dendrotoxin  (Alomone Labs)


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    Alomone Labs dendrotoxin
    Dendrotoxin, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 6 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/dendrotoxin/product/Alomone Labs
    Average 94 stars, based on 6 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    dendrotoxin - by Bioz Stars, 2022-08
    94/100 stars

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    Alomone Labs dtx k
    Kv1.1 modulates presynaptic action potential-evoked Ca 2+ influx and GABA release. ( a ) Cerebellar basket cell filled with Alexa 594, under multi-photon fluorescence microscopy. M, P and G indicate molecular, Purkinje cell and granule cell layers, respectively. Middle: axon superimposed on transmitted light image, showing boutons apposed to the soma of a Purkinje cell. Inset (expanded at right) shows imaged bouton and line scan position (white dashed line). Scale bar, (left) 20 μm; (middle) 5 μm; (right) 2 μm. ( b ) Representative line scans (averages of four trials), showing Fluo-4 fluorescence response to a train of four action potentials at 40 Hz (arrows) elicited at the soma before (left) and 10 min after <t>DTx-K</t> perfusion (right). Scale bar, 75 ms. ( c ) Fluo-4 fluorescence time courses (same bouton as in b ) elicited by four action potentials at 40 Hz followed by 50 action potentials at 100 Hz to saturate Fluo-4 (Scale bar, 200 relative fluorescence units (RFU); 200 ms). Insets: zoomed responses to four action potentials (Scale bar, 50 RFU; 100 ms). Black and green lines represent non-stationary single-compartment model fits before and after application of DTx-K, respectively. Model-predicted values for the total action potential-evoked Ca 2+ influx (Δ[Ca 2+ ]) are shown next to each trace. Shaded areas under the traces indicate the Fluo-4 fluorescence integrated over 200 ms from the beginning of stimulation (Int-Δ F ), which is proportional to Δ[Ca 2+ ] ( Supplementary Fig. 3 ). ( d ) Summary of the normalized effects of DTx-K on Int-Δ F , compared with control experiments where DTx-K was not applied. * P
    Dtx K, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/dtx k/product/Alomone Labs
    Average 94 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    dtx k - by Bioz Stars, 2022-08
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    93
    Alomone Labs α dtx
    Dendrotoxins disrupt the swimming pattern. A , Ventral root records from one side at the beginning and near the end of a swimming episode in control saline and <t>α-DTX.</t> α-DTX caused a prolonged burst of activity on both sides, followed by swimming in which the duration of the ventral root bursts increased. B , Example in which DTX increased burst duration and then abolished swimming activity. The initial burst was reversed during the wash, but the change in burst duration was not.
    α Dtx, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/α dtx/product/Alomone Labs
    Average 93 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    α dtx - by Bioz Stars, 2022-08
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    Kv1.1 modulates presynaptic action potential-evoked Ca 2+ influx and GABA release. ( a ) Cerebellar basket cell filled with Alexa 594, under multi-photon fluorescence microscopy. M, P and G indicate molecular, Purkinje cell and granule cell layers, respectively. Middle: axon superimposed on transmitted light image, showing boutons apposed to the soma of a Purkinje cell. Inset (expanded at right) shows imaged bouton and line scan position (white dashed line). Scale bar, (left) 20 μm; (middle) 5 μm; (right) 2 μm. ( b ) Representative line scans (averages of four trials), showing Fluo-4 fluorescence response to a train of four action potentials at 40 Hz (arrows) elicited at the soma before (left) and 10 min after DTx-K perfusion (right). Scale bar, 75 ms. ( c ) Fluo-4 fluorescence time courses (same bouton as in b ) elicited by four action potentials at 40 Hz followed by 50 action potentials at 100 Hz to saturate Fluo-4 (Scale bar, 200 relative fluorescence units (RFU); 200 ms). Insets: zoomed responses to four action potentials (Scale bar, 50 RFU; 100 ms). Black and green lines represent non-stationary single-compartment model fits before and after application of DTx-K, respectively. Model-predicted values for the total action potential-evoked Ca 2+ influx (Δ[Ca 2+ ]) are shown next to each trace. Shaded areas under the traces indicate the Fluo-4 fluorescence integrated over 200 ms from the beginning of stimulation (Int-Δ F ), which is proportional to Δ[Ca 2+ ] ( Supplementary Fig. 3 ). ( d ) Summary of the normalized effects of DTx-K on Int-Δ F , compared with control experiments where DTx-K was not applied. * P

    Journal: Nature Communications

    Article Title: Action potential broadening in a presynaptic channelopathy

    doi: 10.1038/ncomms12102

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Kv1.1 modulates presynaptic action potential-evoked Ca 2+ influx and GABA release. ( a ) Cerebellar basket cell filled with Alexa 594, under multi-photon fluorescence microscopy. M, P and G indicate molecular, Purkinje cell and granule cell layers, respectively. Middle: axon superimposed on transmitted light image, showing boutons apposed to the soma of a Purkinje cell. Inset (expanded at right) shows imaged bouton and line scan position (white dashed line). Scale bar, (left) 20 μm; (middle) 5 μm; (right) 2 μm. ( b ) Representative line scans (averages of four trials), showing Fluo-4 fluorescence response to a train of four action potentials at 40 Hz (arrows) elicited at the soma before (left) and 10 min after DTx-K perfusion (right). Scale bar, 75 ms. ( c ) Fluo-4 fluorescence time courses (same bouton as in b ) elicited by four action potentials at 40 Hz followed by 50 action potentials at 100 Hz to saturate Fluo-4 (Scale bar, 200 relative fluorescence units (RFU); 200 ms). Insets: zoomed responses to four action potentials (Scale bar, 50 RFU; 100 ms). Black and green lines represent non-stationary single-compartment model fits before and after application of DTx-K, respectively. Model-predicted values for the total action potential-evoked Ca 2+ influx (Δ[Ca 2+ ]) are shown next to each trace. Shaded areas under the traces indicate the Fluo-4 fluorescence integrated over 200 ms from the beginning of stimulation (Int-Δ F ), which is proportional to Δ[Ca 2+ ] ( Supplementary Fig. 3 ). ( d ) Summary of the normalized effects of DTx-K on Int-Δ F , compared with control experiments where DTx-K was not applied. * P

    Article Snippet: DTx-K was from Alomone lab (UK).

    Techniques: Fluorescence, Microscopy, Mass Spectrometry

    Compartment-specific roles of K + channels in action potential shape in cerebellar basket cells. ( a ) Representative action potentials recorded from the soma (left) or bouton (right) of cerebellar basket cells, before (black trace) and after (green trace) Kv1.1 blockade with DTx-K. Top: schematics illustrating recording sites. Inset: action potentials at slow time base, showing a prominent ADP at the bouton. Scale bar, 20 mV; 2 ms (main traces); 40 mV, 200 ms (insets). The fluorescence image at right shows a cerebellar basket cell bouton labelled with Alexa 568. G and P indicate granule cell and Purkinje cell layer, respectively. Scale bar, 10 μm. ( b ) Summary data showing selective effect of DTx-K on presynaptic spike width measured at –30 mV. Circles show individual experiments. ( c ) BK Ca blockade with ChTx led to somatic action potential broadening. * P

    Journal: Nature Communications

    Article Title: Action potential broadening in a presynaptic channelopathy

    doi: 10.1038/ncomms12102

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Compartment-specific roles of K + channels in action potential shape in cerebellar basket cells. ( a ) Representative action potentials recorded from the soma (left) or bouton (right) of cerebellar basket cells, before (black trace) and after (green trace) Kv1.1 blockade with DTx-K. Top: schematics illustrating recording sites. Inset: action potentials at slow time base, showing a prominent ADP at the bouton. Scale bar, 20 mV; 2 ms (main traces); 40 mV, 200 ms (insets). The fluorescence image at right shows a cerebellar basket cell bouton labelled with Alexa 568. G and P indicate granule cell and Purkinje cell layer, respectively. Scale bar, 10 μm. ( b ) Summary data showing selective effect of DTx-K on presynaptic spike width measured at –30 mV. Circles show individual experiments. ( c ) BK Ca blockade with ChTx led to somatic action potential broadening. * P

    Article Snippet: DTx-K was from Alomone lab (UK).

    Techniques: Mass Spectrometry, Fluorescence

    Dendrotoxin-K (DTX-K) does not produce alterations in membrane excitability in SGNs from Kv1.1 −/− mice. A : DTX-K is known to block Kv1.1 and 1.2 currents. By using DTX-K on Kv1.1 −/− SGNs, we surmised that the bona fide

    Journal: Journal of Neurophysiology

    Article Title: Association of the Kv1 family of K+ channels and their functional blueprint in the properties of auditory neurons as revealed by genetic and functional analyses

    doi: 10.1152/jn.00290.2013

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Dendrotoxin-K (DTX-K) does not produce alterations in membrane excitability in SGNs from Kv1.1 −/− mice. A : DTX-K is known to block Kv1.1 and 1.2 currents. By using DTX-K on Kv1.1 −/− SGNs, we surmised that the bona fide

    Article Snippet: Dendrotoxin-K (DTX-K) and α-dendrotoxin (α-DTX) were purchased from Alomone Labs (Israel).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Blocking Assay

    Dendrotoxins disrupt the swimming pattern. A , Ventral root records from one side at the beginning and near the end of a swimming episode in control saline and α-DTX. α-DTX caused a prolonged burst of activity on both sides, followed by swimming in which the duration of the ventral root bursts increased. B , Example in which DTX increased burst duration and then abolished swimming activity. The initial burst was reversed during the wash, but the change in burst duration was not.

    Journal: The Journal of Neuroscience

    Article Title: The Pharmacology and Roles of two K+ Channels in Motor Pattern Generation in the Xenopus Embryo

    doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.18-04-01602.1998

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Dendrotoxins disrupt the swimming pattern. A , Ventral root records from one side at the beginning and near the end of a swimming episode in control saline and α-DTX. α-DTX caused a prolonged burst of activity on both sides, followed by swimming in which the duration of the ventral root bursts increased. B , Example in which DTX increased burst duration and then abolished swimming activity. The initial burst was reversed during the wash, but the change in burst duration was not.

    Article Snippet: DTX-I and α-DTX were obtained from Alomone Labs (Jerusalem, Israel).

    Techniques: Activity Assay

    Properties of the first evoked spike in monkey and rat basket cells. A : first suprathreshold response to the depolarizing current was significantly delayed in rat, but not in monkey basket cells. B : spike threshold was considerably lower in monkey basket cells than that in rat (APs are truncated). C : spikes evoked by rectangular current pulses with the latency of 8 ms still had more negative threshold in monkey ( n = 15) basket cells than that in rat ( n = 14). D : threshold of the 1st spikes and 8-ms-latency spikes is lower in monkeys than that in rats. Error bars represent SE. E : α-dendrotoxin (α-DTX) decreased spike threshold for the 1st spikes evoked in monkey ( n = 4) and rat basket cells ( n = 5).

    Journal: Journal of Neurophysiology

    Article Title: Parvalbumin-Positive Basket Interneurons in Monkey and Rat Prefrontal Cortex

    doi: 10.1152/jn.90396.2008

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Properties of the first evoked spike in monkey and rat basket cells. A : first suprathreshold response to the depolarizing current was significantly delayed in rat, but not in monkey basket cells. B : spike threshold was considerably lower in monkey basket cells than that in rat (APs are truncated). C : spikes evoked by rectangular current pulses with the latency of 8 ms still had more negative threshold in monkey ( n = 15) basket cells than that in rat ( n = 14). D : threshold of the 1st spikes and 8-ms-latency spikes is lower in monkeys than that in rats. Error bars represent SE. E : α-dendrotoxin (α-DTX) decreased spike threshold for the 1st spikes evoked in monkey ( n = 4) and rat basket cells ( n = 5).

    Article Snippet: During some of the experiments, gabazine (4.5–6 μM; Sigma, St. Louis, MO) was added to the bath to block GABAA receptors. d -2-Amino-5-phospho-pentanoic acid (APV, 50 μM; Sigma) and 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX, 20 μM; Sigma) were included in the bath to block N -methyl- d -aspartate (NMDA) and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors, respectively. α-Dendrotoxin (α-DTX, 150–200 nM; Alomone Labs, Jerusalem, Israel) was used to block Kv1 channels and 4-( N -ethyl- N -phenylamino-1,2-dimethyl-6-methylamino)pyrimidinium chloride (ZD7288, 20 μM; Alomone Labs) was used to block I h channels.

    Techniques: Mass Spectrometry