dendrotoxin k  (Alomone Labs)


Bioz Verified Symbol Alomone Labs is a verified supplier
Bioz Manufacturer Symbol Alomone Labs manufactures this product  
  • Logo
  • About
  • News
  • Press Release
  • Team
  • Advisors
  • Partners
  • Contact
  • Bioz Stars
  • Bioz vStars
  • 94

    Structured Review

    Alomone Labs dendrotoxin k
    A. Hongotoxin-1 (0.3 nM) -sensitive component of I DR . Representative currents from a GAD65-GFP (left) and a Kv4.2−/−;GAD65-GFP (right) neuron. B. DPO-1 (0.5 µM) - sensitive component of I DR . Representative currents from a GAD65-GFP (left) and a Kv4.2−/−;GAD65-GFP (right) neuron. C. Margatoxin (5 nM) - sensitive component of I DR . Representative currents from a GAD65-GFP (left) and a Kv4.2−/−;GAD65-GFP (right) neuron. A-C. The currents were elicited by the same voltage step protocol depicted in the inset. TTX (1 µM) was present in all extracellular solutions. D. Bar chart summarizing the current density of the hongotoxin-1 (0.3 nM, n = 13 and n = 16 neurons, respectively)-sensitive, DPO-1 (0.5 µM, n = 23 and n = 26 neurons, respectively)-sensitive, <t>dendrotoxin-K</t> (50 nM, n = 5 and n = 6 neurons, respectively)-sensitive, and margatoxin (5 nM, n = 7 and n = 6 neurons, respectively)-sensitive in GAD65-GFP and Kv4.2−/−;GAD65-GFP neurons. Bars represent averages + S.D. The current densities were calculated using the I DR amplitude at the end of the depolarizing step to 0 mV. ** represents significant differences between GAD65-GFP and Kv4.2−/−;GAD65-GFP groups P<0.01 (t-test).
    Dendrotoxin K, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/dendrotoxin k/product/Alomone Labs
    Average 94 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    dendrotoxin k - by Bioz Stars, 2023-02
    94/100 stars

    Images

    1) Product Images from "Electrical Remodeling of Preoptic GABAergic Neurons Involves the Kv1.5 Subunit"

    Article Title: Electrical Remodeling of Preoptic GABAergic Neurons Involves the Kv1.5 Subunit

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0096643

    A. Hongotoxin-1 (0.3 nM) -sensitive component of I DR . Representative currents from a GAD65-GFP (left) and a Kv4.2−/−;GAD65-GFP (right) neuron. B. DPO-1 (0.5 µM) - sensitive component of I DR . Representative currents from a GAD65-GFP (left) and a Kv4.2−/−;GAD65-GFP (right) neuron. C. Margatoxin (5 nM) - sensitive component of I DR . Representative currents from a GAD65-GFP (left) and a Kv4.2−/−;GAD65-GFP (right) neuron. A-C. The currents were elicited by the same voltage step protocol depicted in the inset. TTX (1 µM) was present in all extracellular solutions. D. Bar chart summarizing the current density of the hongotoxin-1 (0.3 nM, n = 13 and n = 16 neurons, respectively)-sensitive, DPO-1 (0.5 µM, n = 23 and n = 26 neurons, respectively)-sensitive, dendrotoxin-K (50 nM, n = 5 and n = 6 neurons, respectively)-sensitive, and margatoxin (5 nM, n = 7 and n = 6 neurons, respectively)-sensitive in GAD65-GFP and Kv4.2−/−;GAD65-GFP neurons. Bars represent averages + S.D. The current densities were calculated using the I DR amplitude at the end of the depolarizing step to 0 mV. ** represents significant differences between GAD65-GFP and Kv4.2−/−;GAD65-GFP groups P<0.01 (t-test).
    Figure Legend Snippet: A. Hongotoxin-1 (0.3 nM) -sensitive component of I DR . Representative currents from a GAD65-GFP (left) and a Kv4.2−/−;GAD65-GFP (right) neuron. B. DPO-1 (0.5 µM) - sensitive component of I DR . Representative currents from a GAD65-GFP (left) and a Kv4.2−/−;GAD65-GFP (right) neuron. C. Margatoxin (5 nM) - sensitive component of I DR . Representative currents from a GAD65-GFP (left) and a Kv4.2−/−;GAD65-GFP (right) neuron. A-C. The currents were elicited by the same voltage step protocol depicted in the inset. TTX (1 µM) was present in all extracellular solutions. D. Bar chart summarizing the current density of the hongotoxin-1 (0.3 nM, n = 13 and n = 16 neurons, respectively)-sensitive, DPO-1 (0.5 µM, n = 23 and n = 26 neurons, respectively)-sensitive, dendrotoxin-K (50 nM, n = 5 and n = 6 neurons, respectively)-sensitive, and margatoxin (5 nM, n = 7 and n = 6 neurons, respectively)-sensitive in GAD65-GFP and Kv4.2−/−;GAD65-GFP neurons. Bars represent averages + S.D. The current densities were calculated using the I DR amplitude at the end of the depolarizing step to 0 mV. ** represents significant differences between GAD65-GFP and Kv4.2−/−;GAD65-GFP groups P<0.01 (t-test).

    Techniques Used:

    alpha dendrotoxin  (Alomone Labs)


    Bioz Verified Symbol Alomone Labs is a verified supplier
    Bioz Manufacturer Symbol Alomone Labs manufactures this product  
  • Logo
  • About
  • News
  • Press Release
  • Team
  • Advisors
  • Partners
  • Contact
  • Bioz Stars
  • Bioz vStars
  • 86

    Structured Review

    Alomone Labs alpha dendrotoxin
    The leak conductances of the cells in A, B and C were 338, 862 and 332 pS, respectively. The graphs on the right represent the conductance, normalized to its maximum value, as a function of the membrane potential and its inhibition by <t>α-dendrotoxin</t> (A, n = 4, Dtx), agitoxin-2 (B, AgTx, n = 14 for 10 nM, n = 6 for 50 nM) and margatoxin (C, MgTX, n = 8 for 1 nM, n = 11 for 10 nM).
    Alpha Dendrotoxin, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/alpha dendrotoxin/product/Alomone Labs
    Average 86 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    alpha dendrotoxin - by Bioz Stars, 2023-02
    86/100 stars

    Images

    1) Product Images from "Predominant Functional Expression of Kv1.3 by Activated Microglia of the Hippocampus after S tatus epilepticus"

    Article Title: Predominant Functional Expression of Kv1.3 by Activated Microglia of the Hippocampus after S tatus epilepticus

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0006770

    The leak conductances of the cells in A, B and C were 338, 862 and 332 pS, respectively. The graphs on the right represent the conductance, normalized to its maximum value, as a function of the membrane potential and its inhibition by α-dendrotoxin (A, n = 4, Dtx), agitoxin-2 (B, AgTx, n = 14 for 10 nM, n = 6 for 50 nM) and margatoxin (C, MgTX, n = 8 for 1 nM, n = 11 for 10 nM).
    Figure Legend Snippet: The leak conductances of the cells in A, B and C were 338, 862 and 332 pS, respectively. The graphs on the right represent the conductance, normalized to its maximum value, as a function of the membrane potential and its inhibition by α-dendrotoxin (A, n = 4, Dtx), agitoxin-2 (B, AgTx, n = 14 for 10 nM, n = 6 for 50 nM) and margatoxin (C, MgTX, n = 8 for 1 nM, n = 11 for 10 nM).

    Techniques Used: Inhibition

    α dendrotoxin  (Alomone Labs)


    Bioz Verified Symbol Alomone Labs is a verified supplier
    Bioz Manufacturer Symbol Alomone Labs manufactures this product  
  • Logo
  • About
  • News
  • Press Release
  • Team
  • Advisors
  • Partners
  • Contact
  • Bioz Stars
  • Bioz vStars
  • 86

    Structured Review

    Alomone Labs α dendrotoxin
    Relationship between the paclitaxel- and Kv channel blocker-induced membrane depolarization of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. ( A ) Membrane potential changes induced by 100 nM <t>α-dendrotoxin</t> and 3 μM paclitaxel. r = −0.509, p = 0.102, Spearman rank order test. ( B ) Membrane potential changes induced by 1 μM phrixotoxin-2 and 3 μM paclitaxel. r = 0.066, p = 0.838, Spearman rank order test. ( C ) Membrane potential changes induced by 1 μM BDS-I (blood-depressing substance-I) and 3 μM paclitaxel. r = 0.038, p = 0.882, Spearman rank order test. ( D ) Membrane potential changes induced by 25 mM TEA and 3 μM paclitaxel. r = 0.673, p = 0.011, Spearman rank order test. ( E ) Representative traces showing XE-991- and paclitaxel-induced membrane depolarization and cell firing in the same cell. ( F ) Membrane potential changes induced by 10 μM XE-991 and 3 μM paclitaxel. r = 0.930, p < 0.0001, Spearman rank order test. Capsaicin-sensitive cells are indicated as red dots. Each filled dot in the plots represents one neuron. N in each panel indicates the number of DRG neurons patched. MP, membrane potential; Pacli, paclitaxel; Caps, capsaicin.
    α Dendrotoxin, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/α dendrotoxin/product/Alomone Labs
    Average 86 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    α dendrotoxin - by Bioz Stars, 2023-02
    86/100 stars

    Images

    1) Product Images from "Paclitaxel Inhibits KCNQ Channels in Primary Sensory Neurons to Initiate the Development of Painful Peripheral Neuropathy"

    Article Title: Paclitaxel Inhibits KCNQ Channels in Primary Sensory Neurons to Initiate the Development of Painful Peripheral Neuropathy

    Journal: Cells

    doi: 10.3390/cells11244067

    Relationship between the paclitaxel- and Kv channel blocker-induced membrane depolarization of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. ( A ) Membrane potential changes induced by 100 nM α-dendrotoxin and 3 μM paclitaxel. r = −0.509, p = 0.102, Spearman rank order test. ( B ) Membrane potential changes induced by 1 μM phrixotoxin-2 and 3 μM paclitaxel. r = 0.066, p = 0.838, Spearman rank order test. ( C ) Membrane potential changes induced by 1 μM BDS-I (blood-depressing substance-I) and 3 μM paclitaxel. r = 0.038, p = 0.882, Spearman rank order test. ( D ) Membrane potential changes induced by 25 mM TEA and 3 μM paclitaxel. r = 0.673, p = 0.011, Spearman rank order test. ( E ) Representative traces showing XE-991- and paclitaxel-induced membrane depolarization and cell firing in the same cell. ( F ) Membrane potential changes induced by 10 μM XE-991 and 3 μM paclitaxel. r = 0.930, p < 0.0001, Spearman rank order test. Capsaicin-sensitive cells are indicated as red dots. Each filled dot in the plots represents one neuron. N in each panel indicates the number of DRG neurons patched. MP, membrane potential; Pacli, paclitaxel; Caps, capsaicin.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Relationship between the paclitaxel- and Kv channel blocker-induced membrane depolarization of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. ( A ) Membrane potential changes induced by 100 nM α-dendrotoxin and 3 μM paclitaxel. r = −0.509, p = 0.102, Spearman rank order test. ( B ) Membrane potential changes induced by 1 μM phrixotoxin-2 and 3 μM paclitaxel. r = 0.066, p = 0.838, Spearman rank order test. ( C ) Membrane potential changes induced by 1 μM BDS-I (blood-depressing substance-I) and 3 μM paclitaxel. r = 0.038, p = 0.882, Spearman rank order test. ( D ) Membrane potential changes induced by 25 mM TEA and 3 μM paclitaxel. r = 0.673, p = 0.011, Spearman rank order test. ( E ) Representative traces showing XE-991- and paclitaxel-induced membrane depolarization and cell firing in the same cell. ( F ) Membrane potential changes induced by 10 μM XE-991 and 3 μM paclitaxel. r = 0.930, p < 0.0001, Spearman rank order test. Capsaicin-sensitive cells are indicated as red dots. Each filled dot in the plots represents one neuron. N in each panel indicates the number of DRG neurons patched. MP, membrane potential; Pacli, paclitaxel; Caps, capsaicin.

    Techniques Used:

    dendrotoxin k  (Alomone Labs)


    Bioz Verified Symbol Alomone Labs is a verified supplier
    Bioz Manufacturer Symbol Alomone Labs manufactures this product  
  • Logo
  • About
  • News
  • Press Release
  • Team
  • Advisors
  • Partners
  • Contact
  • Bioz Stars
  • Bioz vStars
  • 94

    Structured Review

    Alomone Labs dendrotoxin k
    A. Hongotoxin-1 (0.3 nM) -sensitive component of I DR . Representative currents from a GAD65-GFP (left) and a Kv4.2−/−;GAD65-GFP (right) neuron. B. DPO-1 (0.5 µM) - sensitive component of I DR . Representative currents from a GAD65-GFP (left) and a Kv4.2−/−;GAD65-GFP (right) neuron. C. Margatoxin (5 nM) - sensitive component of I DR . Representative currents from a GAD65-GFP (left) and a Kv4.2−/−;GAD65-GFP (right) neuron. A-C. The currents were elicited by the same voltage step protocol depicted in the inset. TTX (1 µM) was present in all extracellular solutions. D. Bar chart summarizing the current density of the hongotoxin-1 (0.3 nM, n = 13 and n = 16 neurons, respectively)-sensitive, DPO-1 (0.5 µM, n = 23 and n = 26 neurons, respectively)-sensitive, <t>dendrotoxin-K</t> (50 nM, n = 5 and n = 6 neurons, respectively)-sensitive, and margatoxin (5 nM, n = 7 and n = 6 neurons, respectively)-sensitive in GAD65-GFP and Kv4.2−/−;GAD65-GFP neurons. Bars represent averages + S.D. The current densities were calculated using the I DR amplitude at the end of the depolarizing step to 0 mV. ** represents significant differences between GAD65-GFP and Kv4.2−/−;GAD65-GFP groups P<0.01 (t-test).
    Dendrotoxin K, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/dendrotoxin k/product/Alomone Labs
    Average 94 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    dendrotoxin k - by Bioz Stars, 2023-02
    94/100 stars

    Images

    1) Product Images from "Electrical Remodeling of Preoptic GABAergic Neurons Involves the Kv1.5 Subunit"

    Article Title: Electrical Remodeling of Preoptic GABAergic Neurons Involves the Kv1.5 Subunit

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0096643

    A. Hongotoxin-1 (0.3 nM) -sensitive component of I DR . Representative currents from a GAD65-GFP (left) and a Kv4.2−/−;GAD65-GFP (right) neuron. B. DPO-1 (0.5 µM) - sensitive component of I DR . Representative currents from a GAD65-GFP (left) and a Kv4.2−/−;GAD65-GFP (right) neuron. C. Margatoxin (5 nM) - sensitive component of I DR . Representative currents from a GAD65-GFP (left) and a Kv4.2−/−;GAD65-GFP (right) neuron. A-C. The currents were elicited by the same voltage step protocol depicted in the inset. TTX (1 µM) was present in all extracellular solutions. D. Bar chart summarizing the current density of the hongotoxin-1 (0.3 nM, n = 13 and n = 16 neurons, respectively)-sensitive, DPO-1 (0.5 µM, n = 23 and n = 26 neurons, respectively)-sensitive, dendrotoxin-K (50 nM, n = 5 and n = 6 neurons, respectively)-sensitive, and margatoxin (5 nM, n = 7 and n = 6 neurons, respectively)-sensitive in GAD65-GFP and Kv4.2−/−;GAD65-GFP neurons. Bars represent averages + S.D. The current densities were calculated using the I DR amplitude at the end of the depolarizing step to 0 mV. ** represents significant differences between GAD65-GFP and Kv4.2−/−;GAD65-GFP groups P<0.01 (t-test).
    Figure Legend Snippet: A. Hongotoxin-1 (0.3 nM) -sensitive component of I DR . Representative currents from a GAD65-GFP (left) and a Kv4.2−/−;GAD65-GFP (right) neuron. B. DPO-1 (0.5 µM) - sensitive component of I DR . Representative currents from a GAD65-GFP (left) and a Kv4.2−/−;GAD65-GFP (right) neuron. C. Margatoxin (5 nM) - sensitive component of I DR . Representative currents from a GAD65-GFP (left) and a Kv4.2−/−;GAD65-GFP (right) neuron. A-C. The currents were elicited by the same voltage step protocol depicted in the inset. TTX (1 µM) was present in all extracellular solutions. D. Bar chart summarizing the current density of the hongotoxin-1 (0.3 nM, n = 13 and n = 16 neurons, respectively)-sensitive, DPO-1 (0.5 µM, n = 23 and n = 26 neurons, respectively)-sensitive, dendrotoxin-K (50 nM, n = 5 and n = 6 neurons, respectively)-sensitive, and margatoxin (5 nM, n = 7 and n = 6 neurons, respectively)-sensitive in GAD65-GFP and Kv4.2−/−;GAD65-GFP neurons. Bars represent averages + S.D. The current densities were calculated using the I DR amplitude at the end of the depolarizing step to 0 mV. ** represents significant differences between GAD65-GFP and Kv4.2−/−;GAD65-GFP groups P<0.01 (t-test).

    Techniques Used:

    α dtx  (Alomone Labs)


    Bioz Verified Symbol Alomone Labs is a verified supplier
    Bioz Manufacturer Symbol Alomone Labs manufactures this product  
  • Logo
  • About
  • News
  • Press Release
  • Team
  • Advisors
  • Partners
  • Contact
  • Bioz Stars
  • Bioz vStars
  • 94

    Structured Review

    Alomone Labs α dtx
    (A) Top, K + current evoked in outside-out patches from the axon (434 µm) of CA1 pyramidal neuron by 200-ms pulses to 50 mV in the absence (Black trace, I Control ) and presence (Gray trace, I 100 nM <t>α-DTX</t> ) of 100 nM α-DTX. Middle, the blue trace represents the α-DTX-sensitive current component obtained by digital subtraction. Bottom, bar plot of the average time constant of inactivation (n = 10). (B) Summary bar graph showing the effect of 100 nM α-DTX in axonal patches (left, P<0.001, n = 13) and somatic patches (right, P>0.1, n = 6). Bars indicate mean ± SEM; circles denote individual experiments. Data points for the same experimental conditions are connected by lines. (C) Recovery of α-DTX-sensitive K + channel from inactivation. Stimulation protocol and example traces of recovery from inactivation, as probed with a double-pulse protocol (100-ms prepulse to –120 mV, 150-ms conditioning pulses and 30-ms test pulses to +50 mV, separated by a recovery interval of variable duration at –120 mV). The holding potential before and after the pulse protocol was –90 mV. Axonal patch is 388 µm from the soma. (D) Summary plot of the amplitude of the peak current evoked by the test pulse, divided by that evoked by the conditioning pulse, plotted against interpulse interval. Data points represent means from 5 patches. Red curves represent double-exponential fit to the data points. (E, F) Gating properties of α-DTX-sensitive axonal K + channels. Stimulation protocol and traces of activation and steady-state inactivation of α-DTX-sensitive K + channels in CA1 pyramidal neuron axons. (E) To probe steady-state activation, a 100-ms prepulse to –120 mV was followed by a 200-ms test pulse to various potentials (–120 to 50 mV). (F) To test steady-state inactivation, a 5-s prepulse to various potentials (–120 to 0 mV) was followed by a 200-ms test pulse to 50 mV. Axonal patch is 423 µm from the soma. (G) Activation (blue circles) and steady-state inactivation (black squares) curves. Conductance values were normalized to the maximal value. Data points represent means from 8 patches for activation curve and 6 patches for steady-state inactivation. Blue curves represent Boltzmann functions fit to the data points. For the activation curve (blue line), the midpoint potential was –12 mV and the sloe factor 26.4 mV. For the inactivation curve (black line), the midpoint potential was –64 mV and the slope factor 15.2 mV. (H) Length constant of the CA1 pyramidal neuron axons. Plot of axonal to somatic voltage deflection during hyperpolarizing current pulses (1 s, –30 pA) applied at the soma, plotted against distance. Each data point represents a simultaneous axon–soma recording. Red line represents a fit of data points with an exponential function, resulting in a mean length constant of 712 µm. Note that the long length constant results in particularly efficient propagation of subthreshold membrane potential changes from the soma to the axon. (Inset) voltage changes recorded in the soma (black) and the axon (blue) during hyperpolarizing current pulses applied at the soma. Axonal recording site is 705 µm from the soma. Traces shown represent average of 20 (A, black trace), 22 (A, gray trace), 2 (C), 3 (E), and 2 (F) single sweeps. Transient inward Na + currents at the beginning of the pulse are truncated. Error bars, SEM.
    α Dtx, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/α dtx/product/Alomone Labs
    Average 94 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    α dtx - by Bioz Stars, 2023-02
    94/100 stars

    Images

    1) Product Images from "Action Potential Modulation in CA1 Pyramidal Neuron Axons Facilitates OLM Interneuron Activation in Recurrent Inhibitory Microcircuits of Rat Hippocampus"

    Article Title: Action Potential Modulation in CA1 Pyramidal Neuron Axons Facilitates OLM Interneuron Activation in Recurrent Inhibitory Microcircuits of Rat Hippocampus

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0113124

    (A) Top, K + current evoked in outside-out patches from the axon (434 µm) of CA1 pyramidal neuron by 200-ms pulses to 50 mV in the absence (Black trace, I Control ) and presence (Gray trace, I 100 nM α-DTX ) of 100 nM α-DTX. Middle, the blue trace represents the α-DTX-sensitive current component obtained by digital subtraction. Bottom, bar plot of the average time constant of inactivation (n = 10). (B) Summary bar graph showing the effect of 100 nM α-DTX in axonal patches (left, P<0.001, n = 13) and somatic patches (right, P>0.1, n = 6). Bars indicate mean ± SEM; circles denote individual experiments. Data points for the same experimental conditions are connected by lines. (C) Recovery of α-DTX-sensitive K + channel from inactivation. Stimulation protocol and example traces of recovery from inactivation, as probed with a double-pulse protocol (100-ms prepulse to –120 mV, 150-ms conditioning pulses and 30-ms test pulses to +50 mV, separated by a recovery interval of variable duration at –120 mV). The holding potential before and after the pulse protocol was –90 mV. Axonal patch is 388 µm from the soma. (D) Summary plot of the amplitude of the peak current evoked by the test pulse, divided by that evoked by the conditioning pulse, plotted against interpulse interval. Data points represent means from 5 patches. Red curves represent double-exponential fit to the data points. (E, F) Gating properties of α-DTX-sensitive axonal K + channels. Stimulation protocol and traces of activation and steady-state inactivation of α-DTX-sensitive K + channels in CA1 pyramidal neuron axons. (E) To probe steady-state activation, a 100-ms prepulse to –120 mV was followed by a 200-ms test pulse to various potentials (–120 to 50 mV). (F) To test steady-state inactivation, a 5-s prepulse to various potentials (–120 to 0 mV) was followed by a 200-ms test pulse to 50 mV. Axonal patch is 423 µm from the soma. (G) Activation (blue circles) and steady-state inactivation (black squares) curves. Conductance values were normalized to the maximal value. Data points represent means from 8 patches for activation curve and 6 patches for steady-state inactivation. Blue curves represent Boltzmann functions fit to the data points. For the activation curve (blue line), the midpoint potential was –12 mV and the sloe factor 26.4 mV. For the inactivation curve (black line), the midpoint potential was –64 mV and the slope factor 15.2 mV. (H) Length constant of the CA1 pyramidal neuron axons. Plot of axonal to somatic voltage deflection during hyperpolarizing current pulses (1 s, –30 pA) applied at the soma, plotted against distance. Each data point represents a simultaneous axon–soma recording. Red line represents a fit of data points with an exponential function, resulting in a mean length constant of 712 µm. Note that the long length constant results in particularly efficient propagation of subthreshold membrane potential changes from the soma to the axon. (Inset) voltage changes recorded in the soma (black) and the axon (blue) during hyperpolarizing current pulses applied at the soma. Axonal recording site is 705 µm from the soma. Traces shown represent average of 20 (A, black trace), 22 (A, gray trace), 2 (C), 3 (E), and 2 (F) single sweeps. Transient inward Na + currents at the beginning of the pulse are truncated. Error bars, SEM.
    Figure Legend Snippet: (A) Top, K + current evoked in outside-out patches from the axon (434 µm) of CA1 pyramidal neuron by 200-ms pulses to 50 mV in the absence (Black trace, I Control ) and presence (Gray trace, I 100 nM α-DTX ) of 100 nM α-DTX. Middle, the blue trace represents the α-DTX-sensitive current component obtained by digital subtraction. Bottom, bar plot of the average time constant of inactivation (n = 10). (B) Summary bar graph showing the effect of 100 nM α-DTX in axonal patches (left, P<0.001, n = 13) and somatic patches (right, P>0.1, n = 6). Bars indicate mean ± SEM; circles denote individual experiments. Data points for the same experimental conditions are connected by lines. (C) Recovery of α-DTX-sensitive K + channel from inactivation. Stimulation protocol and example traces of recovery from inactivation, as probed with a double-pulse protocol (100-ms prepulse to –120 mV, 150-ms conditioning pulses and 30-ms test pulses to +50 mV, separated by a recovery interval of variable duration at –120 mV). The holding potential before and after the pulse protocol was –90 mV. Axonal patch is 388 µm from the soma. (D) Summary plot of the amplitude of the peak current evoked by the test pulse, divided by that evoked by the conditioning pulse, plotted against interpulse interval. Data points represent means from 5 patches. Red curves represent double-exponential fit to the data points. (E, F) Gating properties of α-DTX-sensitive axonal K + channels. Stimulation protocol and traces of activation and steady-state inactivation of α-DTX-sensitive K + channels in CA1 pyramidal neuron axons. (E) To probe steady-state activation, a 100-ms prepulse to –120 mV was followed by a 200-ms test pulse to various potentials (–120 to 50 mV). (F) To test steady-state inactivation, a 5-s prepulse to various potentials (–120 to 0 mV) was followed by a 200-ms test pulse to 50 mV. Axonal patch is 423 µm from the soma. (G) Activation (blue circles) and steady-state inactivation (black squares) curves. Conductance values were normalized to the maximal value. Data points represent means from 8 patches for activation curve and 6 patches for steady-state inactivation. Blue curves represent Boltzmann functions fit to the data points. For the activation curve (blue line), the midpoint potential was –12 mV and the sloe factor 26.4 mV. For the inactivation curve (black line), the midpoint potential was –64 mV and the slope factor 15.2 mV. (H) Length constant of the CA1 pyramidal neuron axons. Plot of axonal to somatic voltage deflection during hyperpolarizing current pulses (1 s, –30 pA) applied at the soma, plotted against distance. Each data point represents a simultaneous axon–soma recording. Red line represents a fit of data points with an exponential function, resulting in a mean length constant of 712 µm. Note that the long length constant results in particularly efficient propagation of subthreshold membrane potential changes from the soma to the axon. (Inset) voltage changes recorded in the soma (black) and the axon (blue) during hyperpolarizing current pulses applied at the soma. Axonal recording site is 705 µm from the soma. Traces shown represent average of 20 (A, black trace), 22 (A, gray trace), 2 (C), 3 (E), and 2 (F) single sweeps. Transient inward Na + currents at the beginning of the pulse are truncated. Error bars, SEM.

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay

    (A) Block of Kv1 channels enhances transmission. Top, unitary EPSCs at CA1 PN–O-LM IN synapses evoked by single presynaptic APs in control conditions and in the presence of 100 nM α-DTX. Traces represent averages from 10 single sweeps. Bottom, summary bar graph of the effects of α-DTX on EPSC peak amplitude. Note that α-DTX markedly increased synaptic efficacy. (B) Block of Kv1 channels reduces facilitation of transmission. Top, EPSCs at CA1 PN–O-LM IN synapses evoked by trains of five presynaptic APs in control conditions (left) and in the presence of 100 nM α-DTX (right). Bottom, facilitation ratio (EPSC n /EPSC 1 ), plotted against stimulus number, in control conditions (squares) and in the presence of α-DTX (circles). Somatic holding potential –60 mV. (C) Block of Kv1 channels abolishes static analog modulation of transmission. Top, unitary EPSCs at CA1 PN–O-LM IN synapses evoked by single presynaptic APs in control conditions and in the presence of 100 nM α-DTX. Presynaptic membrane potential were held at –60 mV (left; same recording as in (A)), and –50 mV (right). Bottom, summary bar graph of the effects of α-DTX on EPSC peak amplitude (EPSC DTX /EPSC Control ) for two different presynaptic holding potential (black, –60 mV; red, –50 mV). Note that α-DTX occluded the effects of changing membrane potential in the presynaptic neuron. (D) Block of Kv1 channels broadens the axonal AP. Top, axonal AP traces in control conditions and in the presence of 100 nM α-DTX. Bottom, summary bar graph showing the effects of α-DTX on half-duration of somatic and axonal AP. Axonal recording site is 264 µm from the soma. Note that α-DTX selectively increased axonal AP duration. (E) Block of Kv1 channels reduces activity-dependent AP broadening. Top, superposition of 1 st , 5th, and 50 th axonal AP in control conditions (left) and in the presence of 100 nM α-DTX (right). Bottom, plot of axonal AP half-width against stimulus number in control conditions (squares) and in the presence of 100 nM α-DTX (circles). Somatic holding potential –60 mV. Data from 7 recordings at distances of 200 to 500 µm. Axonal recording site is 264 µm from the soma. (F) Block of Kv1 channels reduces static AP broadening. Top, superposition of axonal APs in control conditions and in the presence of 100 nM α-DTX at –60 mV (left; same recording as in (D)), and –50 mV (right). Bottom, summary bar graph of the effects of α-DTX on AP broadening at –60 mV (black) and –50 mV (red). Note that the depolarization-induced AP broadening reduced the effect of α-DTX. Axonal recording site is 264 µm from the soma. Bars indicate mean ± SEM. Open circles represent data from individual experiments. Data from the same experiment or for the same experimental conditions were connected by lines. *0.01≤P<0.05.
    Figure Legend Snippet: (A) Block of Kv1 channels enhances transmission. Top, unitary EPSCs at CA1 PN–O-LM IN synapses evoked by single presynaptic APs in control conditions and in the presence of 100 nM α-DTX. Traces represent averages from 10 single sweeps. Bottom, summary bar graph of the effects of α-DTX on EPSC peak amplitude. Note that α-DTX markedly increased synaptic efficacy. (B) Block of Kv1 channels reduces facilitation of transmission. Top, EPSCs at CA1 PN–O-LM IN synapses evoked by trains of five presynaptic APs in control conditions (left) and in the presence of 100 nM α-DTX (right). Bottom, facilitation ratio (EPSC n /EPSC 1 ), plotted against stimulus number, in control conditions (squares) and in the presence of α-DTX (circles). Somatic holding potential –60 mV. (C) Block of Kv1 channels abolishes static analog modulation of transmission. Top, unitary EPSCs at CA1 PN–O-LM IN synapses evoked by single presynaptic APs in control conditions and in the presence of 100 nM α-DTX. Presynaptic membrane potential were held at –60 mV (left; same recording as in (A)), and –50 mV (right). Bottom, summary bar graph of the effects of α-DTX on EPSC peak amplitude (EPSC DTX /EPSC Control ) for two different presynaptic holding potential (black, –60 mV; red, –50 mV). Note that α-DTX occluded the effects of changing membrane potential in the presynaptic neuron. (D) Block of Kv1 channels broadens the axonal AP. Top, axonal AP traces in control conditions and in the presence of 100 nM α-DTX. Bottom, summary bar graph showing the effects of α-DTX on half-duration of somatic and axonal AP. Axonal recording site is 264 µm from the soma. Note that α-DTX selectively increased axonal AP duration. (E) Block of Kv1 channels reduces activity-dependent AP broadening. Top, superposition of 1 st , 5th, and 50 th axonal AP in control conditions (left) and in the presence of 100 nM α-DTX (right). Bottom, plot of axonal AP half-width against stimulus number in control conditions (squares) and in the presence of 100 nM α-DTX (circles). Somatic holding potential –60 mV. Data from 7 recordings at distances of 200 to 500 µm. Axonal recording site is 264 µm from the soma. (F) Block of Kv1 channels reduces static AP broadening. Top, superposition of axonal APs in control conditions and in the presence of 100 nM α-DTX at –60 mV (left; same recording as in (D)), and –50 mV (right). Bottom, summary bar graph of the effects of α-DTX on AP broadening at –60 mV (black) and –50 mV (red). Note that the depolarization-induced AP broadening reduced the effect of α-DTX. Axonal recording site is 264 µm from the soma. Bars indicate mean ± SEM. Open circles represent data from individual experiments. Data from the same experiment or for the same experimental conditions were connected by lines. *0.01≤P<0.05.

    Techniques Used: Blocking Assay, Transmission Assay, Activity Assay

    α dendrotoxin α dtx  (Alomone Labs)


    Bioz Verified Symbol Alomone Labs is a verified supplier
    Bioz Manufacturer Symbol Alomone Labs manufactures this product  
  • Logo
  • About
  • News
  • Press Release
  • Team
  • Advisors
  • Partners
  • Contact
  • Bioz Stars
  • Bioz vStars
  • 94

    Structured Review

    Alomone Labs α dendrotoxin α dtx
    α Dendrotoxin α Dtx, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/α dendrotoxin α dtx/product/Alomone Labs
    Average 94 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    α dendrotoxin α dtx - by Bioz Stars, 2023-02
    94/100 stars

    Images

    α dendrotoxin  (Alomone Labs)


    Bioz Verified Symbol Alomone Labs is a verified supplier
    Bioz Manufacturer Symbol Alomone Labs manufactures this product  
  • Logo
  • About
  • News
  • Press Release
  • Team
  • Advisors
  • Partners
  • Contact
  • Bioz Stars
  • Bioz vStars
  • 94

    Structured Review

    Alomone Labs α dendrotoxin
    a , Schematic of the experimental approach, in vitro patch clamp recordings (top) and micrograph of VGluT2 + dmSC projections to the dPAG infected with AAV9-ires-DIO-ChR2 (green) with dPAG biocytin filled and recorded cells (arrows, scale bar: 100 μ m). b , Top, whole-cell voltage clamp traces of example Setd5 +/+ and Setd5 +/− cells (black and red, respectively) responding to 10 Hz light stimulation. Amplitude (middle, p = 0.078) and relative EPSC amplitude (bottom, p = 0.565) of responses to sequential light pulses in a 10 Hz train. c , Box and whisker plots of the intrinsic response variables showing no significant difference in the input resistance (p = 0.6878, top left), membrane constant tau (p = 0.6539, top right), membrane capacitance (p = 0.6681, bottom left) and resting membrane potential (p = 0.104, bottom right). d , Summary of the relationship between current-injection and action potential firing showing a strong reduction in firing (p < 0.001). Inset, representative example traces to a 50 pA current-injection. Grey area denotes statistically significant difference through multiple comparisons test. e , Average shape and ( f) phase plane analysis of the action potentials generated in the rheobase sweep ( Setd5 +/+ , n=19, 108 spikes; Setd5 +/− , n=21, 127 spikes). g , Summary of the action potential kinetics analysis: action potential amplitude (V max ) (left, P < 0.001), afterhyperpolarization (AHP) amplitude (middle, P = 0.001) and action potential rise time (right, P < 0.001). h-i , Same as ( d ) but in presence ( Setd5 +/+ : blue; Setd5 +/− : magenta) and absence ( Setd5 +/+ : black; Setd5 +/− : red) of α <t>-Dendrotoxin,</t> a Kv1.1, 1.2 and 1.6 blocker ( α -DTX,100nM), ( h , p=0.6580; i , p=0.0147, two-way repeated measures ANOVA). Vertical dotted lines represent 120 pA current-injection. j , Box and whisker plot of the firing rate to 120 pA current-injections from ( h & i) (black, 63.3±15.3 Hz, n = 18, blue, 66.9±28.5 Hz, n = 20, red, 38.0±22.5 Hz, n = 20 and magenta, 71.5 ± 24.7 Hz, n = 13). k , Action potential shape (top) and phase plane (bottom) analysis of the action potentials generated at the rheobase current in Setd5 +/+ cells (left, with α -DTX, blue, n = 12; without α -DTX, black, n =19) and Setd5 +/− cells (right, with a-DTX, magenta, n=13; without a-DTX, red, n = 21). l , Western blot analysis of Kv1.1 protein content within the PAG of Setd5 +/+ (n = 3, 0.2588) and Setd5 +/− mice (n = 3, 0.1572, P = 0.0895). Antibody staining for Kv1.1 in Setd5 +/+ ( m , 30 μm projection; o , 55 μm projection) and Setd5 +/− ( n , 30 μm projection; p , 55 μm projection). Arrowheads indicate somas stained for Kv1.1. Scale bar: m, n : 50 μm; o, p : 200 μm. Lines are shaded areas, mean ± s.e.m., respectively. P-values are Wilcoxon’s rank sum test. p-values are two-way repeated measures ANOVA. For detailed statistics, see Supplementary Table 1.
    α Dendrotoxin, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/α dendrotoxin/product/Alomone Labs
    Average 94 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    α dendrotoxin - by Bioz Stars, 2023-02
    94/100 stars

    Images

    1) Product Images from "Subcortical circuit dysfunctions delay perceptual decision-making in autism models"

    Article Title: Subcortical circuit dysfunctions delay perceptual decision-making in autism models

    Journal: bioRxiv

    doi: 10.1101/2022.10.11.511691

    a , Schematic of the experimental approach, in vitro patch clamp recordings (top) and micrograph of VGluT2 + dmSC projections to the dPAG infected with AAV9-ires-DIO-ChR2 (green) with dPAG biocytin filled and recorded cells (arrows, scale bar: 100 μ m). b , Top, whole-cell voltage clamp traces of example Setd5 +/+ and Setd5 +/− cells (black and red, respectively) responding to 10 Hz light stimulation. Amplitude (middle, p = 0.078) and relative EPSC amplitude (bottom, p = 0.565) of responses to sequential light pulses in a 10 Hz train. c , Box and whisker plots of the intrinsic response variables showing no significant difference in the input resistance (p = 0.6878, top left), membrane constant tau (p = 0.6539, top right), membrane capacitance (p = 0.6681, bottom left) and resting membrane potential (p = 0.104, bottom right). d , Summary of the relationship between current-injection and action potential firing showing a strong reduction in firing (p < 0.001). Inset, representative example traces to a 50 pA current-injection. Grey area denotes statistically significant difference through multiple comparisons test. e , Average shape and ( f) phase plane analysis of the action potentials generated in the rheobase sweep ( Setd5 +/+ , n=19, 108 spikes; Setd5 +/− , n=21, 127 spikes). g , Summary of the action potential kinetics analysis: action potential amplitude (V max ) (left, P < 0.001), afterhyperpolarization (AHP) amplitude (middle, P = 0.001) and action potential rise time (right, P < 0.001). h-i , Same as ( d ) but in presence ( Setd5 +/+ : blue; Setd5 +/− : magenta) and absence ( Setd5 +/+ : black; Setd5 +/− : red) of α -Dendrotoxin, a Kv1.1, 1.2 and 1.6 blocker ( α -DTX,100nM), ( h , p=0.6580; i , p=0.0147, two-way repeated measures ANOVA). Vertical dotted lines represent 120 pA current-injection. j , Box and whisker plot of the firing rate to 120 pA current-injections from ( h & i) (black, 63.3±15.3 Hz, n = 18, blue, 66.9±28.5 Hz, n = 20, red, 38.0±22.5 Hz, n = 20 and magenta, 71.5 ± 24.7 Hz, n = 13). k , Action potential shape (top) and phase plane (bottom) analysis of the action potentials generated at the rheobase current in Setd5 +/+ cells (left, with α -DTX, blue, n = 12; without α -DTX, black, n =19) and Setd5 +/− cells (right, with a-DTX, magenta, n=13; without a-DTX, red, n = 21). l , Western blot analysis of Kv1.1 protein content within the PAG of Setd5 +/+ (n = 3, 0.2588) and Setd5 +/− mice (n = 3, 0.1572, P = 0.0895). Antibody staining for Kv1.1 in Setd5 +/+ ( m , 30 μm projection; o , 55 μm projection) and Setd5 +/− ( n , 30 μm projection; p , 55 μm projection). Arrowheads indicate somas stained for Kv1.1. Scale bar: m, n : 50 μm; o, p : 200 μm. Lines are shaded areas, mean ± s.e.m., respectively. P-values are Wilcoxon’s rank sum test. p-values are two-way repeated measures ANOVA. For detailed statistics, see Supplementary Table 1.
    Figure Legend Snippet: a , Schematic of the experimental approach, in vitro patch clamp recordings (top) and micrograph of VGluT2 + dmSC projections to the dPAG infected with AAV9-ires-DIO-ChR2 (green) with dPAG biocytin filled and recorded cells (arrows, scale bar: 100 μ m). b , Top, whole-cell voltage clamp traces of example Setd5 +/+ and Setd5 +/− cells (black and red, respectively) responding to 10 Hz light stimulation. Amplitude (middle, p = 0.078) and relative EPSC amplitude (bottom, p = 0.565) of responses to sequential light pulses in a 10 Hz train. c , Box and whisker plots of the intrinsic response variables showing no significant difference in the input resistance (p = 0.6878, top left), membrane constant tau (p = 0.6539, top right), membrane capacitance (p = 0.6681, bottom left) and resting membrane potential (p = 0.104, bottom right). d , Summary of the relationship between current-injection and action potential firing showing a strong reduction in firing (p < 0.001). Inset, representative example traces to a 50 pA current-injection. Grey area denotes statistically significant difference through multiple comparisons test. e , Average shape and ( f) phase plane analysis of the action potentials generated in the rheobase sweep ( Setd5 +/+ , n=19, 108 spikes; Setd5 +/− , n=21, 127 spikes). g , Summary of the action potential kinetics analysis: action potential amplitude (V max ) (left, P < 0.001), afterhyperpolarization (AHP) amplitude (middle, P = 0.001) and action potential rise time (right, P < 0.001). h-i , Same as ( d ) but in presence ( Setd5 +/+ : blue; Setd5 +/− : magenta) and absence ( Setd5 +/+ : black; Setd5 +/− : red) of α -Dendrotoxin, a Kv1.1, 1.2 and 1.6 blocker ( α -DTX,100nM), ( h , p=0.6580; i , p=0.0147, two-way repeated measures ANOVA). Vertical dotted lines represent 120 pA current-injection. j , Box and whisker plot of the firing rate to 120 pA current-injections from ( h & i) (black, 63.3±15.3 Hz, n = 18, blue, 66.9±28.5 Hz, n = 20, red, 38.0±22.5 Hz, n = 20 and magenta, 71.5 ± 24.7 Hz, n = 13). k , Action potential shape (top) and phase plane (bottom) analysis of the action potentials generated at the rheobase current in Setd5 +/+ cells (left, with α -DTX, blue, n = 12; without α -DTX, black, n =19) and Setd5 +/− cells (right, with a-DTX, magenta, n=13; without a-DTX, red, n = 21). l , Western blot analysis of Kv1.1 protein content within the PAG of Setd5 +/+ (n = 3, 0.2588) and Setd5 +/− mice (n = 3, 0.1572, P = 0.0895). Antibody staining for Kv1.1 in Setd5 +/+ ( m , 30 μm projection; o , 55 μm projection) and Setd5 +/− ( n , 30 μm projection; p , 55 μm projection). Arrowheads indicate somas stained for Kv1.1. Scale bar: m, n : 50 μm; o, p : 200 μm. Lines are shaded areas, mean ± s.e.m., respectively. P-values are Wilcoxon’s rank sum test. p-values are two-way repeated measures ANOVA. For detailed statistics, see Supplementary Table 1.

    Techniques Used: In Vitro, Patch Clamp, Infection, Whisker Assay, Injection, Generated, Western Blot, Staining

    dendrotoxin k  (Alomone Labs)


    Bioz Verified Symbol Alomone Labs is a verified supplier
    Bioz Manufacturer Symbol Alomone Labs manufactures this product  
  • Logo
  • About
  • News
  • Press Release
  • Team
  • Advisors
  • Partners
  • Contact
  • Bioz Stars
  • Bioz vStars
  • 94

    Structured Review

    Alomone Labs dendrotoxin k
    A , Current-clamp recording from a PV-IN showing membrane potential dynamics upon firing resumption. B , Zoomed-in data from A, showing the APs indicated by arrows. The first AP demonstrates a more depolarized take-off potential and a smaller amplitude. C , Phase plot for the three APs shown in B. D , During the firing interruption, the membrane potential demonstrates subthreshold oscillations and is gradually depolarized. E , Immunohistochemistry experiments reveal that K v 1.1 is expressed in PV-expressing CA1 interneurons in the regions bordering pyramidal cell layer. White arrows indicate four PV-INs with strong K V 1.1 correlation at the somatic level. F , Optogenetically-induced firing interruption before (black) and after <t>(purple)</t> <t>DTX-K</t> bath application (three consecutive epochs are shown for both control and DTX-K). G , AP frequency as a function of time for experiments performed in control and in presence of DTX-K or DTX-I. Inset shows that DTX-K mostly prevents the gradual membrane depolarization upon depolarizing current injection.
    Dendrotoxin K, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/dendrotoxin k/product/Alomone Labs
    Average 94 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    dendrotoxin k - by Bioz Stars, 2023-02
    94/100 stars

    Images

    1) Product Images from "Brief synaptic inhibition persistently interrupts firing of fast-spiking interneurons"

    Article Title: Brief synaptic inhibition persistently interrupts firing of fast-spiking interneurons

    Journal: bioRxiv

    doi: 10.1101/2022.08.02.502477

    A , Current-clamp recording from a PV-IN showing membrane potential dynamics upon firing resumption. B , Zoomed-in data from A, showing the APs indicated by arrows. The first AP demonstrates a more depolarized take-off potential and a smaller amplitude. C , Phase plot for the three APs shown in B. D , During the firing interruption, the membrane potential demonstrates subthreshold oscillations and is gradually depolarized. E , Immunohistochemistry experiments reveal that K v 1.1 is expressed in PV-expressing CA1 interneurons in the regions bordering pyramidal cell layer. White arrows indicate four PV-INs with strong K V 1.1 correlation at the somatic level. F , Optogenetically-induced firing interruption before (black) and after (purple) DTX-K bath application (three consecutive epochs are shown for both control and DTX-K). G , AP frequency as a function of time for experiments performed in control and in presence of DTX-K or DTX-I. Inset shows that DTX-K mostly prevents the gradual membrane depolarization upon depolarizing current injection.
    Figure Legend Snippet: A , Current-clamp recording from a PV-IN showing membrane potential dynamics upon firing resumption. B , Zoomed-in data from A, showing the APs indicated by arrows. The first AP demonstrates a more depolarized take-off potential and a smaller amplitude. C , Phase plot for the three APs shown in B. D , During the firing interruption, the membrane potential demonstrates subthreshold oscillations and is gradually depolarized. E , Immunohistochemistry experiments reveal that K v 1.1 is expressed in PV-expressing CA1 interneurons in the regions bordering pyramidal cell layer. White arrows indicate four PV-INs with strong K V 1.1 correlation at the somatic level. F , Optogenetically-induced firing interruption before (black) and after (purple) DTX-K bath application (three consecutive epochs are shown for both control and DTX-K). G , AP frequency as a function of time for experiments performed in control and in presence of DTX-K or DTX-I. Inset shows that DTX-K mostly prevents the gradual membrane depolarization upon depolarizing current injection.

    Techniques Used: Immunohistochemistry, Expressing, Injection

    A , Voltage-clamp recordings from a PV-IN during ramp depolarization protocols. Data is shown in control (black), in presence of TTX (gold) and with both TTX and DTX-K present (purple). B , Arithmetic subtraction reveals the DTX-sensitive and the TTX-sensitive currents during the ramp depolarization protocol. C , Current plotted as a function of voltage for experiments presented in A and B. I DTX-s and I TTX-s were measured in the same neurons and shaded areas represent the standard error. D , Membrane potential dynamics during the firing interruption. Neurons were interrupted optogenetically, and brief hyperpolarizing current pulses of identical amplitude were applied during the interruption or at resting membrane potential. E , Membrane potential as a function of time for hyperpolarizing current injections delivered during the interruption (top) or at resting membrane potential (bottom) reveals drastically different dynamics. F , Input resistance measured at baseline and during the interruption from the same sweeps. G , Scheme showing the experimental design. Whole-cell current-clamp recordings were performed from PV-INs and neurons were optogenetically-interrupted. Schaffer collaterals stimulation was delivered during the interruption or at resting membrane potential by a stimulation electrode placed in CA3. H , Three consecutive sweeps showing that subthreshold EPSPs at rest become suprathreshold during the firing interruption. I , Changes in membrane potential evoked by Schaffer collaterals stimulation at resting membrane potential (top) or during the interruption (bottom). J , AP probability for stimuli delivered at resting membrane potential or during the interruption.
    Figure Legend Snippet: A , Voltage-clamp recordings from a PV-IN during ramp depolarization protocols. Data is shown in control (black), in presence of TTX (gold) and with both TTX and DTX-K present (purple). B , Arithmetic subtraction reveals the DTX-sensitive and the TTX-sensitive currents during the ramp depolarization protocol. C , Current plotted as a function of voltage for experiments presented in A and B. I DTX-s and I TTX-s were measured in the same neurons and shaded areas represent the standard error. D , Membrane potential dynamics during the firing interruption. Neurons were interrupted optogenetically, and brief hyperpolarizing current pulses of identical amplitude were applied during the interruption or at resting membrane potential. E , Membrane potential as a function of time for hyperpolarizing current injections delivered during the interruption (top) or at resting membrane potential (bottom) reveals drastically different dynamics. F , Input resistance measured at baseline and during the interruption from the same sweeps. G , Scheme showing the experimental design. Whole-cell current-clamp recordings were performed from PV-INs and neurons were optogenetically-interrupted. Schaffer collaterals stimulation was delivered during the interruption or at resting membrane potential by a stimulation electrode placed in CA3. H , Three consecutive sweeps showing that subthreshold EPSPs at rest become suprathreshold during the firing interruption. I , Changes in membrane potential evoked by Schaffer collaterals stimulation at resting membrane potential (top) or during the interruption (bottom). J , AP probability for stimuli delivered at resting membrane potential or during the interruption.

    Techniques Used:

    dendrotoxin i  (Alomone Labs)


    Bioz Verified Symbol Alomone Labs is a verified supplier
    Bioz Manufacturer Symbol Alomone Labs manufactures this product  
  • Logo
  • About
  • News
  • Press Release
  • Team
  • Advisors
  • Partners
  • Contact
  • Bioz Stars
  • Bioz vStars
  • 94

    Structured Review

    Alomone Labs dendrotoxin i
    Dendrotoxin I, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/dendrotoxin i/product/Alomone Labs
    Average 94 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    dendrotoxin i - by Bioz Stars, 2023-02
    94/100 stars

    Images

    dendrotoxin κ  (Alomone Labs)


    Bioz Verified Symbol Alomone Labs is a verified supplier
    Bioz Manufacturer Symbol Alomone Labs manufactures this product  
  • Logo
  • About
  • News
  • Press Release
  • Team
  • Advisors
  • Partners
  • Contact
  • Bioz Stars
  • Bioz vStars
  • 94

    Structured Review

    Alomone Labs dendrotoxin κ
    Dendrotoxin κ, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/dendrotoxin κ/product/Alomone Labs
    Average 94 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    dendrotoxin κ - by Bioz Stars, 2023-02
    94/100 stars

    Images

    α dendrotoxin  (Alomone Labs)


    Bioz Verified Symbol Alomone Labs is a verified supplier
    Bioz Manufacturer Symbol Alomone Labs manufactures this product  
  • Logo
  • About
  • News
  • Press Release
  • Team
  • Advisors
  • Partners
  • Contact
  • Bioz Stars
  • Bioz vStars
  • 94

    Structured Review

    Alomone Labs α dendrotoxin
    KEY RESOURCES TABLE
    α Dendrotoxin, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/α dendrotoxin/product/Alomone Labs
    Average 94 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    α dendrotoxin - by Bioz Stars, 2023-02
    94/100 stars

    Images

    1) Product Images from "Severe deficiency of the voltage-gated sodium channel Na V 1.2 elevates neuronal excitability in adult mice"

    Article Title: Severe deficiency of the voltage-gated sodium channel Na V 1.2 elevates neuronal excitability in adult mice

    Journal: Cell reports

    doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2021.109495

    KEY RESOURCES TABLE
    Figure Legend Snippet: KEY RESOURCES TABLE

    Techniques Used: Plasmid Preparation, Recombinant, Lysis, Protease Inhibitor, Bicinchoninic Acid Protein Assay, SYBR Green Assay, Staining, Blocking Assay, Electrophoresis, RNA Sequencing Assay, Software, Imaging, Spectrophotometry, Confocal Microscopy, Microscopy

    Similar Products

  • Logo
  • About
  • News
  • Press Release
  • Team
  • Advisors
  • Partners
  • Contact
  • Bioz Stars
  • Bioz vStars
  • 94
    Alomone Labs dendrotoxin k
    A. Hongotoxin-1 (0.3 nM) -sensitive component of I DR . Representative currents from a GAD65-GFP (left) and a Kv4.2−/−;GAD65-GFP (right) neuron. B. DPO-1 (0.5 µM) - sensitive component of I DR . Representative currents from a GAD65-GFP (left) and a Kv4.2−/−;GAD65-GFP (right) neuron. C. Margatoxin (5 nM) - sensitive component of I DR . Representative currents from a GAD65-GFP (left) and a Kv4.2−/−;GAD65-GFP (right) neuron. A-C. The currents were elicited by the same voltage step protocol depicted in the inset. TTX (1 µM) was present in all extracellular solutions. D. Bar chart summarizing the current density of the hongotoxin-1 (0.3 nM, n = 13 and n = 16 neurons, respectively)-sensitive, DPO-1 (0.5 µM, n = 23 and n = 26 neurons, respectively)-sensitive, <t>dendrotoxin-K</t> (50 nM, n = 5 and n = 6 neurons, respectively)-sensitive, and margatoxin (5 nM, n = 7 and n = 6 neurons, respectively)-sensitive in GAD65-GFP and Kv4.2−/−;GAD65-GFP neurons. Bars represent averages + S.D. The current densities were calculated using the I DR amplitude at the end of the depolarizing step to 0 mV. ** represents significant differences between GAD65-GFP and Kv4.2−/−;GAD65-GFP groups P<0.01 (t-test).
    Dendrotoxin K, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/dendrotoxin k/product/Alomone Labs
    Average 94 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    dendrotoxin k - by Bioz Stars, 2023-02
    94/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    86
    Alomone Labs alpha dendrotoxin
    The leak conductances of the cells in A, B and C were 338, 862 and 332 pS, respectively. The graphs on the right represent the conductance, normalized to its maximum value, as a function of the membrane potential and its inhibition by <t>α-dendrotoxin</t> (A, n = 4, Dtx), agitoxin-2 (B, AgTx, n = 14 for 10 nM, n = 6 for 50 nM) and margatoxin (C, MgTX, n = 8 for 1 nM, n = 11 for 10 nM).
    Alpha Dendrotoxin, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/alpha dendrotoxin/product/Alomone Labs
    Average 86 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    alpha dendrotoxin - by Bioz Stars, 2023-02
    86/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    86
    Alomone Labs α dendrotoxin
    Relationship between the paclitaxel- and Kv channel blocker-induced membrane depolarization of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. ( A ) Membrane potential changes induced by 100 nM <t>α-dendrotoxin</t> and 3 μM paclitaxel. r = −0.509, p = 0.102, Spearman rank order test. ( B ) Membrane potential changes induced by 1 μM phrixotoxin-2 and 3 μM paclitaxel. r = 0.066, p = 0.838, Spearman rank order test. ( C ) Membrane potential changes induced by 1 μM BDS-I (blood-depressing substance-I) and 3 μM paclitaxel. r = 0.038, p = 0.882, Spearman rank order test. ( D ) Membrane potential changes induced by 25 mM TEA and 3 μM paclitaxel. r = 0.673, p = 0.011, Spearman rank order test. ( E ) Representative traces showing XE-991- and paclitaxel-induced membrane depolarization and cell firing in the same cell. ( F ) Membrane potential changes induced by 10 μM XE-991 and 3 μM paclitaxel. r = 0.930, p < 0.0001, Spearman rank order test. Capsaicin-sensitive cells are indicated as red dots. Each filled dot in the plots represents one neuron. N in each panel indicates the number of DRG neurons patched. MP, membrane potential; Pacli, paclitaxel; Caps, capsaicin.
    α Dendrotoxin, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/α dendrotoxin/product/Alomone Labs
    Average 86 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    α dendrotoxin - by Bioz Stars, 2023-02
    86/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    94
    Alomone Labs α dtx
    (A) Top, K + current evoked in outside-out patches from the axon (434 µm) of CA1 pyramidal neuron by 200-ms pulses to 50 mV in the absence (Black trace, I Control ) and presence (Gray trace, I 100 nM <t>α-DTX</t> ) of 100 nM α-DTX. Middle, the blue trace represents the α-DTX-sensitive current component obtained by digital subtraction. Bottom, bar plot of the average time constant of inactivation (n = 10). (B) Summary bar graph showing the effect of 100 nM α-DTX in axonal patches (left, P<0.001, n = 13) and somatic patches (right, P>0.1, n = 6). Bars indicate mean ± SEM; circles denote individual experiments. Data points for the same experimental conditions are connected by lines. (C) Recovery of α-DTX-sensitive K + channel from inactivation. Stimulation protocol and example traces of recovery from inactivation, as probed with a double-pulse protocol (100-ms prepulse to –120 mV, 150-ms conditioning pulses and 30-ms test pulses to +50 mV, separated by a recovery interval of variable duration at –120 mV). The holding potential before and after the pulse protocol was –90 mV. Axonal patch is 388 µm from the soma. (D) Summary plot of the amplitude of the peak current evoked by the test pulse, divided by that evoked by the conditioning pulse, plotted against interpulse interval. Data points represent means from 5 patches. Red curves represent double-exponential fit to the data points. (E, F) Gating properties of α-DTX-sensitive axonal K + channels. Stimulation protocol and traces of activation and steady-state inactivation of α-DTX-sensitive K + channels in CA1 pyramidal neuron axons. (E) To probe steady-state activation, a 100-ms prepulse to –120 mV was followed by a 200-ms test pulse to various potentials (–120 to 50 mV). (F) To test steady-state inactivation, a 5-s prepulse to various potentials (–120 to 0 mV) was followed by a 200-ms test pulse to 50 mV. Axonal patch is 423 µm from the soma. (G) Activation (blue circles) and steady-state inactivation (black squares) curves. Conductance values were normalized to the maximal value. Data points represent means from 8 patches for activation curve and 6 patches for steady-state inactivation. Blue curves represent Boltzmann functions fit to the data points. For the activation curve (blue line), the midpoint potential was –12 mV and the sloe factor 26.4 mV. For the inactivation curve (black line), the midpoint potential was –64 mV and the slope factor 15.2 mV. (H) Length constant of the CA1 pyramidal neuron axons. Plot of axonal to somatic voltage deflection during hyperpolarizing current pulses (1 s, –30 pA) applied at the soma, plotted against distance. Each data point represents a simultaneous axon–soma recording. Red line represents a fit of data points with an exponential function, resulting in a mean length constant of 712 µm. Note that the long length constant results in particularly efficient propagation of subthreshold membrane potential changes from the soma to the axon. (Inset) voltage changes recorded in the soma (black) and the axon (blue) during hyperpolarizing current pulses applied at the soma. Axonal recording site is 705 µm from the soma. Traces shown represent average of 20 (A, black trace), 22 (A, gray trace), 2 (C), 3 (E), and 2 (F) single sweeps. Transient inward Na + currents at the beginning of the pulse are truncated. Error bars, SEM.
    α Dtx, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/α dtx/product/Alomone Labs
    Average 94 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    α dtx - by Bioz Stars, 2023-02
    94/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    94
    Alomone Labs α dendrotoxin α dtx
    (A) Top, K + current evoked in outside-out patches from the axon (434 µm) of CA1 pyramidal neuron by 200-ms pulses to 50 mV in the absence (Black trace, I Control ) and presence (Gray trace, I 100 nM <t>α-DTX</t> ) of 100 nM α-DTX. Middle, the blue trace represents the α-DTX-sensitive current component obtained by digital subtraction. Bottom, bar plot of the average time constant of inactivation (n = 10). (B) Summary bar graph showing the effect of 100 nM α-DTX in axonal patches (left, P<0.001, n = 13) and somatic patches (right, P>0.1, n = 6). Bars indicate mean ± SEM; circles denote individual experiments. Data points for the same experimental conditions are connected by lines. (C) Recovery of α-DTX-sensitive K + channel from inactivation. Stimulation protocol and example traces of recovery from inactivation, as probed with a double-pulse protocol (100-ms prepulse to –120 mV, 150-ms conditioning pulses and 30-ms test pulses to +50 mV, separated by a recovery interval of variable duration at –120 mV). The holding potential before and after the pulse protocol was –90 mV. Axonal patch is 388 µm from the soma. (D) Summary plot of the amplitude of the peak current evoked by the test pulse, divided by that evoked by the conditioning pulse, plotted against interpulse interval. Data points represent means from 5 patches. Red curves represent double-exponential fit to the data points. (E, F) Gating properties of α-DTX-sensitive axonal K + channels. Stimulation protocol and traces of activation and steady-state inactivation of α-DTX-sensitive K + channels in CA1 pyramidal neuron axons. (E) To probe steady-state activation, a 100-ms prepulse to –120 mV was followed by a 200-ms test pulse to various potentials (–120 to 50 mV). (F) To test steady-state inactivation, a 5-s prepulse to various potentials (–120 to 0 mV) was followed by a 200-ms test pulse to 50 mV. Axonal patch is 423 µm from the soma. (G) Activation (blue circles) and steady-state inactivation (black squares) curves. Conductance values were normalized to the maximal value. Data points represent means from 8 patches for activation curve and 6 patches for steady-state inactivation. Blue curves represent Boltzmann functions fit to the data points. For the activation curve (blue line), the midpoint potential was –12 mV and the sloe factor 26.4 mV. For the inactivation curve (black line), the midpoint potential was –64 mV and the slope factor 15.2 mV. (H) Length constant of the CA1 pyramidal neuron axons. Plot of axonal to somatic voltage deflection during hyperpolarizing current pulses (1 s, –30 pA) applied at the soma, plotted against distance. Each data point represents a simultaneous axon–soma recording. Red line represents a fit of data points with an exponential function, resulting in a mean length constant of 712 µm. Note that the long length constant results in particularly efficient propagation of subthreshold membrane potential changes from the soma to the axon. (Inset) voltage changes recorded in the soma (black) and the axon (blue) during hyperpolarizing current pulses applied at the soma. Axonal recording site is 705 µm from the soma. Traces shown represent average of 20 (A, black trace), 22 (A, gray trace), 2 (C), 3 (E), and 2 (F) single sweeps. Transient inward Na + currents at the beginning of the pulse are truncated. Error bars, SEM.
    α Dendrotoxin α Dtx, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/α dendrotoxin α dtx/product/Alomone Labs
    Average 94 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    α dendrotoxin α dtx - by Bioz Stars, 2023-02
    94/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    94
    Alomone Labs dendrotoxin i
    (A) Top, K + current evoked in outside-out patches from the axon (434 µm) of CA1 pyramidal neuron by 200-ms pulses to 50 mV in the absence (Black trace, I Control ) and presence (Gray trace, I 100 nM <t>α-DTX</t> ) of 100 nM α-DTX. Middle, the blue trace represents the α-DTX-sensitive current component obtained by digital subtraction. Bottom, bar plot of the average time constant of inactivation (n = 10). (B) Summary bar graph showing the effect of 100 nM α-DTX in axonal patches (left, P<0.001, n = 13) and somatic patches (right, P>0.1, n = 6). Bars indicate mean ± SEM; circles denote individual experiments. Data points for the same experimental conditions are connected by lines. (C) Recovery of α-DTX-sensitive K + channel from inactivation. Stimulation protocol and example traces of recovery from inactivation, as probed with a double-pulse protocol (100-ms prepulse to –120 mV, 150-ms conditioning pulses and 30-ms test pulses to +50 mV, separated by a recovery interval of variable duration at –120 mV). The holding potential before and after the pulse protocol was –90 mV. Axonal patch is 388 µm from the soma. (D) Summary plot of the amplitude of the peak current evoked by the test pulse, divided by that evoked by the conditioning pulse, plotted against interpulse interval. Data points represent means from 5 patches. Red curves represent double-exponential fit to the data points. (E, F) Gating properties of α-DTX-sensitive axonal K + channels. Stimulation protocol and traces of activation and steady-state inactivation of α-DTX-sensitive K + channels in CA1 pyramidal neuron axons. (E) To probe steady-state activation, a 100-ms prepulse to –120 mV was followed by a 200-ms test pulse to various potentials (–120 to 50 mV). (F) To test steady-state inactivation, a 5-s prepulse to various potentials (–120 to 0 mV) was followed by a 200-ms test pulse to 50 mV. Axonal patch is 423 µm from the soma. (G) Activation (blue circles) and steady-state inactivation (black squares) curves. Conductance values were normalized to the maximal value. Data points represent means from 8 patches for activation curve and 6 patches for steady-state inactivation. Blue curves represent Boltzmann functions fit to the data points. For the activation curve (blue line), the midpoint potential was –12 mV and the sloe factor 26.4 mV. For the inactivation curve (black line), the midpoint potential was –64 mV and the slope factor 15.2 mV. (H) Length constant of the CA1 pyramidal neuron axons. Plot of axonal to somatic voltage deflection during hyperpolarizing current pulses (1 s, –30 pA) applied at the soma, plotted against distance. Each data point represents a simultaneous axon–soma recording. Red line represents a fit of data points with an exponential function, resulting in a mean length constant of 712 µm. Note that the long length constant results in particularly efficient propagation of subthreshold membrane potential changes from the soma to the axon. (Inset) voltage changes recorded in the soma (black) and the axon (blue) during hyperpolarizing current pulses applied at the soma. Axonal recording site is 705 µm from the soma. Traces shown represent average of 20 (A, black trace), 22 (A, gray trace), 2 (C), 3 (E), and 2 (F) single sweeps. Transient inward Na + currents at the beginning of the pulse are truncated. Error bars, SEM.
    Dendrotoxin I, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/dendrotoxin i/product/Alomone Labs
    Average 94 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    dendrotoxin i - by Bioz Stars, 2023-02
    94/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    94
    Alomone Labs dendrotoxin κ
    (A) Top, K + current evoked in outside-out patches from the axon (434 µm) of CA1 pyramidal neuron by 200-ms pulses to 50 mV in the absence (Black trace, I Control ) and presence (Gray trace, I 100 nM <t>α-DTX</t> ) of 100 nM α-DTX. Middle, the blue trace represents the α-DTX-sensitive current component obtained by digital subtraction. Bottom, bar plot of the average time constant of inactivation (n = 10). (B) Summary bar graph showing the effect of 100 nM α-DTX in axonal patches (left, P<0.001, n = 13) and somatic patches (right, P>0.1, n = 6). Bars indicate mean ± SEM; circles denote individual experiments. Data points for the same experimental conditions are connected by lines. (C) Recovery of α-DTX-sensitive K + channel from inactivation. Stimulation protocol and example traces of recovery from inactivation, as probed with a double-pulse protocol (100-ms prepulse to –120 mV, 150-ms conditioning pulses and 30-ms test pulses to +50 mV, separated by a recovery interval of variable duration at –120 mV). The holding potential before and after the pulse protocol was –90 mV. Axonal patch is 388 µm from the soma. (D) Summary plot of the amplitude of the peak current evoked by the test pulse, divided by that evoked by the conditioning pulse, plotted against interpulse interval. Data points represent means from 5 patches. Red curves represent double-exponential fit to the data points. (E, F) Gating properties of α-DTX-sensitive axonal K + channels. Stimulation protocol and traces of activation and steady-state inactivation of α-DTX-sensitive K + channels in CA1 pyramidal neuron axons. (E) To probe steady-state activation, a 100-ms prepulse to –120 mV was followed by a 200-ms test pulse to various potentials (–120 to 50 mV). (F) To test steady-state inactivation, a 5-s prepulse to various potentials (–120 to 0 mV) was followed by a 200-ms test pulse to 50 mV. Axonal patch is 423 µm from the soma. (G) Activation (blue circles) and steady-state inactivation (black squares) curves. Conductance values were normalized to the maximal value. Data points represent means from 8 patches for activation curve and 6 patches for steady-state inactivation. Blue curves represent Boltzmann functions fit to the data points. For the activation curve (blue line), the midpoint potential was –12 mV and the sloe factor 26.4 mV. For the inactivation curve (black line), the midpoint potential was –64 mV and the slope factor 15.2 mV. (H) Length constant of the CA1 pyramidal neuron axons. Plot of axonal to somatic voltage deflection during hyperpolarizing current pulses (1 s, –30 pA) applied at the soma, plotted against distance. Each data point represents a simultaneous axon–soma recording. Red line represents a fit of data points with an exponential function, resulting in a mean length constant of 712 µm. Note that the long length constant results in particularly efficient propagation of subthreshold membrane potential changes from the soma to the axon. (Inset) voltage changes recorded in the soma (black) and the axon (blue) during hyperpolarizing current pulses applied at the soma. Axonal recording site is 705 µm from the soma. Traces shown represent average of 20 (A, black trace), 22 (A, gray trace), 2 (C), 3 (E), and 2 (F) single sweeps. Transient inward Na + currents at the beginning of the pulse are truncated. Error bars, SEM.
    Dendrotoxin κ, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/dendrotoxin κ/product/Alomone Labs
    Average 94 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    dendrotoxin κ - by Bioz Stars, 2023-02
    94/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    Image Search Results


    A. Hongotoxin-1 (0.3 nM) -sensitive component of I DR . Representative currents from a GAD65-GFP (left) and a Kv4.2−/−;GAD65-GFP (right) neuron. B. DPO-1 (0.5 µM) - sensitive component of I DR . Representative currents from a GAD65-GFP (left) and a Kv4.2−/−;GAD65-GFP (right) neuron. C. Margatoxin (5 nM) - sensitive component of I DR . Representative currents from a GAD65-GFP (left) and a Kv4.2−/−;GAD65-GFP (right) neuron. A-C. The currents were elicited by the same voltage step protocol depicted in the inset. TTX (1 µM) was present in all extracellular solutions. D. Bar chart summarizing the current density of the hongotoxin-1 (0.3 nM, n = 13 and n = 16 neurons, respectively)-sensitive, DPO-1 (0.5 µM, n = 23 and n = 26 neurons, respectively)-sensitive, dendrotoxin-K (50 nM, n = 5 and n = 6 neurons, respectively)-sensitive, and margatoxin (5 nM, n = 7 and n = 6 neurons, respectively)-sensitive in GAD65-GFP and Kv4.2−/−;GAD65-GFP neurons. Bars represent averages + S.D. The current densities were calculated using the I DR amplitude at the end of the depolarizing step to 0 mV. ** represents significant differences between GAD65-GFP and Kv4.2−/−;GAD65-GFP groups P<0.01 (t-test).

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Electrical Remodeling of Preoptic GABAergic Neurons Involves the Kv1.5 Subunit

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0096643

    Figure Lengend Snippet: A. Hongotoxin-1 (0.3 nM) -sensitive component of I DR . Representative currents from a GAD65-GFP (left) and a Kv4.2−/−;GAD65-GFP (right) neuron. B. DPO-1 (0.5 µM) - sensitive component of I DR . Representative currents from a GAD65-GFP (left) and a Kv4.2−/−;GAD65-GFP (right) neuron. C. Margatoxin (5 nM) - sensitive component of I DR . Representative currents from a GAD65-GFP (left) and a Kv4.2−/−;GAD65-GFP (right) neuron. A-C. The currents were elicited by the same voltage step protocol depicted in the inset. TTX (1 µM) was present in all extracellular solutions. D. Bar chart summarizing the current density of the hongotoxin-1 (0.3 nM, n = 13 and n = 16 neurons, respectively)-sensitive, DPO-1 (0.5 µM, n = 23 and n = 26 neurons, respectively)-sensitive, dendrotoxin-K (50 nM, n = 5 and n = 6 neurons, respectively)-sensitive, and margatoxin (5 nM, n = 7 and n = 6 neurons, respectively)-sensitive in GAD65-GFP and Kv4.2−/−;GAD65-GFP neurons. Bars represent averages + S.D. The current densities were calculated using the I DR amplitude at the end of the depolarizing step to 0 mV. ** represents significant differences between GAD65-GFP and Kv4.2−/−;GAD65-GFP groups P<0.01 (t-test).

    Article Snippet: DPO-1 and TTX were from Tocris (Ellisville, MO), dendrotoxin-K, hongotoxin-1, margatoxin, were from Alomone Labs (Jerusalem, Israel), while the other substances were purchased from Sigma.

    Techniques:

    The leak conductances of the cells in A, B and C were 338, 862 and 332 pS, respectively. The graphs on the right represent the conductance, normalized to its maximum value, as a function of the membrane potential and its inhibition by α-dendrotoxin (A, n = 4, Dtx), agitoxin-2 (B, AgTx, n = 14 for 10 nM, n = 6 for 50 nM) and margatoxin (C, MgTX, n = 8 for 1 nM, n = 11 for 10 nM).

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Predominant Functional Expression of Kv1.3 by Activated Microglia of the Hippocampus after S tatus epilepticus

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0006770

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The leak conductances of the cells in A, B and C were 338, 862 and 332 pS, respectively. The graphs on the right represent the conductance, normalized to its maximum value, as a function of the membrane potential and its inhibition by α-dendrotoxin (A, n = 4, Dtx), agitoxin-2 (B, AgTx, n = 14 for 10 nM, n = 6 for 50 nM) and margatoxin (C, MgTX, n = 8 for 1 nM, n = 11 for 10 nM).

    Article Snippet: Alpha-dendrotoxin, recombinant agitoxin-2 and recombinant margatoxin were purchased from Alomone labs (Jerusalem, Israel).

    Techniques: Inhibition

    Relationship between the paclitaxel- and Kv channel blocker-induced membrane depolarization of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. ( A ) Membrane potential changes induced by 100 nM α-dendrotoxin and 3 μM paclitaxel. r = −0.509, p = 0.102, Spearman rank order test. ( B ) Membrane potential changes induced by 1 μM phrixotoxin-2 and 3 μM paclitaxel. r = 0.066, p = 0.838, Spearman rank order test. ( C ) Membrane potential changes induced by 1 μM BDS-I (blood-depressing substance-I) and 3 μM paclitaxel. r = 0.038, p = 0.882, Spearman rank order test. ( D ) Membrane potential changes induced by 25 mM TEA and 3 μM paclitaxel. r = 0.673, p = 0.011, Spearman rank order test. ( E ) Representative traces showing XE-991- and paclitaxel-induced membrane depolarization and cell firing in the same cell. ( F ) Membrane potential changes induced by 10 μM XE-991 and 3 μM paclitaxel. r = 0.930, p < 0.0001, Spearman rank order test. Capsaicin-sensitive cells are indicated as red dots. Each filled dot in the plots represents one neuron. N in each panel indicates the number of DRG neurons patched. MP, membrane potential; Pacli, paclitaxel; Caps, capsaicin.

    Journal: Cells

    Article Title: Paclitaxel Inhibits KCNQ Channels in Primary Sensory Neurons to Initiate the Development of Painful Peripheral Neuropathy

    doi: 10.3390/cells11244067

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Relationship between the paclitaxel- and Kv channel blocker-induced membrane depolarization of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. ( A ) Membrane potential changes induced by 100 nM α-dendrotoxin and 3 μM paclitaxel. r = −0.509, p = 0.102, Spearman rank order test. ( B ) Membrane potential changes induced by 1 μM phrixotoxin-2 and 3 μM paclitaxel. r = 0.066, p = 0.838, Spearman rank order test. ( C ) Membrane potential changes induced by 1 μM BDS-I (blood-depressing substance-I) and 3 μM paclitaxel. r = 0.038, p = 0.882, Spearman rank order test. ( D ) Membrane potential changes induced by 25 mM TEA and 3 μM paclitaxel. r = 0.673, p = 0.011, Spearman rank order test. ( E ) Representative traces showing XE-991- and paclitaxel-induced membrane depolarization and cell firing in the same cell. ( F ) Membrane potential changes induced by 10 μM XE-991 and 3 μM paclitaxel. r = 0.930, p < 0.0001, Spearman rank order test. Capsaicin-sensitive cells are indicated as red dots. Each filled dot in the plots represents one neuron. N in each panel indicates the number of DRG neurons patched. MP, membrane potential; Pacli, paclitaxel; Caps, capsaicin.

    Article Snippet: Paclitaxel, XE-991 (Tocris, Bristol, UK), α-dendrotoxin (Alomone labs, Jerusalem, Israel), phrixotoxin-2 (Alomone labs, Jerusalem, Israel), BDS-II (Alomone labs, Jerusalem, Israel), KT10 (Abcam, Waltham, MA, USA), wortmannin (Tocris, Bristol, UK), BAPTA (Life Tech, Carlsbad, CA, USA), U73122 (Tocris, Bristol, UK), and st-Ht31 (Tocris, Bristol, UK) were added to either bath solution (Paclitaxel, XE-991, α-dendrotoxin, phrixotoxin-2, BDS-II) or pipette solution (KT10, wortmannin, BAPTA, U73122, st-Ht31).

    Techniques:

    (A) Top, K + current evoked in outside-out patches from the axon (434 µm) of CA1 pyramidal neuron by 200-ms pulses to 50 mV in the absence (Black trace, I Control ) and presence (Gray trace, I 100 nM α-DTX ) of 100 nM α-DTX. Middle, the blue trace represents the α-DTX-sensitive current component obtained by digital subtraction. Bottom, bar plot of the average time constant of inactivation (n = 10). (B) Summary bar graph showing the effect of 100 nM α-DTX in axonal patches (left, P<0.001, n = 13) and somatic patches (right, P>0.1, n = 6). Bars indicate mean ± SEM; circles denote individual experiments. Data points for the same experimental conditions are connected by lines. (C) Recovery of α-DTX-sensitive K + channel from inactivation. Stimulation protocol and example traces of recovery from inactivation, as probed with a double-pulse protocol (100-ms prepulse to –120 mV, 150-ms conditioning pulses and 30-ms test pulses to +50 mV, separated by a recovery interval of variable duration at –120 mV). The holding potential before and after the pulse protocol was –90 mV. Axonal patch is 388 µm from the soma. (D) Summary plot of the amplitude of the peak current evoked by the test pulse, divided by that evoked by the conditioning pulse, plotted against interpulse interval. Data points represent means from 5 patches. Red curves represent double-exponential fit to the data points. (E, F) Gating properties of α-DTX-sensitive axonal K + channels. Stimulation protocol and traces of activation and steady-state inactivation of α-DTX-sensitive K + channels in CA1 pyramidal neuron axons. (E) To probe steady-state activation, a 100-ms prepulse to –120 mV was followed by a 200-ms test pulse to various potentials (–120 to 50 mV). (F) To test steady-state inactivation, a 5-s prepulse to various potentials (–120 to 0 mV) was followed by a 200-ms test pulse to 50 mV. Axonal patch is 423 µm from the soma. (G) Activation (blue circles) and steady-state inactivation (black squares) curves. Conductance values were normalized to the maximal value. Data points represent means from 8 patches for activation curve and 6 patches for steady-state inactivation. Blue curves represent Boltzmann functions fit to the data points. For the activation curve (blue line), the midpoint potential was –12 mV and the sloe factor 26.4 mV. For the inactivation curve (black line), the midpoint potential was –64 mV and the slope factor 15.2 mV. (H) Length constant of the CA1 pyramidal neuron axons. Plot of axonal to somatic voltage deflection during hyperpolarizing current pulses (1 s, –30 pA) applied at the soma, plotted against distance. Each data point represents a simultaneous axon–soma recording. Red line represents a fit of data points with an exponential function, resulting in a mean length constant of 712 µm. Note that the long length constant results in particularly efficient propagation of subthreshold membrane potential changes from the soma to the axon. (Inset) voltage changes recorded in the soma (black) and the axon (blue) during hyperpolarizing current pulses applied at the soma. Axonal recording site is 705 µm from the soma. Traces shown represent average of 20 (A, black trace), 22 (A, gray trace), 2 (C), 3 (E), and 2 (F) single sweeps. Transient inward Na + currents at the beginning of the pulse are truncated. Error bars, SEM.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Action Potential Modulation in CA1 Pyramidal Neuron Axons Facilitates OLM Interneuron Activation in Recurrent Inhibitory Microcircuits of Rat Hippocampus

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0113124

    Figure Lengend Snippet: (A) Top, K + current evoked in outside-out patches from the axon (434 µm) of CA1 pyramidal neuron by 200-ms pulses to 50 mV in the absence (Black trace, I Control ) and presence (Gray trace, I 100 nM α-DTX ) of 100 nM α-DTX. Middle, the blue trace represents the α-DTX-sensitive current component obtained by digital subtraction. Bottom, bar plot of the average time constant of inactivation (n = 10). (B) Summary bar graph showing the effect of 100 nM α-DTX in axonal patches (left, P<0.001, n = 13) and somatic patches (right, P>0.1, n = 6). Bars indicate mean ± SEM; circles denote individual experiments. Data points for the same experimental conditions are connected by lines. (C) Recovery of α-DTX-sensitive K + channel from inactivation. Stimulation protocol and example traces of recovery from inactivation, as probed with a double-pulse protocol (100-ms prepulse to –120 mV, 150-ms conditioning pulses and 30-ms test pulses to +50 mV, separated by a recovery interval of variable duration at –120 mV). The holding potential before and after the pulse protocol was –90 mV. Axonal patch is 388 µm from the soma. (D) Summary plot of the amplitude of the peak current evoked by the test pulse, divided by that evoked by the conditioning pulse, plotted against interpulse interval. Data points represent means from 5 patches. Red curves represent double-exponential fit to the data points. (E, F) Gating properties of α-DTX-sensitive axonal K + channels. Stimulation protocol and traces of activation and steady-state inactivation of α-DTX-sensitive K + channels in CA1 pyramidal neuron axons. (E) To probe steady-state activation, a 100-ms prepulse to –120 mV was followed by a 200-ms test pulse to various potentials (–120 to 50 mV). (F) To test steady-state inactivation, a 5-s prepulse to various potentials (–120 to 0 mV) was followed by a 200-ms test pulse to 50 mV. Axonal patch is 423 µm from the soma. (G) Activation (blue circles) and steady-state inactivation (black squares) curves. Conductance values were normalized to the maximal value. Data points represent means from 8 patches for activation curve and 6 patches for steady-state inactivation. Blue curves represent Boltzmann functions fit to the data points. For the activation curve (blue line), the midpoint potential was –12 mV and the sloe factor 26.4 mV. For the inactivation curve (black line), the midpoint potential was –64 mV and the slope factor 15.2 mV. (H) Length constant of the CA1 pyramidal neuron axons. Plot of axonal to somatic voltage deflection during hyperpolarizing current pulses (1 s, –30 pA) applied at the soma, plotted against distance. Each data point represents a simultaneous axon–soma recording. Red line represents a fit of data points with an exponential function, resulting in a mean length constant of 712 µm. Note that the long length constant results in particularly efficient propagation of subthreshold membrane potential changes from the soma to the axon. (Inset) voltage changes recorded in the soma (black) and the axon (blue) during hyperpolarizing current pulses applied at the soma. Axonal recording site is 705 µm from the soma. Traces shown represent average of 20 (A, black trace), 22 (A, gray trace), 2 (C), 3 (E), and 2 (F) single sweeps. Transient inward Na + currents at the beginning of the pulse are truncated. Error bars, SEM.

    Article Snippet: For paired recordings, K-gluconate and EGTA concentrations were modified to 135 mM and 0.1 mM, respectively. α-Dendrotoxin (α-DTX) was purchased from Alomone labs. For experiments with α-DTX, 0.1% bovine serum albumin (BSA) was added to the extracellular solutions to prevent peptide adsorption.

    Techniques: Activation Assay

    (A) Block of Kv1 channels enhances transmission. Top, unitary EPSCs at CA1 PN–O-LM IN synapses evoked by single presynaptic APs in control conditions and in the presence of 100 nM α-DTX. Traces represent averages from 10 single sweeps. Bottom, summary bar graph of the effects of α-DTX on EPSC peak amplitude. Note that α-DTX markedly increased synaptic efficacy. (B) Block of Kv1 channels reduces facilitation of transmission. Top, EPSCs at CA1 PN–O-LM IN synapses evoked by trains of five presynaptic APs in control conditions (left) and in the presence of 100 nM α-DTX (right). Bottom, facilitation ratio (EPSC n /EPSC 1 ), plotted against stimulus number, in control conditions (squares) and in the presence of α-DTX (circles). Somatic holding potential –60 mV. (C) Block of Kv1 channels abolishes static analog modulation of transmission. Top, unitary EPSCs at CA1 PN–O-LM IN synapses evoked by single presynaptic APs in control conditions and in the presence of 100 nM α-DTX. Presynaptic membrane potential were held at –60 mV (left; same recording as in (A)), and –50 mV (right). Bottom, summary bar graph of the effects of α-DTX on EPSC peak amplitude (EPSC DTX /EPSC Control ) for two different presynaptic holding potential (black, –60 mV; red, –50 mV). Note that α-DTX occluded the effects of changing membrane potential in the presynaptic neuron. (D) Block of Kv1 channels broadens the axonal AP. Top, axonal AP traces in control conditions and in the presence of 100 nM α-DTX. Bottom, summary bar graph showing the effects of α-DTX on half-duration of somatic and axonal AP. Axonal recording site is 264 µm from the soma. Note that α-DTX selectively increased axonal AP duration. (E) Block of Kv1 channels reduces activity-dependent AP broadening. Top, superposition of 1 st , 5th, and 50 th axonal AP in control conditions (left) and in the presence of 100 nM α-DTX (right). Bottom, plot of axonal AP half-width against stimulus number in control conditions (squares) and in the presence of 100 nM α-DTX (circles). Somatic holding potential –60 mV. Data from 7 recordings at distances of 200 to 500 µm. Axonal recording site is 264 µm from the soma. (F) Block of Kv1 channels reduces static AP broadening. Top, superposition of axonal APs in control conditions and in the presence of 100 nM α-DTX at –60 mV (left; same recording as in (D)), and –50 mV (right). Bottom, summary bar graph of the effects of α-DTX on AP broadening at –60 mV (black) and –50 mV (red). Note that the depolarization-induced AP broadening reduced the effect of α-DTX. Axonal recording site is 264 µm from the soma. Bars indicate mean ± SEM. Open circles represent data from individual experiments. Data from the same experiment or for the same experimental conditions were connected by lines. *0.01≤P<0.05.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Action Potential Modulation in CA1 Pyramidal Neuron Axons Facilitates OLM Interneuron Activation in Recurrent Inhibitory Microcircuits of Rat Hippocampus

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0113124

    Figure Lengend Snippet: (A) Block of Kv1 channels enhances transmission. Top, unitary EPSCs at CA1 PN–O-LM IN synapses evoked by single presynaptic APs in control conditions and in the presence of 100 nM α-DTX. Traces represent averages from 10 single sweeps. Bottom, summary bar graph of the effects of α-DTX on EPSC peak amplitude. Note that α-DTX markedly increased synaptic efficacy. (B) Block of Kv1 channels reduces facilitation of transmission. Top, EPSCs at CA1 PN–O-LM IN synapses evoked by trains of five presynaptic APs in control conditions (left) and in the presence of 100 nM α-DTX (right). Bottom, facilitation ratio (EPSC n /EPSC 1 ), plotted against stimulus number, in control conditions (squares) and in the presence of α-DTX (circles). Somatic holding potential –60 mV. (C) Block of Kv1 channels abolishes static analog modulation of transmission. Top, unitary EPSCs at CA1 PN–O-LM IN synapses evoked by single presynaptic APs in control conditions and in the presence of 100 nM α-DTX. Presynaptic membrane potential were held at –60 mV (left; same recording as in (A)), and –50 mV (right). Bottom, summary bar graph of the effects of α-DTX on EPSC peak amplitude (EPSC DTX /EPSC Control ) for two different presynaptic holding potential (black, –60 mV; red, –50 mV). Note that α-DTX occluded the effects of changing membrane potential in the presynaptic neuron. (D) Block of Kv1 channels broadens the axonal AP. Top, axonal AP traces in control conditions and in the presence of 100 nM α-DTX. Bottom, summary bar graph showing the effects of α-DTX on half-duration of somatic and axonal AP. Axonal recording site is 264 µm from the soma. Note that α-DTX selectively increased axonal AP duration. (E) Block of Kv1 channels reduces activity-dependent AP broadening. Top, superposition of 1 st , 5th, and 50 th axonal AP in control conditions (left) and in the presence of 100 nM α-DTX (right). Bottom, plot of axonal AP half-width against stimulus number in control conditions (squares) and in the presence of 100 nM α-DTX (circles). Somatic holding potential –60 mV. Data from 7 recordings at distances of 200 to 500 µm. Axonal recording site is 264 µm from the soma. (F) Block of Kv1 channels reduces static AP broadening. Top, superposition of axonal APs in control conditions and in the presence of 100 nM α-DTX at –60 mV (left; same recording as in (D)), and –50 mV (right). Bottom, summary bar graph of the effects of α-DTX on AP broadening at –60 mV (black) and –50 mV (red). Note that the depolarization-induced AP broadening reduced the effect of α-DTX. Axonal recording site is 264 µm from the soma. Bars indicate mean ± SEM. Open circles represent data from individual experiments. Data from the same experiment or for the same experimental conditions were connected by lines. *0.01≤P<0.05.

    Article Snippet: For paired recordings, K-gluconate and EGTA concentrations were modified to 135 mM and 0.1 mM, respectively. α-Dendrotoxin (α-DTX) was purchased from Alomone labs. For experiments with α-DTX, 0.1% bovine serum albumin (BSA) was added to the extracellular solutions to prevent peptide adsorption.

    Techniques: Blocking Assay, Transmission Assay, Activity Assay