cleavage resistant probdnf  (Alomone Labs)


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    Alomone Labs cleavage resistant probdnf
    The increase <t>proBDNF</t> alters synaptic currents, promotes LFS-induced synaptic depression and strengthens the theta phase-gamma amplitude coupling during the PR-LTM test. (A) Schematic describing the timeline for morphological analysis (Top-left). Illustration of the region of interest in prelimbic images (Top-middle), and dendritic segment analysis for spine quantification (Top-right). Red circles indicated the mushroom type spine, yellow circles indicated thin type spine and blue circles indicated stubby type spine. Sample images were projected at minimal intensity and inverted, background was then subtracted, followed by brightness/contrast adjustment. Scale bars, 5 μm. Quantification of spine density (Bottom-left) and the proportion of spine (Bottom-right). No statistical difference in spine density was found between juvenile and adult groups. However, a significant higher proportion of thin type spine but a lower mushroom type spine was observed in juveniles compared with adults. (B) Schematic describing the timeline for EPSCs recordings (Top-left). Representative continuous traces (Top-middle) and average waveform (Top-right) of the pharmacologically isolated NMDA EPSCs in the prelimbic neurons of adult, juvenile and juvenile+anti groups. No change in the amplitude of EPSCs (Bottom-left) was found but the frequency (Bottom-middle) and decay time (Bottom-right) were significantly increased in juvenile group. The enhanced frequency and decay time of NMDA currents in juvenile group were inhibited after infusions of anti-proBDNF antibody. (* P
    Cleavage Resistant Probdnf, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 11 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/cleavage resistant probdnf/product/Alomone Labs
    Average 94 stars, based on 11 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    cleavage resistant probdnf - by Bioz Stars, 2022-11
    94/100 stars

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    1) Product Images from "Prelimbic proBDNF facilitates memory destabilization by regulation of neuronal function in juveniles"

    Article Title: Prelimbic proBDNF facilitates memory destabilization by regulation of neuronal function in juveniles

    Journal: bioRxiv

    doi: 10.1101/2021.12.30.474526

    The increase proBDNF alters synaptic currents, promotes LFS-induced synaptic depression and strengthens the theta phase-gamma amplitude coupling during the PR-LTM test. (A) Schematic describing the timeline for morphological analysis (Top-left). Illustration of the region of interest in prelimbic images (Top-middle), and dendritic segment analysis for spine quantification (Top-right). Red circles indicated the mushroom type spine, yellow circles indicated thin type spine and blue circles indicated stubby type spine. Sample images were projected at minimal intensity and inverted, background was then subtracted, followed by brightness/contrast adjustment. Scale bars, 5 μm. Quantification of spine density (Bottom-left) and the proportion of spine (Bottom-right). No statistical difference in spine density was found between juvenile and adult groups. However, a significant higher proportion of thin type spine but a lower mushroom type spine was observed in juveniles compared with adults. (B) Schematic describing the timeline for EPSCs recordings (Top-left). Representative continuous traces (Top-middle) and average waveform (Top-right) of the pharmacologically isolated NMDA EPSCs in the prelimbic neurons of adult, juvenile and juvenile+anti groups. No change in the amplitude of EPSCs (Bottom-left) was found but the frequency (Bottom-middle) and decay time (Bottom-right) were significantly increased in juvenile group. The enhanced frequency and decay time of NMDA currents in juvenile group were inhibited after infusions of anti-proBDNF antibody. (* P
    Figure Legend Snippet: The increase proBDNF alters synaptic currents, promotes LFS-induced synaptic depression and strengthens the theta phase-gamma amplitude coupling during the PR-LTM test. (A) Schematic describing the timeline for morphological analysis (Top-left). Illustration of the region of interest in prelimbic images (Top-middle), and dendritic segment analysis for spine quantification (Top-right). Red circles indicated the mushroom type spine, yellow circles indicated thin type spine and blue circles indicated stubby type spine. Sample images were projected at minimal intensity and inverted, background was then subtracted, followed by brightness/contrast adjustment. Scale bars, 5 μm. Quantification of spine density (Bottom-left) and the proportion of spine (Bottom-right). No statistical difference in spine density was found between juvenile and adult groups. However, a significant higher proportion of thin type spine but a lower mushroom type spine was observed in juveniles compared with adults. (B) Schematic describing the timeline for EPSCs recordings (Top-left). Representative continuous traces (Top-middle) and average waveform (Top-right) of the pharmacologically isolated NMDA EPSCs in the prelimbic neurons of adult, juvenile and juvenile+anti groups. No change in the amplitude of EPSCs (Bottom-left) was found but the frequency (Bottom-middle) and decay time (Bottom-right) were significantly increased in juvenile group. The enhanced frequency and decay time of NMDA currents in juvenile group were inhibited after infusions of anti-proBDNF antibody. (* P

    Techniques Used: Isolation

    The higher prelimbic proBDNF expression during the juvenile period facilitates retrieval-dependent memory destabilization. Quantification of the proBDNF (A) and its receptor p75 NTR (B) levels in prelimbic cortex of juvenile and adult rats. Representative immunoblots the expression of proBDNF and p75 NTR (Top). A significant increase in the proBDNF levels was detected in juvenile group, as well the p75 NTR levels (Bottom). (* P
    Figure Legend Snippet: The higher prelimbic proBDNF expression during the juvenile period facilitates retrieval-dependent memory destabilization. Quantification of the proBDNF (A) and its receptor p75 NTR (B) levels in prelimbic cortex of juvenile and adult rats. Representative immunoblots the expression of proBDNF and p75 NTR (Top). A significant increase in the proBDNF levels was detected in juvenile group, as well the p75 NTR levels (Bottom). (* P

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Western Blot

    Up-regulation of proBDNF-p75NTR signaling mediated by NMDA-GluN2B contributes to enhance the modulation of existing fear memory traces in juvenile rats. (A) Schematic describing the behavioral timeline for the retrieval-dependent memory destabilization experiment using rats conditioned with four tones (Top). Immediately following the memory retrieval, the rats infused with TAT-Pep5, K252a or vehicle into the prelimbic cortex 15 min prior to the mBDNF, proBDNF or vehicle infusion. Two days later, PR-LTM was assessed by exposed the rats to the novel context. Similar, no significant difference in the percentage freezing during the memory retrieval but the percentage freezing level during the PR-LTM test was significant lower in juvenile group than adult group (Bottom). No obvious effect of mBDNF on freeze behavior was found. Infusions of p75 NTR blocker TAT-Pep5 could significantly enhance the percentage of freeze behavior. Meanwhile, infusions of TAT-Pep5, but not K252a, markedly blocked the effects of proBDNF treatment. (* P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Up-regulation of proBDNF-p75NTR signaling mediated by NMDA-GluN2B contributes to enhance the modulation of existing fear memory traces in juvenile rats. (A) Schematic describing the behavioral timeline for the retrieval-dependent memory destabilization experiment using rats conditioned with four tones (Top). Immediately following the memory retrieval, the rats infused with TAT-Pep5, K252a or vehicle into the prelimbic cortex 15 min prior to the mBDNF, proBDNF or vehicle infusion. Two days later, PR-LTM was assessed by exposed the rats to the novel context. Similar, no significant difference in the percentage freezing during the memory retrieval but the percentage freezing level during the PR-LTM test was significant lower in juvenile group than adult group (Bottom). No obvious effect of mBDNF on freeze behavior was found. Infusions of p75 NTR blocker TAT-Pep5 could significantly enhance the percentage of freeze behavior. Meanwhile, infusions of TAT-Pep5, but not K252a, markedly blocked the effects of proBDNF treatment. (* P

    Techniques Used:

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    Alomone Labs cleavage resistant probdnf
    The increase <t>proBDNF</t> alters synaptic currents, promotes LFS-induced synaptic depression and strengthens the theta phase-gamma amplitude coupling during the PR-LTM test. (A) Schematic describing the timeline for morphological analysis (Top-left). Illustration of the region of interest in prelimbic images (Top-middle), and dendritic segment analysis for spine quantification (Top-right). Red circles indicated the mushroom type spine, yellow circles indicated thin type spine and blue circles indicated stubby type spine. Sample images were projected at minimal intensity and inverted, background was then subtracted, followed by brightness/contrast adjustment. Scale bars, 5 μm. Quantification of spine density (Bottom-left) and the proportion of spine (Bottom-right). No statistical difference in spine density was found between juvenile and adult groups. However, a significant higher proportion of thin type spine but a lower mushroom type spine was observed in juveniles compared with adults. (B) Schematic describing the timeline for EPSCs recordings (Top-left). Representative continuous traces (Top-middle) and average waveform (Top-right) of the pharmacologically isolated NMDA EPSCs in the prelimbic neurons of adult, juvenile and juvenile+anti groups. No change in the amplitude of EPSCs (Bottom-left) was found but the frequency (Bottom-middle) and decay time (Bottom-right) were significantly increased in juvenile group. The enhanced frequency and decay time of NMDA currents in juvenile group were inhibited after infusions of anti-proBDNF antibody. (* P
    Cleavage Resistant Probdnf, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/cleavage resistant probdnf/product/Alomone Labs
    Average 94 stars, based on 2 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    cleavage resistant probdnf - by Bioz Stars, 2022-11
    94/100 stars
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    The increase proBDNF alters synaptic currents, promotes LFS-induced synaptic depression and strengthens the theta phase-gamma amplitude coupling during the PR-LTM test. (A) Schematic describing the timeline for morphological analysis (Top-left). Illustration of the region of interest in prelimbic images (Top-middle), and dendritic segment analysis for spine quantification (Top-right). Red circles indicated the mushroom type spine, yellow circles indicated thin type spine and blue circles indicated stubby type spine. Sample images were projected at minimal intensity and inverted, background was then subtracted, followed by brightness/contrast adjustment. Scale bars, 5 μm. Quantification of spine density (Bottom-left) and the proportion of spine (Bottom-right). No statistical difference in spine density was found between juvenile and adult groups. However, a significant higher proportion of thin type spine but a lower mushroom type spine was observed in juveniles compared with adults. (B) Schematic describing the timeline for EPSCs recordings (Top-left). Representative continuous traces (Top-middle) and average waveform (Top-right) of the pharmacologically isolated NMDA EPSCs in the prelimbic neurons of adult, juvenile and juvenile+anti groups. No change in the amplitude of EPSCs (Bottom-left) was found but the frequency (Bottom-middle) and decay time (Bottom-right) were significantly increased in juvenile group. The enhanced frequency and decay time of NMDA currents in juvenile group were inhibited after infusions of anti-proBDNF antibody. (* P

    Journal: bioRxiv

    Article Title: Prelimbic proBDNF facilitates memory destabilization by regulation of neuronal function in juveniles

    doi: 10.1101/2021.12.30.474526

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The increase proBDNF alters synaptic currents, promotes LFS-induced synaptic depression and strengthens the theta phase-gamma amplitude coupling during the PR-LTM test. (A) Schematic describing the timeline for morphological analysis (Top-left). Illustration of the region of interest in prelimbic images (Top-middle), and dendritic segment analysis for spine quantification (Top-right). Red circles indicated the mushroom type spine, yellow circles indicated thin type spine and blue circles indicated stubby type spine. Sample images were projected at minimal intensity and inverted, background was then subtracted, followed by brightness/contrast adjustment. Scale bars, 5 μm. Quantification of spine density (Bottom-left) and the proportion of spine (Bottom-right). No statistical difference in spine density was found between juvenile and adult groups. However, a significant higher proportion of thin type spine but a lower mushroom type spine was observed in juveniles compared with adults. (B) Schematic describing the timeline for EPSCs recordings (Top-left). Representative continuous traces (Top-middle) and average waveform (Top-right) of the pharmacologically isolated NMDA EPSCs in the prelimbic neurons of adult, juvenile and juvenile+anti groups. No change in the amplitude of EPSCs (Bottom-left) was found but the frequency (Bottom-middle) and decay time (Bottom-right) were significantly increased in juvenile group. The enhanced frequency and decay time of NMDA currents in juvenile group were inhibited after infusions of anti-proBDNF antibody. (* P

    Article Snippet: Needles were inserted into bilateral cannulae and then cleavage-resistant proBDNF (2 ng/ml; Cat#B257 Alomone Labs), anti-proBDNF antibody (10 μg/μL; Cat#ANT-006, Alomone Labs), TAT-Pep5 (4 ng/μL; Cat#506181, EMD Millipore), K252a (25 μg/μL; Cat#82497; Sigma-Aldrich), 3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP; 32 ng/μL; Cat#01773, Tocris Bioscience), NVP-AAM077 (0.8 ng/μL; Cat#P1999, Sigma-Aldrich), Ro25-6981 (2.0 ng/μL; Cat#1594, Tocris Bioscience), mature BDNF (1.5 μg/mL; Cat#B250; Alomone Labs) or artificial CSF (ACSF, Cat#3525, Tocris Bioscience) into prelimbic area (at a rate of 0.5 μL/min/side for 2 min) was infused immediately or one day following memory retrieval.

    Techniques: Isolation

    The higher prelimbic proBDNF expression during the juvenile period facilitates retrieval-dependent memory destabilization. Quantification of the proBDNF (A) and its receptor p75 NTR (B) levels in prelimbic cortex of juvenile and adult rats. Representative immunoblots the expression of proBDNF and p75 NTR (Top). A significant increase in the proBDNF levels was detected in juvenile group, as well the p75 NTR levels (Bottom). (* P

    Journal: bioRxiv

    Article Title: Prelimbic proBDNF facilitates memory destabilization by regulation of neuronal function in juveniles

    doi: 10.1101/2021.12.30.474526

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The higher prelimbic proBDNF expression during the juvenile period facilitates retrieval-dependent memory destabilization. Quantification of the proBDNF (A) and its receptor p75 NTR (B) levels in prelimbic cortex of juvenile and adult rats. Representative immunoblots the expression of proBDNF and p75 NTR (Top). A significant increase in the proBDNF levels was detected in juvenile group, as well the p75 NTR levels (Bottom). (* P

    Article Snippet: Needles were inserted into bilateral cannulae and then cleavage-resistant proBDNF (2 ng/ml; Cat#B257 Alomone Labs), anti-proBDNF antibody (10 μg/μL; Cat#ANT-006, Alomone Labs), TAT-Pep5 (4 ng/μL; Cat#506181, EMD Millipore), K252a (25 μg/μL; Cat#82497; Sigma-Aldrich), 3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP; 32 ng/μL; Cat#01773, Tocris Bioscience), NVP-AAM077 (0.8 ng/μL; Cat#P1999, Sigma-Aldrich), Ro25-6981 (2.0 ng/μL; Cat#1594, Tocris Bioscience), mature BDNF (1.5 μg/mL; Cat#B250; Alomone Labs) or artificial CSF (ACSF, Cat#3525, Tocris Bioscience) into prelimbic area (at a rate of 0.5 μL/min/side for 2 min) was infused immediately or one day following memory retrieval.

    Techniques: Expressing, Western Blot

    Up-regulation of proBDNF-p75NTR signaling mediated by NMDA-GluN2B contributes to enhance the modulation of existing fear memory traces in juvenile rats. (A) Schematic describing the behavioral timeline for the retrieval-dependent memory destabilization experiment using rats conditioned with four tones (Top). Immediately following the memory retrieval, the rats infused with TAT-Pep5, K252a or vehicle into the prelimbic cortex 15 min prior to the mBDNF, proBDNF or vehicle infusion. Two days later, PR-LTM was assessed by exposed the rats to the novel context. Similar, no significant difference in the percentage freezing during the memory retrieval but the percentage freezing level during the PR-LTM test was significant lower in juvenile group than adult group (Bottom). No obvious effect of mBDNF on freeze behavior was found. Infusions of p75 NTR blocker TAT-Pep5 could significantly enhance the percentage of freeze behavior. Meanwhile, infusions of TAT-Pep5, but not K252a, markedly blocked the effects of proBDNF treatment. (* P

    Journal: bioRxiv

    Article Title: Prelimbic proBDNF facilitates memory destabilization by regulation of neuronal function in juveniles

    doi: 10.1101/2021.12.30.474526

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Up-regulation of proBDNF-p75NTR signaling mediated by NMDA-GluN2B contributes to enhance the modulation of existing fear memory traces in juvenile rats. (A) Schematic describing the behavioral timeline for the retrieval-dependent memory destabilization experiment using rats conditioned with four tones (Top). Immediately following the memory retrieval, the rats infused with TAT-Pep5, K252a or vehicle into the prelimbic cortex 15 min prior to the mBDNF, proBDNF or vehicle infusion. Two days later, PR-LTM was assessed by exposed the rats to the novel context. Similar, no significant difference in the percentage freezing during the memory retrieval but the percentage freezing level during the PR-LTM test was significant lower in juvenile group than adult group (Bottom). No obvious effect of mBDNF on freeze behavior was found. Infusions of p75 NTR blocker TAT-Pep5 could significantly enhance the percentage of freeze behavior. Meanwhile, infusions of TAT-Pep5, but not K252a, markedly blocked the effects of proBDNF treatment. (* P

    Article Snippet: Needles were inserted into bilateral cannulae and then cleavage-resistant proBDNF (2 ng/ml; Cat#B257 Alomone Labs), anti-proBDNF antibody (10 μg/μL; Cat#ANT-006, Alomone Labs), TAT-Pep5 (4 ng/μL; Cat#506181, EMD Millipore), K252a (25 μg/μL; Cat#82497; Sigma-Aldrich), 3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP; 32 ng/μL; Cat#01773, Tocris Bioscience), NVP-AAM077 (0.8 ng/μL; Cat#P1999, Sigma-Aldrich), Ro25-6981 (2.0 ng/μL; Cat#1594, Tocris Bioscience), mature BDNF (1.5 μg/mL; Cat#B250; Alomone Labs) or artificial CSF (ACSF, Cat#3525, Tocris Bioscience) into prelimbic area (at a rate of 0.5 μL/min/side for 2 min) was infused immediately or one day following memory retrieval.

    Techniques:

    Schematic diagram showing how proBDNF dampens CD4 + T cell activity and contributes to the pathogenesis of SAE. In sepsis, proBDNF expression is increased in peripheral blood and meningeal immune cells, which then decreases the infiltration of CD4 + T cells in the meninges. As a result, meningeal pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and IL-1β are upregulated, but anti-inflammatory cytokines including IL-4 and IL-13 are downregulated, finally leading to SAE. SAE, sepsis-associated encephalopathy

    Journal: Journal of Neuroinflammation

    Article Title: ProBDNF promotes sepsis-associated encephalopathy in mice by dampening the immune activity of meningeal CD4+ T cells

    doi: 10.1186/s12974-020-01850-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Schematic diagram showing how proBDNF dampens CD4 + T cell activity and contributes to the pathogenesis of SAE. In sepsis, proBDNF expression is increased in peripheral blood and meningeal immune cells, which then decreases the infiltration of CD4 + T cells in the meninges. As a result, meningeal pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and IL-1β are upregulated, but anti-inflammatory cytokines including IL-4 and IL-13 are downregulated, finally leading to SAE. SAE, sepsis-associated encephalopathy

    Article Snippet: 4 × 105 cells were put in each well of a 96-well flat-bottom plate and stimulated with 100, 200, or 500 ng ml−1 proBDNF protein (Alomone Labs, Israel, catalog: B243) as introduced by our previous studies [ ], respectively.

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Expressing

    Exogenous proBDNF protein reduced CD4 + T cells but increased CD8 + T cells of septic mice in vitro. Mice injected with saline or LPS (5 mg kg −1 ) for 5 days and the splenocytes were isolated and cultured for 3 days in vitro. Exogenous proBDNF did not alter the percentage of a CD3 + T cells in CD45 + cells or the percentage of b CD4 + T cells or c CD8 + T cells in CD3 + T cells in splenocytes from mice treated with saline. d Exogenous proBDNF did not alter the percentage of CD3 + T cells in CD45 + cells in splenocytes in septic mice. e–f ProBDNF treatment significantly decreased the percentage of e CD4 + T cells but increased the percentage of f CD8 + T cells in CD3 + T cells in splenocytes in LPS-treated mice. n = 4 in each group. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and followed by Tukey post hoc test, * P

    Journal: Journal of Neuroinflammation

    Article Title: ProBDNF promotes sepsis-associated encephalopathy in mice by dampening the immune activity of meningeal CD4+ T cells

    doi: 10.1186/s12974-020-01850-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Exogenous proBDNF protein reduced CD4 + T cells but increased CD8 + T cells of septic mice in vitro. Mice injected with saline or LPS (5 mg kg −1 ) for 5 days and the splenocytes were isolated and cultured for 3 days in vitro. Exogenous proBDNF did not alter the percentage of a CD3 + T cells in CD45 + cells or the percentage of b CD4 + T cells or c CD8 + T cells in CD3 + T cells in splenocytes from mice treated with saline. d Exogenous proBDNF did not alter the percentage of CD3 + T cells in CD45 + cells in splenocytes in septic mice. e–f ProBDNF treatment significantly decreased the percentage of e CD4 + T cells but increased the percentage of f CD8 + T cells in CD3 + T cells in splenocytes in LPS-treated mice. n = 4 in each group. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and followed by Tukey post hoc test, * P

    Article Snippet: 4 × 105 cells were put in each well of a 96-well flat-bottom plate and stimulated with 100, 200, or 500 ng ml−1 proBDNF protein (Alomone Labs, Israel, catalog: B243) as introduced by our previous studies [ ], respectively.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, In Vitro, Injection, Isolation, Cell Culture

    Increased proBDNF expression in meningeal and peripheral blood immune cells in septic mice. Mice were i.p. injected with LPS (5 mg kg −1 ) and meninges and peripheral blood were harvested for immunofluorescence staining or flow cytometry. a Representative whole mount meningeal immunofluorescence images showed markedly increased proBDNF-positive staining cells in the meninges in mice at 1 day after LPS injection compared to saline injected mice. The high magnification images around the arrows are displayed in a white square as insets. Bar = 100 μm. b – f Representative meningeal single cell flow cytometry images ( upper panel ) and its statistical analysis ( lower panel ) indicated that proBDNF MFI was increased in meningeal b CD3 + T cells, c CD4 + T cells, d CD8 + T cells, and f CD11b + monocytes/macrophages at 1 day after LPS injection. proBDNF in meningeal e CD19 + B cells upregulated until 5 days after LPS injection. n = 10 in the Con group, n = 6 in LPS groups. g – k Upregulation of proBDNF in g CD3 + T cells, h CD4 + T cells, i CD8 + T cells, j CD19 + B cells, and k CD11b + monocytes/macrophages in peripheral blood in LPS-injected mice were detected. n = 9 in Con group, n = 8 in the LPS1d group, n = 4 in the LPS 5d group. Data b – k were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and followed by Tukey post hoc test, * P

    Journal: Journal of Neuroinflammation

    Article Title: ProBDNF promotes sepsis-associated encephalopathy in mice by dampening the immune activity of meningeal CD4+ T cells

    doi: 10.1186/s12974-020-01850-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Increased proBDNF expression in meningeal and peripheral blood immune cells in septic mice. Mice were i.p. injected with LPS (5 mg kg −1 ) and meninges and peripheral blood were harvested for immunofluorescence staining or flow cytometry. a Representative whole mount meningeal immunofluorescence images showed markedly increased proBDNF-positive staining cells in the meninges in mice at 1 day after LPS injection compared to saline injected mice. The high magnification images around the arrows are displayed in a white square as insets. Bar = 100 μm. b – f Representative meningeal single cell flow cytometry images ( upper panel ) and its statistical analysis ( lower panel ) indicated that proBDNF MFI was increased in meningeal b CD3 + T cells, c CD4 + T cells, d CD8 + T cells, and f CD11b + monocytes/macrophages at 1 day after LPS injection. proBDNF in meningeal e CD19 + B cells upregulated until 5 days after LPS injection. n = 10 in the Con group, n = 6 in LPS groups. g – k Upregulation of proBDNF in g CD3 + T cells, h CD4 + T cells, i CD8 + T cells, j CD19 + B cells, and k CD11b + monocytes/macrophages in peripheral blood in LPS-injected mice were detected. n = 9 in Con group, n = 8 in the LPS1d group, n = 4 in the LPS 5d group. Data b – k were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and followed by Tukey post hoc test, * P

    Article Snippet: 4 × 105 cells were put in each well of a 96-well flat-bottom plate and stimulated with 100, 200, or 500 ng ml−1 proBDNF protein (Alomone Labs, Israel, catalog: B243) as introduced by our previous studies [ ], respectively.

    Techniques: Expressing, Mouse Assay, Injection, Immunofluorescence, Staining, Flow Cytometry

    Effect of i.c.v. injection of anti-proBDNF antibody on fear memory and meningeal immune activity in the septic mice. Mice were bilateral i.c.v. injected with 1 μg McAb-proB 3 days before LPS injection. Behavior tests were performed 1 day after LPS injection. a Representative images showed the broad and thorough diffusion of drugs in cerebroventricular lumen following i.c.v. injection with methylene blue. b McAb-proB i.c.v. injection did not influence weight of mice. c–e There was no difference of c fear conditioning acquiring performance in each group, nor McAb-proB increased the freezing time of d contextual or e cued fear conditioning test as compared to IgG control after LPS injection. n = 6 in each group. Data b , c , and e were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA and followed by Bonferroni post hoc test and data d was analyzed by one-way ANOVA and followed by Tukey post hoc test, * P

    Journal: Journal of Neuroinflammation

    Article Title: ProBDNF promotes sepsis-associated encephalopathy in mice by dampening the immune activity of meningeal CD4+ T cells

    doi: 10.1186/s12974-020-01850-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of i.c.v. injection of anti-proBDNF antibody on fear memory and meningeal immune activity in the septic mice. Mice were bilateral i.c.v. injected with 1 μg McAb-proB 3 days before LPS injection. Behavior tests were performed 1 day after LPS injection. a Representative images showed the broad and thorough diffusion of drugs in cerebroventricular lumen following i.c.v. injection with methylene blue. b McAb-proB i.c.v. injection did not influence weight of mice. c–e There was no difference of c fear conditioning acquiring performance in each group, nor McAb-proB increased the freezing time of d contextual or e cued fear conditioning test as compared to IgG control after LPS injection. n = 6 in each group. Data b , c , and e were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA and followed by Bonferroni post hoc test and data d was analyzed by one-way ANOVA and followed by Tukey post hoc test, * P

    Article Snippet: 4 × 105 cells were put in each well of a 96-well flat-bottom plate and stimulated with 100, 200, or 500 ng ml−1 proBDNF protein (Alomone Labs, Israel, catalog: B243) as introduced by our previous studies [ ], respectively.

    Techniques: Injection, Activity Assay, Mouse Assay, Diffusion-based Assay

    Systemic blockade of proBDNF ameliorated cognitive dysfunction and restored meningeal and peripheral CD4 + T cell ratio in septic mice. Mice were i.p. injected with proBDNF 30 min before LPS (5 mg kg −1 ) injection. Fear conditioning testing was performed 1 day after LPS injection. Meninges and peripheral blood were harvested 5 days after LPS injection for flow cytometry. a McAb-proB did not influence the weight of mice or b fear conditioning acquiring. c , d McAb-proB greatly alleviated memory deficit induced by LPS injection in mice as indicated by the increased freezing time in ( c ) contextual and ( d ) cued fear conditioning tests in the McAb-proB group relative to the IgG control. n = 8 in each group. Data a , b , and d were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA and followed by Bonferroni post hoc tests. Data c was analyzed by one-way ANOVA and followed by Tukey post hoc test, * P

    Journal: Journal of Neuroinflammation

    Article Title: ProBDNF promotes sepsis-associated encephalopathy in mice by dampening the immune activity of meningeal CD4+ T cells

    doi: 10.1186/s12974-020-01850-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Systemic blockade of proBDNF ameliorated cognitive dysfunction and restored meningeal and peripheral CD4 + T cell ratio in septic mice. Mice were i.p. injected with proBDNF 30 min before LPS (5 mg kg −1 ) injection. Fear conditioning testing was performed 1 day after LPS injection. Meninges and peripheral blood were harvested 5 days after LPS injection for flow cytometry. a McAb-proB did not influence the weight of mice or b fear conditioning acquiring. c , d McAb-proB greatly alleviated memory deficit induced by LPS injection in mice as indicated by the increased freezing time in ( c ) contextual and ( d ) cued fear conditioning tests in the McAb-proB group relative to the IgG control. n = 8 in each group. Data a , b , and d were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA and followed by Bonferroni post hoc tests. Data c was analyzed by one-way ANOVA and followed by Tukey post hoc test, * P

    Article Snippet: 4 × 105 cells were put in each well of a 96-well flat-bottom plate and stimulated with 100, 200, or 500 ng ml−1 proBDNF protein (Alomone Labs, Israel, catalog: B243) as introduced by our previous studies [ ], respectively.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Injection, Flow Cytometry

    Systemic blockade of proBDNF restored meningeal pro-inflammatory microenvironment in septic mice. Mice were i.p. injected with proBDNF 30 min before LPS (5 mg kg −1 ) injection. Meninges were harvested 5 days after LPS injection for qPCR. a The level of CD4 gene expression was higher in the meninges of the McAb-proB group than in IgG controls in septic mice. b–f Gene levels were significantly lower in b IL-1β and c IL-6 but higher in d IL-4, e IFN-γ, and f IL-13 in the meninges after LPS injection in the McAb-proB group as compared to IgG control. n = 5 in each group. All experiments were performed at least in triplicate. Data were analyzed by unpaired T test, * P

    Journal: Journal of Neuroinflammation

    Article Title: ProBDNF promotes sepsis-associated encephalopathy in mice by dampening the immune activity of meningeal CD4+ T cells

    doi: 10.1186/s12974-020-01850-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Systemic blockade of proBDNF restored meningeal pro-inflammatory microenvironment in septic mice. Mice were i.p. injected with proBDNF 30 min before LPS (5 mg kg −1 ) injection. Meninges were harvested 5 days after LPS injection for qPCR. a The level of CD4 gene expression was higher in the meninges of the McAb-proB group than in IgG controls in septic mice. b–f Gene levels were significantly lower in b IL-1β and c IL-6 but higher in d IL-4, e IFN-γ, and f IL-13 in the meninges after LPS injection in the McAb-proB group as compared to IgG control. n = 5 in each group. All experiments were performed at least in triplicate. Data were analyzed by unpaired T test, * P

    Article Snippet: 4 × 105 cells were put in each well of a 96-well flat-bottom plate and stimulated with 100, 200, or 500 ng ml−1 proBDNF protein (Alomone Labs, Israel, catalog: B243) as introduced by our previous studies [ ], respectively.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Injection, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Expressing