open 1r d pierre fabre dermo cosmétique personal care  (Pierre Fabre Group)

 
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    Pierre Fabre Group open 1r d pierre fabre dermo cosmétique personal care
    Open 1r D Pierre Fabre Dermo Cosmétique Personal Care, supplied by Pierre Fabre Group, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/open 1r d pierre fabre dermo cosmétique personal care/product/Pierre Fabre Group
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    Structured Review

    Siskiyou Corporation d1r
    Measures of action potential (AP) waveform in <t>D1R</t> + MSNs from male and female mice during pre-adolescence. a AP amplitude. For a – g , n (cells/mice) = 105/14 male (green circles), 106/12 female (purple circles); individual values for each neuron are plotted and are presented alongside a violin plot that includes the group median (solid line) as well as the upper and lower quartiles (dashed lines). b AP half-width. c Time elapsed from threshold to afterhyperpolarization (AHP) peak. d D1R + MSNs from female mice exhibited a significantly smaller maximum AHP amplitude compared to males [** p = 0.0038, unpaired t-test]. e Fast AHP (fAHP) amplitude was significantly smaller in female D1R + MSNs compared to male during pre-adolescence [** p = 0.0039, unpaired t-test]. f Medium AHP (mAHP) amplitude was significantly reduced in female D1R + MSNs compared to male [** p = 0.0017, unpaired t-test]. g D1R + MSNs from female mice exhibited a significantly smaller slow AHP (sAHP) amplitude compared to males [* p = 0.0111, unpaired t-test]. h Representative traces showing AP waveform 5 ms prior to threshold through the sAHP for both male (green) and female (purple) D1R + MSNs. Traces aligned at threshold
    D1r, supplied by Siskiyou Corporation, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    1) Product Images from "Sex differences in membrane properties and cellular excitability of dopamine D1 receptor-expressing neurons within the shell of the nucleus accumbens of pre- and mid-adolescent mice"

    Article Title: Sex differences in membrane properties and cellular excitability of dopamine D1 receptor-expressing neurons within the shell of the nucleus accumbens of pre- and mid-adolescent mice

    Journal: Biology of Sex Differences

    doi: 10.1186/s13293-024-00631-1

    Measures of action potential (AP) waveform in D1R + MSNs from male and female mice during pre-adolescence. a AP amplitude. For a – g , n (cells/mice) = 105/14 male (green circles), 106/12 female (purple circles); individual values for each neuron are plotted and are presented alongside a violin plot that includes the group median (solid line) as well as the upper and lower quartiles (dashed lines). b AP half-width. c Time elapsed from threshold to afterhyperpolarization (AHP) peak. d D1R + MSNs from female mice exhibited a significantly smaller maximum AHP amplitude compared to males [** p = 0.0038, unpaired t-test]. e Fast AHP (fAHP) amplitude was significantly smaller in female D1R + MSNs compared to male during pre-adolescence [** p = 0.0039, unpaired t-test]. f Medium AHP (mAHP) amplitude was significantly reduced in female D1R + MSNs compared to male [** p = 0.0017, unpaired t-test]. g D1R + MSNs from female mice exhibited a significantly smaller slow AHP (sAHP) amplitude compared to males [* p = 0.0111, unpaired t-test]. h Representative traces showing AP waveform 5 ms prior to threshold through the sAHP for both male (green) and female (purple) D1R + MSNs. Traces aligned at threshold
    Figure Legend Snippet: Measures of action potential (AP) waveform in D1R + MSNs from male and female mice during pre-adolescence. a AP amplitude. For a – g , n (cells/mice) = 105/14 male (green circles), 106/12 female (purple circles); individual values for each neuron are plotted and are presented alongside a violin plot that includes the group median (solid line) as well as the upper and lower quartiles (dashed lines). b AP half-width. c Time elapsed from threshold to afterhyperpolarization (AHP) peak. d D1R + MSNs from female mice exhibited a significantly smaller maximum AHP amplitude compared to males [** p = 0.0038, unpaired t-test]. e Fast AHP (fAHP) amplitude was significantly smaller in female D1R + MSNs compared to male during pre-adolescence [** p = 0.0039, unpaired t-test]. f Medium AHP (mAHP) amplitude was significantly reduced in female D1R + MSNs compared to male [** p = 0.0017, unpaired t-test]. g D1R + MSNs from female mice exhibited a significantly smaller slow AHP (sAHP) amplitude compared to males [* p = 0.0111, unpaired t-test]. h Representative traces showing AP waveform 5 ms prior to threshold through the sAHP for both male (green) and female (purple) D1R + MSNs. Traces aligned at threshold

    Techniques Used:

    Excitability of D1R + MSNs from male and female mice during pre-adolescence. a Significant effect of sex on the number of action potentials (APs) elicited in response to application of depolarizing current steps (50–500 pA) [**** p < 0.0001, 2way ANOVA] with a significant increase in the number of APs fired in female (purple circles) D1R + MSNs in response to a 250 pA current compared to male (green circles) D1R + MSNs [ # p = 0.0100, Šídák’s t-test]. Group mean and standard error of the mean are presented. For a , n (cells/mice) = 106/14 male, 106/12 female. b Representative traces of voltage response to 250 pA current for male (green) and female (purple) D1R + MSNs during pre-adolescence. c Overall maximum peak to peak frequency for males (green circles) and females (purple circles). For c , n (cells/mice) = 100/14 male, 101/12 female; individual values for each neuron are plotted and are presented alongside a violin plot that includes the group median (solid line) as well as the upper and lower quartiles (dashed lines). d Maximum peak to peak AP firing frequency in response to depolarizing current steps (150–550 pA) for males (green circles) and females (purple circles). Group mean and standard error of the mean are presented. For d , n (cells/mice) = 100/14 male, 101/12 female. e Significant interaction of sex with current amplitude on initial [*** p = 0.0006, mixed-effects analysis] and steady state [* p = 0.0475, 2way ANOVA] interspike intervals (ISI). For e , n (cells/mice) = male (94/14), female (93/12). Group mean and standard error of the mean are presented for males (green circles) and females (purple circles). f Spike frequency adaptation (SFA) during the current step that elicited the maximum number of APs in male (green circles; n = 97/14) and female (purple circles; n = 100/12) mice
    Figure Legend Snippet: Excitability of D1R + MSNs from male and female mice during pre-adolescence. a Significant effect of sex on the number of action potentials (APs) elicited in response to application of depolarizing current steps (50–500 pA) [**** p < 0.0001, 2way ANOVA] with a significant increase in the number of APs fired in female (purple circles) D1R + MSNs in response to a 250 pA current compared to male (green circles) D1R + MSNs [ # p = 0.0100, Šídák’s t-test]. Group mean and standard error of the mean are presented. For a , n (cells/mice) = 106/14 male, 106/12 female. b Representative traces of voltage response to 250 pA current for male (green) and female (purple) D1R + MSNs during pre-adolescence. c Overall maximum peak to peak frequency for males (green circles) and females (purple circles). For c , n (cells/mice) = 100/14 male, 101/12 female; individual values for each neuron are plotted and are presented alongside a violin plot that includes the group median (solid line) as well as the upper and lower quartiles (dashed lines). d Maximum peak to peak AP firing frequency in response to depolarizing current steps (150–550 pA) for males (green circles) and females (purple circles). Group mean and standard error of the mean are presented. For d , n (cells/mice) = 100/14 male, 101/12 female. e Significant interaction of sex with current amplitude on initial [*** p = 0.0006, mixed-effects analysis] and steady state [* p = 0.0475, 2way ANOVA] interspike intervals (ISI). For e , n (cells/mice) = male (94/14), female (93/12). Group mean and standard error of the mean are presented for males (green circles) and females (purple circles). f Spike frequency adaptation (SFA) during the current step that elicited the maximum number of APs in male (green circles; n = 97/14) and female (purple circles; n = 100/12) mice

    Techniques Used:

    Spontaneous D1R + MSN glutamatergic transmission during pre-adolescence. a Example traces of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) from male (green) and female mice (purple). b Average amplitude of sEPSCs in male (green circles) and female D1R + MSNs (purple circles). For b , n (cells/mice) = 70/14 male, 78/12 female; individual values for each neuron are plotted and are presented alongside a violin plot that includes the group median (solid line) as well as the upper and lower quartiles (dashed lines). c Cumulative frequency distribution of sEPSC event amplitudes for male (green circles) and female (purple circles). d Average frequency of D1R + MSN sEPSCs during pre-adolescence in males (green circles) and females (purple circles). For d , n (cells/mice) = 70/14 male, 78/12 female; individual values for each neuron are plotted and are presented alongside a violin plot that includes the group median (solid line) as well as the upper and lower quartiles (dashed lines). e Significant interaction of bin by sex for the cumulative frequency distribution of sEPSC interevent intervals for male (green circles) and female (purple circles) D1R + MSNs [**** p < 0.0001, 2way ANOVA]
    Figure Legend Snippet: Spontaneous D1R + MSN glutamatergic transmission during pre-adolescence. a Example traces of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) from male (green) and female mice (purple). b Average amplitude of sEPSCs in male (green circles) and female D1R + MSNs (purple circles). For b , n (cells/mice) = 70/14 male, 78/12 female; individual values for each neuron are plotted and are presented alongside a violin plot that includes the group median (solid line) as well as the upper and lower quartiles (dashed lines). c Cumulative frequency distribution of sEPSC event amplitudes for male (green circles) and female (purple circles). d Average frequency of D1R + MSN sEPSCs during pre-adolescence in males (green circles) and females (purple circles). For d , n (cells/mice) = 70/14 male, 78/12 female; individual values for each neuron are plotted and are presented alongside a violin plot that includes the group median (solid line) as well as the upper and lower quartiles (dashed lines). e Significant interaction of bin by sex for the cumulative frequency distribution of sEPSC interevent intervals for male (green circles) and female (purple circles) D1R + MSNs [**** p < 0.0001, 2way ANOVA]

    Techniques Used: Transmission Assay

    Membrane properties and cellular excitability of D1R + MSNs from male and female Drd1a -tdTomato mice during mid-adolescence. a Resting membrane potential (Em). For a – d , n (cells/mice) = 96/40 male (orange circles), 120/46 female (blue circles). For a – b individual values for each neuron are plotted and are presented alongside a violin plot that includes the group median (solid line) as well as the upper and lower quartiles (dashed lines). b Input resistance determined from a 150 ms − 20 pA current step. c Significant main effect of sex [*p = 0.0375, 2way ANOVA] on input resistance determined over a range of 300 ms hyperpolarizing current steps. For c – d , mean and standard error of the mean are presented. d Significant main effect of sex [* p = 0.0286, 2way ANOVA] and significant interaction of sex by step on membrane voltage change in response to application of 300 ms hyperpolarizing current steps [**** p < 0.0001, 2way ANOVA]. e Representative traces of voltage responses to current steps. f AP rheobase. For d – f , n (cells/mice) = 95/39 male (orange circles), 116/46 female (blue circles); individual values for each neuron are plotted and are presented alongside a violin plot that includes the group median (solid line) as well as the upper and lower quartiles (dashed lines). g Delay to action potential (AP). h AP threshold
    Figure Legend Snippet: Membrane properties and cellular excitability of D1R + MSNs from male and female Drd1a -tdTomato mice during mid-adolescence. a Resting membrane potential (Em). For a – d , n (cells/mice) = 96/40 male (orange circles), 120/46 female (blue circles). For a – b individual values for each neuron are plotted and are presented alongside a violin plot that includes the group median (solid line) as well as the upper and lower quartiles (dashed lines). b Input resistance determined from a 150 ms − 20 pA current step. c Significant main effect of sex [*p = 0.0375, 2way ANOVA] on input resistance determined over a range of 300 ms hyperpolarizing current steps. For c – d , mean and standard error of the mean are presented. d Significant main effect of sex [* p = 0.0286, 2way ANOVA] and significant interaction of sex by step on membrane voltage change in response to application of 300 ms hyperpolarizing current steps [**** p < 0.0001, 2way ANOVA]. e Representative traces of voltage responses to current steps. f AP rheobase. For d – f , n (cells/mice) = 95/39 male (orange circles), 116/46 female (blue circles); individual values for each neuron are plotted and are presented alongside a violin plot that includes the group median (solid line) as well as the upper and lower quartiles (dashed lines). g Delay to action potential (AP). h AP threshold

    Techniques Used: Membrane

    Measures of action potential (AP) waveform in D1R + MSNs from male and female mice during mid-adolescence. a AP amplitude. For a – g , n (cells/mice) = 95/39 male (orange circles), 116/46 female (blue circles); individual values for each neuron are plotted and are presented alongside a violin plot that includes the group median (solid line) as well as the upper and lower quartiles (dashed lines). b AP half-width was significantly longer in duration in D1R + MSNs from male mice than from female mice [* p = 0.0244, unpaired t-test]. c Time elapsed from threshold to afterhyperpolarization (AHP) peak. d Maximum AHP. e Fast AHP (fAHP). f Medium AHP (mAHP). g Slow AHP (sAHP). h Representative traces showing AP waveform 5 ms prior to threshold and through to 4 ms after threshold. Half-width depicted by dashed line for male (orange) and female (blue) traces as time elapsed from threshold to half amplitude. Traces aligned at threshold
    Figure Legend Snippet: Measures of action potential (AP) waveform in D1R + MSNs from male and female mice during mid-adolescence. a AP amplitude. For a – g , n (cells/mice) = 95/39 male (orange circles), 116/46 female (blue circles); individual values for each neuron are plotted and are presented alongside a violin plot that includes the group median (solid line) as well as the upper and lower quartiles (dashed lines). b AP half-width was significantly longer in duration in D1R + MSNs from male mice than from female mice [* p = 0.0244, unpaired t-test]. c Time elapsed from threshold to afterhyperpolarization (AHP) peak. d Maximum AHP. e Fast AHP (fAHP). f Medium AHP (mAHP). g Slow AHP (sAHP). h Representative traces showing AP waveform 5 ms prior to threshold and through to 4 ms after threshold. Half-width depicted by dashed line for male (orange) and female (blue) traces as time elapsed from threshold to half amplitude. Traces aligned at threshold

    Techniques Used:

    Excitability of D1R + MSNs from male and female mice during mid-adolescence. a Number of action potentials (APs) elicited in response to application of depolarizing current steps (50–500 pA) in male (orange circles) and female (blue circles). Group mean and standard error of the mean are presented. For a , n (cells/mice) = 96/40 male, 120/46 female. b Representative traces of voltage response to 250 pA current for male (orange) and female (blue) D1R + MSNs during mid-adolescence. c. Overall maximum peak to peak AP firing frequency for males (orange circles) and females (blue circles). For c , individual values for each neuron are plotted and are presented alongside a violin plot that includes the group median (solid line) as well as the upper and lower quartiles (dashed lines). For c – d , n (cells/mice) = 81/37 male, 103/45 female. d Maximum peak to peak AP firing frequency at each amplitude of current injected for male (orange circles) and female (blue circles) D1R + MSNs. Group mean and standard error of the mean are presented except for the 50 pA step during which only one female cell fired more than 2 APs. e Initial and steady state interspike intervals (ISIs) across a range of injected current amplitudes. Group mean and standard error of the mean are presented. For e , n (cells/mice) = 48/29 male (orange circles), 63/35 female (blue circles). f Spike frequency adaptation (SFA) during the current step that elicited the maximum number of APs in male (orange circles) and female (blue circles) mice. For f , n (cells/mice) = 68/35 male, 92/41 female; individual values for each neuron are plotted and are presented alongside a violin plot that includes the group median (solid line) as well as the upper and lower quartiles (dashed lines)
    Figure Legend Snippet: Excitability of D1R + MSNs from male and female mice during mid-adolescence. a Number of action potentials (APs) elicited in response to application of depolarizing current steps (50–500 pA) in male (orange circles) and female (blue circles). Group mean and standard error of the mean are presented. For a , n (cells/mice) = 96/40 male, 120/46 female. b Representative traces of voltage response to 250 pA current for male (orange) and female (blue) D1R + MSNs during mid-adolescence. c. Overall maximum peak to peak AP firing frequency for males (orange circles) and females (blue circles). For c , individual values for each neuron are plotted and are presented alongside a violin plot that includes the group median (solid line) as well as the upper and lower quartiles (dashed lines). For c – d , n (cells/mice) = 81/37 male, 103/45 female. d Maximum peak to peak AP firing frequency at each amplitude of current injected for male (orange circles) and female (blue circles) D1R + MSNs. Group mean and standard error of the mean are presented except for the 50 pA step during which only one female cell fired more than 2 APs. e Initial and steady state interspike intervals (ISIs) across a range of injected current amplitudes. Group mean and standard error of the mean are presented. For e , n (cells/mice) = 48/29 male (orange circles), 63/35 female (blue circles). f Spike frequency adaptation (SFA) during the current step that elicited the maximum number of APs in male (orange circles) and female (blue circles) mice. For f , n (cells/mice) = 68/35 male, 92/41 female; individual values for each neuron are plotted and are presented alongside a violin plot that includes the group median (solid line) as well as the upper and lower quartiles (dashed lines)

    Techniques Used: Injection

    Spontaneous D1R + MSN glutamatergic transmission in male and female mice during mid-adolescence. a Example traces of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) from male (orange) and female (blue) mice. b Amplitude of sEPSC in male (orange circles) and female D1R + MSNs (blue circles). For b , n (cells/mice) = 58/34 male, 67/36 female; individual values for each neuron are plotted and are presented alongside a violin plot that includes the group median (solid line) as well as the upper and lower quartiles (dashed lines). c Frequency distribution of sEPSC event amplitude for male (orange circles) and female (blue circles). d Frequency of D1R + MSN sEPSCs during pre-adolescence in males (orange circles) and females (blue circles). For d , n (cells/mice) = 58/34 male, 67/36 female; individual values for each neuron are plotted and are presented alongside a violin plot that includes the group median (solid line) as well as the upper and lower quartiles (dashed lines). e Frequency distribution of sEPSC interevent intervals for male (orange circles) and female (blue circles) D1R + MSNs
    Figure Legend Snippet: Spontaneous D1R + MSN glutamatergic transmission in male and female mice during mid-adolescence. a Example traces of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) from male (orange) and female (blue) mice. b Amplitude of sEPSC in male (orange circles) and female D1R + MSNs (blue circles). For b , n (cells/mice) = 58/34 male, 67/36 female; individual values for each neuron are plotted and are presented alongside a violin plot that includes the group median (solid line) as well as the upper and lower quartiles (dashed lines). c Frequency distribution of sEPSC event amplitude for male (orange circles) and female (blue circles). d Frequency of D1R + MSN sEPSCs during pre-adolescence in males (orange circles) and females (blue circles). For d , n (cells/mice) = 58/34 male, 67/36 female; individual values for each neuron are plotted and are presented alongside a violin plot that includes the group median (solid line) as well as the upper and lower quartiles (dashed lines). e Frequency distribution of sEPSC interevent intervals for male (orange circles) and female (blue circles) D1R + MSNs

    Techniques Used: Transmission Assay


    Structured Review

    Millipore d1r antagonist sch23390
    D1r Antagonist Sch23390, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    d1r antagonist sch 23390 r 7 chlor o 8 hydroxy 3 methyl 1 phenyl 2 3 4 5 tetrahydro 1h 3 benzazepine hydrochloride  (Millipore)

     
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    Millipore d1r antagonist sch 23390 r 7 chlor o 8 hydroxy 3 methyl 1 phenyl 2 3 4 5 tetrahydro 1h 3 benzazepine hydrochloride
    D1r Antagonist Sch 23390 R 7 Chlor O 8 Hydroxy 3 Methyl 1 Phenyl 2 3 4 5 Tetrahydro 1h 3 Benzazepine Hydrochloride, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    d1r antagonist sch 23390 r 7 chloro 8 hydroxy 3 methyl 1 phenyl 2 3 4 5 tetrahydro 1h 3 benzazepine hydrochloride  (Millipore)

     
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    Millipore d1r antagonist sch 23390 r 7 chloro 8 hydroxy 3 methyl 1 phenyl 2 3 4 5 tetrahydro 1h 3 benzazepine hydrochloride
    D1r Antagonist Sch 23390 R 7 Chloro 8 Hydroxy 3 Methyl 1 Phenyl 2 3 4 5 Tetrahydro 1h 3 Benzazepine Hydrochloride, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Millipore antibody against d1r
    Antibody Against D1r, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Sanofi zhaoling meng2 fei wang3 1r d
    Zhaoling Meng2 Fei Wang3 1r D, supplied by Sanofi, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    d1r  (New England Biolabs)


    Bioz Verified Symbol New England Biolabs is a verified supplier
    Bioz Manufacturer Symbol New England Biolabs manufactures this product  
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    New England Biolabs d1r
    ACC relative gene expression. Mean (±S.E.) relative mRNA levels of (A) oxtr (B) <t>d1r</t> , (C) d2r , (D) oprm1a , and (E) oprk1a expression for unsuccessfully breeding (nulligravid) paired females during week 2 and week 4 of cohabitation and successful breeders during week 2 (pregnant) and week 4 (lactating mothers) of cohabitation. Asterisks signify statistical significance; p ≤ 0.05 *, p < 0.01**, p < 0.001***.
    D1r, supplied by New England Biolabs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/d1r/product/New England Biolabs
    Average 86 stars, based on 1 article reviews
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    1) Product Images from "Re‐wiring of the bonded brain: Gene expression among pair bonded female prairie voles changes as they transition to motherhood"

    Article Title: Re‐wiring of the bonded brain: Gene expression among pair bonded female prairie voles changes as they transition to motherhood

    Journal: Genes, Brain, and Behavior

    doi: 10.1111/gbb.12906

    ACC relative gene expression. Mean (±S.E.) relative mRNA levels of (A) oxtr (B) d1r , (C) d2r , (D) oprm1a , and (E) oprk1a expression for unsuccessfully breeding (nulligravid) paired females during week 2 and week 4 of cohabitation and successful breeders during week 2 (pregnant) and week 4 (lactating mothers) of cohabitation. Asterisks signify statistical significance; p ≤ 0.05 *, p < 0.01**, p < 0.001***.
    Figure Legend Snippet: ACC relative gene expression. Mean (±S.E.) relative mRNA levels of (A) oxtr (B) d1r , (C) d2r , (D) oprm1a , and (E) oprk1a expression for unsuccessfully breeding (nulligravid) paired females during week 2 and week 4 of cohabitation and successful breeders during week 2 (pregnant) and week 4 (lactating mothers) of cohabitation. Asterisks signify statistical significance; p ≤ 0.05 *, p < 0.01**, p < 0.001***.

    Techniques Used: Expressing

    NAc relative gene expression. Mean (±S.E.) relative mRNA levels of (A) oxtr (B) d1r , (C) d2r , (D) oprm1a , and (E) oprk1a expression for unsuccessfully breeding (nulligravid) paired females during week 2 and week 4 of cohabitation and successful breeders during week 2 (pregnant) and week 4 (lactating mothers) of cohabitation. Asterisks signify statistical significance; p ≤ 0.05 *, p < 0.01**, p < 0.001***.
    Figure Legend Snippet: NAc relative gene expression. Mean (±S.E.) relative mRNA levels of (A) oxtr (B) d1r , (C) d2r , (D) oprm1a , and (E) oprk1a expression for unsuccessfully breeding (nulligravid) paired females during week 2 and week 4 of cohabitation and successful breeders during week 2 (pregnant) and week 4 (lactating mothers) of cohabitation. Asterisks signify statistical significance; p ≤ 0.05 *, p < 0.01**, p < 0.001***.

    Techniques Used: Expressing

    MPOA relative gene expression. Mean (±S.E.) relative mRNA levels of (A) oxtr (B) d1r , (C) d2r , (D) oprm1a , and (E) oprk1a expression for unsuccessfully breeding (nulligravid) paired females during week 2 and week 4 of cohabitation and successful breeders during week 2 (pregnant) and week 4 (lactating mothers) of cohabitation. Asterisks signify statistical significance; p ≤ 0.05 *, p < 0.01**, p < 0.001***.
    Figure Legend Snippet: MPOA relative gene expression. Mean (±S.E.) relative mRNA levels of (A) oxtr (B) d1r , (C) d2r , (D) oprm1a , and (E) oprk1a expression for unsuccessfully breeding (nulligravid) paired females during week 2 and week 4 of cohabitation and successful breeders during week 2 (pregnant) and week 4 (lactating mothers) of cohabitation. Asterisks signify statistical significance; p ≤ 0.05 *, p < 0.01**, p < 0.001***.

    Techniques Used: Expressing

    Dopaminergic receptor expression levels. Mean (±S.E.) relative mRNA levels of d1r and d2r expression for unsuccessfully breeding (nulligravid) paired females during week 2 and week 4 of cohabitation and successful breeders during week 2 (pregnant) and week 4 (lactating mothers) of cohabitation within the (A) NAc, (B) ACC, and the (C) MPOA. Asterisks signify statistical significance; p ≤ 0.05 *, p < 0.01**, p < 0.001***.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Dopaminergic receptor expression levels. Mean (±S.E.) relative mRNA levels of d1r and d2r expression for unsuccessfully breeding (nulligravid) paired females during week 2 and week 4 of cohabitation and successful breeders during week 2 (pregnant) and week 4 (lactating mothers) of cohabitation within the (A) NAc, (B) ACC, and the (C) MPOA. Asterisks signify statistical significance; p ≤ 0.05 *, p < 0.01**, p < 0.001***.

    Techniques Used: Expressing

    Gene expression correlation between the NAc and the ACC. Scatterplots of mRNA levels of (A) oxtr (B) d1r , (C) d2r , (D) oprm1a , and (E) oprk1a expression for unsuccessfully breeding females (triangles) and successfully breeding females (circles), with data grouped across weeks. Data points and regression lines colored red signify a statistically significant correlation with 95% confidence intervals corrected for multiple comparisons (α = 0.02).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Gene expression correlation between the NAc and the ACC. Scatterplots of mRNA levels of (A) oxtr (B) d1r , (C) d2r , (D) oprm1a , and (E) oprk1a expression for unsuccessfully breeding females (triangles) and successfully breeding females (circles), with data grouped across weeks. Data points and regression lines colored red signify a statistically significant correlation with 95% confidence intervals corrected for multiple comparisons (α = 0.02).

    Techniques Used: Expressing

    d1 receptor antagonism  (Tocris)


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    Tocris d1 receptor antagonism
    D1 Receptor Antagonism, supplied by Tocris, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    d1r antagonist  (Tocris)


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    Tocris d1r antagonist
    (A) Experimental paradigm for testing the role of enhanced striatal <t>D1</t> <t>receptor</t> signaling on motor behavior and SPN morphology in a model of PD. CT=cylinder test. (B) Locations of bilateral cannula placement in dorsal striatum of the three cohorts. CC=corpus callosum CPu= caudate putamen, LV= lateral ventricle, AP= anterior posterior (C) The dose of D1 receptor antagonist (SCH23390, 30 µg in 1 ul) delivered directly into the dorsal striatum of VGLUT3 KO mice was optimized to suppress locomotor activity to WT levels. Significant interaction by 2-way ANOVA ( cohort x hour ) with Bonferroni multiple comparisons. (D) One week after 6-OHDA injection, VGLUT3 KO mice infused with SCH23390 (purple striped bar) developed ipsilateral paw dominance similar to control WT mice infused with saline (black striped bar), while control VGLUT3 KO mice infused with saline (red striped bar) continued to show bilateral paw reaches as expected. Significant interaction by 2way ANOVA ( cohort x condition ) with Bonferroni multiple comparisons. (E) Percent decrease in dorsal striatal TH immunoreactivity one week after 6-OHDA injection is similar across all three animal groups, Kruskal-Wallis test. (F) At baseline, dSPN spine densities were similar between cohorts. After dopamine depletion, mature (mushroom) spine densities of VGLUT3 KO (D1 antagonist infused) were decreased similarly to the WT (saline infused), while control VGLUT3 KO (saline infused) showed the expected preserved mushroom spine densities. Significant interaction by 2-way ANOVA ( cohort x condition ) with Bonferroni multiple comparisons. (G) Baseline iSPN spine densities were similar between cohorts. After depletion, spine densities were significantly decreased across cohorts. All measurements taken during the day. No interaction by 2-way ANOVA ( cohort x condition ). Significant main effects of condition. *p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.005, ****p<0.0001, ns = not significant.
    D1r Antagonist, supplied by Tocris, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    1) Product Images from "Dopamine-mediated plasticity preserves excitatory connections to direct pathway striatal projection neurons and motor function in a mouse model of Parkinson’s disease"

    Article Title: Dopamine-mediated plasticity preserves excitatory connections to direct pathway striatal projection neurons and motor function in a mouse model of Parkinson’s disease

    Journal: bioRxiv

    doi: 10.1101/2024.05.28.596192

    (A) Experimental paradigm for testing the role of enhanced striatal D1 receptor signaling on motor behavior and SPN morphology in a model of PD. CT=cylinder test. (B) Locations of bilateral cannula placement in dorsal striatum of the three cohorts. CC=corpus callosum CPu= caudate putamen, LV= lateral ventricle, AP= anterior posterior (C) The dose of D1 receptor antagonist (SCH23390, 30 µg in 1 ul) delivered directly into the dorsal striatum of VGLUT3 KO mice was optimized to suppress locomotor activity to WT levels. Significant interaction by 2-way ANOVA ( cohort x hour ) with Bonferroni multiple comparisons. (D) One week after 6-OHDA injection, VGLUT3 KO mice infused with SCH23390 (purple striped bar) developed ipsilateral paw dominance similar to control WT mice infused with saline (black striped bar), while control VGLUT3 KO mice infused with saline (red striped bar) continued to show bilateral paw reaches as expected. Significant interaction by 2way ANOVA ( cohort x condition ) with Bonferroni multiple comparisons. (E) Percent decrease in dorsal striatal TH immunoreactivity one week after 6-OHDA injection is similar across all three animal groups, Kruskal-Wallis test. (F) At baseline, dSPN spine densities were similar between cohorts. After dopamine depletion, mature (mushroom) spine densities of VGLUT3 KO (D1 antagonist infused) were decreased similarly to the WT (saline infused), while control VGLUT3 KO (saline infused) showed the expected preserved mushroom spine densities. Significant interaction by 2-way ANOVA ( cohort x condition ) with Bonferroni multiple comparisons. (G) Baseline iSPN spine densities were similar between cohorts. After depletion, spine densities were significantly decreased across cohorts. All measurements taken during the day. No interaction by 2-way ANOVA ( cohort x condition ). Significant main effects of condition. *p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.005, ****p<0.0001, ns = not significant.
    Figure Legend Snippet: (A) Experimental paradigm for testing the role of enhanced striatal D1 receptor signaling on motor behavior and SPN morphology in a model of PD. CT=cylinder test. (B) Locations of bilateral cannula placement in dorsal striatum of the three cohorts. CC=corpus callosum CPu= caudate putamen, LV= lateral ventricle, AP= anterior posterior (C) The dose of D1 receptor antagonist (SCH23390, 30 µg in 1 ul) delivered directly into the dorsal striatum of VGLUT3 KO mice was optimized to suppress locomotor activity to WT levels. Significant interaction by 2-way ANOVA ( cohort x hour ) with Bonferroni multiple comparisons. (D) One week after 6-OHDA injection, VGLUT3 KO mice infused with SCH23390 (purple striped bar) developed ipsilateral paw dominance similar to control WT mice infused with saline (black striped bar), while control VGLUT3 KO mice infused with saline (red striped bar) continued to show bilateral paw reaches as expected. Significant interaction by 2way ANOVA ( cohort x condition ) with Bonferroni multiple comparisons. (E) Percent decrease in dorsal striatal TH immunoreactivity one week after 6-OHDA injection is similar across all three animal groups, Kruskal-Wallis test. (F) At baseline, dSPN spine densities were similar between cohorts. After dopamine depletion, mature (mushroom) spine densities of VGLUT3 KO (D1 antagonist infused) were decreased similarly to the WT (saline infused), while control VGLUT3 KO (saline infused) showed the expected preserved mushroom spine densities. Significant interaction by 2-way ANOVA ( cohort x condition ) with Bonferroni multiple comparisons. (G) Baseline iSPN spine densities were similar between cohorts. After depletion, spine densities were significantly decreased across cohorts. All measurements taken during the day. No interaction by 2-way ANOVA ( cohort x condition ). Significant main effects of condition. *p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.005, ****p<0.0001, ns = not significant.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Injection, Saline

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    Measures of action potential (AP) waveform in <t>D1R</t> + MSNs from male and female mice during pre-adolescence. a AP amplitude. For a – g , n (cells/mice) = 105/14 male (green circles), 106/12 female (purple circles); individual values for each neuron are plotted and are presented alongside a violin plot that includes the group median (solid line) as well as the upper and lower quartiles (dashed lines). b AP half-width. c Time elapsed from threshold to afterhyperpolarization (AHP) peak. d D1R + MSNs from female mice exhibited a significantly smaller maximum AHP amplitude compared to males [** p = 0.0038, unpaired t-test]. e Fast AHP (fAHP) amplitude was significantly smaller in female D1R + MSNs compared to male during pre-adolescence [** p = 0.0039, unpaired t-test]. f Medium AHP (mAHP) amplitude was significantly reduced in female D1R + MSNs compared to male [** p = 0.0017, unpaired t-test]. g D1R + MSNs from female mice exhibited a significantly smaller slow AHP (sAHP) amplitude compared to males [* p = 0.0111, unpaired t-test]. h Representative traces showing AP waveform 5 ms prior to threshold through the sAHP for both male (green) and female (purple) D1R + MSNs. Traces aligned at threshold
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    Measures of action potential (AP) waveform in <t>D1R</t> + MSNs from male and female mice during pre-adolescence. a AP amplitude. For a – g , n (cells/mice) = 105/14 male (green circles), 106/12 female (purple circles); individual values for each neuron are plotted and are presented alongside a violin plot that includes the group median (solid line) as well as the upper and lower quartiles (dashed lines). b AP half-width. c Time elapsed from threshold to afterhyperpolarization (AHP) peak. d D1R + MSNs from female mice exhibited a significantly smaller maximum AHP amplitude compared to males [** p = 0.0038, unpaired t-test]. e Fast AHP (fAHP) amplitude was significantly smaller in female D1R + MSNs compared to male during pre-adolescence [** p = 0.0039, unpaired t-test]. f Medium AHP (mAHP) amplitude was significantly reduced in female D1R + MSNs compared to male [** p = 0.0017, unpaired t-test]. g D1R + MSNs from female mice exhibited a significantly smaller slow AHP (sAHP) amplitude compared to males [* p = 0.0111, unpaired t-test]. h Representative traces showing AP waveform 5 ms prior to threshold through the sAHP for both male (green) and female (purple) D1R + MSNs. Traces aligned at threshold
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    Measures of action potential (AP) waveform in <t>D1R</t> + MSNs from male and female mice during pre-adolescence. a AP amplitude. For a – g , n (cells/mice) = 105/14 male (green circles), 106/12 female (purple circles); individual values for each neuron are plotted and are presented alongside a violin plot that includes the group median (solid line) as well as the upper and lower quartiles (dashed lines). b AP half-width. c Time elapsed from threshold to afterhyperpolarization (AHP) peak. d D1R + MSNs from female mice exhibited a significantly smaller maximum AHP amplitude compared to males [** p = 0.0038, unpaired t-test]. e Fast AHP (fAHP) amplitude was significantly smaller in female D1R + MSNs compared to male during pre-adolescence [** p = 0.0039, unpaired t-test]. f Medium AHP (mAHP) amplitude was significantly reduced in female D1R + MSNs compared to male [** p = 0.0017, unpaired t-test]. g D1R + MSNs from female mice exhibited a significantly smaller slow AHP (sAHP) amplitude compared to males [* p = 0.0111, unpaired t-test]. h Representative traces showing AP waveform 5 ms prior to threshold through the sAHP for both male (green) and female (purple) D1R + MSNs. Traces aligned at threshold
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    ACC relative gene expression. Mean (±S.E.) relative mRNA levels of (A) oxtr (B) <t>d1r</t> , (C) d2r , (D) oprm1a , and (E) oprk1a expression for unsuccessfully breeding (nulligravid) paired females during week 2 and week 4 of cohabitation and successful breeders during week 2 (pregnant) and week 4 (lactating mothers) of cohabitation. Asterisks signify statistical significance; p ≤ 0.05 *, p < 0.01**, p < 0.001***.
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    ACC relative gene expression. Mean (±S.E.) relative mRNA levels of (A) oxtr (B) <t>d1r</t> , (C) d2r , (D) oprm1a , and (E) oprk1a expression for unsuccessfully breeding (nulligravid) paired females during week 2 and week 4 of cohabitation and successful breeders during week 2 (pregnant) and week 4 (lactating mothers) of cohabitation. Asterisks signify statistical significance; p ≤ 0.05 *, p < 0.01**, p < 0.001***.
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    Tocris d1r antagonist
    (A) Experimental paradigm for testing the role of enhanced striatal <t>D1</t> <t>receptor</t> signaling on motor behavior and SPN morphology in a model of PD. CT=cylinder test. (B) Locations of bilateral cannula placement in dorsal striatum of the three cohorts. CC=corpus callosum CPu= caudate putamen, LV= lateral ventricle, AP= anterior posterior (C) The dose of D1 receptor antagonist (SCH23390, 30 µg in 1 ul) delivered directly into the dorsal striatum of VGLUT3 KO mice was optimized to suppress locomotor activity to WT levels. Significant interaction by 2-way ANOVA ( cohort x hour ) with Bonferroni multiple comparisons. (D) One week after 6-OHDA injection, VGLUT3 KO mice infused with SCH23390 (purple striped bar) developed ipsilateral paw dominance similar to control WT mice infused with saline (black striped bar), while control VGLUT3 KO mice infused with saline (red striped bar) continued to show bilateral paw reaches as expected. Significant interaction by 2way ANOVA ( cohort x condition ) with Bonferroni multiple comparisons. (E) Percent decrease in dorsal striatal TH immunoreactivity one week after 6-OHDA injection is similar across all three animal groups, Kruskal-Wallis test. (F) At baseline, dSPN spine densities were similar between cohorts. After dopamine depletion, mature (mushroom) spine densities of VGLUT3 KO (D1 antagonist infused) were decreased similarly to the WT (saline infused), while control VGLUT3 KO (saline infused) showed the expected preserved mushroom spine densities. Significant interaction by 2-way ANOVA ( cohort x condition ) with Bonferroni multiple comparisons. (G) Baseline iSPN spine densities were similar between cohorts. After depletion, spine densities were significantly decreased across cohorts. All measurements taken during the day. No interaction by 2-way ANOVA ( cohort x condition ). Significant main effects of condition. *p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.005, ****p<0.0001, ns = not significant.
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    Image Search Results


    Measures of action potential (AP) waveform in D1R + MSNs from male and female mice during pre-adolescence. a AP amplitude. For a – g , n (cells/mice) = 105/14 male (green circles), 106/12 female (purple circles); individual values for each neuron are plotted and are presented alongside a violin plot that includes the group median (solid line) as well as the upper and lower quartiles (dashed lines). b AP half-width. c Time elapsed from threshold to afterhyperpolarization (AHP) peak. d D1R + MSNs from female mice exhibited a significantly smaller maximum AHP amplitude compared to males [** p = 0.0038, unpaired t-test]. e Fast AHP (fAHP) amplitude was significantly smaller in female D1R + MSNs compared to male during pre-adolescence [** p = 0.0039, unpaired t-test]. f Medium AHP (mAHP) amplitude was significantly reduced in female D1R + MSNs compared to male [** p = 0.0017, unpaired t-test]. g D1R + MSNs from female mice exhibited a significantly smaller slow AHP (sAHP) amplitude compared to males [* p = 0.0111, unpaired t-test]. h Representative traces showing AP waveform 5 ms prior to threshold through the sAHP for both male (green) and female (purple) D1R + MSNs. Traces aligned at threshold

    Journal: Biology of Sex Differences

    Article Title: Sex differences in membrane properties and cellular excitability of dopamine D1 receptor-expressing neurons within the shell of the nucleus accumbens of pre- and mid-adolescent mice

    doi: 10.1186/s13293-024-00631-1

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Measures of action potential (AP) waveform in D1R + MSNs from male and female mice during pre-adolescence. a AP amplitude. For a – g , n (cells/mice) = 105/14 male (green circles), 106/12 female (purple circles); individual values for each neuron are plotted and are presented alongside a violin plot that includes the group median (solid line) as well as the upper and lower quartiles (dashed lines). b AP half-width. c Time elapsed from threshold to afterhyperpolarization (AHP) peak. d D1R + MSNs from female mice exhibited a significantly smaller maximum AHP amplitude compared to males [** p = 0.0038, unpaired t-test]. e Fast AHP (fAHP) amplitude was significantly smaller in female D1R + MSNs compared to male during pre-adolescence [** p = 0.0039, unpaired t-test]. f Medium AHP (mAHP) amplitude was significantly reduced in female D1R + MSNs compared to male [** p = 0.0017, unpaired t-test]. g D1R + MSNs from female mice exhibited a significantly smaller slow AHP (sAHP) amplitude compared to males [* p = 0.0111, unpaired t-test]. h Representative traces showing AP waveform 5 ms prior to threshold through the sAHP for both male (green) and female (purple) D1R + MSNs. Traces aligned at threshold

    Article Snippet: Cells were identified as D1R + by the presence of epifluorescent illumination of tdTomato using the MRK200 Modular Imaging system (Siskiyou Corporation).

    Techniques:

    Excitability of D1R + MSNs from male and female mice during pre-adolescence. a Significant effect of sex on the number of action potentials (APs) elicited in response to application of depolarizing current steps (50–500 pA) [**** p < 0.0001, 2way ANOVA] with a significant increase in the number of APs fired in female (purple circles) D1R + MSNs in response to a 250 pA current compared to male (green circles) D1R + MSNs [ # p = 0.0100, Šídák’s t-test]. Group mean and standard error of the mean are presented. For a , n (cells/mice) = 106/14 male, 106/12 female. b Representative traces of voltage response to 250 pA current for male (green) and female (purple) D1R + MSNs during pre-adolescence. c Overall maximum peak to peak frequency for males (green circles) and females (purple circles). For c , n (cells/mice) = 100/14 male, 101/12 female; individual values for each neuron are plotted and are presented alongside a violin plot that includes the group median (solid line) as well as the upper and lower quartiles (dashed lines). d Maximum peak to peak AP firing frequency in response to depolarizing current steps (150–550 pA) for males (green circles) and females (purple circles). Group mean and standard error of the mean are presented. For d , n (cells/mice) = 100/14 male, 101/12 female. e Significant interaction of sex with current amplitude on initial [*** p = 0.0006, mixed-effects analysis] and steady state [* p = 0.0475, 2way ANOVA] interspike intervals (ISI). For e , n (cells/mice) = male (94/14), female (93/12). Group mean and standard error of the mean are presented for males (green circles) and females (purple circles). f Spike frequency adaptation (SFA) during the current step that elicited the maximum number of APs in male (green circles; n = 97/14) and female (purple circles; n = 100/12) mice

    Journal: Biology of Sex Differences

    Article Title: Sex differences in membrane properties and cellular excitability of dopamine D1 receptor-expressing neurons within the shell of the nucleus accumbens of pre- and mid-adolescent mice

    doi: 10.1186/s13293-024-00631-1

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Excitability of D1R + MSNs from male and female mice during pre-adolescence. a Significant effect of sex on the number of action potentials (APs) elicited in response to application of depolarizing current steps (50–500 pA) [**** p < 0.0001, 2way ANOVA] with a significant increase in the number of APs fired in female (purple circles) D1R + MSNs in response to a 250 pA current compared to male (green circles) D1R + MSNs [ # p = 0.0100, Šídák’s t-test]. Group mean and standard error of the mean are presented. For a , n (cells/mice) = 106/14 male, 106/12 female. b Representative traces of voltage response to 250 pA current for male (green) and female (purple) D1R + MSNs during pre-adolescence. c Overall maximum peak to peak frequency for males (green circles) and females (purple circles). For c , n (cells/mice) = 100/14 male, 101/12 female; individual values for each neuron are plotted and are presented alongside a violin plot that includes the group median (solid line) as well as the upper and lower quartiles (dashed lines). d Maximum peak to peak AP firing frequency in response to depolarizing current steps (150–550 pA) for males (green circles) and females (purple circles). Group mean and standard error of the mean are presented. For d , n (cells/mice) = 100/14 male, 101/12 female. e Significant interaction of sex with current amplitude on initial [*** p = 0.0006, mixed-effects analysis] and steady state [* p = 0.0475, 2way ANOVA] interspike intervals (ISI). For e , n (cells/mice) = male (94/14), female (93/12). Group mean and standard error of the mean are presented for males (green circles) and females (purple circles). f Spike frequency adaptation (SFA) during the current step that elicited the maximum number of APs in male (green circles; n = 97/14) and female (purple circles; n = 100/12) mice

    Article Snippet: Cells were identified as D1R + by the presence of epifluorescent illumination of tdTomato using the MRK200 Modular Imaging system (Siskiyou Corporation).

    Techniques:

    Spontaneous D1R + MSN glutamatergic transmission during pre-adolescence. a Example traces of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) from male (green) and female mice (purple). b Average amplitude of sEPSCs in male (green circles) and female D1R + MSNs (purple circles). For b , n (cells/mice) = 70/14 male, 78/12 female; individual values for each neuron are plotted and are presented alongside a violin plot that includes the group median (solid line) as well as the upper and lower quartiles (dashed lines). c Cumulative frequency distribution of sEPSC event amplitudes for male (green circles) and female (purple circles). d Average frequency of D1R + MSN sEPSCs during pre-adolescence in males (green circles) and females (purple circles). For d , n (cells/mice) = 70/14 male, 78/12 female; individual values for each neuron are plotted and are presented alongside a violin plot that includes the group median (solid line) as well as the upper and lower quartiles (dashed lines). e Significant interaction of bin by sex for the cumulative frequency distribution of sEPSC interevent intervals for male (green circles) and female (purple circles) D1R + MSNs [**** p < 0.0001, 2way ANOVA]

    Journal: Biology of Sex Differences

    Article Title: Sex differences in membrane properties and cellular excitability of dopamine D1 receptor-expressing neurons within the shell of the nucleus accumbens of pre- and mid-adolescent mice

    doi: 10.1186/s13293-024-00631-1

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Spontaneous D1R + MSN glutamatergic transmission during pre-adolescence. a Example traces of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) from male (green) and female mice (purple). b Average amplitude of sEPSCs in male (green circles) and female D1R + MSNs (purple circles). For b , n (cells/mice) = 70/14 male, 78/12 female; individual values for each neuron are plotted and are presented alongside a violin plot that includes the group median (solid line) as well as the upper and lower quartiles (dashed lines). c Cumulative frequency distribution of sEPSC event amplitudes for male (green circles) and female (purple circles). d Average frequency of D1R + MSN sEPSCs during pre-adolescence in males (green circles) and females (purple circles). For d , n (cells/mice) = 70/14 male, 78/12 female; individual values for each neuron are plotted and are presented alongside a violin plot that includes the group median (solid line) as well as the upper and lower quartiles (dashed lines). e Significant interaction of bin by sex for the cumulative frequency distribution of sEPSC interevent intervals for male (green circles) and female (purple circles) D1R + MSNs [**** p < 0.0001, 2way ANOVA]

    Article Snippet: Cells were identified as D1R + by the presence of epifluorescent illumination of tdTomato using the MRK200 Modular Imaging system (Siskiyou Corporation).

    Techniques: Transmission Assay

    Membrane properties and cellular excitability of D1R + MSNs from male and female Drd1a -tdTomato mice during mid-adolescence. a Resting membrane potential (Em). For a – d , n (cells/mice) = 96/40 male (orange circles), 120/46 female (blue circles). For a – b individual values for each neuron are plotted and are presented alongside a violin plot that includes the group median (solid line) as well as the upper and lower quartiles (dashed lines). b Input resistance determined from a 150 ms − 20 pA current step. c Significant main effect of sex [*p = 0.0375, 2way ANOVA] on input resistance determined over a range of 300 ms hyperpolarizing current steps. For c – d , mean and standard error of the mean are presented. d Significant main effect of sex [* p = 0.0286, 2way ANOVA] and significant interaction of sex by step on membrane voltage change in response to application of 300 ms hyperpolarizing current steps [**** p < 0.0001, 2way ANOVA]. e Representative traces of voltage responses to current steps. f AP rheobase. For d – f , n (cells/mice) = 95/39 male (orange circles), 116/46 female (blue circles); individual values for each neuron are plotted and are presented alongside a violin plot that includes the group median (solid line) as well as the upper and lower quartiles (dashed lines). g Delay to action potential (AP). h AP threshold

    Journal: Biology of Sex Differences

    Article Title: Sex differences in membrane properties and cellular excitability of dopamine D1 receptor-expressing neurons within the shell of the nucleus accumbens of pre- and mid-adolescent mice

    doi: 10.1186/s13293-024-00631-1

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Membrane properties and cellular excitability of D1R + MSNs from male and female Drd1a -tdTomato mice during mid-adolescence. a Resting membrane potential (Em). For a – d , n (cells/mice) = 96/40 male (orange circles), 120/46 female (blue circles). For a – b individual values for each neuron are plotted and are presented alongside a violin plot that includes the group median (solid line) as well as the upper and lower quartiles (dashed lines). b Input resistance determined from a 150 ms − 20 pA current step. c Significant main effect of sex [*p = 0.0375, 2way ANOVA] on input resistance determined over a range of 300 ms hyperpolarizing current steps. For c – d , mean and standard error of the mean are presented. d Significant main effect of sex [* p = 0.0286, 2way ANOVA] and significant interaction of sex by step on membrane voltage change in response to application of 300 ms hyperpolarizing current steps [**** p < 0.0001, 2way ANOVA]. e Representative traces of voltage responses to current steps. f AP rheobase. For d – f , n (cells/mice) = 95/39 male (orange circles), 116/46 female (blue circles); individual values for each neuron are plotted and are presented alongside a violin plot that includes the group median (solid line) as well as the upper and lower quartiles (dashed lines). g Delay to action potential (AP). h AP threshold

    Article Snippet: Cells were identified as D1R + by the presence of epifluorescent illumination of tdTomato using the MRK200 Modular Imaging system (Siskiyou Corporation).

    Techniques: Membrane

    Measures of action potential (AP) waveform in D1R + MSNs from male and female mice during mid-adolescence. a AP amplitude. For a – g , n (cells/mice) = 95/39 male (orange circles), 116/46 female (blue circles); individual values for each neuron are plotted and are presented alongside a violin plot that includes the group median (solid line) as well as the upper and lower quartiles (dashed lines). b AP half-width was significantly longer in duration in D1R + MSNs from male mice than from female mice [* p = 0.0244, unpaired t-test]. c Time elapsed from threshold to afterhyperpolarization (AHP) peak. d Maximum AHP. e Fast AHP (fAHP). f Medium AHP (mAHP). g Slow AHP (sAHP). h Representative traces showing AP waveform 5 ms prior to threshold and through to 4 ms after threshold. Half-width depicted by dashed line for male (orange) and female (blue) traces as time elapsed from threshold to half amplitude. Traces aligned at threshold

    Journal: Biology of Sex Differences

    Article Title: Sex differences in membrane properties and cellular excitability of dopamine D1 receptor-expressing neurons within the shell of the nucleus accumbens of pre- and mid-adolescent mice

    doi: 10.1186/s13293-024-00631-1

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Measures of action potential (AP) waveform in D1R + MSNs from male and female mice during mid-adolescence. a AP amplitude. For a – g , n (cells/mice) = 95/39 male (orange circles), 116/46 female (blue circles); individual values for each neuron are plotted and are presented alongside a violin plot that includes the group median (solid line) as well as the upper and lower quartiles (dashed lines). b AP half-width was significantly longer in duration in D1R + MSNs from male mice than from female mice [* p = 0.0244, unpaired t-test]. c Time elapsed from threshold to afterhyperpolarization (AHP) peak. d Maximum AHP. e Fast AHP (fAHP). f Medium AHP (mAHP). g Slow AHP (sAHP). h Representative traces showing AP waveform 5 ms prior to threshold and through to 4 ms after threshold. Half-width depicted by dashed line for male (orange) and female (blue) traces as time elapsed from threshold to half amplitude. Traces aligned at threshold

    Article Snippet: Cells were identified as D1R + by the presence of epifluorescent illumination of tdTomato using the MRK200 Modular Imaging system (Siskiyou Corporation).

    Techniques:

    Excitability of D1R + MSNs from male and female mice during mid-adolescence. a Number of action potentials (APs) elicited in response to application of depolarizing current steps (50–500 pA) in male (orange circles) and female (blue circles). Group mean and standard error of the mean are presented. For a , n (cells/mice) = 96/40 male, 120/46 female. b Representative traces of voltage response to 250 pA current for male (orange) and female (blue) D1R + MSNs during mid-adolescence. c. Overall maximum peak to peak AP firing frequency for males (orange circles) and females (blue circles). For c , individual values for each neuron are plotted and are presented alongside a violin plot that includes the group median (solid line) as well as the upper and lower quartiles (dashed lines). For c – d , n (cells/mice) = 81/37 male, 103/45 female. d Maximum peak to peak AP firing frequency at each amplitude of current injected for male (orange circles) and female (blue circles) D1R + MSNs. Group mean and standard error of the mean are presented except for the 50 pA step during which only one female cell fired more than 2 APs. e Initial and steady state interspike intervals (ISIs) across a range of injected current amplitudes. Group mean and standard error of the mean are presented. For e , n (cells/mice) = 48/29 male (orange circles), 63/35 female (blue circles). f Spike frequency adaptation (SFA) during the current step that elicited the maximum number of APs in male (orange circles) and female (blue circles) mice. For f , n (cells/mice) = 68/35 male, 92/41 female; individual values for each neuron are plotted and are presented alongside a violin plot that includes the group median (solid line) as well as the upper and lower quartiles (dashed lines)

    Journal: Biology of Sex Differences

    Article Title: Sex differences in membrane properties and cellular excitability of dopamine D1 receptor-expressing neurons within the shell of the nucleus accumbens of pre- and mid-adolescent mice

    doi: 10.1186/s13293-024-00631-1

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Excitability of D1R + MSNs from male and female mice during mid-adolescence. a Number of action potentials (APs) elicited in response to application of depolarizing current steps (50–500 pA) in male (orange circles) and female (blue circles). Group mean and standard error of the mean are presented. For a , n (cells/mice) = 96/40 male, 120/46 female. b Representative traces of voltage response to 250 pA current for male (orange) and female (blue) D1R + MSNs during mid-adolescence. c. Overall maximum peak to peak AP firing frequency for males (orange circles) and females (blue circles). For c , individual values for each neuron are plotted and are presented alongside a violin plot that includes the group median (solid line) as well as the upper and lower quartiles (dashed lines). For c – d , n (cells/mice) = 81/37 male, 103/45 female. d Maximum peak to peak AP firing frequency at each amplitude of current injected for male (orange circles) and female (blue circles) D1R + MSNs. Group mean and standard error of the mean are presented except for the 50 pA step during which only one female cell fired more than 2 APs. e Initial and steady state interspike intervals (ISIs) across a range of injected current amplitudes. Group mean and standard error of the mean are presented. For e , n (cells/mice) = 48/29 male (orange circles), 63/35 female (blue circles). f Spike frequency adaptation (SFA) during the current step that elicited the maximum number of APs in male (orange circles) and female (blue circles) mice. For f , n (cells/mice) = 68/35 male, 92/41 female; individual values for each neuron are plotted and are presented alongside a violin plot that includes the group median (solid line) as well as the upper and lower quartiles (dashed lines)

    Article Snippet: Cells were identified as D1R + by the presence of epifluorescent illumination of tdTomato using the MRK200 Modular Imaging system (Siskiyou Corporation).

    Techniques: Injection

    Spontaneous D1R + MSN glutamatergic transmission in male and female mice during mid-adolescence. a Example traces of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) from male (orange) and female (blue) mice. b Amplitude of sEPSC in male (orange circles) and female D1R + MSNs (blue circles). For b , n (cells/mice) = 58/34 male, 67/36 female; individual values for each neuron are plotted and are presented alongside a violin plot that includes the group median (solid line) as well as the upper and lower quartiles (dashed lines). c Frequency distribution of sEPSC event amplitude for male (orange circles) and female (blue circles). d Frequency of D1R + MSN sEPSCs during pre-adolescence in males (orange circles) and females (blue circles). For d , n (cells/mice) = 58/34 male, 67/36 female; individual values for each neuron are plotted and are presented alongside a violin plot that includes the group median (solid line) as well as the upper and lower quartiles (dashed lines). e Frequency distribution of sEPSC interevent intervals for male (orange circles) and female (blue circles) D1R + MSNs

    Journal: Biology of Sex Differences

    Article Title: Sex differences in membrane properties and cellular excitability of dopamine D1 receptor-expressing neurons within the shell of the nucleus accumbens of pre- and mid-adolescent mice

    doi: 10.1186/s13293-024-00631-1

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Spontaneous D1R + MSN glutamatergic transmission in male and female mice during mid-adolescence. a Example traces of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) from male (orange) and female (blue) mice. b Amplitude of sEPSC in male (orange circles) and female D1R + MSNs (blue circles). For b , n (cells/mice) = 58/34 male, 67/36 female; individual values for each neuron are plotted and are presented alongside a violin plot that includes the group median (solid line) as well as the upper and lower quartiles (dashed lines). c Frequency distribution of sEPSC event amplitude for male (orange circles) and female (blue circles). d Frequency of D1R + MSN sEPSCs during pre-adolescence in males (orange circles) and females (blue circles). For d , n (cells/mice) = 58/34 male, 67/36 female; individual values for each neuron are plotted and are presented alongside a violin plot that includes the group median (solid line) as well as the upper and lower quartiles (dashed lines). e Frequency distribution of sEPSC interevent intervals for male (orange circles) and female (blue circles) D1R + MSNs

    Article Snippet: Cells were identified as D1R + by the presence of epifluorescent illumination of tdTomato using the MRK200 Modular Imaging system (Siskiyou Corporation).

    Techniques: Transmission Assay

    ACC relative gene expression. Mean (±S.E.) relative mRNA levels of (A) oxtr (B) d1r , (C) d2r , (D) oprm1a , and (E) oprk1a expression for unsuccessfully breeding (nulligravid) paired females during week 2 and week 4 of cohabitation and successful breeders during week 2 (pregnant) and week 4 (lactating mothers) of cohabitation. Asterisks signify statistical significance; p ≤ 0.05 *, p < 0.01**, p < 0.001***.

    Journal: Genes, Brain, and Behavior

    Article Title: Re‐wiring of the bonded brain: Gene expression among pair bonded female prairie voles changes as they transition to motherhood

    doi: 10.1111/gbb.12906

    Figure Lengend Snippet: ACC relative gene expression. Mean (±S.E.) relative mRNA levels of (A) oxtr (B) d1r , (C) d2r , (D) oprm1a , and (E) oprk1a expression for unsuccessfully breeding (nulligravid) paired females during week 2 and week 4 of cohabitation and successful breeders during week 2 (pregnant) and week 4 (lactating mothers) of cohabitation. Asterisks signify statistical significance; p ≤ 0.05 *, p < 0.01**, p < 0.001***.

    Article Snippet: RNA (NAc: 180 ng, ACC: 182 ng, MPOA: 288 ng) was reverse‐transcribed into cDNA following manufacturer's protocol for the LunaScript® RT SuperMix Kit (New England BioLabs E3010) to examine the mRNA expression for oxtr , d1r , d2r , oprm1a , and oprk1a within our brain regions of interest for each experimental group.

    Techniques: Expressing

    NAc relative gene expression. Mean (±S.E.) relative mRNA levels of (A) oxtr (B) d1r , (C) d2r , (D) oprm1a , and (E) oprk1a expression for unsuccessfully breeding (nulligravid) paired females during week 2 and week 4 of cohabitation and successful breeders during week 2 (pregnant) and week 4 (lactating mothers) of cohabitation. Asterisks signify statistical significance; p ≤ 0.05 *, p < 0.01**, p < 0.001***.

    Journal: Genes, Brain, and Behavior

    Article Title: Re‐wiring of the bonded brain: Gene expression among pair bonded female prairie voles changes as they transition to motherhood

    doi: 10.1111/gbb.12906

    Figure Lengend Snippet: NAc relative gene expression. Mean (±S.E.) relative mRNA levels of (A) oxtr (B) d1r , (C) d2r , (D) oprm1a , and (E) oprk1a expression for unsuccessfully breeding (nulligravid) paired females during week 2 and week 4 of cohabitation and successful breeders during week 2 (pregnant) and week 4 (lactating mothers) of cohabitation. Asterisks signify statistical significance; p ≤ 0.05 *, p < 0.01**, p < 0.001***.

    Article Snippet: RNA (NAc: 180 ng, ACC: 182 ng, MPOA: 288 ng) was reverse‐transcribed into cDNA following manufacturer's protocol for the LunaScript® RT SuperMix Kit (New England BioLabs E3010) to examine the mRNA expression for oxtr , d1r , d2r , oprm1a , and oprk1a within our brain regions of interest for each experimental group.

    Techniques: Expressing

    MPOA relative gene expression. Mean (±S.E.) relative mRNA levels of (A) oxtr (B) d1r , (C) d2r , (D) oprm1a , and (E) oprk1a expression for unsuccessfully breeding (nulligravid) paired females during week 2 and week 4 of cohabitation and successful breeders during week 2 (pregnant) and week 4 (lactating mothers) of cohabitation. Asterisks signify statistical significance; p ≤ 0.05 *, p < 0.01**, p < 0.001***.

    Journal: Genes, Brain, and Behavior

    Article Title: Re‐wiring of the bonded brain: Gene expression among pair bonded female prairie voles changes as they transition to motherhood

    doi: 10.1111/gbb.12906

    Figure Lengend Snippet: MPOA relative gene expression. Mean (±S.E.) relative mRNA levels of (A) oxtr (B) d1r , (C) d2r , (D) oprm1a , and (E) oprk1a expression for unsuccessfully breeding (nulligravid) paired females during week 2 and week 4 of cohabitation and successful breeders during week 2 (pregnant) and week 4 (lactating mothers) of cohabitation. Asterisks signify statistical significance; p ≤ 0.05 *, p < 0.01**, p < 0.001***.

    Article Snippet: RNA (NAc: 180 ng, ACC: 182 ng, MPOA: 288 ng) was reverse‐transcribed into cDNA following manufacturer's protocol for the LunaScript® RT SuperMix Kit (New England BioLabs E3010) to examine the mRNA expression for oxtr , d1r , d2r , oprm1a , and oprk1a within our brain regions of interest for each experimental group.

    Techniques: Expressing

    Dopaminergic receptor expression levels. Mean (±S.E.) relative mRNA levels of d1r and d2r expression for unsuccessfully breeding (nulligravid) paired females during week 2 and week 4 of cohabitation and successful breeders during week 2 (pregnant) and week 4 (lactating mothers) of cohabitation within the (A) NAc, (B) ACC, and the (C) MPOA. Asterisks signify statistical significance; p ≤ 0.05 *, p < 0.01**, p < 0.001***.

    Journal: Genes, Brain, and Behavior

    Article Title: Re‐wiring of the bonded brain: Gene expression among pair bonded female prairie voles changes as they transition to motherhood

    doi: 10.1111/gbb.12906

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Dopaminergic receptor expression levels. Mean (±S.E.) relative mRNA levels of d1r and d2r expression for unsuccessfully breeding (nulligravid) paired females during week 2 and week 4 of cohabitation and successful breeders during week 2 (pregnant) and week 4 (lactating mothers) of cohabitation within the (A) NAc, (B) ACC, and the (C) MPOA. Asterisks signify statistical significance; p ≤ 0.05 *, p < 0.01**, p < 0.001***.

    Article Snippet: RNA (NAc: 180 ng, ACC: 182 ng, MPOA: 288 ng) was reverse‐transcribed into cDNA following manufacturer's protocol for the LunaScript® RT SuperMix Kit (New England BioLabs E3010) to examine the mRNA expression for oxtr , d1r , d2r , oprm1a , and oprk1a within our brain regions of interest for each experimental group.

    Techniques: Expressing

    Gene expression correlation between the NAc and the ACC. Scatterplots of mRNA levels of (A) oxtr (B) d1r , (C) d2r , (D) oprm1a , and (E) oprk1a expression for unsuccessfully breeding females (triangles) and successfully breeding females (circles), with data grouped across weeks. Data points and regression lines colored red signify a statistically significant correlation with 95% confidence intervals corrected for multiple comparisons (α = 0.02).

    Journal: Genes, Brain, and Behavior

    Article Title: Re‐wiring of the bonded brain: Gene expression among pair bonded female prairie voles changes as they transition to motherhood

    doi: 10.1111/gbb.12906

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Gene expression correlation between the NAc and the ACC. Scatterplots of mRNA levels of (A) oxtr (B) d1r , (C) d2r , (D) oprm1a , and (E) oprk1a expression for unsuccessfully breeding females (triangles) and successfully breeding females (circles), with data grouped across weeks. Data points and regression lines colored red signify a statistically significant correlation with 95% confidence intervals corrected for multiple comparisons (α = 0.02).

    Article Snippet: RNA (NAc: 180 ng, ACC: 182 ng, MPOA: 288 ng) was reverse‐transcribed into cDNA following manufacturer's protocol for the LunaScript® RT SuperMix Kit (New England BioLabs E3010) to examine the mRNA expression for oxtr , d1r , d2r , oprm1a , and oprk1a within our brain regions of interest for each experimental group.

    Techniques: Expressing

    (A) Experimental paradigm for testing the role of enhanced striatal D1 receptor signaling on motor behavior and SPN morphology in a model of PD. CT=cylinder test. (B) Locations of bilateral cannula placement in dorsal striatum of the three cohorts. CC=corpus callosum CPu= caudate putamen, LV= lateral ventricle, AP= anterior posterior (C) The dose of D1 receptor antagonist (SCH23390, 30 µg in 1 ul) delivered directly into the dorsal striatum of VGLUT3 KO mice was optimized to suppress locomotor activity to WT levels. Significant interaction by 2-way ANOVA ( cohort x hour ) with Bonferroni multiple comparisons. (D) One week after 6-OHDA injection, VGLUT3 KO mice infused with SCH23390 (purple striped bar) developed ipsilateral paw dominance similar to control WT mice infused with saline (black striped bar), while control VGLUT3 KO mice infused with saline (red striped bar) continued to show bilateral paw reaches as expected. Significant interaction by 2way ANOVA ( cohort x condition ) with Bonferroni multiple comparisons. (E) Percent decrease in dorsal striatal TH immunoreactivity one week after 6-OHDA injection is similar across all three animal groups, Kruskal-Wallis test. (F) At baseline, dSPN spine densities were similar between cohorts. After dopamine depletion, mature (mushroom) spine densities of VGLUT3 KO (D1 antagonist infused) were decreased similarly to the WT (saline infused), while control VGLUT3 KO (saline infused) showed the expected preserved mushroom spine densities. Significant interaction by 2-way ANOVA ( cohort x condition ) with Bonferroni multiple comparisons. (G) Baseline iSPN spine densities were similar between cohorts. After depletion, spine densities were significantly decreased across cohorts. All measurements taken during the day. No interaction by 2-way ANOVA ( cohort x condition ). Significant main effects of condition. *p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.005, ****p<0.0001, ns = not significant.

    Journal: bioRxiv

    Article Title: Dopamine-mediated plasticity preserves excitatory connections to direct pathway striatal projection neurons and motor function in a mouse model of Parkinson’s disease

    doi: 10.1101/2024.05.28.596192

    Figure Lengend Snippet: (A) Experimental paradigm for testing the role of enhanced striatal D1 receptor signaling on motor behavior and SPN morphology in a model of PD. CT=cylinder test. (B) Locations of bilateral cannula placement in dorsal striatum of the three cohorts. CC=corpus callosum CPu= caudate putamen, LV= lateral ventricle, AP= anterior posterior (C) The dose of D1 receptor antagonist (SCH23390, 30 µg in 1 ul) delivered directly into the dorsal striatum of VGLUT3 KO mice was optimized to suppress locomotor activity to WT levels. Significant interaction by 2-way ANOVA ( cohort x hour ) with Bonferroni multiple comparisons. (D) One week after 6-OHDA injection, VGLUT3 KO mice infused with SCH23390 (purple striped bar) developed ipsilateral paw dominance similar to control WT mice infused with saline (black striped bar), while control VGLUT3 KO mice infused with saline (red striped bar) continued to show bilateral paw reaches as expected. Significant interaction by 2way ANOVA ( cohort x condition ) with Bonferroni multiple comparisons. (E) Percent decrease in dorsal striatal TH immunoreactivity one week after 6-OHDA injection is similar across all three animal groups, Kruskal-Wallis test. (F) At baseline, dSPN spine densities were similar between cohorts. After dopamine depletion, mature (mushroom) spine densities of VGLUT3 KO (D1 antagonist infused) were decreased similarly to the WT (saline infused), while control VGLUT3 KO (saline infused) showed the expected preserved mushroom spine densities. Significant interaction by 2-way ANOVA ( cohort x condition ) with Bonferroni multiple comparisons. (G) Baseline iSPN spine densities were similar between cohorts. After depletion, spine densities were significantly decreased across cohorts. All measurements taken during the day. No interaction by 2-way ANOVA ( cohort x condition ). Significant main effects of condition. *p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.005, ****p<0.0001, ns = not significant.

    Article Snippet: To infuse saline or D1R antagonist (Tocris, SCH-23390) bilaterally into the striatum, mice were first pinned down with a cloth, had their internal dummy cannulas removed, and placed the internal infusion cannula (Plastics One, 42595) into the right and left guide cannula.

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Injection, Saline