is the frequency of BMI1+/LGR5+ asymmetric (blue), BMI1+/BMI1+ symmetric (grey), or LGR5+/LGR5+ symmetric (white) cell division. Data represents mean ± s.d. of 5 mice/condition with n = 500 TUBULIN+ dividing pairs/mouse measured (**p = 0.002 (DSS), p = 0.004 (DSS+DAPT); one-way ANOVA). ( c ) In vivo assays were performed as described in ( a ). Shown is corresponding western blot analysis for NICD expression (left) and RT-PCR data of NOTCH effector genes Hes1 and Hes5 (right) under each experimental condition (performed in triplicate and presented mean ± s.d; **p = 0.01; Student t-test for statistical significance). ( d ) Representative FACS plot (left) and quantitative analysis based on FACS data (right) for each condition in ( a ). Data is shown as mean ± s.d of 5 mice/condition with n = 5 × 10 6 cells/mouse measured (**p = 0.01; Student t-test).
    Figure Legend Snippet: NOTCH regulates BMI1+/LGR5+ ISC division. ( a ) LGR5-EGFP mice were administered 3% DSS in the drinking water for 5 days, followed by plain water for 5 days. During the last three days of the plain water diet, mice were injected i.p. with DMSO or DAPT every 12 hours. Shown are duodenal intestinal crypts: LGR5 (green), BMI1 (red), α-TUBULIN (purple), Ki67 (green), γ-TUBULIN (green). Scale bar: 20 μm. ( b ) Quantitative analysis from mice (n = 5/treatment) for conditions in ( a ). Shown is the frequency of BMI1+/LGR5+ asymmetric (blue), BMI1+/BMI1+ symmetric (grey), or LGR5+/LGR5+ symmetric (white) cell division. Data represents mean ± s.d. of 5 mice/condition with n = 500 TUBULIN+ dividing pairs/mouse measured (**p = 0.002 (DSS), p = 0.004 (DSS+DAPT); one-way ANOVA). ( c ) In vivo assays were performed as described in ( a ). Shown is corresponding western blot analysis for NICD expression (left) and RT-PCR data of NOTCH effector genes Hes1 and Hes5 (right) under each experimental condition (performed in triplicate and presented mean ± s.d; **p = 0.01; Student t-test for statistical significance). ( d ) Representative FACS plot (left) and quantitative analysis based on FACS data (right) for each condition in ( a ). Data is shown as mean ± s.d of 5 mice/condition with n = 5 × 10 6 cells/mouse measured (**p = 0.01; Student t-test).

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Injection, In Vivo, Western Blot, Expressing, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, FACS

    6) Product Images from "Matrix metalloproteinase MMP9 maintains epithelial barrier function and preserves mucosal lining in colitis associated cancer"

    Article Title: Matrix metalloproteinase MMP9 maintains epithelial barrier function and preserves mucosal lining in colitis associated cancer

    Journal: Oncotarget

    doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.21841

    MMP9 modulates cytokine levels in CAC Bar graph representation of the QPCR analyses of mRNA levels of cytokines in colonic mucosal strippings from WT and TgM9 mice treated with water or 3 cycles of 3% DSS. Relative mRNA expression levels of the cytokines (A) IL-6 (B) IL-1β (C) TNF-α (D) IFN-γ and (E) IL-22 are shown. Each bar represents mean ± S.E., *p
    Figure Legend Snippet: MMP9 modulates cytokine levels in CAC Bar graph representation of the QPCR analyses of mRNA levels of cytokines in colonic mucosal strippings from WT and TgM9 mice treated with water or 3 cycles of 3% DSS. Relative mRNA expression levels of the cytokines (A) IL-6 (B) IL-1β (C) TNF-α (D) IFN-γ and (E) IL-22 are shown. Each bar represents mean ± S.E., *p

    Techniques Used: Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Mouse Assay, Expressing

    MMP9 maintains colonic epithelial barrier function and TJ assembly in CAC In vivo permeability was measured in TgM9 and WT mice treated with water or 3 cycles of 3% DSS to assess the barrier function between the lumen and the mucosal epithelial lining by using 4kD FITC dextran molecule. (A) Flux of 4kD FITC units/μg of serum protein. Each bar represents mean ± S.E., *p
    Figure Legend Snippet: MMP9 maintains colonic epithelial barrier function and TJ assembly in CAC In vivo permeability was measured in TgM9 and WT mice treated with water or 3 cycles of 3% DSS to assess the barrier function between the lumen and the mucosal epithelial lining by using 4kD FITC dextran molecule. (A) Flux of 4kD FITC units/μg of serum protein. Each bar represents mean ± S.E., *p

    Techniques Used: In Vivo, Permeability, Mouse Assay

    MMP9 maintains mucin levels in CAC Immunostaining of the Swiss rolls from WT and TgM9 mice treated with 3 cycles of 3% DSS was performed to investigate the integrity of mucosal-epithelial layer. (A) MUC2 and (B) TFF3 expression among TgM9 is indicated by the red arrows. Microscopic images were taken at X20 magnification.
    Figure Legend Snippet: MMP9 maintains mucin levels in CAC Immunostaining of the Swiss rolls from WT and TgM9 mice treated with 3 cycles of 3% DSS was performed to investigate the integrity of mucosal-epithelial layer. (A) MUC2 and (B) TFF3 expression among TgM9 is indicated by the red arrows. Microscopic images were taken at X20 magnification.

    Techniques Used: Immunostaining, Mouse Assay, Expressing

    MMP9 in colonic epithelium attenuates microbiota depletion in CAC Bar graph representation of the QPCR analyses of different phyla of microbiota at mRNA levels in colonic mucosal strippings from WT and TgM9 mice treated with water or 3 cycles of 3% DSS. Relative mRNA expression levels of (A) universal bacteria, 16SrRNA (B) Bacteroidetes (C) Firmicutes (D) A. muciniphila (E) REG3-a (F) REG3-b (G) REG3-g and (H) S1008A . NS means non-significant. Each bar represents mean ± S.E., *p
    Figure Legend Snippet: MMP9 in colonic epithelium attenuates microbiota depletion in CAC Bar graph representation of the QPCR analyses of different phyla of microbiota at mRNA levels in colonic mucosal strippings from WT and TgM9 mice treated with water or 3 cycles of 3% DSS. Relative mRNA expression levels of (A) universal bacteria, 16SrRNA (B) Bacteroidetes (C) Firmicutes (D) A. muciniphila (E) REG3-a (F) REG3-b (G) REG3-g and (H) S1008A . NS means non-significant. Each bar represents mean ± S.E., *p

    Techniques Used: Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Mouse Assay, Expressing

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    Article Title: Effect of Angelica sinensis Root Extract on Cancer Prevention in Different Stages of an AOM/DSS Mouse Model
    Article Snippet: Chemicals and Reagents Azoxymethane (AOM) was purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO, USA) and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) was purchased from MP Biomedicals (Santa Ana, CA, USA).

    Mouse Assay:

    Article Title: Activation of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) Leads to Reciprocal Epigenetic Regulation of FoxP3 and IL-17 Expression and Amelioration of Experimental Colitis
    Article Snippet: Effect of AhR activation on DSS-induced colitis Acute colitis was induced by using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) as described elsewhere . .. In brief, 8-week-old C57BL/6 mice received either drinking water or water containing 3% DSS (MP Biomedicals, LLC, Aurora, OH) (ad libitum) for 7 days followed by water cycle alone for 7 days. .. The body weight of mice was monitored every day from day 0, at the start of TCDD treatment.

    Article Title: Intestinal inflammation without weight loss decreases bone density and growth
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    Article Title: Bacterial immunogenic α-galactosylceramide identified in the murine large intestine: dependency on diet and inflammation [S]
    Article Snippet: The mice were fed a Western type diet (WTD) (EF TD88137, ssniff special diets GmbH, Germany, containing 21.1 % fat, 14.4% polysaccharides, 34.3% sugar, and 0.21 % cholesterol) or a standard rodent diet (control; Altromin, Lage, Germany; #1310, containing 5.1% fat, 35% polysaccharides, and 5% sugar) for 7 days and euthanized afterwards by cervical dislocation. .. Induction of colitis in miceNine- to 11-week-old C57BL/6 male mice were given 2% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) (colitis grade, molecular weight 36,000–50,000; MP Biomedicals GmbH, Eschwege, Germany) in drinking water and euthanized, respectively, after 2 or 4 days of treatment. .. Induction of colitis was verified by performing an occult blood test (Hemoccult; Beckman Coulter GmbH, Krefeld, Germany) after 4 days of exposure to DSS.

    Article Title: Gut Commensal-Induced IκBζ Expression in Dendritic Cells Influences the Th17 Response
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    Article Title: Cytosolic flagellin receptor NLRC4 protects mice against mucosal and systemic challenges
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    Molecular Weight:

    Article Title: Bacterial immunogenic α-galactosylceramide identified in the murine large intestine: dependency on diet and inflammation [S]
    Article Snippet: The mice were fed a Western type diet (WTD) (EF TD88137, ssniff special diets GmbH, Germany, containing 21.1 % fat, 14.4% polysaccharides, 34.3% sugar, and 0.21 % cholesterol) or a standard rodent diet (control; Altromin, Lage, Germany; #1310, containing 5.1% fat, 35% polysaccharides, and 5% sugar) for 7 days and euthanized afterwards by cervical dislocation. .. Induction of colitis in miceNine- to 11-week-old C57BL/6 male mice were given 2% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) (colitis grade, molecular weight 36,000–50,000; MP Biomedicals GmbH, Eschwege, Germany) in drinking water and euthanized, respectively, after 2 or 4 days of treatment. .. Induction of colitis was verified by performing an occult blood test (Hemoccult; Beckman Coulter GmbH, Krefeld, Germany) after 4 days of exposure to DSS.

    Article Title: Gut Commensal-Induced IκBζ Expression in Dendritic Cells Influences the Th17 Response
    Article Snippet: Cells were incubated for 4 h with GolgiStop (BD) prior to end of polarization time and processed for flow cytometry analysis. .. Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS)-Induced Colitis in WT and Nfkbiz -/- Mice Acute DSS colitis was induced in SPF WT and Nfkbiz -/- mice by administration of 2.5% (w/v) DSS (molecular weight 36–50 kDa, MP Biomedicals) dissolved in drinking water for 7 days. .. Onset of inflammation was assessed on day 0 and on days 3–7 by monitoring body weight and disease activity index (DAI) with parameters ranging from 0–3 regarding blood in stool and on anus, stool consistency, relieving posture and appearance of fur.

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    Valiant dss
    Commensal-specific antibody production is increased in <t>Opg</t> −/− mice. a , d Schematic cartoons depicting experimental designs. Commensal-specific fecal or serum immunoglobulins were detected by flow cytometry. b , c , e , f Feces and sera were collected from Opg −/− or co-housed WT mice at day 0 ( b , e ) or day 5 ( c , f ) after the onset of <t>DSS</t> consumption. Flow cytometry assays of DAPI-positive fecal bacteria bound by the indicated Igs were performed without ( b , c ) or with ( e , f ) serum. Representative data from two independent experiments are shown as the mean ± standard deviation. * p
    Dss, supplied by Valiant, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Commensal-specific antibody production is increased in Opg −/− mice. a , d Schematic cartoons depicting experimental designs. Commensal-specific fecal or serum immunoglobulins were detected by flow cytometry. b , c , e , f Feces and sera were collected from Opg −/− or co-housed WT mice at day 0 ( b , e ) or day 5 ( c , f ) after the onset of DSS consumption. Flow cytometry assays of DAPI-positive fecal bacteria bound by the indicated Igs were performed without ( b , c ) or with ( e , f ) serum. Representative data from two independent experiments are shown as the mean ± standard deviation. * p

    Journal: Nature Communications

    Article Title: Osteoprotegerin-dependent M cell self-regulation balances gut infection and immunity

    doi: 10.1038/s41467-019-13883-y

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Commensal-specific antibody production is increased in Opg −/− mice. a , d Schematic cartoons depicting experimental designs. Commensal-specific fecal or serum immunoglobulins were detected by flow cytometry. b , c , e , f Feces and sera were collected from Opg −/− or co-housed WT mice at day 0 ( b , e ) or day 5 ( c , f ) after the onset of DSS consumption. Flow cytometry assays of DAPI-positive fecal bacteria bound by the indicated Igs were performed without ( b , c ) or with ( e , f ) serum. Representative data from two independent experiments are shown as the mean ± standard deviation. * p

    Article Snippet: Opg −/− mice and co-housed WT mice or littermate Opg +/− mice consumed DSS (dextran sulfate sodium salt; MP Biomedicals LLC., Santa Ana, CA, USA) in their drinking water for up to 8 days.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Standard Deviation

    Absence of Opg ameliorates DSS-induced colitis. a Daily changes in body weight during dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. Changes in body weight percentage were calculated by dividing the body weight on the specified day by the body weight at day 0. b Colon length was measured after sacrifice at day 8. c Representative histology of hematoxylin- and eosin-stained colonic tissue from WT and Opg −/− mice with DSS-induced colitis on day 8. d Stool scores were measured as described in the Methods. e Spleen weight was measured after sacrifice at day 8. a , b , d , and e Data are presented as the mean ± SEM. ** p

    Journal: Nature Communications

    Article Title: Osteoprotegerin-dependent M cell self-regulation balances gut infection and immunity

    doi: 10.1038/s41467-019-13883-y

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Absence of Opg ameliorates DSS-induced colitis. a Daily changes in body weight during dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. Changes in body weight percentage were calculated by dividing the body weight on the specified day by the body weight at day 0. b Colon length was measured after sacrifice at day 8. c Representative histology of hematoxylin- and eosin-stained colonic tissue from WT and Opg −/− mice with DSS-induced colitis on day 8. d Stool scores were measured as described in the Methods. e Spleen weight was measured after sacrifice at day 8. a , b , d , and e Data are presented as the mean ± SEM. ** p

    Article Snippet: Opg −/− mice and co-housed WT mice or littermate Opg +/− mice consumed DSS (dextran sulfate sodium salt; MP Biomedicals LLC., Santa Ana, CA, USA) in their drinking water for up to 8 days.

    Techniques: Staining, Mouse Assay

    Non-hematopoietic cells in Opg −/− mice contribute to relief of DSS colitis symptoms. a , e Daily changes in body weight during dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. Changes in body weight percentage were calculated by dividing the body weight on the specified day by the body weight at day 0. b , f Fecal clinical scores were measured as described in the Methods. c , g Colon length was measured after sacrifice at day 8. d , h Spleen weight was measured after sacrifice at day 8. WT or Opg −/− recipient mice following bone marrow transplantation from WT donors ( a – d ) and WT recipient mice following bone marrow transplantation from WT or Opg −/− donors ( e – h ) treated with 1.5% DSS for 7 days. Data are representative of two independent experiments. ** p

    Journal: Nature Communications

    Article Title: Osteoprotegerin-dependent M cell self-regulation balances gut infection and immunity

    doi: 10.1038/s41467-019-13883-y

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Non-hematopoietic cells in Opg −/− mice contribute to relief of DSS colitis symptoms. a , e Daily changes in body weight during dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. Changes in body weight percentage were calculated by dividing the body weight on the specified day by the body weight at day 0. b , f Fecal clinical scores were measured as described in the Methods. c , g Colon length was measured after sacrifice at day 8. d , h Spleen weight was measured after sacrifice at day 8. WT or Opg −/− recipient mice following bone marrow transplantation from WT donors ( a – d ) and WT recipient mice following bone marrow transplantation from WT or Opg −/− donors ( e – h ) treated with 1.5% DSS for 7 days. Data are representative of two independent experiments. ** p

    Article Snippet: Opg −/− mice and co-housed WT mice or littermate Opg +/− mice consumed DSS (dextran sulfate sodium salt; MP Biomedicals LLC., Santa Ana, CA, USA) in their drinking water for up to 8 days.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Transplantation Assay