human colon cancer cell line caco 2  (ATCC)


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    ATCC human colon cancer cell line caco 2
    SARS-CoV-2 induces changes in the proteomes of gastroenterological cell types. ( A ) Venn diagram showing differentially expressed proteins in HepG2 and <t>CACO-2</t> cells. ( B ) Heatmap of fold changes for each protein found in both gastroenterological cell types. ( C ) Pathway enrichment analyses for hepatocytes and CACO-2 cells. Bubble size indicates adjusted p -value on a − log10 scale. ( D ) Upregulated (red) and downregulated (blue) proteins related to bacterial invasion of epithelial cells. Proteins highlighted in bold are from the MAPK and tubulin families.
    Human Colon Cancer Cell Line Caco 2, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    1) Product Images from "Diving into the proteomic atlas of SARS-CoV-2 infected cells"

    Article Title: Diving into the proteomic atlas of SARS-CoV-2 infected cells

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-024-56328-3

    SARS-CoV-2 induces changes in the proteomes of gastroenterological cell types. ( A ) Venn diagram showing differentially expressed proteins in HepG2 and CACO-2 cells. ( B ) Heatmap of fold changes for each protein found in both gastroenterological cell types. ( C ) Pathway enrichment analyses for hepatocytes and CACO-2 cells. Bubble size indicates adjusted p -value on a − log10 scale. ( D ) Upregulated (red) and downregulated (blue) proteins related to bacterial invasion of epithelial cells. Proteins highlighted in bold are from the MAPK and tubulin families.
    Figure Legend Snippet: SARS-CoV-2 induces changes in the proteomes of gastroenterological cell types. ( A ) Venn diagram showing differentially expressed proteins in HepG2 and CACO-2 cells. ( B ) Heatmap of fold changes for each protein found in both gastroenterological cell types. ( C ) Pathway enrichment analyses for hepatocytes and CACO-2 cells. Bubble size indicates adjusted p -value on a − log10 scale. ( D ) Upregulated (red) and downregulated (blue) proteins related to bacterial invasion of epithelial cells. Proteins highlighted in bold are from the MAPK and tubulin families.

    Techniques Used:

    caco 2 cells  (ATCC)


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    ATCC caco 2 cells
    <t>Caco-2</t> cells proliferation ( a ) and vitality ( b–d ) obtained from the sulforodhamine B assay. Normal control = DMEM, 10% FBS and 1% l -glutamin; LIPO substance-free liposome; LIPO + EREC liposomal SPC formulation containing eremantholide C; LIPO + GOIA liposomal SPC formulation containing goyazensolide. Values were expressed as mean ± S.E.M. One-way ANOVA was used followed by Dunnett’s test for statistical significance. *P < 0.05 compared with the normal control group. The results reveal intriguing insights of the impact of liposomal formulations containing the sesquiterpene lactones in cell vitality.
    Caco 2 Cells, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    1) Product Images from "Development and characterization of liposomal formulations containing sesquiterpene lactones for the treatment of chronic gout"

    Article Title: Development and characterization of liposomal formulations containing sesquiterpene lactones for the treatment of chronic gout

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-024-57663-1

    Caco-2 cells proliferation ( a ) and vitality ( b–d ) obtained from the sulforodhamine B assay. Normal control = DMEM, 10% FBS and 1% l -glutamin; LIPO substance-free liposome; LIPO + EREC liposomal SPC formulation containing eremantholide C; LIPO + GOIA liposomal SPC formulation containing goyazensolide. Values were expressed as mean ± S.E.M. One-way ANOVA was used followed by Dunnett’s test for statistical significance. *P < 0.05 compared with the normal control group. The results reveal intriguing insights of the impact of liposomal formulations containing the sesquiterpene lactones in cell vitality.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Caco-2 cells proliferation ( a ) and vitality ( b–d ) obtained from the sulforodhamine B assay. Normal control = DMEM, 10% FBS and 1% l -glutamin; LIPO substance-free liposome; LIPO + EREC liposomal SPC formulation containing eremantholide C; LIPO + GOIA liposomal SPC formulation containing goyazensolide. Values were expressed as mean ± S.E.M. One-way ANOVA was used followed by Dunnett’s test for statistical significance. *P < 0.05 compared with the normal control group. The results reveal intriguing insights of the impact of liposomal formulations containing the sesquiterpene lactones in cell vitality.

    Techniques Used: Formulation

    caco 2 cell line  (ATCC)


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    ATCC caco 2 cell line
    Schematic of LG/TD-NF and characteristics of LG nanoparticles with different bile acid derivatives. ( A ) Preparation of the LG/TD-NF. ( B ) Structure-specific moiety of bile acid derivatives as a counterion of LG for ASBT binding. <t>Caco-2</t> permeability of LG nanoparticles with ( C ) negatively charged bile acid derivatives (TC, TDC, TCDC, DC, TLC) and ( D ) the positively charged DCK. *** P < 0.001 compared to the LG group. Characteristics of LG nanoparticles based on varying ratios of each TLC and DCK: ( E ) zeta potential, ( F ) particle size, and ( G ) drug content.
    Caco 2 Cell Line, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    1) Product Images from "Coordinated ASBT and EGFR Mechanisms for Optimized Liraglutide Nanoformulation Absorption in the GI Tract"

    Article Title: Coordinated ASBT and EGFR Mechanisms for Optimized Liraglutide Nanoformulation Absorption in the GI Tract

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S442617

    Schematic of LG/TD-NF and characteristics of LG nanoparticles with different bile acid derivatives. ( A ) Preparation of the LG/TD-NF. ( B ) Structure-specific moiety of bile acid derivatives as a counterion of LG for ASBT binding. Caco-2 permeability of LG nanoparticles with ( C ) negatively charged bile acid derivatives (TC, TDC, TCDC, DC, TLC) and ( D ) the positively charged DCK. *** P < 0.001 compared to the LG group. Characteristics of LG nanoparticles based on varying ratios of each TLC and DCK: ( E ) zeta potential, ( F ) particle size, and ( G ) drug content.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Schematic of LG/TD-NF and characteristics of LG nanoparticles with different bile acid derivatives. ( A ) Preparation of the LG/TD-NF. ( B ) Structure-specific moiety of bile acid derivatives as a counterion of LG for ASBT binding. Caco-2 permeability of LG nanoparticles with ( C ) negatively charged bile acid derivatives (TC, TDC, TCDC, DC, TLC) and ( D ) the positively charged DCK. *** P < 0.001 compared to the LG group. Characteristics of LG nanoparticles based on varying ratios of each TLC and DCK: ( E ) zeta potential, ( F ) particle size, and ( G ) drug content.

    Techniques Used: Binding Assay, Permeability, Zeta Potential Analyzer

    ASBT binding of the LG/TD-NF for cellular permeability. ( A ) Binding affinity (K d ) of DCK, LG-F, LG/TD, and LG/TD-NF to an ASBT-immobilized CM5 sensor chip by SPR, with sample concentrations ranging from 15.6 µM to 250 µM. ( B ) Cellular absorption of LG/TD-NF by CLSM (scale bar = 20 µm) on MDCK (ASBT non-expressed) and MDCK-ASBT (ASBT-expressed) cells and ( C ) Caco-2 permeability ( P app ). *** P < 0.001 compared to LG, ## P < 0.05, ### P < 0.001 compared to LG-F.
    Figure Legend Snippet: ASBT binding of the LG/TD-NF for cellular permeability. ( A ) Binding affinity (K d ) of DCK, LG-F, LG/TD, and LG/TD-NF to an ASBT-immobilized CM5 sensor chip by SPR, with sample concentrations ranging from 15.6 µM to 250 µM. ( B ) Cellular absorption of LG/TD-NF by CLSM (scale bar = 20 µm) on MDCK (ASBT non-expressed) and MDCK-ASBT (ASBT-expressed) cells and ( C ) Caco-2 permeability ( P app ). *** P < 0.001 compared to LG, ## P < 0.05, ### P < 0.001 compared to LG-F.

    Techniques Used: Binding Assay, Permeability

    Cellular endocytic and exocytic mechanisms of trafficking LG/TD-NF. ( A ) Inhibition of LG/TD-NF endocytosis in Caco-2 cells using endocytic pathway inhibitors. ( B and C ) Inhibition of internalization of FITC-labeled LG (green) in FITC-labeled LG/TD-NF with ASBT (red) and EGFR (purple) with or without 10 µM gefitinib in SK-BR-3 cells by CLSM (scale bar = 20 µm). ( D ) Schematic of ASBT-mediated endocytosis of LG/TD-NF in cooperation with EGFR and clathrin. ( E ) Inhibition of LG/TD-NF exocytosis in Caco-2 cells with exocytosis pathway inhibitors. ( F ) Cellular localization in Caco-2 cells with anti-clathrin (red, top) and anti-WGA (red, bottom) at 5, 15, 60, and 90 min after treatment with FITC-labeled LG/TD-NF (green) by CLSM. ( G ) Schematic illustration of cellular trafficking of LG/TD-NF through ASBT-mediated transcytosis.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Cellular endocytic and exocytic mechanisms of trafficking LG/TD-NF. ( A ) Inhibition of LG/TD-NF endocytosis in Caco-2 cells using endocytic pathway inhibitors. ( B and C ) Inhibition of internalization of FITC-labeled LG (green) in FITC-labeled LG/TD-NF with ASBT (red) and EGFR (purple) with or without 10 µM gefitinib in SK-BR-3 cells by CLSM (scale bar = 20 µm). ( D ) Schematic of ASBT-mediated endocytosis of LG/TD-NF in cooperation with EGFR and clathrin. ( E ) Inhibition of LG/TD-NF exocytosis in Caco-2 cells with exocytosis pathway inhibitors. ( F ) Cellular localization in Caco-2 cells with anti-clathrin (red, top) and anti-WGA (red, bottom) at 5, 15, 60, and 90 min after treatment with FITC-labeled LG/TD-NF (green) by CLSM. ( G ) Schematic illustration of cellular trafficking of LG/TD-NF through ASBT-mediated transcytosis.

    Techniques Used: Inhibition, Labeling

    colorectal adenocarcinoma caco 2 cells  (ATCC)


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    ATCC colorectal adenocarcinoma caco 2 cells
    Colorectal Adenocarcinoma Caco 2 Cells, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    caco 2 cells  (ATCC)


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    ATCC caco 2 cells
    Caco 2 Cells, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    caco 2 cells  (ATCC)


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    ATCC caco 2 cells
    Caco 2 Cells, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    intestinal epithelial cell line caco 2  (ATCC)


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    ATCC intestinal epithelial cell line caco 2
    A) Total steroidal alkaloid concentration in the serum of C57BL/6J mice fed potato-supplemented diet and treated with antibiotics. Aglycone concentrations were estimated using a solanidine standard curve. Data shown are the mean±SD (n=5 mice). P values were determined using a two-sided Welch’s T test. B) In vitro inhibition of recombinant human AChE activity by potato steroidal alkaloids. Data shown are normalized to AChE treated with vehicle only (DMSO for solanine, chaconine and ethanol for solanidine) with a total vehicle concentration of 1% for all treatments. Values shown are the mean±SD (n=3 assays per concentration). 5 ng of AChE was used in each reaction. C) In vitro inhibition of cholinesterase activity by 50 μM potato SAs in human protein homogenates from normal colonic tissue (n=3 donors) and <t>Caco-2</t> colonic epithelial cells. Activity was normalized to the activity of the vehicle-treated sample. Values shown are the mean±SD of three replicate assays per homogenate. 5 ng each of recombinant human AChE and BChE were used for pure protein reactions, while 35 μg total protein was used for each homogenate. Multiplicity-adjusted P values were calculated using Tukey’s multiple comparison tests. D) Inhibition of recombinant human AChE activity by spent media from human stool (n=11 donors) incubated with 20 μM solanine in SAAC minimal medium. Activity was normalized to the activity of AChE treated with spent media from the same donor sample incubated with vehicle only. Values shown are the mean±SD of three AChE activity assays for each donor and compound combination. The relative abundances of select metabolites following incubation with solanine are shown below for each stool sample. Values shown are EIC peak areas normalized to the maximum peak area across all samples. P values were determined using a two-sided Welch’s T test. Ns: not significant with P>0.05.
    Intestinal Epithelial Cell Line Caco 2, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    1) Product Images from "Gut microbiota gate host exposure to metabolites from dietary Solanums"

    Article Title: Gut microbiota gate host exposure to metabolites from dietary Solanums

    Journal: bioRxiv

    doi: 10.1101/2024.03.20.584512

    A) Total steroidal alkaloid concentration in the serum of C57BL/6J mice fed potato-supplemented diet and treated with antibiotics. Aglycone concentrations were estimated using a solanidine standard curve. Data shown are the mean±SD (n=5 mice). P values were determined using a two-sided Welch’s T test. B) In vitro inhibition of recombinant human AChE activity by potato steroidal alkaloids. Data shown are normalized to AChE treated with vehicle only (DMSO for solanine, chaconine and ethanol for solanidine) with a total vehicle concentration of 1% for all treatments. Values shown are the mean±SD (n=3 assays per concentration). 5 ng of AChE was used in each reaction. C) In vitro inhibition of cholinesterase activity by 50 μM potato SAs in human protein homogenates from normal colonic tissue (n=3 donors) and Caco-2 colonic epithelial cells. Activity was normalized to the activity of the vehicle-treated sample. Values shown are the mean±SD of three replicate assays per homogenate. 5 ng each of recombinant human AChE and BChE were used for pure protein reactions, while 35 μg total protein was used for each homogenate. Multiplicity-adjusted P values were calculated using Tukey’s multiple comparison tests. D) Inhibition of recombinant human AChE activity by spent media from human stool (n=11 donors) incubated with 20 μM solanine in SAAC minimal medium. Activity was normalized to the activity of AChE treated with spent media from the same donor sample incubated with vehicle only. Values shown are the mean±SD of three AChE activity assays for each donor and compound combination. The relative abundances of select metabolites following incubation with solanine are shown below for each stool sample. Values shown are EIC peak areas normalized to the maximum peak area across all samples. P values were determined using a two-sided Welch’s T test. Ns: not significant with P>0.05.
    Figure Legend Snippet: A) Total steroidal alkaloid concentration in the serum of C57BL/6J mice fed potato-supplemented diet and treated with antibiotics. Aglycone concentrations were estimated using a solanidine standard curve. Data shown are the mean±SD (n=5 mice). P values were determined using a two-sided Welch’s T test. B) In vitro inhibition of recombinant human AChE activity by potato steroidal alkaloids. Data shown are normalized to AChE treated with vehicle only (DMSO for solanine, chaconine and ethanol for solanidine) with a total vehicle concentration of 1% for all treatments. Values shown are the mean±SD (n=3 assays per concentration). 5 ng of AChE was used in each reaction. C) In vitro inhibition of cholinesterase activity by 50 μM potato SAs in human protein homogenates from normal colonic tissue (n=3 donors) and Caco-2 colonic epithelial cells. Activity was normalized to the activity of the vehicle-treated sample. Values shown are the mean±SD of three replicate assays per homogenate. 5 ng each of recombinant human AChE and BChE were used for pure protein reactions, while 35 μg total protein was used for each homogenate. Multiplicity-adjusted P values were calculated using Tukey’s multiple comparison tests. D) Inhibition of recombinant human AChE activity by spent media from human stool (n=11 donors) incubated with 20 μM solanine in SAAC minimal medium. Activity was normalized to the activity of AChE treated with spent media from the same donor sample incubated with vehicle only. Values shown are the mean±SD of three AChE activity assays for each donor and compound combination. The relative abundances of select metabolites following incubation with solanine are shown below for each stool sample. Values shown are EIC peak areas normalized to the maximum peak area across all samples. P values were determined using a two-sided Welch’s T test. Ns: not significant with P>0.05.

    Techniques Used: Concentration Assay, In Vitro, Inhibition, Recombinant, Activity Assay, Comparison, Incubation

    human crc cell lines caco 2  (ATCC)


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    ATCC human crc cell lines caco 2
    Stem-like features of CRC cells are induced by NK cells. ( A ) The correlation between stemness markers and PDL1, derived from tumor cells, and IFNG expression, derived from NK cells. ( B , C ) The mRNA level ( B ) and the fluorescence intensity ( C ) of IFN-γ in NK-92 co-cultured with <t>Caco-2</t> or SW480 for 24 h. ( D , E ) The mRNA level of indicated stemness markers in Caco-2 or SW480 co-cultured with NK-92 for 24 h and further treated with or without 1 μM sulfarotene for 24 h. Data are presented as mean ± SD and are representative of at least three separate experiments. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001, **** p < 0.0001.
    Human Crc Cell Lines Caco 2, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    1) Product Images from "Sulfarotene Inhibits Colorectal Cancer via Mitigating Natural-Killer-Cell-Induced Stemness"

    Article Title: Sulfarotene Inhibits Colorectal Cancer via Mitigating Natural-Killer-Cell-Induced Stemness

    Journal: Pharmaceuticals

    doi: 10.3390/ph17030387

    Stem-like features of CRC cells are induced by NK cells. ( A ) The correlation between stemness markers and PDL1, derived from tumor cells, and IFNG expression, derived from NK cells. ( B , C ) The mRNA level ( B ) and the fluorescence intensity ( C ) of IFN-γ in NK-92 co-cultured with Caco-2 or SW480 for 24 h. ( D , E ) The mRNA level of indicated stemness markers in Caco-2 or SW480 co-cultured with NK-92 for 24 h and further treated with or without 1 μM sulfarotene for 24 h. Data are presented as mean ± SD and are representative of at least three separate experiments. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001, **** p < 0.0001.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Stem-like features of CRC cells are induced by NK cells. ( A ) The correlation between stemness markers and PDL1, derived from tumor cells, and IFNG expression, derived from NK cells. ( B , C ) The mRNA level ( B ) and the fluorescence intensity ( C ) of IFN-γ in NK-92 co-cultured with Caco-2 or SW480 for 24 h. ( D , E ) The mRNA level of indicated stemness markers in Caco-2 or SW480 co-cultured with NK-92 for 24 h and further treated with or without 1 μM sulfarotene for 24 h. Data are presented as mean ± SD and are representative of at least three separate experiments. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001, **** p < 0.0001.

    Techniques Used: Derivative Assay, Expressing, Fluorescence, Cell Culture

    CRC cells with stem-like alterations show cytotoxic resistance but are susceptible to sulfarotene. ( A – F ) The CCK8 viability assays were used to measure CPT-11 ( A , B ), oxaliplatin ( C , D ), and sulfarotene ( E , F ) sensitivity changes at 48 h in Caco-2 ( A , C , E ) and SW480 ( B , D , F ), which were previously co-cultured with or without NK-92 for 24 h. The results were representative of three separate experiments. Data are presented as mean ± SD.
    Figure Legend Snippet: CRC cells with stem-like alterations show cytotoxic resistance but are susceptible to sulfarotene. ( A – F ) The CCK8 viability assays were used to measure CPT-11 ( A , B ), oxaliplatin ( C , D ), and sulfarotene ( E , F ) sensitivity changes at 48 h in Caco-2 ( A , C , E ) and SW480 ( B , D , F ), which were previously co-cultured with or without NK-92 for 24 h. The results were representative of three separate experiments. Data are presented as mean ± SD.

    Techniques Used: Cell Culture

    Pretreatment with NK-92 elevates CRC cells apoptosis. ( A – D ) Flow cytometric analysis and quantitation of apoptosis of Caco-2 ( A , B ) and SW480 ( C , D ) after co-culture with NK cells or drug administration for 24 h, pretreated with ( B , D ) or without ( A , C ) NK-92 for 24 h. Representative flow cytometry plot is from three independent experiments. Data are presented as mean ± SD. ns, not significant; **** p < 0.0001.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Pretreatment with NK-92 elevates CRC cells apoptosis. ( A – D ) Flow cytometric analysis and quantitation of apoptosis of Caco-2 ( A , B ) and SW480 ( C , D ) after co-culture with NK cells or drug administration for 24 h, pretreated with ( B , D ) or without ( A , C ) NK-92 for 24 h. Representative flow cytometry plot is from three independent experiments. Data are presented as mean ± SD. ns, not significant; **** p < 0.0001.

    Techniques Used: Quantitation Assay, Co-Culture Assay, Flow Cytometry

    caco 2 cells c2bbe1  (ATCC)


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    ATCC caco 2 cells c2bbe1
    In Vitro ADME Parameters for Novel M4K Series Compounds
    Caco 2 Cells C2bbe1, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    1) Product Images from "Discovery of Conformationally Constrained ALK2 Inhibitors"

    Article Title: Discovery of Conformationally Constrained ALK2 Inhibitors

    Journal: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry

    doi: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.3c02308

    In Vitro ADME Parameters for Novel M4K Series Compounds
    Figure Legend Snippet: In Vitro ADME Parameters for Novel M4K Series Compounds

    Techniques Used: In Vitro, Permeability

    caco 2 cells  (ATCC)


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    ATCC caco 2 cells
    Caco 2 Cells, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC human colon cancer cell line caco 2
    SARS-CoV-2 induces changes in the proteomes of gastroenterological cell types. ( A ) Venn diagram showing differentially expressed proteins in HepG2 and <t>CACO-2</t> cells. ( B ) Heatmap of fold changes for each protein found in both gastroenterological cell types. ( C ) Pathway enrichment analyses for hepatocytes and CACO-2 cells. Bubble size indicates adjusted p -value on a − log10 scale. ( D ) Upregulated (red) and downregulated (blue) proteins related to bacterial invasion of epithelial cells. Proteins highlighted in bold are from the MAPK and tubulin families.
    Human Colon Cancer Cell Line Caco 2, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC caco 2 cells
    <t>Caco-2</t> cells proliferation ( a ) and vitality ( b–d ) obtained from the sulforodhamine B assay. Normal control = DMEM, 10% FBS and 1% l -glutamin; LIPO substance-free liposome; LIPO + EREC liposomal SPC formulation containing eremantholide C; LIPO + GOIA liposomal SPC formulation containing goyazensolide. Values were expressed as mean ± S.E.M. One-way ANOVA was used followed by Dunnett’s test for statistical significance. *P < 0.05 compared with the normal control group. The results reveal intriguing insights of the impact of liposomal formulations containing the sesquiterpene lactones in cell vitality.
    Caco 2 Cells, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC caco 2 cell line
    Schematic of LG/TD-NF and characteristics of LG nanoparticles with different bile acid derivatives. ( A ) Preparation of the LG/TD-NF. ( B ) Structure-specific moiety of bile acid derivatives as a counterion of LG for ASBT binding. <t>Caco-2</t> permeability of LG nanoparticles with ( C ) negatively charged bile acid derivatives (TC, TDC, TCDC, DC, TLC) and ( D ) the positively charged DCK. *** P < 0.001 compared to the LG group. Characteristics of LG nanoparticles based on varying ratios of each TLC and DCK: ( E ) zeta potential, ( F ) particle size, and ( G ) drug content.
    Caco 2 Cell Line, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC colorectal adenocarcinoma caco 2 cells
    Schematic of LG/TD-NF and characteristics of LG nanoparticles with different bile acid derivatives. ( A ) Preparation of the LG/TD-NF. ( B ) Structure-specific moiety of bile acid derivatives as a counterion of LG for ASBT binding. <t>Caco-2</t> permeability of LG nanoparticles with ( C ) negatively charged bile acid derivatives (TC, TDC, TCDC, DC, TLC) and ( D ) the positively charged DCK. *** P < 0.001 compared to the LG group. Characteristics of LG nanoparticles based on varying ratios of each TLC and DCK: ( E ) zeta potential, ( F ) particle size, and ( G ) drug content.
    Colorectal Adenocarcinoma Caco 2 Cells, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC intestinal epithelial cell line caco 2
    A) Total steroidal alkaloid concentration in the serum of C57BL/6J mice fed potato-supplemented diet and treated with antibiotics. Aglycone concentrations were estimated using a solanidine standard curve. Data shown are the mean±SD (n=5 mice). P values were determined using a two-sided Welch’s T test. B) In vitro inhibition of recombinant human AChE activity by potato steroidal alkaloids. Data shown are normalized to AChE treated with vehicle only (DMSO for solanine, chaconine and ethanol for solanidine) with a total vehicle concentration of 1% for all treatments. Values shown are the mean±SD (n=3 assays per concentration). 5 ng of AChE was used in each reaction. C) In vitro inhibition of cholinesterase activity by 50 μM potato SAs in human protein homogenates from normal colonic tissue (n=3 donors) and <t>Caco-2</t> colonic epithelial cells. Activity was normalized to the activity of the vehicle-treated sample. Values shown are the mean±SD of three replicate assays per homogenate. 5 ng each of recombinant human AChE and BChE were used for pure protein reactions, while 35 μg total protein was used for each homogenate. Multiplicity-adjusted P values were calculated using Tukey’s multiple comparison tests. D) Inhibition of recombinant human AChE activity by spent media from human stool (n=11 donors) incubated with 20 μM solanine in SAAC minimal medium. Activity was normalized to the activity of AChE treated with spent media from the same donor sample incubated with vehicle only. Values shown are the mean±SD of three AChE activity assays for each donor and compound combination. The relative abundances of select metabolites following incubation with solanine are shown below for each stool sample. Values shown are EIC peak areas normalized to the maximum peak area across all samples. P values were determined using a two-sided Welch’s T test. Ns: not significant with P>0.05.
    Intestinal Epithelial Cell Line Caco 2, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC human crc cell lines caco 2
    Stem-like features of CRC cells are induced by NK cells. ( A ) The correlation between stemness markers and PDL1, derived from tumor cells, and IFNG expression, derived from NK cells. ( B , C ) The mRNA level ( B ) and the fluorescence intensity ( C ) of IFN-γ in NK-92 co-cultured with <t>Caco-2</t> or SW480 for 24 h. ( D , E ) The mRNA level of indicated stemness markers in Caco-2 or SW480 co-cultured with NK-92 for 24 h and further treated with or without 1 μM sulfarotene for 24 h. Data are presented as mean ± SD and are representative of at least three separate experiments. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001, **** p < 0.0001.
    Human Crc Cell Lines Caco 2, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC caco 2 cells c2bbe1
    In Vitro ADME Parameters for Novel M4K Series Compounds
    Caco 2 Cells C2bbe1, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Image Search Results


    SARS-CoV-2 induces changes in the proteomes of gastroenterological cell types. ( A ) Venn diagram showing differentially expressed proteins in HepG2 and CACO-2 cells. ( B ) Heatmap of fold changes for each protein found in both gastroenterological cell types. ( C ) Pathway enrichment analyses for hepatocytes and CACO-2 cells. Bubble size indicates adjusted p -value on a − log10 scale. ( D ) Upregulated (red) and downregulated (blue) proteins related to bacterial invasion of epithelial cells. Proteins highlighted in bold are from the MAPK and tubulin families.

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Diving into the proteomic atlas of SARS-CoV-2 infected cells

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-024-56328-3

    Figure Lengend Snippet: SARS-CoV-2 induces changes in the proteomes of gastroenterological cell types. ( A ) Venn diagram showing differentially expressed proteins in HepG2 and CACO-2 cells. ( B ) Heatmap of fold changes for each protein found in both gastroenterological cell types. ( C ) Pathway enrichment analyses for hepatocytes and CACO-2 cells. Bubble size indicates adjusted p -value on a − log10 scale. ( D ) Upregulated (red) and downregulated (blue) proteins related to bacterial invasion of epithelial cells. Proteins highlighted in bold are from the MAPK and tubulin families.

    Article Snippet: Human colon cancer cell line CACO-2 (RRID:CVCL_0025) was obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC).

    Techniques:

    Caco-2 cells proliferation ( a ) and vitality ( b–d ) obtained from the sulforodhamine B assay. Normal control = DMEM, 10% FBS and 1% l -glutamin; LIPO substance-free liposome; LIPO + EREC liposomal SPC formulation containing eremantholide C; LIPO + GOIA liposomal SPC formulation containing goyazensolide. Values were expressed as mean ± S.E.M. One-way ANOVA was used followed by Dunnett’s test for statistical significance. *P < 0.05 compared with the normal control group. The results reveal intriguing insights of the impact of liposomal formulations containing the sesquiterpene lactones in cell vitality.

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Development and characterization of liposomal formulations containing sesquiterpene lactones for the treatment of chronic gout

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-024-57663-1

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Caco-2 cells proliferation ( a ) and vitality ( b–d ) obtained from the sulforodhamine B assay. Normal control = DMEM, 10% FBS and 1% l -glutamin; LIPO substance-free liposome; LIPO + EREC liposomal SPC formulation containing eremantholide C; LIPO + GOIA liposomal SPC formulation containing goyazensolide. Values were expressed as mean ± S.E.M. One-way ANOVA was used followed by Dunnett’s test for statistical significance. *P < 0.05 compared with the normal control group. The results reveal intriguing insights of the impact of liposomal formulations containing the sesquiterpene lactones in cell vitality.

    Article Snippet: Caco-2 cells (from American Type Culture Collection, Manassas, VA, USA) were grown in DMEM supplemented with 10% FBS, 1% l -glutamine, and 1% penicillin/streptomycin.

    Techniques: Formulation

    Schematic of LG/TD-NF and characteristics of LG nanoparticles with different bile acid derivatives. ( A ) Preparation of the LG/TD-NF. ( B ) Structure-specific moiety of bile acid derivatives as a counterion of LG for ASBT binding. Caco-2 permeability of LG nanoparticles with ( C ) negatively charged bile acid derivatives (TC, TDC, TCDC, DC, TLC) and ( D ) the positively charged DCK. *** P < 0.001 compared to the LG group. Characteristics of LG nanoparticles based on varying ratios of each TLC and DCK: ( E ) zeta potential, ( F ) particle size, and ( G ) drug content.

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Coordinated ASBT and EGFR Mechanisms for Optimized Liraglutide Nanoformulation Absorption in the GI Tract

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S442617

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Schematic of LG/TD-NF and characteristics of LG nanoparticles with different bile acid derivatives. ( A ) Preparation of the LG/TD-NF. ( B ) Structure-specific moiety of bile acid derivatives as a counterion of LG for ASBT binding. Caco-2 permeability of LG nanoparticles with ( C ) negatively charged bile acid derivatives (TC, TDC, TCDC, DC, TLC) and ( D ) the positively charged DCK. *** P < 0.001 compared to the LG group. Characteristics of LG nanoparticles based on varying ratios of each TLC and DCK: ( E ) zeta potential, ( F ) particle size, and ( G ) drug content.

    Article Snippet: In vitro cellular studies employed the Caco-2 cell line (human colorectal adenocarcinoma epithelial cells), Madin-Darby canine kidney cell line (MDCK, dog kidney epithelial cells), and SK-BR-3 (human breast epithelial cells) sourced from ATCC (Virginia, USA).

    Techniques: Binding Assay, Permeability, Zeta Potential Analyzer

    ASBT binding of the LG/TD-NF for cellular permeability. ( A ) Binding affinity (K d ) of DCK, LG-F, LG/TD, and LG/TD-NF to an ASBT-immobilized CM5 sensor chip by SPR, with sample concentrations ranging from 15.6 µM to 250 µM. ( B ) Cellular absorption of LG/TD-NF by CLSM (scale bar = 20 µm) on MDCK (ASBT non-expressed) and MDCK-ASBT (ASBT-expressed) cells and ( C ) Caco-2 permeability ( P app ). *** P < 0.001 compared to LG, ## P < 0.05, ### P < 0.001 compared to LG-F.

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Coordinated ASBT and EGFR Mechanisms for Optimized Liraglutide Nanoformulation Absorption in the GI Tract

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S442617

    Figure Lengend Snippet: ASBT binding of the LG/TD-NF for cellular permeability. ( A ) Binding affinity (K d ) of DCK, LG-F, LG/TD, and LG/TD-NF to an ASBT-immobilized CM5 sensor chip by SPR, with sample concentrations ranging from 15.6 µM to 250 µM. ( B ) Cellular absorption of LG/TD-NF by CLSM (scale bar = 20 µm) on MDCK (ASBT non-expressed) and MDCK-ASBT (ASBT-expressed) cells and ( C ) Caco-2 permeability ( P app ). *** P < 0.001 compared to LG, ## P < 0.05, ### P < 0.001 compared to LG-F.

    Article Snippet: In vitro cellular studies employed the Caco-2 cell line (human colorectal adenocarcinoma epithelial cells), Madin-Darby canine kidney cell line (MDCK, dog kidney epithelial cells), and SK-BR-3 (human breast epithelial cells) sourced from ATCC (Virginia, USA).

    Techniques: Binding Assay, Permeability

    Cellular endocytic and exocytic mechanisms of trafficking LG/TD-NF. ( A ) Inhibition of LG/TD-NF endocytosis in Caco-2 cells using endocytic pathway inhibitors. ( B and C ) Inhibition of internalization of FITC-labeled LG (green) in FITC-labeled LG/TD-NF with ASBT (red) and EGFR (purple) with or without 10 µM gefitinib in SK-BR-3 cells by CLSM (scale bar = 20 µm). ( D ) Schematic of ASBT-mediated endocytosis of LG/TD-NF in cooperation with EGFR and clathrin. ( E ) Inhibition of LG/TD-NF exocytosis in Caco-2 cells with exocytosis pathway inhibitors. ( F ) Cellular localization in Caco-2 cells with anti-clathrin (red, top) and anti-WGA (red, bottom) at 5, 15, 60, and 90 min after treatment with FITC-labeled LG/TD-NF (green) by CLSM. ( G ) Schematic illustration of cellular trafficking of LG/TD-NF through ASBT-mediated transcytosis.

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Coordinated ASBT and EGFR Mechanisms for Optimized Liraglutide Nanoformulation Absorption in the GI Tract

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S442617

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Cellular endocytic and exocytic mechanisms of trafficking LG/TD-NF. ( A ) Inhibition of LG/TD-NF endocytosis in Caco-2 cells using endocytic pathway inhibitors. ( B and C ) Inhibition of internalization of FITC-labeled LG (green) in FITC-labeled LG/TD-NF with ASBT (red) and EGFR (purple) with or without 10 µM gefitinib in SK-BR-3 cells by CLSM (scale bar = 20 µm). ( D ) Schematic of ASBT-mediated endocytosis of LG/TD-NF in cooperation with EGFR and clathrin. ( E ) Inhibition of LG/TD-NF exocytosis in Caco-2 cells with exocytosis pathway inhibitors. ( F ) Cellular localization in Caco-2 cells with anti-clathrin (red, top) and anti-WGA (red, bottom) at 5, 15, 60, and 90 min after treatment with FITC-labeled LG/TD-NF (green) by CLSM. ( G ) Schematic illustration of cellular trafficking of LG/TD-NF through ASBT-mediated transcytosis.

    Article Snippet: In vitro cellular studies employed the Caco-2 cell line (human colorectal adenocarcinoma epithelial cells), Madin-Darby canine kidney cell line (MDCK, dog kidney epithelial cells), and SK-BR-3 (human breast epithelial cells) sourced from ATCC (Virginia, USA).

    Techniques: Inhibition, Labeling

    A) Total steroidal alkaloid concentration in the serum of C57BL/6J mice fed potato-supplemented diet and treated with antibiotics. Aglycone concentrations were estimated using a solanidine standard curve. Data shown are the mean±SD (n=5 mice). P values were determined using a two-sided Welch’s T test. B) In vitro inhibition of recombinant human AChE activity by potato steroidal alkaloids. Data shown are normalized to AChE treated with vehicle only (DMSO for solanine, chaconine and ethanol for solanidine) with a total vehicle concentration of 1% for all treatments. Values shown are the mean±SD (n=3 assays per concentration). 5 ng of AChE was used in each reaction. C) In vitro inhibition of cholinesterase activity by 50 μM potato SAs in human protein homogenates from normal colonic tissue (n=3 donors) and Caco-2 colonic epithelial cells. Activity was normalized to the activity of the vehicle-treated sample. Values shown are the mean±SD of three replicate assays per homogenate. 5 ng each of recombinant human AChE and BChE were used for pure protein reactions, while 35 μg total protein was used for each homogenate. Multiplicity-adjusted P values were calculated using Tukey’s multiple comparison tests. D) Inhibition of recombinant human AChE activity by spent media from human stool (n=11 donors) incubated with 20 μM solanine in SAAC minimal medium. Activity was normalized to the activity of AChE treated with spent media from the same donor sample incubated with vehicle only. Values shown are the mean±SD of three AChE activity assays for each donor and compound combination. The relative abundances of select metabolites following incubation with solanine are shown below for each stool sample. Values shown are EIC peak areas normalized to the maximum peak area across all samples. P values were determined using a two-sided Welch’s T test. Ns: not significant with P>0.05.

    Journal: bioRxiv

    Article Title: Gut microbiota gate host exposure to metabolites from dietary Solanums

    doi: 10.1101/2024.03.20.584512

    Figure Lengend Snippet: A) Total steroidal alkaloid concentration in the serum of C57BL/6J mice fed potato-supplemented diet and treated with antibiotics. Aglycone concentrations were estimated using a solanidine standard curve. Data shown are the mean±SD (n=5 mice). P values were determined using a two-sided Welch’s T test. B) In vitro inhibition of recombinant human AChE activity by potato steroidal alkaloids. Data shown are normalized to AChE treated with vehicle only (DMSO for solanine, chaconine and ethanol for solanidine) with a total vehicle concentration of 1% for all treatments. Values shown are the mean±SD (n=3 assays per concentration). 5 ng of AChE was used in each reaction. C) In vitro inhibition of cholinesterase activity by 50 μM potato SAs in human protein homogenates from normal colonic tissue (n=3 donors) and Caco-2 colonic epithelial cells. Activity was normalized to the activity of the vehicle-treated sample. Values shown are the mean±SD of three replicate assays per homogenate. 5 ng each of recombinant human AChE and BChE were used for pure protein reactions, while 35 μg total protein was used for each homogenate. Multiplicity-adjusted P values were calculated using Tukey’s multiple comparison tests. D) Inhibition of recombinant human AChE activity by spent media from human stool (n=11 donors) incubated with 20 μM solanine in SAAC minimal medium. Activity was normalized to the activity of AChE treated with spent media from the same donor sample incubated with vehicle only. Values shown are the mean±SD of three AChE activity assays for each donor and compound combination. The relative abundances of select metabolites following incubation with solanine are shown below for each stool sample. Values shown are EIC peak areas normalized to the maximum peak area across all samples. P values were determined using a two-sided Welch’s T test. Ns: not significant with P>0.05.

    Article Snippet: The human intestinal epithelial cell line Caco-2 (ATCC, provided by Sarah Heilshorn, Stanford) and used between passages 5 to 15.

    Techniques: Concentration Assay, In Vitro, Inhibition, Recombinant, Activity Assay, Comparison, Incubation

    Stem-like features of CRC cells are induced by NK cells. ( A ) The correlation between stemness markers and PDL1, derived from tumor cells, and IFNG expression, derived from NK cells. ( B , C ) The mRNA level ( B ) and the fluorescence intensity ( C ) of IFN-γ in NK-92 co-cultured with Caco-2 or SW480 for 24 h. ( D , E ) The mRNA level of indicated stemness markers in Caco-2 or SW480 co-cultured with NK-92 for 24 h and further treated with or without 1 μM sulfarotene for 24 h. Data are presented as mean ± SD and are representative of at least three separate experiments. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001, **** p < 0.0001.

    Journal: Pharmaceuticals

    Article Title: Sulfarotene Inhibits Colorectal Cancer via Mitigating Natural-Killer-Cell-Induced Stemness

    doi: 10.3390/ph17030387

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Stem-like features of CRC cells are induced by NK cells. ( A ) The correlation between stemness markers and PDL1, derived from tumor cells, and IFNG expression, derived from NK cells. ( B , C ) The mRNA level ( B ) and the fluorescence intensity ( C ) of IFN-γ in NK-92 co-cultured with Caco-2 or SW480 for 24 h. ( D , E ) The mRNA level of indicated stemness markers in Caco-2 or SW480 co-cultured with NK-92 for 24 h and further treated with or without 1 μM sulfarotene for 24 h. Data are presented as mean ± SD and are representative of at least three separate experiments. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001, **** p < 0.0001.

    Article Snippet: The human CRC cell lines Caco-2 and SW480, the murine CRC cell lines CT26.WT and MC38, and the human NK cell line NK-92.MI were purchased from American Type Culture Collection (ATCC, Manassas, VA, USA).

    Techniques: Derivative Assay, Expressing, Fluorescence, Cell Culture

    CRC cells with stem-like alterations show cytotoxic resistance but are susceptible to sulfarotene. ( A – F ) The CCK8 viability assays were used to measure CPT-11 ( A , B ), oxaliplatin ( C , D ), and sulfarotene ( E , F ) sensitivity changes at 48 h in Caco-2 ( A , C , E ) and SW480 ( B , D , F ), which were previously co-cultured with or without NK-92 for 24 h. The results were representative of three separate experiments. Data are presented as mean ± SD.

    Journal: Pharmaceuticals

    Article Title: Sulfarotene Inhibits Colorectal Cancer via Mitigating Natural-Killer-Cell-Induced Stemness

    doi: 10.3390/ph17030387

    Figure Lengend Snippet: CRC cells with stem-like alterations show cytotoxic resistance but are susceptible to sulfarotene. ( A – F ) The CCK8 viability assays were used to measure CPT-11 ( A , B ), oxaliplatin ( C , D ), and sulfarotene ( E , F ) sensitivity changes at 48 h in Caco-2 ( A , C , E ) and SW480 ( B , D , F ), which were previously co-cultured with or without NK-92 for 24 h. The results were representative of three separate experiments. Data are presented as mean ± SD.

    Article Snippet: The human CRC cell lines Caco-2 and SW480, the murine CRC cell lines CT26.WT and MC38, and the human NK cell line NK-92.MI were purchased from American Type Culture Collection (ATCC, Manassas, VA, USA).

    Techniques: Cell Culture

    Pretreatment with NK-92 elevates CRC cells apoptosis. ( A – D ) Flow cytometric analysis and quantitation of apoptosis of Caco-2 ( A , B ) and SW480 ( C , D ) after co-culture with NK cells or drug administration for 24 h, pretreated with ( B , D ) or without ( A , C ) NK-92 for 24 h. Representative flow cytometry plot is from three independent experiments. Data are presented as mean ± SD. ns, not significant; **** p < 0.0001.

    Journal: Pharmaceuticals

    Article Title: Sulfarotene Inhibits Colorectal Cancer via Mitigating Natural-Killer-Cell-Induced Stemness

    doi: 10.3390/ph17030387

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Pretreatment with NK-92 elevates CRC cells apoptosis. ( A – D ) Flow cytometric analysis and quantitation of apoptosis of Caco-2 ( A , B ) and SW480 ( C , D ) after co-culture with NK cells or drug administration for 24 h, pretreated with ( B , D ) or without ( A , C ) NK-92 for 24 h. Representative flow cytometry plot is from three independent experiments. Data are presented as mean ± SD. ns, not significant; **** p < 0.0001.

    Article Snippet: The human CRC cell lines Caco-2 and SW480, the murine CRC cell lines CT26.WT and MC38, and the human NK cell line NK-92.MI were purchased from American Type Culture Collection (ATCC, Manassas, VA, USA).

    Techniques: Quantitation Assay, Co-Culture Assay, Flow Cytometry

    In Vitro ADME Parameters for Novel M4K Series Compounds

    Journal: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry

    Article Title: Discovery of Conformationally Constrained ALK2 Inhibitors

    doi: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.3c02308

    Figure Lengend Snippet: In Vitro ADME Parameters for Novel M4K Series Compounds

    Article Snippet: Caco-2 cells (C2BBe1) were purchased from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC).

    Techniques: In Vitro, Permeability