Structured Review

Olympus darkfield microscopy
Brain slice images obtained by color DIRI. (a) Brightfield image taken with PlanApon 2× (NA 0.08) using the VC50 color camera. The exposure time is 4.6 ms. (b) <t>Darkfield</t> image taken with DIRI with Orca R2 B/W camera. The exposure time is 100 ms. (c) LED-illuminated fluorescence image of area Z1 taken with UPlanSapo40× (NA 0.95) with Orca R2 B/W camera. The exposure time is 100 ms. (d) Epi-fluorescence image of area Z1 taken with UPlanSapo40× (NA 0.95) with Orca R2 B/W camera. The exposure time is 100 ms. (e) LED-illuminated fluorescence image of area Z2 taken with the UPLSAPO 40× silicon immersion lens (NA 1.25) with Orca R2 B/W camera. The exposure time is 100 ms. (f) Epi-fluorescence image of area Z2 taken with the UPLSAPO 40× silicon immersion lens (NA 1.25) with Orca R2 B/W camera. The exposure time is 100 ms. Scale bars in the Figs represent (a–d) 2 mm and (e, f) 0.1 mm.
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Images

1) Product Images from "Extending Whole Slide Imaging: Color Darkfield Internal Reflection Illumination (DIRI) for Biological Applications"

Article Title: Extending Whole Slide Imaging: Color Darkfield Internal Reflection Illumination (DIRI) for Biological Applications

Journal: PLoS ONE

doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0167774

Brain slice images obtained by color DIRI. (a) Brightfield image taken with PlanApon 2× (NA 0.08) using the VC50 color camera. The exposure time is 4.6 ms. (b) Darkfield image taken with DIRI with Orca R2 B/W camera. The exposure time is 100 ms. (c) LED-illuminated fluorescence image of area Z1 taken with UPlanSapo40× (NA 0.95) with Orca R2 B/W camera. The exposure time is 100 ms. (d) Epi-fluorescence image of area Z1 taken with UPlanSapo40× (NA 0.95) with Orca R2 B/W camera. The exposure time is 100 ms. (e) LED-illuminated fluorescence image of area Z2 taken with the UPLSAPO 40× silicon immersion lens (NA 1.25) with Orca R2 B/W camera. The exposure time is 100 ms. (f) Epi-fluorescence image of area Z2 taken with the UPLSAPO 40× silicon immersion lens (NA 1.25) with Orca R2 B/W camera. The exposure time is 100 ms. Scale bars in the Figs represent (a–d) 2 mm and (e, f) 0.1 mm.
Figure Legend Snippet: Brain slice images obtained by color DIRI. (a) Brightfield image taken with PlanApon 2× (NA 0.08) using the VC50 color camera. The exposure time is 4.6 ms. (b) Darkfield image taken with DIRI with Orca R2 B/W camera. The exposure time is 100 ms. (c) LED-illuminated fluorescence image of area Z1 taken with UPlanSapo40× (NA 0.95) with Orca R2 B/W camera. The exposure time is 100 ms. (d) Epi-fluorescence image of area Z1 taken with UPlanSapo40× (NA 0.95) with Orca R2 B/W camera. The exposure time is 100 ms. (e) LED-illuminated fluorescence image of area Z2 taken with the UPLSAPO 40× silicon immersion lens (NA 1.25) with Orca R2 B/W camera. The exposure time is 100 ms. (f) Epi-fluorescence image of area Z2 taken with the UPLSAPO 40× silicon immersion lens (NA 1.25) with Orca R2 B/W camera. The exposure time is 100 ms. Scale bars in the Figs represent (a–d) 2 mm and (e, f) 0.1 mm.

Techniques Used: Slice Preparation, Mass Spectrometry, Fluorescence

Cheek cell image using brightfield and darkfield microscopy. (a) Schematic diagrams of a darkfield condenser, (b) brightfield microscopy image, and (c) darkfield microscopy image of a cheek cell. Scale bars in the Figs represent 5 μm. Images were taken with UplanSapo 60× oil (NA 1.35). All images (b, c) were taken using the color camera.
Figure Legend Snippet: Cheek cell image using brightfield and darkfield microscopy. (a) Schematic diagrams of a darkfield condenser, (b) brightfield microscopy image, and (c) darkfield microscopy image of a cheek cell. Scale bars in the Figs represent 5 μm. Images were taken with UplanSapo 60× oil (NA 1.35). All images (b, c) were taken using the color camera.

Techniques Used: Microscopy

Schematic of the whole slide imaging (WSI) system with darkfield internal reflection illumination (DIRI). DIRI was incorporated into the WSI system’s motorized stage. Three color light-emitting diodes (LEDs) illuminate the slide glass from the side, and the specimen scatters this light. The scattered light is then incident on the objective lens above the stage. The dichromatic mirror on the motorized turret of the microscope can be removed from the light path when acquiring darkfield images. A tube lens above the dichromatic mirror focuses the sample image onto the imaging device. A charge-coupled device camera then captures the image. A sharp cut-off filter is placed between the field diaphragm and the mirror.
Figure Legend Snippet: Schematic of the whole slide imaging (WSI) system with darkfield internal reflection illumination (DIRI). DIRI was incorporated into the WSI system’s motorized stage. Three color light-emitting diodes (LEDs) illuminate the slide glass from the side, and the specimen scatters this light. The scattered light is then incident on the objective lens above the stage. The dichromatic mirror on the motorized turret of the microscope can be removed from the light path when acquiring darkfield images. A tube lens above the dichromatic mirror focuses the sample image onto the imaging device. A charge-coupled device camera then captures the image. A sharp cut-off filter is placed between the field diaphragm and the mirror.

Techniques Used: Imaging, Microscopy

Brightfield image and red, green, and blue darkfield internal reflection illumination (DIRI) images of tissue microarray (TMA) sample. (a) Illuminated by brightfield, (b) red, (c) green, and (d) blue. All images were taken with UplanSapo 40× oil (NA 0.95) using the VC50 color camera. The exposure times are; (a) 8.7 ms, (b-d) 700 ms. The sample was skin tissue. Scale bars in the Figs represent 200 μm.
Figure Legend Snippet: Brightfield image and red, green, and blue darkfield internal reflection illumination (DIRI) images of tissue microarray (TMA) sample. (a) Illuminated by brightfield, (b) red, (c) green, and (d) blue. All images were taken with UplanSapo 40× oil (NA 0.95) using the VC50 color camera. The exposure times are; (a) 8.7 ms, (b-d) 700 ms. The sample was skin tissue. Scale bars in the Figs represent 200 μm.

Techniques Used: Microarray, Mass Spectrometry

2) Product Images from "Bishydrazide Glycoconjugates for Lectin Recognition and Capture of Bacterial Pathogens"

Article Title: Bishydrazide Glycoconjugates for Lectin Recognition and Capture of Bacterial Pathogens

Journal: Bioconjugate chemistry

doi: 10.1021/bc100288c

Capture of Pseudomonas on BSA-coated substrates with photopatterned glycan–bishydrazide–ANB conjugate, imaged by darkfield microscopy. Bacterial capture mediated by 2′-fucosyllactose conjugate 17 at 10 8 cfu/mL; grating period
Figure Legend Snippet: Capture of Pseudomonas on BSA-coated substrates with photopatterned glycan–bishydrazide–ANB conjugate, imaged by darkfield microscopy. Bacterial capture mediated by 2′-fucosyllactose conjugate 17 at 10 8 cfu/mL; grating period

Techniques Used: Microscopy

Capture of live Pseudomonas on glass substrates patterned with BSA–glycan bishydrazide conjugates using μCP, as imaged by darkfield microscopy. (A–G) Substrates patterned with pulmonary trisaccharide conjugate 7 –BSA after
Figure Legend Snippet: Capture of live Pseudomonas on glass substrates patterned with BSA–glycan bishydrazide conjugates using μCP, as imaged by darkfield microscopy. (A–G) Substrates patterned with pulmonary trisaccharide conjugate 7 –BSA after

Techniques Used: Microscopy

(A, B) Glycan-patterned slides by microcontact printing of BSA glycoconjugates onto NHS-activated glass substrates, followed by a blocking step. (C) Patterned capture slides were exposed to Pseudomonas at variable concentrations, then imaged under darkfield
Figure Legend Snippet: (A, B) Glycan-patterned slides by microcontact printing of BSA glycoconjugates onto NHS-activated glass substrates, followed by a blocking step. (C) Patterned capture slides were exposed to Pseudomonas at variable concentrations, then imaged under darkfield

Techniques Used: Blocking Assay

3) Product Images from "Development of nanostars as a biocompatible tumor contrast agent: toward in vivo SERS imaging"

Article Title: Development of nanostars as a biocompatible tumor contrast agent: toward in vivo SERS imaging

Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

doi: 10.2147/IJN.S91340

Intracellular study of the nanostars using darkfield microscopy and SERS. Notes: ( A ) Darkfield microscopy pictures where an increase of gold nanostars (yellow) inside the tumor cells (green) is visualized over time. ( B ) SERS spectrum of the corresponding cells labeled with nanostars, showing the highest intensity peak at 1,333 cm −1 (black arrow). Abbreviation: SERS, surface-enhanced Raman scattering.
Figure Legend Snippet: Intracellular study of the nanostars using darkfield microscopy and SERS. Notes: ( A ) Darkfield microscopy pictures where an increase of gold nanostars (yellow) inside the tumor cells (green) is visualized over time. ( B ) SERS spectrum of the corresponding cells labeled with nanostars, showing the highest intensity peak at 1,333 cm −1 (black arrow). Abbreviation: SERS, surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

Techniques Used: Microscopy, Labeling

Ex vivo analysis of the nanostar accumulation in different tissues. Notes: ( A ) Darkfield images of the different tissues where nanostars (gold spots) were clearly visualized inside the liver, spleen and in lesser concentration at the tumor border. ( B ) Surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectra of the different tissues where a DTNB spectrum was observed for the spleen, liver, and tumor border. Abbreviation: DTNB, 5,5-dithio-bis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid).
Figure Legend Snippet: Ex vivo analysis of the nanostar accumulation in different tissues. Notes: ( A ) Darkfield images of the different tissues where nanostars (gold spots) were clearly visualized inside the liver, spleen and in lesser concentration at the tumor border. ( B ) Surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectra of the different tissues where a DTNB spectrum was observed for the spleen, liver, and tumor border. Abbreviation: DTNB, 5,5-dithio-bis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid).

Techniques Used: Ex Vivo, Concentration Assay

4) Product Images from "Development of nanostars as a biocompatible tumor contrast agent: toward in vivo SERS imaging"

Article Title: Development of nanostars as a biocompatible tumor contrast agent: toward in vivo SERS imaging

Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

doi: 10.2147/IJN.S91340

Intracellular study of the nanostars using darkfield microscopy and SERS. Notes: ( A ) Darkfield microscopy pictures where an increase of gold nanostars (yellow) inside the tumor cells (green) is visualized over time. ( B ) SERS spectrum of the corresponding cells labeled with nanostars, showing the highest intensity peak at 1,333 cm −1 (black arrow). Abbreviation: SERS, surface-enhanced Raman scattering.
Figure Legend Snippet: Intracellular study of the nanostars using darkfield microscopy and SERS. Notes: ( A ) Darkfield microscopy pictures where an increase of gold nanostars (yellow) inside the tumor cells (green) is visualized over time. ( B ) SERS spectrum of the corresponding cells labeled with nanostars, showing the highest intensity peak at 1,333 cm −1 (black arrow). Abbreviation: SERS, surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

Techniques Used: Microscopy, Labeling

Ex vivo analysis of the nanostar accumulation in different tissues. Notes: ( A ) Darkfield images of the different tissues where nanostars (gold spots) were clearly visualized inside the liver, spleen and in lesser concentration at the tumor border. ( B ) Surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectra of the different tissues where a DTNB spectrum was observed for the spleen, liver, and tumor border. Abbreviation: DTNB, 5,5-dithio-bis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid).
Figure Legend Snippet: Ex vivo analysis of the nanostar accumulation in different tissues. Notes: ( A ) Darkfield images of the different tissues where nanostars (gold spots) were clearly visualized inside the liver, spleen and in lesser concentration at the tumor border. ( B ) Surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectra of the different tissues where a DTNB spectrum was observed for the spleen, liver, and tumor border. Abbreviation: DTNB, 5,5-dithio-bis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid).

Techniques Used: Ex Vivo, Concentration Assay

5) Product Images from "Development of nanostars as a biocompatible tumor contrast agent: toward in vivo SERS imaging"

Article Title: Development of nanostars as a biocompatible tumor contrast agent: toward in vivo SERS imaging

Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

doi: 10.2147/IJN.S91340

Intracellular study of the nanostars using darkfield microscopy and SERS. Notes: ( A ) Darkfield microscopy pictures where an increase of gold nanostars (yellow) inside the tumor cells (green) is visualized over time. ( B ) SERS spectrum of the corresponding cells labeled with nanostars, showing the highest intensity peak at 1,333 cm −1 (black arrow). Abbreviation: SERS, surface-enhanced Raman scattering.
Figure Legend Snippet: Intracellular study of the nanostars using darkfield microscopy and SERS. Notes: ( A ) Darkfield microscopy pictures where an increase of gold nanostars (yellow) inside the tumor cells (green) is visualized over time. ( B ) SERS spectrum of the corresponding cells labeled with nanostars, showing the highest intensity peak at 1,333 cm −1 (black arrow). Abbreviation: SERS, surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

Techniques Used: Microscopy, Labeling

Ex vivo analysis of the nanostar accumulation in different tissues. Notes: ( A ) Darkfield images of the different tissues where nanostars (gold spots) were clearly visualized inside the liver, spleen and in lesser concentration at the tumor border. ( B ) Surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectra of the different tissues where a DTNB spectrum was observed for the spleen, liver, and tumor border. Abbreviation: DTNB, 5,5-dithio-bis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid).
Figure Legend Snippet: Ex vivo analysis of the nanostar accumulation in different tissues. Notes: ( A ) Darkfield images of the different tissues where nanostars (gold spots) were clearly visualized inside the liver, spleen and in lesser concentration at the tumor border. ( B ) Surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectra of the different tissues where a DTNB spectrum was observed for the spleen, liver, and tumor border. Abbreviation: DTNB, 5,5-dithio-bis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid).

Techniques Used: Ex Vivo, Concentration Assay

6) Product Images from "Expression of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit mRNAs in rat hippocampal GABAergic interneurons"

Article Title: Expression of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit mRNAs in rat hippocampal GABAergic interneurons

Journal: The Journal of Comparative Neurology

doi: 10.1002/cne.21828

Co-expression of GAD67 and nAChR subunit mRNAs in hippocampal interneurons detected with double in situ hybridization. Expression of GAD67 and nAChR subunit mRNA for A) α2, B) α3, C) α4, D) α5, E) α6, F) α7, G) β2, H) β3, and I) β4 detected by dual exposure to light- and darkfield. J) Double in situ hybridization with the Dig-GAD67 probe and a 35 S-nAChR sense probe for α7 used as a negative control. Asterisks indicate neurons with co-expression of mRNAs for GAD67 and a nAChR subunit; white arrows point to single-labeled neurons expressing nAChR subunit mRNA only; black arrows point to single-labeled GAD67 expressing neurons. Abbreviations: CA1 s.ori, CA1 stratum oriens; CA3 s.pyr, CA3 stratum pyramidale; CA1 s.rad/LM, CA1 stratum radiatum/lacunosum moleculare; DG mol, dentate gyrus molecular layer. Scale bar = 200 μm.
Figure Legend Snippet: Co-expression of GAD67 and nAChR subunit mRNAs in hippocampal interneurons detected with double in situ hybridization. Expression of GAD67 and nAChR subunit mRNA for A) α2, B) α3, C) α4, D) α5, E) α6, F) α7, G) β2, H) β3, and I) β4 detected by dual exposure to light- and darkfield. J) Double in situ hybridization with the Dig-GAD67 probe and a 35 S-nAChR sense probe for α7 used as a negative control. Asterisks indicate neurons with co-expression of mRNAs for GAD67 and a nAChR subunit; white arrows point to single-labeled neurons expressing nAChR subunit mRNA only; black arrows point to single-labeled GAD67 expressing neurons. Abbreviations: CA1 s.ori, CA1 stratum oriens; CA3 s.pyr, CA3 stratum pyramidale; CA1 s.rad/LM, CA1 stratum radiatum/lacunosum moleculare; DG mol, dentate gyrus molecular layer. Scale bar = 200 μm.

Techniques Used: Expressing, In Situ Hybridization, Negative Control, Labeling

Darkfield images of nAChR subunit mRNA expression in coronal sections of dorsal hippocampus. The expression of A) α2, B) α3, C) α4, D) α5, E) α6, F) α7, G) β2, H) β3, I) β4, and J) β2 sense was detected with 35 S-labeled probes. Arrowheads point to specific hybridization in cells in the hippocampus. Abbreviations: CA1 and CA3, CA1 and CA3 hippocampal subfields; DG, dentate gyrus. Scale bar = 1mm.
Figure Legend Snippet: Darkfield images of nAChR subunit mRNA expression in coronal sections of dorsal hippocampus. The expression of A) α2, B) α3, C) α4, D) α5, E) α6, F) α7, G) β2, H) β3, I) β4, and J) β2 sense was detected with 35 S-labeled probes. Arrowheads point to specific hybridization in cells in the hippocampus. Abbreviations: CA1 and CA3, CA1 and CA3 hippocampal subfields; DG, dentate gyrus. Scale bar = 1mm.

Techniques Used: Expressing, Labeling, Hybridization

Darkfield images of nAChR subunit mRNA expression in coronal sections of ventral hippocampus. The expression of A) α2, B) α3, C) α4, D) α5, E) α6, F) α7, G) β2, H) α3, and I) β4 was detected with 35 S-labeled probes. Arrows point to principal cell layers of CA1 and CA3 and DG. Abbreviations: CA1 and CA3, CA1 and CA3 hippocampal field; DG, dentate gyrus. Scale bar = 1 mm.
Figure Legend Snippet: Darkfield images of nAChR subunit mRNA expression in coronal sections of ventral hippocampus. The expression of A) α2, B) α3, C) α4, D) α5, E) α6, F) α7, G) β2, H) α3, and I) β4 was detected with 35 S-labeled probes. Arrows point to principal cell layers of CA1 and CA3 and DG. Abbreviations: CA1 and CA3, CA1 and CA3 hippocampal field; DG, dentate gyrus. Scale bar = 1 mm.

Techniques Used: Expressing, Labeling

GAD67 mRNA expression detected with double in situ hybridization in the hippocampus. Hybridization signals for GAD67 viewed in bright-field detecting non-radioactive signal generated with the Dig-labeled probe (A) and in darkfield detecting radioactive hybridization signal generated with the 35 S-labeled probe (A’). Higher magnification lightfield (B), darkfield (B’) and dual exposure (B’’) to light- and darkfield simultaneously detecting GAD67 expression in interneurons of the CA3. White arrowheads point to strong and black arrows to moderate expression of GAD67. Abbreviations: CA1 s.ori, CA1 stratum oriens; CA3 s.pyr, CA3 stratum pyramidale; CA1 s.r+l, CA1 stratum radiatum/lacunosum moleculare; DG mol, dentate gyrus molecular layer; DG gra, dentate gyrus granule cell layer; DG hilar, dentate gyrus hilar region. Scale bar = 200 μm (A’) and 50 μm (B’’).
Figure Legend Snippet: GAD67 mRNA expression detected with double in situ hybridization in the hippocampus. Hybridization signals for GAD67 viewed in bright-field detecting non-radioactive signal generated with the Dig-labeled probe (A) and in darkfield detecting radioactive hybridization signal generated with the 35 S-labeled probe (A’). Higher magnification lightfield (B), darkfield (B’) and dual exposure (B’’) to light- and darkfield simultaneously detecting GAD67 expression in interneurons of the CA3. White arrowheads point to strong and black arrows to moderate expression of GAD67. Abbreviations: CA1 s.ori, CA1 stratum oriens; CA3 s.pyr, CA3 stratum pyramidale; CA1 s.r+l, CA1 stratum radiatum/lacunosum moleculare; DG mol, dentate gyrus molecular layer; DG gra, dentate gyrus granule cell layer; DG hilar, dentate gyrus hilar region. Scale bar = 200 μm (A’) and 50 μm (B’’).

Techniques Used: Expressing, In Situ Hybridization, Hybridization, Generated, Labeling

Higher power images of co-expression of GAD67 and nAChR subunit mRNAs in hippocampal interneurons detected with double in situ hybridization. Expression of GAD67 and nAChR subunit mRNA for A) α2, B) α3, C) α4, D) α5, E) α6, F) α7, G) β2, H) β3, and I) β4 detected by dual exposure to light- and darkfield. J) Double in situ hybridization with the Dig-GAD67 probe and a 35 S-nAChR sense probe for α7 used as a negative control. Asterisks indicate neurons with co-expression of mRNA s for GAD67 and a nAChR subunit; white arrows point to single-labeled neurons expressing nAChR subunit mRNA only; black arrows point to single-labeled GAD67 expressing neurons. Abbreviations: CA1 s.ori, CA1 stratum oriens; CA3 s.pyr, CA3 stratum pyramidale; CA1 s.rad/LM, CA1 stratum radiatum/lacunosum moleculare; DG mol, dentate gyrus molecular layer. Scale bar = 50 μm.
Figure Legend Snippet: Higher power images of co-expression of GAD67 and nAChR subunit mRNAs in hippocampal interneurons detected with double in situ hybridization. Expression of GAD67 and nAChR subunit mRNA for A) α2, B) α3, C) α4, D) α5, E) α6, F) α7, G) β2, H) β3, and I) β4 detected by dual exposure to light- and darkfield. J) Double in situ hybridization with the Dig-GAD67 probe and a 35 S-nAChR sense probe for α7 used as a negative control. Asterisks indicate neurons with co-expression of mRNA s for GAD67 and a nAChR subunit; white arrows point to single-labeled neurons expressing nAChR subunit mRNA only; black arrows point to single-labeled GAD67 expressing neurons. Abbreviations: CA1 s.ori, CA1 stratum oriens; CA3 s.pyr, CA3 stratum pyramidale; CA1 s.rad/LM, CA1 stratum radiatum/lacunosum moleculare; DG mol, dentate gyrus molecular layer. Scale bar = 50 μm.

Techniques Used: Expressing, In Situ Hybridization, Negative Control, Labeling

7) Product Images from "Development of nanostars as a biocompatible tumor contrast agent: toward in vivo SERS imaging"

Article Title: Development of nanostars as a biocompatible tumor contrast agent: toward in vivo SERS imaging

Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

doi: 10.2147/IJN.S91340

Intracellular study of the nanostars using darkfield microscopy and SERS. Notes: ( A ) Darkfield microscopy pictures where an increase of gold nanostars (yellow) inside the tumor cells (green) is visualized over time. ( B ) SERS spectrum of the corresponding cells labeled with nanostars, showing the highest intensity peak at 1,333 cm −1 (black arrow). Abbreviation: SERS, surface-enhanced Raman scattering.
Figure Legend Snippet: Intracellular study of the nanostars using darkfield microscopy and SERS. Notes: ( A ) Darkfield microscopy pictures where an increase of gold nanostars (yellow) inside the tumor cells (green) is visualized over time. ( B ) SERS spectrum of the corresponding cells labeled with nanostars, showing the highest intensity peak at 1,333 cm −1 (black arrow). Abbreviation: SERS, surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

Techniques Used: Microscopy, Labeling

Ex vivo analysis of the nanostar accumulation in different tissues. Notes: ( A ) Darkfield images of the different tissues where nanostars (gold spots) were clearly visualized inside the liver, spleen and in lesser concentration at the tumor border. ( B ) Surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectra of the different tissues where a DTNB spectrum was observed for the spleen, liver, and tumor border. Abbreviation: DTNB, 5,5-dithio-bis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid).
Figure Legend Snippet: Ex vivo analysis of the nanostar accumulation in different tissues. Notes: ( A ) Darkfield images of the different tissues where nanostars (gold spots) were clearly visualized inside the liver, spleen and in lesser concentration at the tumor border. ( B ) Surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectra of the different tissues where a DTNB spectrum was observed for the spleen, liver, and tumor border. Abbreviation: DTNB, 5,5-dithio-bis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid).

Techniques Used: Ex Vivo, Concentration Assay

8) Product Images from "Extrapulmonary transport of MWCNT following inhalation exposure"

Article Title: Extrapulmonary transport of MWCNT following inhalation exposure

Journal: Particle and Fibre Toxicology

doi: 10.1186/1743-8977-10-38

Enhanced dark-field images of tissue sections from tracheobronchial lymph nodes 1 and 336 days after MWCNT inhalation exposure. As typified by the micrograph, at 1 day post-exposure singlet MWCNT fibers were observed scattered throughout sections of lymph nodes. However, 336 days post-exposure, numerous dense concentrations of MWCNT fibers were found within the lymph nodes. MWCNT fibers are bright white in these enhanced darkfield images due to scattering of light by MWCNT, while cell nuclei are brownish red and other tissue elements are green.
Figure Legend Snippet: Enhanced dark-field images of tissue sections from tracheobronchial lymph nodes 1 and 336 days after MWCNT inhalation exposure. As typified by the micrograph, at 1 day post-exposure singlet MWCNT fibers were observed scattered throughout sections of lymph nodes. However, 336 days post-exposure, numerous dense concentrations of MWCNT fibers were found within the lymph nodes. MWCNT fibers are bright white in these enhanced darkfield images due to scattering of light by MWCNT, while cell nuclei are brownish red and other tissue elements are green.

Techniques Used:

Enhanced darkfield images of MWCNT fibers in the diaphragm, kidney and brain at 1 day and 336 days after inhalation exposure. MWCNT fibers in these figures are bright white, cell nuclei are brownish red and other tissue elements are green. With rare exceptions, MWCNT fibers detected in extrapulmonary organs were singlets. Normal (transmitted) light was blended into the fields and contrast adjusted to make the tissue histology of the organs visible in these photographs.
Figure Legend Snippet: Enhanced darkfield images of MWCNT fibers in the diaphragm, kidney and brain at 1 day and 336 days after inhalation exposure. MWCNT fibers in these figures are bright white, cell nuclei are brownish red and other tissue elements are green. With rare exceptions, MWCNT fibers detected in extrapulmonary organs were singlets. Normal (transmitted) light was blended into the fields and contrast adjusted to make the tissue histology of the organs visible in these photographs.

Techniques Used:

Light and enhanced darkfield micrographs of MWCNTs detected in lavage of pleural space. The figure shows a comparison of the light and enhanced darkfield image of a singlet MWCNT in lavage of the pleural space in mice at 336 days post-exposure.
Figure Legend Snippet: Light and enhanced darkfield micrographs of MWCNTs detected in lavage of pleural space. The figure shows a comparison of the light and enhanced darkfield image of a singlet MWCNT in lavage of the pleural space in mice at 336 days post-exposure.

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

9) Product Images from "Plasmonic detection of mercury via amalgam formation on surface-immobilized single Au nanorods"

Article Title: Plasmonic detection of mercury via amalgam formation on surface-immobilized single Au nanorods

Journal: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials

doi: 10.1080/14686996.2016.1258293

Schematic of Au nanorod amalgamation detection with substrate-immobilized nanorods: Darkfield microscopy is firstly performed on Au nanorod substrates and a scattering spectrum is recorded of selected nanorod (a); Substrates are immersed in NaBH 4 solution and the spectrum of the same selected nanorod is recorded by darkfield spectroscopy (b); Substrates are immersed in HgCl 2 /NaBH 4 solution and the nanorod spectrum is recorded again by darkfield spectroscopy (c).
Figure Legend Snippet: Schematic of Au nanorod amalgamation detection with substrate-immobilized nanorods: Darkfield microscopy is firstly performed on Au nanorod substrates and a scattering spectrum is recorded of selected nanorod (a); Substrates are immersed in NaBH 4 solution and the spectrum of the same selected nanorod is recorded by darkfield spectroscopy (b); Substrates are immersed in HgCl 2 /NaBH 4 solution and the nanorod spectrum is recorded again by darkfield spectroscopy (c).

Techniques Used: Microscopy, Spectroscopy

10) Product Images from "Development of nanostars as a biocompatible tumor contrast agent: toward in vivo SERS imaging"

Article Title: Development of nanostars as a biocompatible tumor contrast agent: toward in vivo SERS imaging

Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

doi: 10.2147/IJN.S91340

Intracellular study of the nanostars using darkfield microscopy and SERS. Notes: ( A ) Darkfield microscopy pictures where an increase of gold nanostars (yellow) inside the tumor cells (green) is visualized over time. ( B ) SERS spectrum of the corresponding cells labeled with nanostars, showing the highest intensity peak at 1,333 cm −1 (black arrow). Abbreviation: SERS, surface-enhanced Raman scattering.
Figure Legend Snippet: Intracellular study of the nanostars using darkfield microscopy and SERS. Notes: ( A ) Darkfield microscopy pictures where an increase of gold nanostars (yellow) inside the tumor cells (green) is visualized over time. ( B ) SERS spectrum of the corresponding cells labeled with nanostars, showing the highest intensity peak at 1,333 cm −1 (black arrow). Abbreviation: SERS, surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

Techniques Used: Microscopy, Labeling

Ex vivo analysis of the nanostar accumulation in different tissues. Notes: ( A ) Darkfield images of the different tissues where nanostars (gold spots) were clearly visualized inside the liver, spleen and in lesser concentration at the tumor border. ( B ) Surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectra of the different tissues where a DTNB spectrum was observed for the spleen, liver, and tumor border. Abbreviation: DTNB, 5,5-dithio-bis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid).
Figure Legend Snippet: Ex vivo analysis of the nanostar accumulation in different tissues. Notes: ( A ) Darkfield images of the different tissues where nanostars (gold spots) were clearly visualized inside the liver, spleen and in lesser concentration at the tumor border. ( B ) Surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectra of the different tissues where a DTNB spectrum was observed for the spleen, liver, and tumor border. Abbreviation: DTNB, 5,5-dithio-bis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid).

Techniques Used: Ex Vivo, Concentration Assay

11) Product Images from "Expression of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit mRNAs in rat hippocampal GABAergic interneurons"

Article Title: Expression of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit mRNAs in rat hippocampal GABAergic interneurons

Journal: The Journal of Comparative Neurology

doi: 10.1002/cne.21828

Co-expression of GAD67 and nAChR subunit mRNAs in hippocampal interneurons detected with double in situ hybridization. Expression of GAD67 and nAChR subunit mRNA for A) α2, B) α3, C) α4, D) α5, E) α6, F) α7, G) β2, H) β3, and I) β4 detected by dual exposure to light- and darkfield. J) Double in situ hybridization with the Dig-GAD67 probe and a 35 S-nAChR sense probe for α7 used as a negative control. Asterisks indicate neurons with co-expression of mRNAs for GAD67 and a nAChR subunit; white arrows point to single-labeled neurons expressing nAChR subunit mRNA only; black arrows point to single-labeled GAD67 expressing neurons. Abbreviations: CA1 s.ori, CA1 stratum oriens; CA3 s.pyr, CA3 stratum pyramidale; CA1 s.rad/LM, CA1 stratum radiatum/lacunosum moleculare; DG mol, dentate gyrus molecular layer. Scale bar = 200 μm.
Figure Legend Snippet: Co-expression of GAD67 and nAChR subunit mRNAs in hippocampal interneurons detected with double in situ hybridization. Expression of GAD67 and nAChR subunit mRNA for A) α2, B) α3, C) α4, D) α5, E) α6, F) α7, G) β2, H) β3, and I) β4 detected by dual exposure to light- and darkfield. J) Double in situ hybridization with the Dig-GAD67 probe and a 35 S-nAChR sense probe for α7 used as a negative control. Asterisks indicate neurons with co-expression of mRNAs for GAD67 and a nAChR subunit; white arrows point to single-labeled neurons expressing nAChR subunit mRNA only; black arrows point to single-labeled GAD67 expressing neurons. Abbreviations: CA1 s.ori, CA1 stratum oriens; CA3 s.pyr, CA3 stratum pyramidale; CA1 s.rad/LM, CA1 stratum radiatum/lacunosum moleculare; DG mol, dentate gyrus molecular layer. Scale bar = 200 μm.

Techniques Used: Expressing, In Situ Hybridization, Negative Control, Labeling

Darkfield images of nAChR subunit mRNA expression in coronal sections of dorsal hippocampus. The expression of A) α2, B) α3, C) α4, D) α5, E) α6, F) α7, G) β2, H) β3, I) β4, and J) β2 sense was detected with 35 S-labeled probes. Arrowheads point to specific hybridization in cells in the hippocampus. Abbreviations: CA1 and CA3, CA1 and CA3 hippocampal subfields; DG, dentate gyrus. Scale bar = 1mm.
Figure Legend Snippet: Darkfield images of nAChR subunit mRNA expression in coronal sections of dorsal hippocampus. The expression of A) α2, B) α3, C) α4, D) α5, E) α6, F) α7, G) β2, H) β3, I) β4, and J) β2 sense was detected with 35 S-labeled probes. Arrowheads point to specific hybridization in cells in the hippocampus. Abbreviations: CA1 and CA3, CA1 and CA3 hippocampal subfields; DG, dentate gyrus. Scale bar = 1mm.

Techniques Used: Expressing, Labeling, Hybridization

Darkfield images of nAChR subunit mRNA expression in coronal sections of ventral hippocampus. The expression of A) α2, B) α3, C) α4, D) α5, E) α6, F) α7, G) β2, H) α3, and I) β4 was detected with 35 S-labeled probes. Arrows point to principal cell layers of CA1 and CA3 and DG. Abbreviations: CA1 and CA3, CA1 and CA3 hippocampal field; DG, dentate gyrus. Scale bar = 1 mm.
Figure Legend Snippet: Darkfield images of nAChR subunit mRNA expression in coronal sections of ventral hippocampus. The expression of A) α2, B) α3, C) α4, D) α5, E) α6, F) α7, G) β2, H) α3, and I) β4 was detected with 35 S-labeled probes. Arrows point to principal cell layers of CA1 and CA3 and DG. Abbreviations: CA1 and CA3, CA1 and CA3 hippocampal field; DG, dentate gyrus. Scale bar = 1 mm.

Techniques Used: Expressing, Labeling

GAD67 mRNA expression detected with double in situ hybridization in the hippocampus. Hybridization signals for GAD67 viewed in bright-field detecting non-radioactive signal generated with the Dig-labeled probe (A) and in darkfield detecting radioactive hybridization signal generated with the 35 S-labeled probe (A’). Higher magnification lightfield (B), darkfield (B’) and dual exposure (B’’) to light- and darkfield simultaneously detecting GAD67 expression in interneurons of the CA3. White arrowheads point to strong and black arrows to moderate expression of GAD67. Abbreviations: CA1 s.ori, CA1 stratum oriens; CA3 s.pyr, CA3 stratum pyramidale; CA1 s.r+l, CA1 stratum radiatum/lacunosum moleculare; DG mol, dentate gyrus molecular layer; DG gra, dentate gyrus granule cell layer; DG hilar, dentate gyrus hilar region. Scale bar = 200 μm (A’) and 50 μm (B’’).
Figure Legend Snippet: GAD67 mRNA expression detected with double in situ hybridization in the hippocampus. Hybridization signals for GAD67 viewed in bright-field detecting non-radioactive signal generated with the Dig-labeled probe (A) and in darkfield detecting radioactive hybridization signal generated with the 35 S-labeled probe (A’). Higher magnification lightfield (B), darkfield (B’) and dual exposure (B’’) to light- and darkfield simultaneously detecting GAD67 expression in interneurons of the CA3. White arrowheads point to strong and black arrows to moderate expression of GAD67. Abbreviations: CA1 s.ori, CA1 stratum oriens; CA3 s.pyr, CA3 stratum pyramidale; CA1 s.r+l, CA1 stratum radiatum/lacunosum moleculare; DG mol, dentate gyrus molecular layer; DG gra, dentate gyrus granule cell layer; DG hilar, dentate gyrus hilar region. Scale bar = 200 μm (A’) and 50 μm (B’’).

Techniques Used: Expressing, In Situ Hybridization, Hybridization, Generated, Labeling

Higher power images of co-expression of GAD67 and nAChR subunit mRNAs in hippocampal interneurons detected with double in situ hybridization. Expression of GAD67 and nAChR subunit mRNA for A) α2, B) α3, C) α4, D) α5, E) α6, F) α7, G) β2, H) β3, and I) β4 detected by dual exposure to light- and darkfield. J) Double in situ hybridization with the Dig-GAD67 probe and a 35 S-nAChR sense probe for α7 used as a negative control. Asterisks indicate neurons with co-expression of mRNA s for GAD67 and a nAChR subunit; white arrows point to single-labeled neurons expressing nAChR subunit mRNA only; black arrows point to single-labeled GAD67 expressing neurons. Abbreviations: CA1 s.ori, CA1 stratum oriens; CA3 s.pyr, CA3 stratum pyramidale; CA1 s.rad/LM, CA1 stratum radiatum/lacunosum moleculare; DG mol, dentate gyrus molecular layer. Scale bar = 50 μm.
Figure Legend Snippet: Higher power images of co-expression of GAD67 and nAChR subunit mRNAs in hippocampal interneurons detected with double in situ hybridization. Expression of GAD67 and nAChR subunit mRNA for A) α2, B) α3, C) α4, D) α5, E) α6, F) α7, G) β2, H) β3, and I) β4 detected by dual exposure to light- and darkfield. J) Double in situ hybridization with the Dig-GAD67 probe and a 35 S-nAChR sense probe for α7 used as a negative control. Asterisks indicate neurons with co-expression of mRNA s for GAD67 and a nAChR subunit; white arrows point to single-labeled neurons expressing nAChR subunit mRNA only; black arrows point to single-labeled GAD67 expressing neurons. Abbreviations: CA1 s.ori, CA1 stratum oriens; CA3 s.pyr, CA3 stratum pyramidale; CA1 s.rad/LM, CA1 stratum radiatum/lacunosum moleculare; DG mol, dentate gyrus molecular layer. Scale bar = 50 μm.

Techniques Used: Expressing, In Situ Hybridization, Negative Control, Labeling

12) Product Images from "Development of nanostars as a biocompatible tumor contrast agent: toward in vivo SERS imaging"

Article Title: Development of nanostars as a biocompatible tumor contrast agent: toward in vivo SERS imaging

Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

doi: 10.2147/IJN.S91340

Intracellular study of the nanostars using darkfield microscopy and SERS. Notes: ( A ) Darkfield microscopy pictures where an increase of gold nanostars (yellow) inside the tumor cells (green) is visualized over time. ( B ) SERS spectrum of the corresponding cells labeled with nanostars, showing the highest intensity peak at 1,333 cm −1 (black arrow). Abbreviation: SERS, surface-enhanced Raman scattering.
Figure Legend Snippet: Intracellular study of the nanostars using darkfield microscopy and SERS. Notes: ( A ) Darkfield microscopy pictures where an increase of gold nanostars (yellow) inside the tumor cells (green) is visualized over time. ( B ) SERS spectrum of the corresponding cells labeled with nanostars, showing the highest intensity peak at 1,333 cm −1 (black arrow). Abbreviation: SERS, surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

Techniques Used: Microscopy, Labeling

Ex vivo analysis of the nanostar accumulation in different tissues. Notes: ( A ) Darkfield images of the different tissues where nanostars (gold spots) were clearly visualized inside the liver, spleen and in lesser concentration at the tumor border. ( B ) Surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectra of the different tissues where a DTNB spectrum was observed for the spleen, liver, and tumor border. Abbreviation: DTNB, 5,5-dithio-bis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid).
Figure Legend Snippet: Ex vivo analysis of the nanostar accumulation in different tissues. Notes: ( A ) Darkfield images of the different tissues where nanostars (gold spots) were clearly visualized inside the liver, spleen and in lesser concentration at the tumor border. ( B ) Surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectra of the different tissues where a DTNB spectrum was observed for the spleen, liver, and tumor border. Abbreviation: DTNB, 5,5-dithio-bis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid).

Techniques Used: Ex Vivo, Concentration Assay

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Article Title: Development of nanostars as a biocompatible tumor contrast agent: toward in vivo SERS imaging
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Article Title: Development of nanostars as a biocompatible tumor contrast agent: toward in vivo SERS imaging
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Article Title: Development of nanostars as a biocompatible tumor contrast agent: toward in vivo SERS imaging
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Staining:

Article Title: Bishydrazide Glycoconjugates for Lectin Recognition and Capture of Bacterial Pathogens
Article Snippet: .. Micropatterned glycoconjugates were exposed to either soluble lectins or to live bacterial cultures, and visualized by immunofluorescent staining (bound lectin) or darkfield microscopy (bound bacteria) using an upright microscope (Olympus BH2-RFL-T3) equipped with a darkfield condensor, a high-pressure Hg lamp and filter set for FITC emission, and a DP70 camera for image acquisition. .. Fluorescence imaging was performed on either glass or on roughened Au substrates; the latter were prepared by immersing clean Au substrates into a solution of AgNO3 (3.7 mM) and hydroquinone (120 mM) in 1.3 M citric acid buffer (pH 3.5) for 1.5 min, followed by a quick rinse with deionized water and immersion in an aqueous HAuCl4 solution (0.5 mM) for 30 min. Roughened Au substrates were dried in air, prior to use.

Transmission Electron Microscopy:

Article Title: Development of nanostars as a biocompatible tumor contrast agent: toward in vivo SERS imaging
Article Snippet: .. Another strategy is to have built-in hot spots in the particle itself, which can increase the SERS signal by 10. , , , , In spite of the LOD we measured, the nanostars could be easily visualized by using SERS, as confirmed by ICP-OES, TEM, and darkfield microscopy. .. These nanostars are taken up by the cells, as mentioned by the protocol used by Trekker et al and the TEM images.

Expressing:

Article Title: Expression of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit mRNAs in rat hippocampal GABAergic interneurons
Article Snippet: .. Adult coronal brain sections were analyzed using darkfield microscopy to detect the expression of nAChR subunit mRNAs at a cellular level in dorsal ( ) and ventral hippocampus ( ). .. Spatially restricted expression of α2 mRNA was detected in CA1 s. oriens in dorsal and ventral hippocampus with more cells exhibiting α2 expression in ventral compared to dorsal hippocampus ( and ).

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  • 89
    Olympus darkfield microscopy
    Capture of Pseudomonas on BSA-coated substrates with photopatterned glycan–bishydrazide–ANB conjugate, imaged by <t>darkfield</t> microscopy. Bacterial capture mediated by 2′-fucosyllactose conjugate 17 at 10 8 cfu/mL; grating period
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    Olympus conventional inverted darkfield microscope
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    Image Search Results


    Capture of Pseudomonas on BSA-coated substrates with photopatterned glycan–bishydrazide–ANB conjugate, imaged by darkfield microscopy. Bacterial capture mediated by 2′-fucosyllactose conjugate 17 at 10 8 cfu/mL; grating period

    Journal: Bioconjugate chemistry

    Article Title: Bishydrazide Glycoconjugates for Lectin Recognition and Capture of Bacterial Pathogens

    doi: 10.1021/bc100288c

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Capture of Pseudomonas on BSA-coated substrates with photopatterned glycan–bishydrazide–ANB conjugate, imaged by darkfield microscopy. Bacterial capture mediated by 2′-fucosyllactose conjugate 17 at 10 8 cfu/mL; grating period

    Article Snippet: Micropatterned glycoconjugates were exposed to either soluble lectins or to live bacterial cultures, and visualized by immunofluorescent staining (bound lectin) or darkfield microscopy (bound bacteria) using an upright microscope (Olympus BH2-RFL-T3) equipped with a darkfield condensor, a high-pressure Hg lamp and filter set for FITC emission, and a DP70 camera for image acquisition.

    Techniques: Microscopy

    Capture of live Pseudomonas on glass substrates patterned with BSA–glycan bishydrazide conjugates using μCP, as imaged by darkfield microscopy. (A–G) Substrates patterned with pulmonary trisaccharide conjugate 7 –BSA after

    Journal: Bioconjugate chemistry

    Article Title: Bishydrazide Glycoconjugates for Lectin Recognition and Capture of Bacterial Pathogens

    doi: 10.1021/bc100288c

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Capture of live Pseudomonas on glass substrates patterned with BSA–glycan bishydrazide conjugates using μCP, as imaged by darkfield microscopy. (A–G) Substrates patterned with pulmonary trisaccharide conjugate 7 –BSA after

    Article Snippet: Micropatterned glycoconjugates were exposed to either soluble lectins or to live bacterial cultures, and visualized by immunofluorescent staining (bound lectin) or darkfield microscopy (bound bacteria) using an upright microscope (Olympus BH2-RFL-T3) equipped with a darkfield condensor, a high-pressure Hg lamp and filter set for FITC emission, and a DP70 camera for image acquisition.

    Techniques: Microscopy

    (A, B) Glycan-patterned slides by microcontact printing of BSA glycoconjugates onto NHS-activated glass substrates, followed by a blocking step. (C) Patterned capture slides were exposed to Pseudomonas at variable concentrations, then imaged under darkfield

    Journal: Bioconjugate chemistry

    Article Title: Bishydrazide Glycoconjugates for Lectin Recognition and Capture of Bacterial Pathogens

    doi: 10.1021/bc100288c

    Figure Lengend Snippet: (A, B) Glycan-patterned slides by microcontact printing of BSA glycoconjugates onto NHS-activated glass substrates, followed by a blocking step. (C) Patterned capture slides were exposed to Pseudomonas at variable concentrations, then imaged under darkfield

    Article Snippet: Micropatterned glycoconjugates were exposed to either soluble lectins or to live bacterial cultures, and visualized by immunofluorescent staining (bound lectin) or darkfield microscopy (bound bacteria) using an upright microscope (Olympus BH2-RFL-T3) equipped with a darkfield condensor, a high-pressure Hg lamp and filter set for FITC emission, and a DP70 camera for image acquisition.

    Techniques: Blocking Assay

    Intracellular study of the nanostars using darkfield microscopy and SERS. Notes: ( A ) Darkfield microscopy pictures where an increase of gold nanostars (yellow) inside the tumor cells (green) is visualized over time. ( B ) SERS spectrum of the corresponding cells labeled with nanostars, showing the highest intensity peak at 1,333 cm −1 (black arrow). Abbreviation: SERS, surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Development of nanostars as a biocompatible tumor contrast agent: toward in vivo SERS imaging

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S91340

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Intracellular study of the nanostars using darkfield microscopy and SERS. Notes: ( A ) Darkfield microscopy pictures where an increase of gold nanostars (yellow) inside the tumor cells (green) is visualized over time. ( B ) SERS spectrum of the corresponding cells labeled with nanostars, showing the highest intensity peak at 1,333 cm −1 (black arrow). Abbreviation: SERS, surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

    Article Snippet: The sections were placed on microscope slides and deparaffinized before darkfield microscopy.

    Techniques: Microscopy, Labeling

    Ex vivo analysis of the nanostar accumulation in different tissues. Notes: ( A ) Darkfield images of the different tissues where nanostars (gold spots) were clearly visualized inside the liver, spleen and in lesser concentration at the tumor border. ( B ) Surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectra of the different tissues where a DTNB spectrum was observed for the spleen, liver, and tumor border. Abbreviation: DTNB, 5,5-dithio-bis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid).

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Development of nanostars as a biocompatible tumor contrast agent: toward in vivo SERS imaging

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S91340

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Ex vivo analysis of the nanostar accumulation in different tissues. Notes: ( A ) Darkfield images of the different tissues where nanostars (gold spots) were clearly visualized inside the liver, spleen and in lesser concentration at the tumor border. ( B ) Surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectra of the different tissues where a DTNB spectrum was observed for the spleen, liver, and tumor border. Abbreviation: DTNB, 5,5-dithio-bis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid).

    Article Snippet: The sections were placed on microscope slides and deparaffinized before darkfield microscopy.

    Techniques: Ex Vivo, Concentration Assay

    Brain slice images obtained by color DIRI. (a) Brightfield image taken with PlanApon 2× (NA 0.08) using the VC50 color camera. The exposure time is 4.6 ms. (b) Darkfield image taken with DIRI with Orca R2 B/W camera. The exposure time is 100 ms. (c) LED-illuminated fluorescence image of area Z1 taken with UPlanSapo40× (NA 0.95) with Orca R2 B/W camera. The exposure time is 100 ms. (d) Epi-fluorescence image of area Z1 taken with UPlanSapo40× (NA 0.95) with Orca R2 B/W camera. The exposure time is 100 ms. (e) LED-illuminated fluorescence image of area Z2 taken with the UPLSAPO 40× silicon immersion lens (NA 1.25) with Orca R2 B/W camera. The exposure time is 100 ms. (f) Epi-fluorescence image of area Z2 taken with the UPLSAPO 40× silicon immersion lens (NA 1.25) with Orca R2 B/W camera. The exposure time is 100 ms. Scale bars in the Figs represent (a–d) 2 mm and (e, f) 0.1 mm.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Extending Whole Slide Imaging: Color Darkfield Internal Reflection Illumination (DIRI) for Biological Applications

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0167774

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Brain slice images obtained by color DIRI. (a) Brightfield image taken with PlanApon 2× (NA 0.08) using the VC50 color camera. The exposure time is 4.6 ms. (b) Darkfield image taken with DIRI with Orca R2 B/W camera. The exposure time is 100 ms. (c) LED-illuminated fluorescence image of area Z1 taken with UPlanSapo40× (NA 0.95) with Orca R2 B/W camera. The exposure time is 100 ms. (d) Epi-fluorescence image of area Z1 taken with UPlanSapo40× (NA 0.95) with Orca R2 B/W camera. The exposure time is 100 ms. (e) LED-illuminated fluorescence image of area Z2 taken with the UPLSAPO 40× silicon immersion lens (NA 1.25) with Orca R2 B/W camera. The exposure time is 100 ms. (f) Epi-fluorescence image of area Z2 taken with the UPLSAPO 40× silicon immersion lens (NA 1.25) with Orca R2 B/W camera. The exposure time is 100 ms. Scale bars in the Figs represent (a–d) 2 mm and (e, f) 0.1 mm.

    Article Snippet: We show the advantages of darkfield microscopy using real samples. shows a brightfield image of cheek cells using UPlanSApo 60× oil, numerical aperture (NA) 1.35 (Olympus, Tokyo, Japan), with an extended magnification lens of 2.5×.

    Techniques: Slice Preparation, Mass Spectrometry, Fluorescence

    Cheek cell image using brightfield and darkfield microscopy. (a) Schematic diagrams of a darkfield condenser, (b) brightfield microscopy image, and (c) darkfield microscopy image of a cheek cell. Scale bars in the Figs represent 5 μm. Images were taken with UplanSapo 60× oil (NA 1.35). All images (b, c) were taken using the color camera.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Extending Whole Slide Imaging: Color Darkfield Internal Reflection Illumination (DIRI) for Biological Applications

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0167774

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Cheek cell image using brightfield and darkfield microscopy. (a) Schematic diagrams of a darkfield condenser, (b) brightfield microscopy image, and (c) darkfield microscopy image of a cheek cell. Scale bars in the Figs represent 5 μm. Images were taken with UplanSapo 60× oil (NA 1.35). All images (b, c) were taken using the color camera.

    Article Snippet: We show the advantages of darkfield microscopy using real samples. shows a brightfield image of cheek cells using UPlanSApo 60× oil, numerical aperture (NA) 1.35 (Olympus, Tokyo, Japan), with an extended magnification lens of 2.5×.

    Techniques: Microscopy

    Schematic of the whole slide imaging (WSI) system with darkfield internal reflection illumination (DIRI). DIRI was incorporated into the WSI system’s motorized stage. Three color light-emitting diodes (LEDs) illuminate the slide glass from the side, and the specimen scatters this light. The scattered light is then incident on the objective lens above the stage. The dichromatic mirror on the motorized turret of the microscope can be removed from the light path when acquiring darkfield images. A tube lens above the dichromatic mirror focuses the sample image onto the imaging device. A charge-coupled device camera then captures the image. A sharp cut-off filter is placed between the field diaphragm and the mirror.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Extending Whole Slide Imaging: Color Darkfield Internal Reflection Illumination (DIRI) for Biological Applications

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0167774

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Schematic of the whole slide imaging (WSI) system with darkfield internal reflection illumination (DIRI). DIRI was incorporated into the WSI system’s motorized stage. Three color light-emitting diodes (LEDs) illuminate the slide glass from the side, and the specimen scatters this light. The scattered light is then incident on the objective lens above the stage. The dichromatic mirror on the motorized turret of the microscope can be removed from the light path when acquiring darkfield images. A tube lens above the dichromatic mirror focuses the sample image onto the imaging device. A charge-coupled device camera then captures the image. A sharp cut-off filter is placed between the field diaphragm and the mirror.

    Article Snippet: We show the advantages of darkfield microscopy using real samples. shows a brightfield image of cheek cells using UPlanSApo 60× oil, numerical aperture (NA) 1.35 (Olympus, Tokyo, Japan), with an extended magnification lens of 2.5×.

    Techniques: Imaging, Microscopy

    Brightfield image and red, green, and blue darkfield internal reflection illumination (DIRI) images of tissue microarray (TMA) sample. (a) Illuminated by brightfield, (b) red, (c) green, and (d) blue. All images were taken with UplanSapo 40× oil (NA 0.95) using the VC50 color camera. The exposure times are; (a) 8.7 ms, (b-d) 700 ms. The sample was skin tissue. Scale bars in the Figs represent 200 μm.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Extending Whole Slide Imaging: Color Darkfield Internal Reflection Illumination (DIRI) for Biological Applications

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0167774

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Brightfield image and red, green, and blue darkfield internal reflection illumination (DIRI) images of tissue microarray (TMA) sample. (a) Illuminated by brightfield, (b) red, (c) green, and (d) blue. All images were taken with UplanSapo 40× oil (NA 0.95) using the VC50 color camera. The exposure times are; (a) 8.7 ms, (b-d) 700 ms. The sample was skin tissue. Scale bars in the Figs represent 200 μm.

    Article Snippet: We show the advantages of darkfield microscopy using real samples. shows a brightfield image of cheek cells using UPlanSApo 60× oil, numerical aperture (NA) 1.35 (Olympus, Tokyo, Japan), with an extended magnification lens of 2.5×.

    Techniques: Microarray, Mass Spectrometry

    a) Fluorescence and b) darkfield images of a cell membrane after acoustic rupturing and staining with fluorescently tagged phalloidin. The phalloidin binds specifically to F-actin subunits and stains the actin network supporting the membrane in the fluorescent image.

    Journal: Nano letters

    Article Title: Insights from a Nanoparticle Minuet: Two-Dimensional Membrane Profiling through Silver Plasmon Ruler Tracking

    doi: 10.1021/nl903350f

    Figure Lengend Snippet: a) Fluorescence and b) darkfield images of a cell membrane after acoustic rupturing and staining with fluorescently tagged phalloidin. The phalloidin binds specifically to F-actin subunits and stains the actin network supporting the membrane in the fluorescent image.

    Article Snippet: Our experimental set-up is based on a conventional inverted darkfield microscope (Olympus IX71) and is illustrated in .

    Techniques: Fluorescence, Staining

    Experimental set-up for polarization resolved plasmon coupling microscopy (PRPCM). a) In a microscope with darkfield configuration the samples are illuminated with unpolarized light with alternating excitation wavelengths. The light scattered from individual nanoparticle dimers is collected with a 100x objective and then split into two othogonal polarization channels which are reimaged on two translated regions of an electron multiplying charged coupled device (EMCCD). The intensities I 1 and I 2 on the two polarization channels in each frame n are used to calculate the reduced linear dichroism P and the total intensities of two subsequent frames are used to calculate the intensity ratio R . b) Image of silver plasmon rulers bound to a HeLa membrane on two orthogonal polarization channels. c) Trajectory of an individual plasmon ruler marked in b). The figure shows the scattering image at t = 0 and the fitted position of the maximum as function of time as blue trace.

    Journal: Nano letters

    Article Title: Insights from a Nanoparticle Minuet: Two-Dimensional Membrane Profiling through Silver Plasmon Ruler Tracking

    doi: 10.1021/nl903350f

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Experimental set-up for polarization resolved plasmon coupling microscopy (PRPCM). a) In a microscope with darkfield configuration the samples are illuminated with unpolarized light with alternating excitation wavelengths. The light scattered from individual nanoparticle dimers is collected with a 100x objective and then split into two othogonal polarization channels which are reimaged on two translated regions of an electron multiplying charged coupled device (EMCCD). The intensities I 1 and I 2 on the two polarization channels in each frame n are used to calculate the reduced linear dichroism P and the total intensities of two subsequent frames are used to calculate the intensity ratio R . b) Image of silver plasmon rulers bound to a HeLa membrane on two orthogonal polarization channels. c) Trajectory of an individual plasmon ruler marked in b). The figure shows the scattering image at t = 0 and the fitted position of the maximum as function of time as blue trace.

    Article Snippet: Our experimental set-up is based on a conventional inverted darkfield microscope (Olympus IX71) and is illustrated in .

    Techniques: Microscopy