concanavalin a  (Millipore)

 
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    Name:
    Concanamycin A
    Description:
    Chemical structure macrolide
    Catalog Number:
    c9705
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    Structured Review

    Millipore concanavalin a
    Concanamycin A
    Chemical structure macrolide
    https://www.bioz.com/result/concanavalin a/product/Millipore
    Average 99 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    concanavalin a - by Bioz Stars, 2021-03
    99/100 stars

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    1) Product Images from "Suppression of ovine lymphocyte activation by Teladorsagia circumcincta larval excretory-secretory products"

    Article Title: Suppression of ovine lymphocyte activation by Teladorsagia circumcincta larval excretory-secretory products

    Journal: Veterinary Research

    doi: 10.1186/1297-9716-44-70

    Gene expression in helminth-free PBMC cultures following stimulation with Con A  ±  Tci - L4 - ES.  PBMC from helminth-naïve lambs cultured for 72 h with PBS alone (PBS), 5 μg/mL Con A alone (ConA + PBS), 5 μg/mL Con A + 30 μg/mL  Tci -L4-ES (ConA + ES) or 5 μg/mL Con A + 30 μg/mL heat-inactivated  Tci -L4-ES (ConA + HiES). Relative gene expression of  IL - 10  (A) ,  TGF -β 1  (B) ,  IL - 4  (C)  and  IFN -γ  (D)  was determined by quantitative RT-PCR. Data represents mean ± SEM from three replicate cultures from three helminth-free lambs. ** P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Gene expression in helminth-free PBMC cultures following stimulation with Con A ± Tci - L4 - ES.  PBMC from helminth-naïve lambs cultured for 72 h with PBS alone (PBS), 5 μg/mL Con A alone (ConA + PBS), 5 μg/mL Con A + 30 μg/mL Tci -L4-ES (ConA + ES) or 5 μg/mL Con A + 30 μg/mL heat-inactivated Tci -L4-ES (ConA + HiES). Relative gene expression of IL - 10 (A) , TGF -β 1 (B) , IL - 4 (C)  and IFN -γ (D) was determined by quantitative RT-PCR. Data represents mean ± SEM from three replicate cultures from three helminth-free lambs. ** P

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Cell Culture, Quantitative RT-PCR

    The relationship between  Tci -L4 - ES mediated lymphocyte suppression and  Tci - L4 - ES antigen - specific lymphocyte proliferation.  Five helminth-naïve lambs were trickle infected with 2000  T .  circumcincta  L3 three times a week for six weeks. PBMC were harvested at 0 and 6 weeks from the start of infection and cultured for 72 h with PBS alone, 5 μg/mL Con A, 5 μg/mL Con A + 30 μg/mL  Tci -L4-ES (Con A + ES) or 30 μg/mL heat-inactivated  Tci -L4-ES (HiES). Proliferation was assessed at 72 h by measurement of [ 3 H] thymidine incorporation. Levels of IL-10 present in the cell culture supernatants at 54 h were determined by ELISA.  (A)  Percentage suppression of Con A-induced proliferation of PBMC by ES.  (B)  Proliferation of PBMC in response to HiES expressed as a stimulation index (SI).  (C)  Concentration of IL-10 in culture supernatants of PBMC incubated with Con A + ES.  (D)  Concentration of IL-10 in culture supernatants of PBMC incubated with HiES. Pre = PBMC harvested before infection; Post = PBMC harvested after infection. Open squares represent data from the same animal. * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: The relationship between Tci -L4 - ES mediated lymphocyte suppression and Tci - L4 - ES antigen - specific lymphocyte proliferation. Five helminth-naïve lambs were trickle infected with 2000 T . circumcincta L3 three times a week for six weeks. PBMC were harvested at 0 and 6 weeks from the start of infection and cultured for 72 h with PBS alone, 5 μg/mL Con A, 5 μg/mL Con A + 30 μg/mL Tci -L4-ES (Con A + ES) or 30 μg/mL heat-inactivated Tci -L4-ES (HiES). Proliferation was assessed at 72 h by measurement of [ 3 H] thymidine incorporation. Levels of IL-10 present in the cell culture supernatants at 54 h were determined by ELISA. (A)  Percentage suppression of Con A-induced proliferation of PBMC by ES. (B)  Proliferation of PBMC in response to HiES expressed as a stimulation index (SI). (C)  Concentration of IL-10 in culture supernatants of PBMC incubated with Con A + ES. (D)  Concentration of IL-10 in culture supernatants of PBMC incubated with HiES. Pre = PBMC harvested before infection; Post = PBMC harvested after infection. Open squares represent data from the same animal. * P

    Techniques Used: Infection, Cell Culture, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Concentration Assay, Incubation

    The effects of  T.  circumcincta  infection on  Tci - L4 - ES mediated lymphocyte suppression.  Seven helminth-naïve lambs were trickle infected with 2000  T .  circumcincta  L3 three times a week for four weeks. PBMC were harvested at 0, 2, 4 and 6 weeks from the start of infection and cultured for 72 h with PBS alone (PBS), 5 μg/mL Con A (Con A + PBS) or 5 μg/mL Con A + 15 μg/mL  Tci -L4-ES (Con A + ES). Proliferation was assessed at 72 h by measurement of [ 3 H] thymidine incorporation. Levels of cytokine present in the cell culture supernatants at 54 h were determined by ELISA.  (A)  Faecal egg count (FEC) data over the course of the experimental infection.  (B)  Proliferation of PBMC in response to PBS, Con A + PBS and Con A + ES during experimental  T .  circumcincta  infection.  (C)  Levels of serum  Tci -L4-ES-specific IgA and IgG during experimental  T .  circumcincta  infection.  (D - F)  Concentrations of IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-γ in PBMC cultures supernatants. Data represents mean ± SEM.  a  significant difference between Con A + PBS vs. PBS-stimulated cultures;  b  significant difference between ConA + ES vs. PBS-stimulated cultures;  c  significant difference between Con A + PBS vs. Con A + ES stimulated cultures; * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: The effects of T. circumcincta infection on Tci - L4 - ES mediated lymphocyte suppression.  Seven helminth-naïve lambs were trickle infected with 2000 T . circumcincta  L3 three times a week for four weeks. PBMC were harvested at 0, 2, 4 and 6 weeks from the start of infection and cultured for 72 h with PBS alone (PBS), 5 μg/mL Con A (Con A + PBS) or 5 μg/mL Con A + 15 μg/mL Tci -L4-ES (Con A + ES). Proliferation was assessed at 72 h by measurement of [ 3 H] thymidine incorporation. Levels of cytokine present in the cell culture supernatants at 54 h were determined by ELISA. (A)  Faecal egg count (FEC) data over the course of the experimental infection. (B)  Proliferation of PBMC in response to PBS, Con A + PBS and Con A + ES during experimental T . circumcincta infection. (C)  Levels of serum Tci -L4-ES-specific IgA and IgG during experimental T . circumcincta  infection. (D - F) Concentrations of IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-γ in PBMC cultures supernatants. Data represents mean ± SEM. a  significant difference between Con A + PBS vs. PBS-stimulated cultures; b  significant difference between ConA + ES vs. PBS-stimulated cultures; c  significant difference between Con A + PBS vs. Con A + ES stimulated cultures; * P

    Techniques Used: Infection, Cell Culture, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    Expression of Foxp3 and CD25 by CD4 +  T cells stimulated with Con A  ±  Tci - L4 - ES.  (A)  Representative plots of Foxp3 and CD25 expression by CD4 +  T cells from PBMC from helminth-naïve lambs cultured for 72 h with PBS alone (PBS), 5 μg/mL Con A alone (ConA + PBS), 5 μg/mL Con A + 30 μg/mL  Tci -L4-ES (ConA + ES) or 5 μg/mL Con A + 30 μg/mL heat-inactivated  Tci -L4-ES (ConA + HiES). Numbers indicate the percentage of CD4 +  cells co-expressing Foxp3 (top panel) or CD25 (middle panel) and the percentage of CD4 + CD25 +  cells co-expressing Foxp3 (lower panel).  (B)  Percentages of total PBMC, CD4 +  cells and CD4 + CD25 +  cells co-expressing Foxp3, and percentages of total PBMC and CD4 +  cells co-expressing CD25. Data represents mean ± SEM from three replicate cultures from three helminth-free lambs. * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Expression of Foxp3 and CD25 by CD4 + T cells stimulated with Con A ± Tci - L4 - ES. (A)  Representative plots of Foxp3 and CD25 expression by CD4 +  T cells from PBMC from helminth-naïve lambs cultured for 72 h with PBS alone (PBS), 5 μg/mL Con A alone (ConA + PBS), 5 μg/mL Con A + 30 μg/mL Tci -L4-ES (ConA + ES) or 5 μg/mL Con A + 30 μg/mL heat-inactivated Tci -L4-ES (ConA + HiES). Numbers indicate the percentage of CD4 +  cells co-expressing Foxp3 (top panel) or CD25 (middle panel) and the percentage of CD4 + CD25 +  cells co-expressing Foxp3 (lower panel). (B)  Percentages of total PBMC, CD4 +  cells and CD4 + CD25 +  cells co-expressing Foxp3, and percentages of total PBMC and CD4 +  cells co-expressing CD25. Data represents mean ± SEM from three replicate cultures from three helminth-free lambs. * P

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Cell Culture

    Suppression of mitogen-induced and antigen - specific lymphocyte proliferation by  Tci - L4 - ES.  To determine the effects of  Tci -L4-ES on mitogen-induced proliferation, PBMC from helminth-naïve lambs were cultured with Con A in the presence or absence of  Tci -L4-ES (ES) or heat-inactivated  Tci -L4-ES (HiES). To determine the effects of  Tci -L4-ES on antigen-specific proliferation, PBMC from ovalbumin (OVA)-immunized lambs were cultured with OVA in the presence or absence of ES or HiES. Proliferation assessed by incorporation of [3H] thymidine and expressed as counts per minute (cpm).  (A)  Proliferation of helminth-naïve PBMC at 72 h following culture with PBS alone (PBS), 5 μg/mL Con A (ConA + PBS), 5 μg/mL Con A + 30 μg/mL ES (ConA + ES) or 5 μg/mL Con A + 30 μg/mL HiES (ConA + HiES).  (B)  PBMC proliferation at 72 h following culture with 5 μg/mL Con A + 0, 3.75, 7.5, 15 and 30 μg/mL ES.  (C - D)  Caspase activity in PBMC cell lysates and Annexin V/7AAD staining in PBMC following 72 h culture with PBS, Con A, Con A + ES or Con A + HiES.  (E)  Proliferation of PBMC from ovalbumin-immunized lambs at 120 h following culture with PBS alone (PBS), 5 μg/mL Con A (ConA + PBS), 5 μg/mL Con A + 30 μg/mL ES (ConA + ES), 10 μg/mL OVA (OVA), 10 μg/mL OVA + 30 μg/mL ES (OVA + ES) or 10 μg/mL OVA + 30 μg/mL HiES (OVA + HiES). Data represents mean ± SEM from three replicate cultures from three helminth-free lambs. * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Suppression of mitogen-induced and antigen - specific lymphocyte proliferation by Tci - L4 - ES.  To determine the effects of Tci -L4-ES on mitogen-induced proliferation, PBMC from helminth-naïve lambs were cultured with Con A in the presence or absence of Tci -L4-ES (ES) or heat-inactivated Tci -L4-ES (HiES). To determine the effects of Tci -L4-ES on antigen-specific proliferation, PBMC from ovalbumin (OVA)-immunized lambs were cultured with OVA in the presence or absence of ES or HiES. Proliferation assessed by incorporation of [3H] thymidine and expressed as counts per minute (cpm). (A) Proliferation of helminth-naïve PBMC at 72 h following culture with PBS alone (PBS), 5 μg/mL Con A (ConA + PBS), 5 μg/mL Con A + 30 μg/mL ES (ConA + ES) or 5 μg/mL Con A + 30 μg/mL HiES (ConA + HiES). (B)  PBMC proliferation at 72 h following culture with 5 μg/mL Con A + 0, 3.75, 7.5, 15 and 30 μg/mL ES. (C - D)  Caspase activity in PBMC cell lysates and Annexin V/7AAD staining in PBMC following 72 h culture with PBS, Con A, Con A + ES or Con A + HiES. (E)  Proliferation of PBMC from ovalbumin-immunized lambs at 120 h following culture with PBS alone (PBS), 5 μg/mL Con A (ConA + PBS), 5 μg/mL Con A + 30 μg/mL ES (ConA + ES), 10 μg/mL OVA (OVA), 10 μg/mL OVA + 30 μg/mL ES (OVA + ES) or 10 μg/mL OVA + 30 μg/mL HiES (OVA + HiES). Data represents mean ± SEM from three replicate cultures from three helminth-free lambs. * P

    Techniques Used: Cell Culture, Activity Assay, Staining

    Time - course of Foxp3 expression in helminth - free PBMC cultures following stimulation with Con A  ±  Tci - L4 - ES.  PBMC from a helminth-naïve lamb were cultured with PBS alone (PBS), 5 μg/mL Con A alone (ConA + PBS) or 5 μg/mL Con A + 30 μg/mL  Tci -L4-ES (ConA + ES). The proportion of Foxp3 positive cells in total PBMC  (A)  and CD4 +  T cell populations  (B)  was determined at 0, 24 h, 48 h and 72 h by flow cytometry. Data represents mean ± SEM from three replicate cultures.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Time - course of Foxp3 expression in helminth - free PBMC cultures following stimulation with Con A ± Tci - L4 - ES.  PBMC from a helminth-naïve lamb were cultured with PBS alone (PBS), 5 μg/mL Con A alone (ConA + PBS) or 5 μg/mL Con A + 30 μg/mL Tci -L4-ES (ConA + ES). The proportion of Foxp3 positive cells in total PBMC (A)  and CD4 +  T cell populations (B)  was determined at 0, 24 h, 48 h and 72 h by flow cytometry. Data represents mean ± SEM from three replicate cultures.

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Cell Culture, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry

    2) Product Images from "Effects of Maharishi Amrit Kalash 5 as an Ayurvedic herbal food supplement on immune functions in aged mice"

    Article Title: Effects of Maharishi Amrit Kalash 5 as an Ayurvedic herbal food supplement on immune functions in aged mice

    Journal: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-5-8

    Effects of Maharishi Amrit Kalash 5 (MAK5) on IFN-γ production of splenic lymphocytes stimulated by Con A in mice . Splenic lymphocytes from control (old and young) and MAK5 treated mice were incubated with Con A (5 μg/ml) for 24 h. Production of IFN-γ in culture supernatants was measured by ELISA system. Values are means ± SE. a*  P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of Maharishi Amrit Kalash 5 (MAK5) on IFN-γ production of splenic lymphocytes stimulated by Con A in mice . Splenic lymphocytes from control (old and young) and MAK5 treated mice were incubated with Con A (5 μg/ml) for 24 h. Production of IFN-γ in culture supernatants was measured by ELISA system. Values are means ± SE. a* P

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Incubation, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    Effects of Maharishi Amrit Kalash 5 (MAK5) on the Con A stimulated splenocyte proliferative response in mice . Splenic lymphocytes from control (old and young) and MAK5 treated mice were incubated with Con A (10 μg/ml) for 72 h. The proliferation of splenic lymphocytes was assayed using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT). Values are means ± SE. a**  P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of Maharishi Amrit Kalash 5 (MAK5) on the Con A stimulated splenocyte proliferative response in mice . Splenic lymphocytes from control (old and young) and MAK5 treated mice were incubated with Con A (10 μg/ml) for 72 h. The proliferation of splenic lymphocytes was assayed using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT). Values are means ± SE. a** P

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Incubation, MTT Assay

    Effects of Maharishi Amrit Kalash 5 (MAK5) on IL-2 production of splenic lymphocytes stimulated by Con A in mice . Splenic lymphocytes from control (old and young) and MAK5 treated mice were incubated with Con A (5 μg/ml) for 24 h. Production of IL-2 in culture supernatants was measured by ELISA system. Values are means ± SE. a*  P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of Maharishi Amrit Kalash 5 (MAK5) on IL-2 production of splenic lymphocytes stimulated by Con A in mice . Splenic lymphocytes from control (old and young) and MAK5 treated mice were incubated with Con A (5 μg/ml) for 24 h. Production of IL-2 in culture supernatants was measured by ELISA system. Values are means ± SE. a* P

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Incubation, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    Effects of Maharishi Amrit Kalash 5 (MAK5) on IL-4 production of splenic lymphocytes stimulated by Con A in mice . Splenic lymphocytes from control (old and young) and MAK5 treated mice were incubated with Con A (5 μg/ml) for 24 h. Production of IL-4 in culture supernatants was measured by ELISA system. Values are means ± SE. a*  P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of Maharishi Amrit Kalash 5 (MAK5) on IL-4 production of splenic lymphocytes stimulated by Con A in mice . Splenic lymphocytes from control (old and young) and MAK5 treated mice were incubated with Con A (5 μg/ml) for 24 h. Production of IL-4 in culture supernatants was measured by ELISA system. Values are means ± SE. a* P

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Incubation, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    3) Product Images from "The resveratrol analogue, HS-1793, enhances the effects of radiation therapy through the induction of anti-tumor immunity in mammary tumor growth"

    Article Title: The resveratrol analogue, HS-1793, enhances the effects of radiation therapy through the induction of anti-tumor immunity in mammary tumor growth

    Journal: International Journal of Oncology

    doi: 10.3892/ijo.2020.5017

    Effect of HS-1793 on IFN-γ expressing CD8 + T cells of irradiated tumor-bearing mice. After the final injections of HS-1793, splenocytes were analyzed for the expression of CD8 and intracellular IFN-γ by flow cytometer and ELISPOT assay. (A) Percentage gated cells of CD8 + T cells and IFN-γ producing CD8 + T cells were calculated. (B) Splenocytes (5×10 4 cells/well) were seeded in ImmunoSpot plates coated with anti-mouse IFN-γ antibody and incubated with stimulant cocktail. ImmunoSpot assay used to show the number of spot and the representative images in each condition. (C) Splenocytes were cultured with concanavalin A (5 µ g/ml) for 24 h and the amounts of IFN-γ in culture supernatants were determined by ELISA. Data reported as the means ± SD from 5 mice per group. # P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of HS-1793 on IFN-γ expressing CD8 + T cells of irradiated tumor-bearing mice. After the final injections of HS-1793, splenocytes were analyzed for the expression of CD8 and intracellular IFN-γ by flow cytometer and ELISPOT assay. (A) Percentage gated cells of CD8 + T cells and IFN-γ producing CD8 + T cells were calculated. (B) Splenocytes (5×10 4 cells/well) were seeded in ImmunoSpot plates coated with anti-mouse IFN-γ antibody and incubated with stimulant cocktail. ImmunoSpot assay used to show the number of spot and the representative images in each condition. (C) Splenocytes were cultured with concanavalin A (5 µ g/ml) for 24 h and the amounts of IFN-γ in culture supernatants were determined by ELISA. Data reported as the means ± SD from 5 mice per group. # P

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Irradiation, Mouse Assay, Flow Cytometry, Enzyme-linked Immunospot, Incubation, Cell Culture, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    Effect of HS-1793 on the proliferation and DNA damage of radiation induced lymphocytes in tumor-bearing mice. FM3A cells (2×10 6  cells/50  µ l) were inoculated subcutaneously into the right flanks of female C3H/He mice. At a tumor size of approximately 80-100 mm 3 , the mice were treated with intraperitoneal injections of HS-1793 (0.5 and 1 mg/kg) and were irradiated with 4 Gy. After 24 h, the mice were treated with HS-1793 twice a week for 3 weeks. (A) Con A-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation assay was performed with splenocytes isolated from each group at 3 weeks after the HS-1793 injection, and proliferation was measured on day 3 by the incorporation of BrdU during the final 24 h. (B) Comet assays were performed with splenocytes isolated from each group at 24 h after irradiation. The representative comet parameters (% DNA in tail, tail length, tail moment, and olive tail moment) and (C) the photomicrographs of comet length are presented for each condition. A minimum of 100 cells were analyzed using Metafer 4 software. Data reported as the means ± SD from 5 mice per group.  # P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of HS-1793 on the proliferation and DNA damage of radiation induced lymphocytes in tumor-bearing mice. FM3A cells (2×10 6 cells/50 µ l) were inoculated subcutaneously into the right flanks of female C3H/He mice. At a tumor size of approximately 80-100 mm 3 , the mice were treated with intraperitoneal injections of HS-1793 (0.5 and 1 mg/kg) and were irradiated with 4 Gy. After 24 h, the mice were treated with HS-1793 twice a week for 3 weeks. (A) Con A-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation assay was performed with splenocytes isolated from each group at 3 weeks after the HS-1793 injection, and proliferation was measured on day 3 by the incorporation of BrdU during the final 24 h. (B) Comet assays were performed with splenocytes isolated from each group at 24 h after irradiation. The representative comet parameters (% DNA in tail, tail length, tail moment, and olive tail moment) and (C) the photomicrographs of comet length are presented for each condition. A minimum of 100 cells were analyzed using Metafer 4 software. Data reported as the means ± SD from 5 mice per group. # P

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Irradiation, Lymphocyte Proliferation Assay, Isolation, Injection, Software

    Effect of HS-1793 on Tregs of irradiated tumor-bearing mice. After the final injections of HS-1793, splenocytes from aseptically removed spleen and paraffin-embedded sections of tumor tissue were prepared. (A) Splenocytes were cultured with concanavalin A (5 µ g/ml) for 24 h and the cultured supernatants were analyzed for cytokine concentrations by ELISA. (B) Splenocytes were analyzed for the expression of CD4, CD25 and intracellular FoxP3 by flow cytometry. The percent gated cells of FoxP3 + CD25 + cells among CD4 + T cells is shown. (C) Immunofluorescence staining (×400) for CD25 + T cell infiltration in tumor tissue. Data reported as the means ± SD from 5 mice per group. # P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of HS-1793 on Tregs of irradiated tumor-bearing mice. After the final injections of HS-1793, splenocytes from aseptically removed spleen and paraffin-embedded sections of tumor tissue were prepared. (A) Splenocytes were cultured with concanavalin A (5 µ g/ml) for 24 h and the cultured supernatants were analyzed for cytokine concentrations by ELISA. (B) Splenocytes were analyzed for the expression of CD4, CD25 and intracellular FoxP3 by flow cytometry. The percent gated cells of FoxP3 + CD25 + cells among CD4 + T cells is shown. (C) Immunofluorescence staining (×400) for CD25 + T cell infiltration in tumor tissue. Data reported as the means ± SD from 5 mice per group. # P

    Techniques Used: Irradiation, Mouse Assay, Cell Culture, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Expressing, Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence, Staining

    4) Product Images from "Antigen-specific suppression of cultured lymphocytes from patients with neurocysticercosis"

    Article Title: Antigen-specific suppression of cultured lymphocytes from patients with neurocysticercosis

    Journal: Clinical and Experimental Immunology

    doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2249.2001.01579.x

    Stimulation index (SI) of the lymphoproliferation assay obtained for cells incubated with (▪) phytohaemagglutinin (PHA, 10 µg/ml) and (░) concanavalin A (ConA, 50 µg/ml) for 3 days (10 individuals) or with (▪) pokeweed mitogen (PWM, 5 µg/ml) for 7 days (four individuals) in the presence or absence of antigen from the vesicular fluid of Taenia crassiceps (VF-Tcra) and from the membrane + scolex (M + S) of T. solium (M + S-Tso).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Stimulation index (SI) of the lymphoproliferation assay obtained for cells incubated with (▪) phytohaemagglutinin (PHA, 10 µg/ml) and (░) concanavalin A (ConA, 50 µg/ml) for 3 days (10 individuals) or with (▪) pokeweed mitogen (PWM, 5 µg/ml) for 7 days (four individuals) in the presence or absence of antigen from the vesicular fluid of Taenia crassiceps (VF-Tcra) and from the membrane + scolex (M + S) of T. solium (M + S-Tso).

    Techniques Used: Incubation

    5) Product Images from "Plumbagin Inhibits Proliferative and Inflammatory Responses of T Cells Independent of ROS Generation But by Modulating Intracellular Thiols"

    Article Title: Plumbagin Inhibits Proliferative and Inflammatory Responses of T Cells Independent of ROS Generation But by Modulating Intracellular Thiols

    Journal: Journal of cellular biochemistry

    doi: 10.1002/jcb.22620

    Antiproliferative effects of plumbagin were abrogated by thiol-containing antioxidants. Lymphocytes were stained with CFSE and were incubated with different antioxidants (GSH 10mM or NAC 10mM or DTT 100 µM or MnTBAP 100 µM or trolox 100 µM) for 2 h. The cells were stimulated with con A in presence or absence of plumbagin for 92 h at 37°C in a 5%CO 2 /99% air atmosphere. Cell proliferation was measured from CFSE dye dilution using a flowcytometer. Percent daughter cells were calculated using FCSexpress3 software. 95 Representative flowcytometric histograms showing effect of plumbagin on T-cell proliferation (A) and its modulation by thiol-containing antioxidants (B) and non-thiol antioxidants (C). The percentage of daughter cells in each group is shown in (D). Each bar shows mean ± SEM from three replicates and three such independent experiments were carried out.  * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Antiproliferative effects of plumbagin were abrogated by thiol-containing antioxidants. Lymphocytes were stained with CFSE and were incubated with different antioxidants (GSH 10mM or NAC 10mM or DTT 100 µM or MnTBAP 100 µM or trolox 100 µM) for 2 h. The cells were stimulated with con A in presence or absence of plumbagin for 92 h at 37°C in a 5%CO 2 /99% air atmosphere. Cell proliferation was measured from CFSE dye dilution using a flowcytometer. Percent daughter cells were calculated using FCSexpress3 software. 95 Representative flowcytometric histograms showing effect of plumbagin on T-cell proliferation (A) and its modulation by thiol-containing antioxidants (B) and non-thiol antioxidants (C). The percentage of daughter cells in each group is shown in (D). Each bar shows mean ± SEM from three replicates and three such independent experiments were carried out. * P

    Techniques Used: Staining, Incubation, Software

    Effect of thiol-containing antioxidants on cytokine production in plumbagin-treated lymphocytes stimulated with con A. Lymphocytes were incubated with different antioxidants (GSH or NAC) for 2 h. The cells were stimulated with con A in presence or absence of plumbagin for 24 h at 37°C in a 5%CO 2 /95% air atmosphere. The concentration of IL-2 (A), IL-4 (B), IL-6 (C), and IFN-γ (D) in the culture supernatant was estimated by ELISA. Each bar shows mean ± SEM from three replicates and three such independent experiments were carried out.  * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of thiol-containing antioxidants on cytokine production in plumbagin-treated lymphocytes stimulated with con A. Lymphocytes were incubated with different antioxidants (GSH or NAC) for 2 h. The cells were stimulated with con A in presence or absence of plumbagin for 24 h at 37°C in a 5%CO 2 /95% air atmosphere. The concentration of IL-2 (A), IL-4 (B), IL-6 (C), and IFN-γ (D) in the culture supernatant was estimated by ELISA. Each bar shows mean ± SEM from three replicates and three such independent experiments were carried out. * P

    Techniques Used: Incubation, Concentration Assay, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    Inhibition of cytokine production in activated lymphocytes by plumbagin. Lymphocytes were stimulated with con A (5 µg/ml) following which plumbagin was added at the indicated time points and the cells were cultured for 24 h at 37°C. Vehicle-treated cells served as control. The concentration of cytokines in the supernatant was estimated using ELISA. Each bar represents concentration of (A) IL-2, (B) IL-4, (C) IL-6, and (D) IFN-γ. Data points represent mean ± SEM from three replicates and two such independent experiments were carried out.  * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Inhibition of cytokine production in activated lymphocytes by plumbagin. Lymphocytes were stimulated with con A (5 µg/ml) following which plumbagin was added at the indicated time points and the cells were cultured for 24 h at 37°C. Vehicle-treated cells served as control. The concentration of cytokines in the supernatant was estimated using ELISA. Each bar represents concentration of (A) IL-2, (B) IL-4, (C) IL-6, and (D) IFN-γ. Data points represent mean ± SEM from three replicates and two such independent experiments were carried out. * P

    Techniques Used: Inhibition, Cell Culture, Concentration Assay, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    Inhibition of proliferation/survival associated signaling molecules by plumbagin and their modulation by GSH in activated T cells. Lymphocytes were incubated with plumbagin (1 µM, 4 h) in presence or absence of GSH and were stimulated with con A (5 µg/ml) for 1 h (A,C) or 24 h (B). Whole cell lysates were prepared, fractionated on 10% SDS–PAGE, and electrotransferred to nitrocellulose membrane. Western blot analysis was performed using different antibodies specific for (A) P-ERK, ERK, P-IKK-α/β, IKK-α, IKK-β, IκB-α, (B) BCL-2, BCL-xL, Cyclin A, and (C) P-P38, P-38, P-JNK, JNK, P-AKT, AKT. β-Actin was used as loading control. Two such independent experiments were carried out.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Inhibition of proliferation/survival associated signaling molecules by plumbagin and their modulation by GSH in activated T cells. Lymphocytes were incubated with plumbagin (1 µM, 4 h) in presence or absence of GSH and were stimulated with con A (5 µg/ml) for 1 h (A,C) or 24 h (B). Whole cell lysates were prepared, fractionated on 10% SDS–PAGE, and electrotransferred to nitrocellulose membrane. Western blot analysis was performed using different antibodies specific for (A) P-ERK, ERK, P-IKK-α/β, IKK-α, IKK-β, IκB-α, (B) BCL-2, BCL-xL, Cyclin A, and (C) P-P38, P-38, P-JNK, JNK, P-AKT, AKT. β-Actin was used as loading control. Two such independent experiments were carried out.

    Techniques Used: Inhibition, Incubation, SDS Page, Western Blot

    6) Product Images from "Assessments of different inactivating reagents in formulating transmissible gastroenteritis virus vaccine"

    Article Title: Assessments of different inactivating reagents in formulating transmissible gastroenteritis virus vaccine

    Journal: Virology Journal

    doi: 10.1186/s12985-020-01433-8

    The proliferation result of spleen lymphocyte by MTT assay. Spleens of three mice in each group were collected at 14, 21 and 35 dpi, respectively (n = 3). Lymphocytes were obtained and stimulated with inactivated TGEV antigen at 37 °C for 24 h. Con A was used as the positive control, and the DMEM was used as the negative control. Bars represent the mean (± standard deviation) of three replicates per treatment in one experiment. Statistical significance was indicated by *** P
    Figure Legend Snippet: The proliferation result of spleen lymphocyte by MTT assay. Spleens of three mice in each group were collected at 14, 21 and 35 dpi, respectively (n = 3). Lymphocytes were obtained and stimulated with inactivated TGEV antigen at 37 °C for 24 h. Con A was used as the positive control, and the DMEM was used as the negative control. Bars represent the mean (± standard deviation) of three replicates per treatment in one experiment. Statistical significance was indicated by *** P

    Techniques Used: MTT Assay, Mouse Assay, Positive Control, Negative Control, Standard Deviation

    7) Product Images from "Agarwood Inhibits Histamine Release from Rat Mast Cells and Reduces Scratching Behavior in Mice"

    Article Title: Agarwood Inhibits Histamine Release from Rat Mast Cells and Reduces Scratching Behavior in Mice

    Journal: Journal of Pharmacopuncture

    doi: 10.3831/KPI.2016.19.025

    Effects of agarwood (Sample No. 1) and agarotetrol on compound 48/80- or Con A- induced histamine release from rat mast cells. The data are expressed as means ± SEs. (n = 3 - 6).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of agarwood (Sample No. 1) and agarotetrol on compound 48/80- or Con A- induced histamine release from rat mast cells. The data are expressed as means ± SEs. (n = 3 - 6).

    Techniques Used:

    8) Product Images from "Immunomodulatory and Anti-IBDV Activities of the Polysaccharide AEX from Coccomyxa gloeobotrydiformis"

    Article Title: Immunomodulatory and Anti-IBDV Activities of the Polysaccharide AEX from Coccomyxa gloeobotrydiformis

    Journal: Marine Drugs

    doi: 10.3390/md15020036

    AEX promoted DT40 and splenic lymphocytes proliferation, but reduced peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation in vitro. ( A – C ) DT40 cells, splenic lymphocytes and peripheral blood lymphocytes were cultured in 96-well plates. After being stimulated by AEX (0–250 μg/mL) or Con A (40 μg/mL) for 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h, respectively, the proliferation was examined by MTT method as described in the Materials and Methods section; ( D , E ) Splenic lymphocytes and peripheral blood lymphocytes were isolated and cultured with AEX (0–100 μg/mL) or LPS (100 ng/mL) for 24 h, respectively. Then, total RNA was extracted and analyzed by qRT-PCR for IL-2. Data represent means ± SEM from three wells per group. *  p  ≤ 0.05; **  p  ≤ 0.01; ***  p  ≤ 0.001. Results are representative of two independent experiments.
    Figure Legend Snippet: AEX promoted DT40 and splenic lymphocytes proliferation, but reduced peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation in vitro. ( A – C ) DT40 cells, splenic lymphocytes and peripheral blood lymphocytes were cultured in 96-well plates. After being stimulated by AEX (0–250 μg/mL) or Con A (40 μg/mL) for 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h, respectively, the proliferation was examined by MTT method as described in the Materials and Methods section; ( D , E ) Splenic lymphocytes and peripheral blood lymphocytes were isolated and cultured with AEX (0–100 μg/mL) or LPS (100 ng/mL) for 24 h, respectively. Then, total RNA was extracted and analyzed by qRT-PCR for IL-2. Data represent means ± SEM from three wells per group. * p ≤ 0.05; ** p ≤ 0.01; *** p ≤ 0.001. Results are representative of two independent experiments.

    Techniques Used: In Vitro, Cell Culture, MTT Assay, Isolation, Quantitative RT-PCR

    9) Product Images from "c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase as a Therapeutic Target in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis"

    Article Title: c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase as a Therapeutic Target in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    Journal: Cells

    doi: 10.3390/cells9102154

    ( A , C ) apoptosis of CD3+ T cells of C57BL/6JRj mice ( A , n = 4 experiments in triplicates, stimulus concanavalin A (conA) 1.5 µg/mL, 24 h) and healthy human controls ( C , n = 7 experiments in triplicates, stimulus phytohemagglutinin (PHA) 0.5 µg/mL, 72 h). Incubation with control or SP 10 µM (Annexin V/PI, flow cytometry). ( B , D ) proliferation of CD3+ T cells of C57BL/6JRj mice ( B , n = 4 experiments in triplicates, stimulus conA 1.5 µg/mL, 24 h) and healthy human controls ( D , n = 7 experiments in triplicates, stimulus PHA 0.5 µg/mL, 72 h). Incubation with control or SP 10 µM (CFSE, flow cytometry). Abbreviations: SEM: Standard error of the mean and SP: SP600125. Statistic: Wilcoxon signed rank test #
    Figure Legend Snippet: ( A , C ) apoptosis of CD3+ T cells of C57BL/6JRj mice ( A , n = 4 experiments in triplicates, stimulus concanavalin A (conA) 1.5 µg/mL, 24 h) and healthy human controls ( C , n = 7 experiments in triplicates, stimulus phytohemagglutinin (PHA) 0.5 µg/mL, 72 h). Incubation with control or SP 10 µM (Annexin V/PI, flow cytometry). ( B , D ) proliferation of CD3+ T cells of C57BL/6JRj mice ( B , n = 4 experiments in triplicates, stimulus conA 1.5 µg/mL, 24 h) and healthy human controls ( D , n = 7 experiments in triplicates, stimulus PHA 0.5 µg/mL, 72 h). Incubation with control or SP 10 µM (CFSE, flow cytometry). Abbreviations: SEM: Standard error of the mean and SP: SP600125. Statistic: Wilcoxon signed rank test #

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Incubation, Flow Cytometry

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    Concentration Assay:

    Article Title: Th1 Stimulatory Proteins of Leishmania donovani: Comparative Cellular and Protective Responses of rTriose Phosphate Isomerase, rProtein Disulfide Isomerase and rElongation Factor-2 in Combination with rHSP70 against Visceral Leishmaniasis
    Article Snippet: PBMCs and mononuclear cells (1×106 cells/ml) of cured/endemic/infected patients as well as cured/normal/infected hamsters respectively, were cultured in 96-well flat bottom tissue culture plates (Nunc, Denmark). .. About 100 µl of predetermined concentration of mitogens phytohaemagglutinin (PHA, 10 µg/ml Sigma-Aldrich, USA) for patient's PBMCs, concanavalin A (ConA, 10 µg/ml, Sigma-Aldrich, USA) for hamster's mononuclear cells, as well as rLdHSP70, rLdPDI/rLdTPI/rLdEL-2 and combinations (rLdHSP70 + rLdPDI, rLdHSP70 + rLdTPI, rLdHSP70 + rLdEL-2) and SLD (10 µg/ml each) were added to the wells in triplicate. .. PHA and ConA were served as positive control for proliferation in human patients PBMCs and hamster's lymphocytes, respectively.

    SDS Page:

    Article Title: The Arabidopsis tonoplast is almost devoid of glycoproteins with complex N-glycans, unlike the rat lysosomal membrane
    Article Snippet: .. An equal volume, or equal amount of proteins, of soluble or membrane fractions was analyzed by SDS–PAGE and protein blot on a nitrocellulose membrane (Perkin-Elmer), and incubated with appropriate antibodies and anti-rabbit or anti-chicken IgG–peroxidase conjugate (Pierce) For detection of proteins with high-mannose N -glycans, the protein blot was incubated with 3 µg ml–1 concanavalin A (ConA)–peroxidase conjugate (Sigma-Aldrich St. Louis, MO, USA) in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) containing 0.05% (v/v) Tween-20, 1mM CaCl2 , 1mM MnCl2 , and 1mM MgCl2 for 16h at 20 °C, according to the manufacturer’s protocols. .. Peroxidase activity can be detected using Super West Pico (Pierce) according to the manufacturer’s protocol.

    Incubation:

    Article Title: The Arabidopsis tonoplast is almost devoid of glycoproteins with complex N-glycans, unlike the rat lysosomal membrane
    Article Snippet: .. An equal volume, or equal amount of proteins, of soluble or membrane fractions was analyzed by SDS–PAGE and protein blot on a nitrocellulose membrane (Perkin-Elmer), and incubated with appropriate antibodies and anti-rabbit or anti-chicken IgG–peroxidase conjugate (Pierce) For detection of proteins with high-mannose N -glycans, the protein blot was incubated with 3 µg ml–1 concanavalin A (ConA)–peroxidase conjugate (Sigma-Aldrich St. Louis, MO, USA) in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) containing 0.05% (v/v) Tween-20, 1mM CaCl2 , 1mM MnCl2 , and 1mM MgCl2 for 16h at 20 °C, according to the manufacturer’s protocols. .. Peroxidase activity can be detected using Super West Pico (Pierce) according to the manufacturer’s protocol.

    MTT Assay:

    Article Title: Immunomodulatory effects of the botanical compound LCS101: implications for cancer treatment
    Article Snippet: .. Reagents The fluorouracil (5-FU) in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), concanavalin A (ConA), ethyl acetate ammonium formate, MTT 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, propidium iodide, DNase-free RNaseA, and 0.1% triton X-100 in PBS were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich Israel (Rehovot, Israel). .. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits for quantitation of murine interleukin (IL)-10 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α kits were purchased from Peprotech Asia (Rehovot, Israel), and mouse IFN-γ was purchased from Abcam (Zotal, Tel Aviv, Israel).

    other:

    Article Title: Calcitriol and Its Analogs Establish the Immunosuppressive Microenvironment That Drives Metastasis in 4T1 Mouse Mammary Gland Cancer
    Article Snippet: Splenocytes Culture Splenocytes (2 × 106 cells/mL) were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli (0.5 µg/mL) and concanavalin A (ConA) from Canavalia ensiformis (1 µg/mL) (both from Sigma-Aldrich, Saint Louis, MO, USA) for 48 h. Next, the supernatants were collected for further analyses.

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    Millipore concanavalin a
    Chitosan affected T and B cell proliferation in normal BALB/c mice. Isolated T and B cells were pretreated with Con A and LPS for the induction of (A) T-cell and (B) B-cell proliferation, respectively, and were then analyzed using flow cytometry. *P
    Concanavalin A, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 98/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Millipore materials concanavalin a
    Effect of SCG on protein expression of TRAIL, DR5, FASL, FAS, IL-33, and caspase-3 in Con A-treated mice.  (A)  The expression of TRAIL.  (B)  The expression of DR5.  (C)  The expression of IL-33.  (D)  The expression of FASL.  (E)  The expression of FAS.  (F)  The expression of cleaved caspase-3. Data were expressed as mean ±  SD  ( n  = 3).  ∗∗ P
    Materials Concanavalin A, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    Millipore concanavalin a fitc
    Bipolar actin structures are displayed only in diploid virgin daughter cells budding at the distal pole in the psi1 Δ/ psi1 Δ and bud9 Δ/ bud9 Δ mutants, and PSI1 overexpression suppresses this phenotype. (A) Cells were grown to log phase in YPD at 30°C, labeled with concanavalin <t>A-FITC</t> (birth scars), fixed, and stained with Alexa Fluor 568-phalloidin (actin) and, finally, with calcofluor white (bud scars), as described in Materials and Methods. Arrows, some cells with bipolar actin patches. Bars, 4 μm. (B) Cells were grown to an OD 600 of 0.15 in SC medium without uracil at 30°C, shifted to YPD, grown to an OD 600 of 0.6 (the rate of plasmid loss was quantified to range from 1.4% up to 3.7% per generation), and then fixed and stained with Alexa Fluor 568-phalloidin. Diploid cells with bipolarized actin cortical patches were visualized and scored among cells with small buds. *, P
    Concanavalin A Fitc, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/concanavalin a fitc/product/Millipore
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    Chitosan affected T and B cell proliferation in normal BALB/c mice. Isolated T and B cells were pretreated with Con A and LPS for the induction of (A) T-cell and (B) B-cell proliferation, respectively, and were then analyzed using flow cytometry. *P

    Journal: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine

    Article Title: Chitosan promotes immune responses, ameliorates glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamic pyruvic transaminase, but enhances lactate dehydrogenase levels in normal mice in vivo

    doi: 10.3892/etm.2016.3057

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Chitosan affected T and B cell proliferation in normal BALB/c mice. Isolated T and B cells were pretreated with Con A and LPS for the induction of (A) T-cell and (B) B-cell proliferation, respectively, and were then analyzed using flow cytometry. *P

    Article Snippet: Following stimulation by incubation with concanavalin A (Con A; 0.5 µg/ml; Sigma-Aldrich) for 3 days, T-cell proliferation was measured.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Isolation, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry

    Effect of SCG on protein expression of TRAIL, DR5, FASL, FAS, IL-33, and caspase-3 in Con A-treated mice.  (A)  The expression of TRAIL.  (B)  The expression of DR5.  (C)  The expression of IL-33.  (D)  The expression of FASL.  (E)  The expression of FAS.  (F)  The expression of cleaved caspase-3. Data were expressed as mean ±  SD  ( n  = 3).  ∗∗ P

    Journal: Frontiers in Pharmacology

    Article Title: Hepatoprotective Effect of San-Cao Granule on Con A-Induced Liver Injury in Mice and Mechanisms of Action Exploration

    doi: 10.3389/fphar.2018.00624

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of SCG on protein expression of TRAIL, DR5, FASL, FAS, IL-33, and caspase-3 in Con A-treated mice. (A) The expression of TRAIL. (B) The expression of DR5. (C) The expression of IL-33. (D) The expression of FASL. (E) The expression of FAS. (F) The expression of cleaved caspase-3. Data were expressed as mean ± SD ( n = 3). ∗∗ P

    Article Snippet: Materials Concanavalin A was purchased from Sigma (St Louis, MO, United States).

    Techniques: Expressing, Mouse Assay

    The summarized action pathway of SCG on Con A-induced liver injury.

    Journal: Frontiers in Pharmacology

    Article Title: Hepatoprotective Effect of San-Cao Granule on Con A-Induced Liver Injury in Mice and Mechanisms of Action Exploration

    doi: 10.3389/fphar.2018.00624

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The summarized action pathway of SCG on Con A-induced liver injury.

    Article Snippet: Materials Concanavalin A was purchased from Sigma (St Louis, MO, United States).

    Techniques:

    Effect of SCG on the levels of inflammatory cytokines in Con A-induced liver injury.  (A)  The expression level of IFN-γ.  (B)  The expression level of TNF-α.  (C)  The expression level of IL-2.  (D)  The expression of IL-4.  (E)  The expression level of IL-5. Data were expressed as mean ± SD  ( n  = 6).  ∗∗ P

    Journal: Frontiers in Pharmacology

    Article Title: Hepatoprotective Effect of San-Cao Granule on Con A-Induced Liver Injury in Mice and Mechanisms of Action Exploration

    doi: 10.3389/fphar.2018.00624

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of SCG on the levels of inflammatory cytokines in Con A-induced liver injury. (A) The expression level of IFN-γ. (B) The expression level of TNF-α. (C) The expression level of IL-2. (D) The expression of IL-4. (E) The expression level of IL-5. Data were expressed as mean ± SD ( n = 6). ∗∗ P

    Article Snippet: Materials Concanavalin A was purchased from Sigma (St Louis, MO, United States).

    Techniques: Expressing

    Pharmacological effect of SCG on Con A-induced liver injury in mice.  (A)  The serum level of ALT.  (B)  The serum level of AST.  (C)  The activity of MPO.  (D)  HE-stained liver section for histopathology evaluations and the histological changes. Data were expressed as mean ±  SD  ( n  = 6).  ∗∗ P

    Journal: Frontiers in Pharmacology

    Article Title: Hepatoprotective Effect of San-Cao Granule on Con A-Induced Liver Injury in Mice and Mechanisms of Action Exploration

    doi: 10.3389/fphar.2018.00624

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Pharmacological effect of SCG on Con A-induced liver injury in mice. (A) The serum level of ALT. (B) The serum level of AST. (C) The activity of MPO. (D) HE-stained liver section for histopathology evaluations and the histological changes. Data were expressed as mean ± SD ( n = 6). ∗∗ P

    Article Snippet: Materials Concanavalin A was purchased from Sigma (St Louis, MO, United States).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, AST Assay, Activity Assay, Staining, Histopathology

    Effect of SCG on hepatocyte apoptosis in Con A-treated mice.

    Journal: Frontiers in Pharmacology

    Article Title: Hepatoprotective Effect of San-Cao Granule on Con A-Induced Liver Injury in Mice and Mechanisms of Action Exploration

    doi: 10.3389/fphar.2018.00624

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of SCG on hepatocyte apoptosis in Con A-treated mice.

    Article Snippet: Materials Concanavalin A was purchased from Sigma (St Louis, MO, United States).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay

    Effect of SCG on mRNA expression of TRAIL, FASL, IL-33, and caspase-3 in Con A-treated mice.  (A)  The mRNA level of TRAIL.  (B)  The mRNA level of FASL.  (C)  The mRNA level of IL-33.  (D)  The mRNA level of caspase-3. Data were expressed as mean ± SD  ( n  = 6).  ∗∗ P

    Journal: Frontiers in Pharmacology

    Article Title: Hepatoprotective Effect of San-Cao Granule on Con A-Induced Liver Injury in Mice and Mechanisms of Action Exploration

    doi: 10.3389/fphar.2018.00624

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of SCG on mRNA expression of TRAIL, FASL, IL-33, and caspase-3 in Con A-treated mice. (A) The mRNA level of TRAIL. (B) The mRNA level of FASL. (C) The mRNA level of IL-33. (D) The mRNA level of caspase-3. Data were expressed as mean ± SD ( n = 6). ∗∗ P

    Article Snippet: Materials Concanavalin A was purchased from Sigma (St Louis, MO, United States).

    Techniques: Expressing, Mouse Assay

    Membrane localization of AeATr in HEK293/Gα16gust44 cells Fluorescence images of HEK293/Gα16gust44 cells transfected with the three different AeATr-pEYFP-N1 DNAs. ATrM1 (top), ATrM2 (middle) and ATrM3 (bottom). The cell surface location of the AT receptor in transfected cells was recognized by expressing them fused to YFP (Yellow Fluorescent Protein) (first row) and marking the plasma membrane glycoproteins with biotin-conjugated concanavalin A and streptavidin-conjugated Alexa Fluor 633 (second row). Yellow color in the overlay indicates AT receptor expression at the cell membrane (third row). Scale bars, 10 μm. Similar results were obtained in two independent transfection experiments.

    Journal: Peptides

    Article Title: Functional characterization of an allatotropin receptor expressed in the corpora allata of mosquitoes

    doi: 10.1016/j.peptides.2011.07.025

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Membrane localization of AeATr in HEK293/Gα16gust44 cells Fluorescence images of HEK293/Gα16gust44 cells transfected with the three different AeATr-pEYFP-N1 DNAs. ATrM1 (top), ATrM2 (middle) and ATrM3 (bottom). The cell surface location of the AT receptor in transfected cells was recognized by expressing them fused to YFP (Yellow Fluorescent Protein) (first row) and marking the plasma membrane glycoproteins with biotin-conjugated concanavalin A and streptavidin-conjugated Alexa Fluor 633 (second row). Yellow color in the overlay indicates AT receptor expression at the cell membrane (third row). Scale bars, 10 μm. Similar results were obtained in two independent transfection experiments.

    Article Snippet: Twenty-four hours after transfection, cells were washed with PBS, cooled on ice and incubated for 1 h on ice with 5 μg/mL biotin-labeled concanavalin A (Sigma).

    Techniques: Fluorescence, Transfection, Expressing

    Bipolar actin structures are displayed only in diploid virgin daughter cells budding at the distal pole in the psi1 Δ/ psi1 Δ and bud9 Δ/ bud9 Δ mutants, and PSI1 overexpression suppresses this phenotype. (A) Cells were grown to log phase in YPD at 30°C, labeled with concanavalin A-FITC (birth scars), fixed, and stained with Alexa Fluor 568-phalloidin (actin) and, finally, with calcofluor white (bud scars), as described in Materials and Methods. Arrows, some cells with bipolar actin patches. Bars, 4 μm. (B) Cells were grown to an OD 600 of 0.15 in SC medium without uracil at 30°C, shifted to YPD, grown to an OD 600 of 0.6 (the rate of plasmid loss was quantified to range from 1.4% up to 3.7% per generation), and then fixed and stained with Alexa Fluor 568-phalloidin. Diploid cells with bipolarized actin cortical patches were visualized and scored among cells with small buds. *, P

    Journal: Molecular and Cellular Biology

    Article Title: Requirement of Phosphoinositides Containing Stearic Acid To Control Cell Polarity

    doi: 10.1128/MCB.00843-15

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Bipolar actin structures are displayed only in diploid virgin daughter cells budding at the distal pole in the psi1 Δ/ psi1 Δ and bud9 Δ/ bud9 Δ mutants, and PSI1 overexpression suppresses this phenotype. (A) Cells were grown to log phase in YPD at 30°C, labeled with concanavalin A-FITC (birth scars), fixed, and stained with Alexa Fluor 568-phalloidin (actin) and, finally, with calcofluor white (bud scars), as described in Materials and Methods. Arrows, some cells with bipolar actin patches. Bars, 4 μm. (B) Cells were grown to an OD 600 of 0.15 in SC medium without uracil at 30°C, shifted to YPD, grown to an OD 600 of 0.6 (the rate of plasmid loss was quantified to range from 1.4% up to 3.7% per generation), and then fixed and stained with Alexa Fluor 568-phalloidin. Diploid cells with bipolarized actin cortical patches were visualized and scored among cells with small buds. *, P

    Article Snippet: The birth scars were labeled with concanavalin A-FITC (Sigma), which was added to the concentrated cells at a final concentration of 0.2 mg/ml.

    Techniques: Over Expression, Labeling, Staining, Plasmid Preparation