Structured Review

Ipsen Group ca2
Schematic illustration of the <t>Ca2+</t> occupancy states for Syt1. The maximal number of Ca2+ ions (symbolized as red ovals) that can bind C2A is 3 (marked as 1,2,3) and 2 (marked as 4, 5) for the C2B. The blue and purple lines represent all potential states ranging from no binding to maximal occupancy by 5 ions. Total of 12 edges representing Syt1 states assuming the actual position of the ions within C2A or C2B is not important. Addition of the positional information increases the number of Ca2+ occupancy states as illustrated by the purple edges. The number of individual states associated with the purple edges summarizes to ten combinations of occupancy of 3 Ca2+ ions. With positional information for Ca2+ ions occupancy the number of individual states reaches 32 (1 state for no occupancy, 5 states for one ion, 10 states for 2 ions, 10 states for 3 ions, 5 states for 4 ions and another state for occupancy of 5 ions).
Ca2, supplied by Ipsen Group, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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Images

1) Product Images from "Synaptic proteins as multi-sensor devices of neurotransmission"

Article Title: Synaptic proteins as multi-sensor devices of neurotransmission

Journal: BMC Neuroscience

doi: 10.1186/1471-2202-7-S1-S4

Schematic illustration of the Ca2+ occupancy states for Syt1. The maximal number of Ca2+ ions (symbolized as red ovals) that can bind C2A is 3 (marked as 1,2,3) and 2 (marked as 4, 5) for the C2B. The blue and purple lines represent all potential states ranging from no binding to maximal occupancy by 5 ions. Total of 12 edges representing Syt1 states assuming the actual position of the ions within C2A or C2B is not important. Addition of the positional information increases the number of Ca2+ occupancy states as illustrated by the purple edges. The number of individual states associated with the purple edges summarizes to ten combinations of occupancy of 3 Ca2+ ions. With positional information for Ca2+ ions occupancy the number of individual states reaches 32 (1 state for no occupancy, 5 states for one ion, 10 states for 2 ions, 10 states for 3 ions, 5 states for 4 ions and another state for occupancy of 5 ions).
Figure Legend Snippet: Schematic illustration of the Ca2+ occupancy states for Syt1. The maximal number of Ca2+ ions (symbolized as red ovals) that can bind C2A is 3 (marked as 1,2,3) and 2 (marked as 4, 5) for the C2B. The blue and purple lines represent all potential states ranging from no binding to maximal occupancy by 5 ions. Total of 12 edges representing Syt1 states assuming the actual position of the ions within C2A or C2B is not important. Addition of the positional information increases the number of Ca2+ occupancy states as illustrated by the purple edges. The number of individual states associated with the purple edges summarizes to ten combinations of occupancy of 3 Ca2+ ions. With positional information for Ca2+ ions occupancy the number of individual states reaches 32 (1 state for no occupancy, 5 states for one ion, 10 states for 2 ions, 10 states for 3 ions, 5 states for 4 ions and another state for occupancy of 5 ions).

Techniques Used: Binding Assay

2) Product Images from "Cysteine-String Protein Increases the Calcium Sensitivity of Neurotransmitter Exocytosis in Drosophila"

Article Title: Cysteine-String Protein Increases the Calcium Sensitivity of Neurotransmitter Exocytosis in Drosophila

Journal: The Journal of Neuroscience

doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.20-16-06039.2000

Frequency dependence of presynaptic Ca2+ entry and Ca2+ clearance
Figure Legend Snippet: Frequency dependence of presynaptic Ca2+ entry and Ca2+ clearance

Techniques Used:

3) Product Images from "Synaptotagmin I delays the fast inactivation of Kv1.4 channel through interaction with its N-terminus"

Article Title: Synaptotagmin I delays the fast inactivation of Kv1.4 channel through interaction with its N-terminus

Journal: Molecular Brain

doi: 10.1186/1756-6606-7-4

Validation of interaction between synaptotagmin I and Kv1.4 channel. (A) Silver-stained SDS-PAGE of the protein complexes affinity purified from rat hippocampal plasma membrane-enriched fraction either with a Kv1.4-specific antibody (anti-Kv1.4) or a preimmunisation IgG pool (Pre-IgG). Arrowheads denote the bands identified by nano-LC tandem mass spectrometry as Kv1.4 and synaptotagmin I, respectively. (B) Western blot showing reverse purification of Kv1.4 from the same fraction with anti-synaptotagmin I. (C) Immunohistochemical analysis of the colocalization of synaptotagmin I and Kv1.4 in rat hippocampus. (a)-(c) show the localizations of pyramidal cell nuclei, Kv1.4 and synaptotagmin I in the CA2- CA3 regions, respectively. (d)-(f) show the localizations of pyramidal cell nuclei, Kv1.4 and synaptotagmin I in the CA1 region and denote gyrus, respectively. (g)-(i) are the enlarged images of CA3 region showing the localizations of Kv1.4 (g), synaptotagmin I (h) and their colocalization (i) in this region.
Figure Legend Snippet: Validation of interaction between synaptotagmin I and Kv1.4 channel. (A) Silver-stained SDS-PAGE of the protein complexes affinity purified from rat hippocampal plasma membrane-enriched fraction either with a Kv1.4-specific antibody (anti-Kv1.4) or a preimmunisation IgG pool (Pre-IgG). Arrowheads denote the bands identified by nano-LC tandem mass spectrometry as Kv1.4 and synaptotagmin I, respectively. (B) Western blot showing reverse purification of Kv1.4 from the same fraction with anti-synaptotagmin I. (C) Immunohistochemical analysis of the colocalization of synaptotagmin I and Kv1.4 in rat hippocampus. (a)-(c) show the localizations of pyramidal cell nuclei, Kv1.4 and synaptotagmin I in the CA2- CA3 regions, respectively. (d)-(f) show the localizations of pyramidal cell nuclei, Kv1.4 and synaptotagmin I in the CA1 region and denote gyrus, respectively. (g)-(i) are the enlarged images of CA3 region showing the localizations of Kv1.4 (g), synaptotagmin I (h) and their colocalization (i) in this region.

Techniques Used: Staining, SDS Page, Affinity Purification, Mass Spectrometry, Western Blot, Purification, Immunohistochemistry

4) Product Images from "Cysteine-String Protein Increases the Calcium Sensitivity of Neurotransmitter Exocytosis in Drosophila"

Article Title: Cysteine-String Protein Increases the Calcium Sensitivity of Neurotransmitter Exocytosis in Drosophila

Journal: The Journal of Neuroscience

doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.20-16-06039.2000

Frequency dependence of presynaptic Ca2+ entry and Ca2+ clearance
Figure Legend Snippet: Frequency dependence of presynaptic Ca2+ entry and Ca2+ clearance

Techniques Used:

5) Product Images from "Cysteine-String Protein Increases the Calcium Sensitivity of Neurotransmitter Exocytosis in Drosophila"

Article Title: Cysteine-String Protein Increases the Calcium Sensitivity of Neurotransmitter Exocytosis in Drosophila

Journal: The Journal of Neuroscience

doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.20-16-06039.2000

Frequency dependence of presynaptic Ca2+ entry and Ca2+  clearance
Figure Legend Snippet: Frequency dependence of presynaptic Ca2+ entry and Ca2+  clearance

Techniques Used:

6) Product Images from "Cysteine-String Protein Increases the Calcium Sensitivity of Neurotransmitter Exocytosis in Drosophila"

Article Title: Cysteine-String Protein Increases the Calcium Sensitivity of Neurotransmitter Exocytosis in Drosophila

Journal: The Journal of Neuroscience

doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.20-16-06039.2000

Frequency dependence of presynaptic Ca2+ entry and Ca2+  clearance
Figure Legend Snippet: Frequency dependence of presynaptic Ca2+ entry and Ca2+  clearance

Techniques Used:

Related Articles

Concentration Assay:

Article Title: Early calcium increase triggers the formation of olfactory long-term memory in honeybees
Article Snippet: .. By modulating the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+ ]i) in the brain, we show that: (i) blocking [Ca2+ ]i increase during multiple-trial conditioning selectively impairs long-term memory performance; (ii) conversely, increasing [Ca2+ ]i during single-trial conditioning triggers long-term memory formation; and finally, (iii) as was the case for long-term memory produced by multiple-trial conditioning, enhancement of long-term memory performance induced by a [Ca2+ ]i increase depends on de novo protein synthesis. ..

Blocking Assay:

Article Title: Early calcium increase triggers the formation of olfactory long-term memory in honeybees
Article Snippet: .. By modulating the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+ ]i) in the brain, we show that: (i) blocking [Ca2+ ]i increase during multiple-trial conditioning selectively impairs long-term memory performance; (ii) conversely, increasing [Ca2+ ]i during single-trial conditioning triggers long-term memory formation; and finally, (iii) as was the case for long-term memory produced by multiple-trial conditioning, enhancement of long-term memory performance induced by a [Ca2+ ]i increase depends on de novo protein synthesis. ..

Produced:

Article Title: Early calcium increase triggers the formation of olfactory long-term memory in honeybees
Article Snippet: .. By modulating the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+ ]i) in the brain, we show that: (i) blocking [Ca2+ ]i increase during multiple-trial conditioning selectively impairs long-term memory performance; (ii) conversely, increasing [Ca2+ ]i during single-trial conditioning triggers long-term memory formation; and finally, (iii) as was the case for long-term memory produced by multiple-trial conditioning, enhancement of long-term memory performance induced by a [Ca2+ ]i increase depends on de novo protein synthesis. ..

Expressing:

Article Title: The calcium: an early signal that initiates the formation of the nervous system during embryogenesis
Article Snippet: The spatio-temporal expression pattern of these genes is restricted to neural territories and their expression is triggered following the inhibition of BMP signaling by noggin. .. In addition, the expression of xMLP and of xPRMT1b is an early response to an increase in Ca2+ that does not require de novo protein synthesis and that the early expression of xPRMT1b at the gastrula stage also occurs via a Ca2+ -dependent mechanism mediated by the activation of DHP-sensitive Ca2+ channels. .. Functional analysis of xPRMT1b in Xenopus embryo demonstrates that it is required for neural induction.

Activation Assay:

Article Title: The calcium: an early signal that initiates the formation of the nervous system during embryogenesis
Article Snippet: The spatio-temporal expression pattern of these genes is restricted to neural territories and their expression is triggered following the inhibition of BMP signaling by noggin. .. In addition, the expression of xMLP and of xPRMT1b is an early response to an increase in Ca2+ that does not require de novo protein synthesis and that the early expression of xPRMT1b at the gastrula stage also occurs via a Ca2+ -dependent mechanism mediated by the activation of DHP-sensitive Ca2+ channels. .. Functional analysis of xPRMT1b in Xenopus embryo demonstrates that it is required for neural induction.

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    Ipsen Group ca2
    Schematic illustration of the <t>Ca2+</t> occupancy states for Syt1. The maximal number of Ca2+ ions (symbolized as red ovals) that can bind C2A is 3 (marked as 1,2,3) and 2 (marked as 4, 5) for the C2B. The blue and purple lines represent all potential states ranging from no binding to maximal occupancy by 5 ions. Total of 12 edges representing Syt1 states assuming the actual position of the ions within C2A or C2B is not important. Addition of the positional information increases the number of Ca2+ occupancy states as illustrated by the purple edges. The number of individual states associated with the purple edges summarizes to ten combinations of occupancy of 3 Ca2+ ions. With positional information for Ca2+ ions occupancy the number of individual states reaches 32 (1 state for no occupancy, 5 states for one ion, 10 states for 2 ions, 10 states for 3 ions, 5 states for 4 ions and another state for occupancy of 5 ions).
    Ca2, supplied by Ipsen Group, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/ca2/product/Ipsen Group
    Average 86 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    ca2 - by Bioz Stars, 2021-05
    86/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    86
    Ipsen Group calpain
    Inhibition of <t>calpain</t> prevents the decrease of phospho-actin in LFD. A . B , Representative Western blotting for P-actin (43 kDa band) and actin (41 kDa band) ( A ) and summary of phosphoactin levels from unstimulated and untreated controls, preparations
    Calpain, supplied by Ipsen Group, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/calpain/product/Ipsen Group
    Average 86 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    calpain - by Bioz Stars, 2021-05
    86/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    Image Search Results


    Schematic illustration of the Ca2+ occupancy states for Syt1. The maximal number of Ca2+ ions (symbolized as red ovals) that can bind C2A is 3 (marked as 1,2,3) and 2 (marked as 4, 5) for the C2B. The blue and purple lines represent all potential states ranging from no binding to maximal occupancy by 5 ions. Total of 12 edges representing Syt1 states assuming the actual position of the ions within C2A or C2B is not important. Addition of the positional information increases the number of Ca2+ occupancy states as illustrated by the purple edges. The number of individual states associated with the purple edges summarizes to ten combinations of occupancy of 3 Ca2+ ions. With positional information for Ca2+ ions occupancy the number of individual states reaches 32 (1 state for no occupancy, 5 states for one ion, 10 states for 2 ions, 10 states for 3 ions, 5 states for 4 ions and another state for occupancy of 5 ions).

    Journal: BMC Neuroscience

    Article Title: Synaptic proteins as multi-sensor devices of neurotransmission

    doi: 10.1186/1471-2202-7-S1-S4

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Schematic illustration of the Ca2+ occupancy states for Syt1. The maximal number of Ca2+ ions (symbolized as red ovals) that can bind C2A is 3 (marked as 1,2,3) and 2 (marked as 4, 5) for the C2B. The blue and purple lines represent all potential states ranging from no binding to maximal occupancy by 5 ions. Total of 12 edges representing Syt1 states assuming the actual position of the ions within C2A or C2B is not important. Addition of the positional information increases the number of Ca2+ occupancy states as illustrated by the purple edges. The number of individual states associated with the purple edges summarizes to ten combinations of occupancy of 3 Ca2+ ions. With positional information for Ca2+ ions occupancy the number of individual states reaches 32 (1 state for no occupancy, 5 states for one ion, 10 states for 2 ions, 10 states for 3 ions, 5 states for 4 ions and another state for occupancy of 5 ions).

    Article Snippet: A short conserved region of polybasic residues (Fig , KK) in the C2B domain was shown to be critical for the Ca2+-dependent NT release and also for the binding to syntaxin-SNAP25 pair.

    Techniques: Binding Assay

    Inhibition of calpain prevents the decrease of phospho-actin in LFD. A . B , Representative Western blotting for P-actin (43 kDa band) and actin (41 kDa band) ( A ) and summary of phosphoactin levels from unstimulated and untreated controls, preparations

    Journal: The Journal of Neuroscience

    Article Title: Calcium, Calpain, and Calcineurin in Low-Frequency Depression of Transmitter Release

    doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3092-12.2013

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Inhibition of calpain prevents the decrease of phospho-actin in LFD. A . B , Representative Western blotting for P-actin (43 kDa band) and actin (41 kDa band) ( A ) and summary of phosphoactin levels from unstimulated and untreated controls, preparations

    Article Snippet: We examined five preparations stained for calpain and syntaxin and five preparations stained for calcineurin A and syntaxin.

    Techniques: Inhibition, Western Blot

    Calpain inhibitors inhibit LFD. A , Calpain inhibitor I (100 μ m ) applied at NMJs 30 min prior to starting stimulation at 0.2 Hz inhibits depression. Without the calpain inhibitor there would be profound depression after 30 min of stimulation.

    Journal: The Journal of Neuroscience

    Article Title: Calcium, Calpain, and Calcineurin in Low-Frequency Depression of Transmitter Release

    doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3092-12.2013

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Calpain inhibitors inhibit LFD. A , Calpain inhibitor I (100 μ m ) applied at NMJs 30 min prior to starting stimulation at 0.2 Hz inhibits depression. Without the calpain inhibitor there would be profound depression after 30 min of stimulation.

    Article Snippet: We examined five preparations stained for calpain and syntaxin and five preparations stained for calcineurin A and syntaxin.

    Techniques:

    Calpain activity is modulated by Ca 2+ and calpain inhibitors. Fluorescence caused by cleavage of 5-FAM/QXL 520 FRET—calpain substrate peptide was measured in four replicate CNS protein lysates after 30 min incubation under various conditions:

    Journal: The Journal of Neuroscience

    Article Title: Calcium, Calpain, and Calcineurin in Low-Frequency Depression of Transmitter Release

    doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3092-12.2013

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Calpain activity is modulated by Ca 2+ and calpain inhibitors. Fluorescence caused by cleavage of 5-FAM/QXL 520 FRET—calpain substrate peptide was measured in four replicate CNS protein lysates after 30 min incubation under various conditions:

    Article Snippet: We examined five preparations stained for calpain and syntaxin and five preparations stained for calcineurin A and syntaxin.

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Fluorescence, Incubation

    Calpain inhibitors have no obvious postsynaptic effects. A , Cumulative amplitude distribution of mEPSPs was not affected by 100 μ m calpain inhibitor I (Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, p = 0.33 for the example experiment; n = 5). Inset, Averages

    Journal: The Journal of Neuroscience

    Article Title: Calcium, Calpain, and Calcineurin in Low-Frequency Depression of Transmitter Release

    doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3092-12.2013

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Calpain inhibitors have no obvious postsynaptic effects. A , Cumulative amplitude distribution of mEPSPs was not affected by 100 μ m calpain inhibitor I (Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, p = 0.33 for the example experiment; n = 5). Inset, Averages

    Article Snippet: We examined five preparations stained for calpain and syntaxin and five preparations stained for calcineurin A and syntaxin.

    Techniques:

    Calpain is present at crayfish phasic and tonic terminals. Double immunostaining confocal images showing the presence of calpain ( B , red) at both phasic and tonic boutons and its distribution relative to the presynaptic membrane marker syntaxin ( A , green).

    Journal: The Journal of Neuroscience

    Article Title: Calcium, Calpain, and Calcineurin in Low-Frequency Depression of Transmitter Release

    doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3092-12.2013

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Calpain is present at crayfish phasic and tonic terminals. Double immunostaining confocal images showing the presence of calpain ( B , red) at both phasic and tonic boutons and its distribution relative to the presynaptic membrane marker syntaxin ( A , green).

    Article Snippet: We examined five preparations stained for calpain and syntaxin and five preparations stained for calcineurin A and syntaxin.

    Techniques: Double Immunostaining, Marker

    Calpain inhibitors inhibit LFD in NMJ preparations

    Journal: The Journal of Neuroscience

    Article Title: Calcium, Calpain, and Calcineurin in Low-Frequency Depression of Transmitter Release

    doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3092-12.2013

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Calpain inhibitors inhibit LFD in NMJ preparations

    Article Snippet: We examined five preparations stained for calpain and syntaxin and five preparations stained for calcineurin A and syntaxin.

    Techniques:

    Calcineurin A is present at crayfish phasic and tonic terminals and is cleaved by calpain. A , Double immunostaining confocal images showing the presence of calcineurin A ( b , red) at both phasic and tonic boutons and its distribution relative to the presynaptic

    Journal: The Journal of Neuroscience

    Article Title: Calcium, Calpain, and Calcineurin in Low-Frequency Depression of Transmitter Release

    doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3092-12.2013

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Calcineurin A is present at crayfish phasic and tonic terminals and is cleaved by calpain. A , Double immunostaining confocal images showing the presence of calcineurin A ( b , red) at both phasic and tonic boutons and its distribution relative to the presynaptic

    Article Snippet: We examined five preparations stained for calpain and syntaxin and five preparations stained for calcineurin A and syntaxin.

    Techniques: Double Immunostaining

    High-frequency (20 Hz) depression does not require activation of calpain, kinases, or phosphatases. A , Control recordings at 20 Hz show early potentiation by ∼60% followed by a rapid depression ( n = 4). B – D , Depression elicited by high-frequency

    Journal: The Journal of Neuroscience

    Article Title: Calcium, Calpain, and Calcineurin in Low-Frequency Depression of Transmitter Release

    doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3092-12.2013

    Figure Lengend Snippet: High-frequency (20 Hz) depression does not require activation of calpain, kinases, or phosphatases. A , Control recordings at 20 Hz show early potentiation by ∼60% followed by a rapid depression ( n = 4). B – D , Depression elicited by high-frequency

    Article Snippet: We examined five preparations stained for calpain and syntaxin and five preparations stained for calcineurin A and syntaxin.

    Techniques: Activation Assay

    Calpain inhibition abolishes LFD caused by stimulation at 0.2 Hz in intact animals. A , Calpain inhibitor PD 150606 limits LFD to 80%. Inset, Examples of EMG from intact leg preparations at times of 0.5 ( a ), 63 min ( b ), and 134 min ( c ). B , Control compound

    Journal: The Journal of Neuroscience

    Article Title: Calcium, Calpain, and Calcineurin in Low-Frequency Depression of Transmitter Release

    doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3092-12.2013

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Calpain inhibition abolishes LFD caused by stimulation at 0.2 Hz in intact animals. A , Calpain inhibitor PD 150606 limits LFD to 80%. Inset, Examples of EMG from intact leg preparations at times of 0.5 ( a ), 63 min ( b ), and 134 min ( c ). B , Control compound

    Article Snippet: We examined five preparations stained for calpain and syntaxin and five preparations stained for calcineurin A and syntaxin.

    Techniques: Inhibition

    Diagram representing a speculative mechanism for regulation of LFD involving presynaptic calpain, calcineurin, cytoskeleton, and synaptic vesicles. A ) that

    Journal: The Journal of Neuroscience

    Article Title: Calcium, Calpain, and Calcineurin in Low-Frequency Depression of Transmitter Release

    doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3092-12.2013

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Diagram representing a speculative mechanism for regulation of LFD involving presynaptic calpain, calcineurin, cytoskeleton, and synaptic vesicles. A ) that

    Article Snippet: We examined five preparations stained for calpain and syntaxin and five preparations stained for calcineurin A and syntaxin.

    Techniques:

    Inhibition of calpain prevents loss of tubulin immunoreactivity in LFD. A – D , Double-immunostaining confocal images showing the presence of tubulin ( a , green) and its distribution relative to actin ( b , red) at terminals. In overlay images ( c ),

    Journal: The Journal of Neuroscience

    Article Title: Calcium, Calpain, and Calcineurin in Low-Frequency Depression of Transmitter Release

    doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3092-12.2013

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Inhibition of calpain prevents loss of tubulin immunoreactivity in LFD. A – D , Double-immunostaining confocal images showing the presence of tubulin ( a , green) and its distribution relative to actin ( b , red) at terminals. In overlay images ( c ),

    Article Snippet: We examined five preparations stained for calpain and syntaxin and five preparations stained for calcineurin A and syntaxin.

    Techniques: Inhibition, Double Immunostaining