Structured Review

Phenomenex c18
Chromatogram of concentrated methanol extract of ( a ) purified beeswax, ( b ) raw beeswax, and ( c ) green propolis. Chromatographic conditions: <t>C18</t> column with a mobile phase composed of (A) water containing 0.4% formic acid, 5% methanol, and 2% isopropanol, and (B) acetonitrile and 2% isopropanol. The flow was 1 mL/min in the concentration gradient, using 20% B for 3 min, 20–25% B for 3–4 min, 25% B for 4–15 min, 25–45% B for 15–20 min, 45% B for 20–40 min, 45–60% B for 40–45 min, 60–80% B for 45–68.83 min, 80–20% B for 68.86–70 min, and 20% B for 70–80 min. An injection volume of 15 µL, oven temperature of 30 °C, and wavelength of 300 nm were used.
C18, supplied by Phenomenex, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 40 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
https://www.bioz.com/result/c18/product/Phenomenex
Average 88 stars, based on 40 article reviews
Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
c18 - by Bioz Stars, 2022-09
88/100 stars

Images

1) Product Images from "A New Approach to Atopic Dermatitis Control with Low-Concentration Propolis-Loaded Cold Cream"

Article Title: A New Approach to Atopic Dermatitis Control with Low-Concentration Propolis-Loaded Cold Cream

Journal: Pharmaceutics

doi: 10.3390/pharmaceutics13091346

Chromatogram of concentrated methanol extract of ( a ) purified beeswax, ( b ) raw beeswax, and ( c ) green propolis. Chromatographic conditions: C18 column with a mobile phase composed of (A) water containing 0.4% formic acid, 5% methanol, and 2% isopropanol, and (B) acetonitrile and 2% isopropanol. The flow was 1 mL/min in the concentration gradient, using 20% B for 3 min, 20–25% B for 3–4 min, 25% B for 4–15 min, 25–45% B for 15–20 min, 45% B for 20–40 min, 45–60% B for 40–45 min, 60–80% B for 45–68.83 min, 80–20% B for 68.86–70 min, and 20% B for 70–80 min. An injection volume of 15 µL, oven temperature of 30 °C, and wavelength of 300 nm were used.
Figure Legend Snippet: Chromatogram of concentrated methanol extract of ( a ) purified beeswax, ( b ) raw beeswax, and ( c ) green propolis. Chromatographic conditions: C18 column with a mobile phase composed of (A) water containing 0.4% formic acid, 5% methanol, and 2% isopropanol, and (B) acetonitrile and 2% isopropanol. The flow was 1 mL/min in the concentration gradient, using 20% B for 3 min, 20–25% B for 3–4 min, 25% B for 4–15 min, 25–45% B for 15–20 min, 45% B for 20–40 min, 45–60% B for 40–45 min, 60–80% B for 45–68.83 min, 80–20% B for 68.86–70 min, and 20% B for 70–80 min. An injection volume of 15 µL, oven temperature of 30 °C, and wavelength of 300 nm were used.

Techniques Used: Purification, Concentration Assay, Injection

2) Product Images from "Multidentate 18F-polypegylated styrylpyridines as imaging agents for A? plaques in cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA)"

Article Title: Multidentate 18F-polypegylated styrylpyridines as imaging agents for A? plaques in cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA)

Journal: Journal of medicinal chemistry

doi: 10.1021/jm2009106

HPLC profiles of [ 18 F] 8a and co-injected cold standard 8a on a reversed phase Gemini C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm) with the following gradient and a flow rate of 1 mL/min: 0 – 2 minutes 100% ammonium format buffer (10 mM); 2 – 5 minutes
Figure Legend Snippet: HPLC profiles of [ 18 F] 8a and co-injected cold standard 8a on a reversed phase Gemini C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm) with the following gradient and a flow rate of 1 mL/min: 0 – 2 minutes 100% ammonium format buffer (10 mM); 2 – 5 minutes

Techniques Used: High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Injection, Flow Cytometry

3) Product Images from "Production of functional peptides with inhibition ability against angiotensin I-Converting enzyme using P. pastoris expression system"

Article Title: Production of functional peptides with inhibition ability against angiotensin I-Converting enzyme using P. pastoris expression system

Journal: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis

doi: 10.1016/j.jfda.2018.02.001

HPLC chromatogram of ACE inhibitor activity determination eluted (1 mL/min) with 50% aqueous methanol (v/v, containing 0.1% trifluoroactic acid) on Jupiter 5μ C18 300 Å (250 × 4.60 mm) column, at 228 nm. (A) Control of ACE hydrolysis HHL (hippuric acid-histidine-leucine) without ACE inhibitor. (B) The ACE inhibitor activity of the ACEI peptides. The peak area with a retention time of 5.80 min of HA decreased to 64482.
Figure Legend Snippet: HPLC chromatogram of ACE inhibitor activity determination eluted (1 mL/min) with 50% aqueous methanol (v/v, containing 0.1% trifluoroactic acid) on Jupiter 5μ C18 300 Å (250 × 4.60 mm) column, at 228 nm. (A) Control of ACE hydrolysis HHL (hippuric acid-histidine-leucine) without ACE inhibitor. (B) The ACE inhibitor activity of the ACEI peptides. The peak area with a retention time of 5.80 min of HA decreased to 64482.

Techniques Used: High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Activity Assay

4) Product Images from "Low Dose Ouabain Stimulates Na-K ATPase α1 subunit Association with Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor in Renal Proximal Tubule Cells"

Article Title: Low Dose Ouabain Stimulates Na-K ATPase α1 subunit Association with Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor in Renal Proximal Tubule Cells

Journal: Biochimica et biophysica acta

doi: 10.1016/j.bbamcr.2016.07.008

Effect of ouabain on Angiotensin II release Cells (A: adrenal cells, B: MDCK, C: HKC11, and D: MRPT) were treated with indicated ouabain concentrations for 24 h. Cell media (A–D) or plasma (E) from ouabain treated rats was collected and proteins were purified using C18 HPLC columns followed by determination of angiotensin concentration EIA as described in Methods. Each bar represents data as pg/mL (mean±se) from 4 independent experiments (n=4 for cell culture) or plasma from 6 animals (n=6 for plasma). * indicates P
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of ouabain on Angiotensin II release Cells (A: adrenal cells, B: MDCK, C: HKC11, and D: MRPT) were treated with indicated ouabain concentrations for 24 h. Cell media (A–D) or plasma (E) from ouabain treated rats was collected and proteins were purified using C18 HPLC columns followed by determination of angiotensin concentration EIA as described in Methods. Each bar represents data as pg/mL (mean±se) from 4 independent experiments (n=4 for cell culture) or plasma from 6 animals (n=6 for plasma). * indicates P

Techniques Used: Purification, High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Concentration Assay, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Cell Culture

5) Product Images from "Dietary fatty acids control the species of N-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamines synthesized by therapeutically modified bacteria in the intestinal tract."

Article Title: Dietary fatty acids control the species of N-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamines synthesized by therapeutically modified bacteria in the intestinal tract.

Journal: ACS infectious diseases

doi: 10.1021/acsinfecdis.7b00127

Administration of pNAPE-EcN results in increased fecal C18:0 NAPE levels. Feces were collected from mice after ending eight-week treatment with pNAPE-EcN or from untreated mice receiving 0.125% gelatin in standard drinking water during this same period (n=5 mice per group, mean±SEM). Fecal NAPEs were measured after extraction by LC/MS. A . Fecal NAPE levels of mice fed a high fat diet based on lard. B . Fecal NAPE levels of mice fed low fat chow diet based on plant components. For both, 2-way ANOVA p
Figure Legend Snippet: Administration of pNAPE-EcN results in increased fecal C18:0 NAPE levels. Feces were collected from mice after ending eight-week treatment with pNAPE-EcN or from untreated mice receiving 0.125% gelatin in standard drinking water during this same period (n=5 mice per group, mean±SEM). Fecal NAPEs were measured after extraction by LC/MS. A . Fecal NAPE levels of mice fed a high fat diet based on lard. B . Fecal NAPE levels of mice fed low fat chow diet based on plant components. For both, 2-way ANOVA p

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Liquid Chromatography with Mass Spectroscopy

Exogenous fatty acids alter the species of NAPE biosynthesized by pNAPE-EcN and pPLAAT2-EcN . A . Effect of Tween 80 (esterified C18:1n-9) on the amount of C18:1NAPE (as %total NAPEs) biosynthesized by pNAPE-EcN and pPLAAT2-EcN grown in M9a. B . Effect of Tween 80 on NAPE profile for pNAPE-EcN . * p
Figure Legend Snippet: Exogenous fatty acids alter the species of NAPE biosynthesized by pNAPE-EcN and pPLAAT2-EcN . A . Effect of Tween 80 (esterified C18:1n-9) on the amount of C18:1NAPE (as %total NAPEs) biosynthesized by pNAPE-EcN and pPLAAT2-EcN grown in M9a. B . Effect of Tween 80 on NAPE profile for pNAPE-EcN . * p

Techniques Used:

6) Product Images from "Gcg-XTEN: An Improved Glucagon Capable of Preventing Hypoglycemia without Increasing Baseline Blood Glucose"

Article Title: Gcg-XTEN: An Improved Glucagon Capable of Preventing Hypoglycemia without Increasing Baseline Blood Glucose

Journal: PLoS ONE

doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010175

Biophysical Characterization and Stability of Gcg-XTEN. Gcg-XTEN was produced recombinantly in E. coli and purified to homogeneity using three column steps (see methods ). (A) SDS-PAGE analysis of the purified protein product (lane 2). Molecular weight markers are shown in lane 1 with relevant size markers labeled at the left. Note that the true molecular weight of the molecule is 16305 daltons (confirmed by mass spectrometry; not shown). Slow migration in SDS-PAGE relative to globular protein standards is typical of XTEN fusion proteins due to differences in primary amino acid composition. (B) Glucagon receptor (GcgR) Ca 2+ -flux assay comparing the efficacy of Gcg-XTEN to unmodified glucagon. Calculated EC50 values for each curve fit are shown. (C) Reverse phase C18 HPLC analysis and (D) Size exclusion chromatography HPLC analysis of the purified Gcg-XTEN construct at the time of production. (E) Reverse phase C18 HPLC analysis and (F) Size exclusion chromatography HPLC analysis of Gcg-XTEN after 6 months storage at either −80°C (black), 2–8°C (blue), or 25°C (red). Note the scale is expanded in panel E to better illustrate the appearance of minor peaks at 25°C.
Figure Legend Snippet: Biophysical Characterization and Stability of Gcg-XTEN. Gcg-XTEN was produced recombinantly in E. coli and purified to homogeneity using three column steps (see methods ). (A) SDS-PAGE analysis of the purified protein product (lane 2). Molecular weight markers are shown in lane 1 with relevant size markers labeled at the left. Note that the true molecular weight of the molecule is 16305 daltons (confirmed by mass spectrometry; not shown). Slow migration in SDS-PAGE relative to globular protein standards is typical of XTEN fusion proteins due to differences in primary amino acid composition. (B) Glucagon receptor (GcgR) Ca 2+ -flux assay comparing the efficacy of Gcg-XTEN to unmodified glucagon. Calculated EC50 values for each curve fit are shown. (C) Reverse phase C18 HPLC analysis and (D) Size exclusion chromatography HPLC analysis of the purified Gcg-XTEN construct at the time of production. (E) Reverse phase C18 HPLC analysis and (F) Size exclusion chromatography HPLC analysis of Gcg-XTEN after 6 months storage at either −80°C (black), 2–8°C (blue), or 25°C (red). Note the scale is expanded in panel E to better illustrate the appearance of minor peaks at 25°C.

Techniques Used: Produced, Purification, SDS Page, Molecular Weight, Labeling, Mass Spectrometry, Migration, Flux Assay, High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Size-exclusion Chromatography, Construct

7) Product Images from "Multidentate 18F-polypegylated styrylpyridines as imaging agents for A? plaques in cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA)"

Article Title: Multidentate 18F-polypegylated styrylpyridines as imaging agents for A? plaques in cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA)

Journal: Journal of medicinal chemistry

doi: 10.1021/jm2009106

HPLC profiles of [ 18 F] 8a and co-injected cold standard 8a on a reversed phase Gemini C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm) with the following gradient and a flow rate of 1 mL/min: 0 – 2 minutes 100% ammonium format buffer (10 mM); 2 – 5 minutes
Figure Legend Snippet: HPLC profiles of [ 18 F] 8a and co-injected cold standard 8a on a reversed phase Gemini C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm) with the following gradient and a flow rate of 1 mL/min: 0 – 2 minutes 100% ammonium format buffer (10 mM); 2 – 5 minutes

Techniques Used: High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Injection, Flow Cytometry

8) Product Images from "Honey reduces the metastatic characteristics of prostate cancer cell lines by promoting a loss of adhesion"

Article Title: Honey reduces the metastatic characteristics of prostate cancer cell lines by promoting a loss of adhesion

Journal: PeerJ

doi: 10.7717/peerj.5115

Absorption chromatogram of phenolic compounds in thyme honey using HPLC. Representative chromatogram of free (A–C) or total (D–F) phenols extracted from thyme honey using ethyl acetate and eluted through a C18 column using HPLC. (A,D) Detectors were set to 370 nm for quercetin and kaempferol, (B,E) 325 nm for caffeic acid and (C,F) 270 nm for gallic acid and chrysin. Peak retention times were compared to standards to identify compounds.
Figure Legend Snippet: Absorption chromatogram of phenolic compounds in thyme honey using HPLC. Representative chromatogram of free (A–C) or total (D–F) phenols extracted from thyme honey using ethyl acetate and eluted through a C18 column using HPLC. (A,D) Detectors were set to 370 nm for quercetin and kaempferol, (B,E) 325 nm for caffeic acid and (C,F) 270 nm for gallic acid and chrysin. Peak retention times were compared to standards to identify compounds.

Techniques Used: High Performance Liquid Chromatography

9) Product Images from "Structure and mechanism of a dehydratase/decarboxylase enzyme couple involved in polyketide β-methyl branch incorporation"

Article Title: Structure and mechanism of a dehydratase/decarboxylase enzyme couple involved in polyketide β-methyl branch incorporation

Journal: Scientific Reports

doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-71850-w

β-Methyl branch incorporation during biosynthesis of the bacillaenes. ( A ) Chemical structures of bacillaene stereoisomer ( 1 ) and dihydrobacillane stereoisomer ( 2 ). Reported isomers include the C17–C18 trans double-bond isomer of 1 and the C10–C11 trans double-bond isomer of 2 19 . ( B ) Mechanism of HCS cassette dependent β-branching in bacillaene biosynthesis.
Figure Legend Snippet: β-Methyl branch incorporation during biosynthesis of the bacillaenes. ( A ) Chemical structures of bacillaene stereoisomer ( 1 ) and dihydrobacillane stereoisomer ( 2 ). Reported isomers include the C17–C18 trans double-bond isomer of 1 and the C10–C11 trans double-bond isomer of 2 19 . ( B ) Mechanism of HCS cassette dependent β-branching in bacillaene biosynthesis.

Techniques Used:

10) Product Images from "Rational Design of a Carrier Protein for the Production of Recombinant Toxic Peptides in Escherichia coli"

Article Title: Rational Design of a Carrier Protein for the Production of Recombinant Toxic Peptides in Escherichia coli

Journal: PLoS ONE

doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0146552

Characterization of purified recombinant (P)GKY20 peptide. (A) Mass spectrum of purified (P)GKY20 peptide. The measured molecular weight (2609.47 Da) is consistent with the theoretical value (2609.1 Da). (B) Reverse-phase HPLC chromatogram recorded at 280 nm wavelength. Purified peptide was applied to a C18 column (Jupiter 5u C18 300Å, 250 x 4.6 mm) and eluted with a linear gradient from 5% to 95% acetonitrile containing 0.05% trifluoroacetic acid, over 60 min at flow rate of 1 mL/min.
Figure Legend Snippet: Characterization of purified recombinant (P)GKY20 peptide. (A) Mass spectrum of purified (P)GKY20 peptide. The measured molecular weight (2609.47 Da) is consistent with the theoretical value (2609.1 Da). (B) Reverse-phase HPLC chromatogram recorded at 280 nm wavelength. Purified peptide was applied to a C18 column (Jupiter 5u C18 300Å, 250 x 4.6 mm) and eluted with a linear gradient from 5% to 95% acetonitrile containing 0.05% trifluoroacetic acid, over 60 min at flow rate of 1 mL/min.

Techniques Used: Purification, Recombinant, Molecular Weight, High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Flow Cytometry

11) Product Images from "Determination of Ochratoxin A in Wheat and Maize by Solid Bar Microextraction with Liquid Chromatography and Fluorescence Detection"

Article Title: Determination of Ochratoxin A in Wheat and Maize by Solid Bar Microextraction with Liquid Chromatography and Fluorescence Detection

Journal: Toxins

doi: 10.3390/toxins7083000

Effect of the number of SBME devices on extraction efficiency. Extraction conditions: 5 μg L −1 of OTA in 5 mL of 10 mM HCl, C18 sorbent, extraction time 70 min, stirring speed 300 rpm, desorption into 150 μL methanol in 15 min; three devices were used in each extraction. Error bars correspond to standard deviation.
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of the number of SBME devices on extraction efficiency. Extraction conditions: 5 μg L −1 of OTA in 5 mL of 10 mM HCl, C18 sorbent, extraction time 70 min, stirring speed 300 rpm, desorption into 150 μL methanol in 15 min; three devices were used in each extraction. Error bars correspond to standard deviation.

Techniques Used: Standard Deviation

12) Product Images from "Rational Design of a Carrier Protein for the Production of Recombinant Toxic Peptides in Escherichia coli"

Article Title: Rational Design of a Carrier Protein for the Production of Recombinant Toxic Peptides in Escherichia coli

Journal: PLoS ONE

doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0146552

Characterization of purified recombinant (P)GKY20 peptide. (A) Mass spectrum of purified (P)GKY20 peptide. The measured molecular weight (2609.47 Da) is consistent with the theoretical value (2609.1 Da). (B) Reverse-phase HPLC chromatogram recorded at 280 nm wavelength. Purified peptide was applied to a C18 column (Jupiter 5u C18 300Å, 250 x 4.6 mm) and eluted with a linear gradient from 5% to 95% acetonitrile containing 0.05% trifluoroacetic acid, over 60 min at flow rate of 1 mL/min.
Figure Legend Snippet: Characterization of purified recombinant (P)GKY20 peptide. (A) Mass spectrum of purified (P)GKY20 peptide. The measured molecular weight (2609.47 Da) is consistent with the theoretical value (2609.1 Da). (B) Reverse-phase HPLC chromatogram recorded at 280 nm wavelength. Purified peptide was applied to a C18 column (Jupiter 5u C18 300Å, 250 x 4.6 mm) and eluted with a linear gradient from 5% to 95% acetonitrile containing 0.05% trifluoroacetic acid, over 60 min at flow rate of 1 mL/min.

Techniques Used: Purification, Recombinant, Molecular Weight, High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Flow Cytometry

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  • 90
    Phenomenex c18 column
    Radio-HPLC analysis of [ 18 F]AmBF 3 -TEG-ES ( t R = 16.3 min) before purification (a) and after <t>C18</t> purification (b).
    C18 Column, supplied by Phenomenex, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/c18 column/product/Phenomenex
    Average 90 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    c18 column - by Bioz Stars, 2022-09
    90/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    88
    Phenomenex c18 security guard column
    HPLC chromatogram of diketopiperazines on a reversed-phase <t>C18</t> column (LC-20AD). Samples of 15 µl were injected to a column (250 mm×4.6 mm×5 mm), eluted with 100% methanol. Retention time is 2.778 min. The calculated purity is 96% based on the peak area. ( A ) Cyclo-(L-Pro-Gly), ( B ) Cyclo(D-Tyr-D-Tyr), ( C ) Cyclo-(L-Phe-Gly) and ( D ) Cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp).
    C18 Security Guard Column, supplied by Phenomenex, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/c18 security guard column/product/Phenomenex
    Average 88 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    c18 security guard column - by Bioz Stars, 2022-09
    88/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    88
    Phenomenex kinetex c18 analytical column
    Base peak chromatogram of the venom of the ruby ant M. rubra . Crude venom was separated on a <t>Kinetex</t> <t>C18</t> (150 mm × 2.1 mm, 2.6 µm, Phenomenex, USA) column using a gradient elution (dashed line) with water + 0.1% formic acid as eluent A and acetonitrile + 0.1% formic acid as eluent B. Mass spectra were recorded on a micrOTOF-QII instrument (Bruker, USA). Detailed information on numbers associated with the peaks is given in Table 1 .
    Kinetex C18 Analytical Column, supplied by Phenomenex, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/kinetex c18 analytical column/product/Phenomenex
    Average 88 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    kinetex c18 analytical column - by Bioz Stars, 2022-09
    88/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    Image Search Results


    Radio-HPLC analysis of [ 18 F]AmBF 3 -TEG-ES ( t R = 16.3 min) before purification (a) and after C18 purification (b).

    Journal: Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging

    Article Title: One-Step 18F-Labeling of Estradiol Derivative for PET Imaging of Breast Cancer

    doi: 10.1155/2018/5362329

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Radio-HPLC analysis of [ 18 F]AmBF 3 -TEG-ES ( t R = 16.3 min) before purification (a) and after C18 purification (b).

    Article Snippet: The analytical HPLC equipped with a C18 column (5 μ m, 250 × 4.6 mm, Phenomenex) and a Waters 2487 dual λ absorbance detector was used for purity identification of the precursor on a Waters Breeze system.

    Techniques: High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Purification

    Chromatograms of Medicago truncatula seed extract. A. Injection into a C18 column (250 × 25 mm, 5 μm, Phenomenex) on an Agilent 1200 HPLC apparatus. The flow was 3.5 mL.min -1 . The gradient was H 2 O + 0.04%TFA (solvent A) / ACN +0.04% TFA (solvent B) 90/10 for 5 min, then 60% solvent B for 25 min. The elution was monitored using a diode array detector at 210 nm. B. The fraction purified in A was injected into the same column with an elution under isocratic conditions (solvent B 30%). Peaks containing entomotoxic activity are indicated.

    Journal: BMC Chemical Biology

    Article Title: High toxicity and specificity of the saponin 3-GlcA-28-AraRhaxyl-medicagenate, from Medicago truncatula seeds, for Sitophilus oryzae

    doi: 10.1186/1472-6769-12-3

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Chromatograms of Medicago truncatula seed extract. A. Injection into a C18 column (250 × 25 mm, 5 μm, Phenomenex) on an Agilent 1200 HPLC apparatus. The flow was 3.5 mL.min -1 . The gradient was H 2 O + 0.04%TFA (solvent A) / ACN +0.04% TFA (solvent B) 90/10 for 5 min, then 60% solvent B for 25 min. The elution was monitored using a diode array detector at 210 nm. B. The fraction purified in A was injected into the same column with an elution under isocratic conditions (solvent B 30%). Peaks containing entomotoxic activity are indicated.

    Article Snippet: The extract was injected into a C18 column (250 × 25 mm, 5 μm, Phenomenex) on an Agilent 1200 HPLC apparatus.

    Techniques: Injection, High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Flow Cytometry, Purification, Activity Assay

    HPLC chromatogram of diketopiperazines on a reversed-phase C18 column (LC-20AD). Samples of 15 µl were injected to a column (250 mm×4.6 mm×5 mm), eluted with 100% methanol. Retention time is 2.778 min. The calculated purity is 96% based on the peak area. ( A ) Cyclo-(L-Pro-Gly), ( B ) Cyclo(D-Tyr-D-Tyr), ( C ) Cyclo-(L-Phe-Gly) and ( D ) Cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp).

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Biocontrol of Aspergillus Species on Peanut Kernels by Antifungal Diketopiperazine Producing Bacillus cereus Associated with Entomopathogenic Nematode

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0106041

    Figure Lengend Snippet: HPLC chromatogram of diketopiperazines on a reversed-phase C18 column (LC-20AD). Samples of 15 µl were injected to a column (250 mm×4.6 mm×5 mm), eluted with 100% methanol. Retention time is 2.778 min. The calculated purity is 96% based on the peak area. ( A ) Cyclo-(L-Pro-Gly), ( B ) Cyclo(D-Tyr-D-Tyr), ( C ) Cyclo-(L-Phe-Gly) and ( D ) Cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp).

    Article Snippet: Separations were carried out with isocratic elution on a C18 reversed-phase column (5 µm, 4.6×250 mm, Shimadzu, Singapore) connected with a C18 security guard column (3 mm ID×4 mm, Phenomenex, Torrance, USA).

    Techniques: High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Injection

    Base peak chromatogram of the venom of the ruby ant M. rubra . Crude venom was separated on a Kinetex C18 (150 mm × 2.1 mm, 2.6 µm, Phenomenex, USA) column using a gradient elution (dashed line) with water + 0.1% formic acid as eluent A and acetonitrile + 0.1% formic acid as eluent B. Mass spectra were recorded on a micrOTOF-QII instrument (Bruker, USA). Detailed information on numbers associated with the peaks is given in Table 1 .

    Journal: Insects

    Article Title: Proteomic Analysis of the Venom from the Ruby Ant Myrmica rubra and the Isolation of a Novel Insecticidal Decapeptide

    doi: 10.3390/insects10020042

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Base peak chromatogram of the venom of the ruby ant M. rubra . Crude venom was separated on a Kinetex C18 (150 mm × 2.1 mm, 2.6 µm, Phenomenex, USA) column using a gradient elution (dashed line) with water + 0.1% formic acid as eluent A and acetonitrile + 0.1% formic acid as eluent B. Mass spectra were recorded on a micrOTOF-QII instrument (Bruker, USA). Detailed information on numbers associated with the peaks is given in Table 1 .

    Article Snippet: RP-HPLC Analysis of Venom Samples and Subsequent Fractionation An appropriate sample of crude, reduced or alkylated venom was separated by reversed-phase HPLC on a DIONEX UltiMate 3000 HPLC System (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA) with a Phenomenex Kinetex C18 analytical column (150 mm × 2.1 mm, 2.6 µm) using gradient elution with 0.1% formic acid in water (eluent A) and 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile (eluent B).

    Techniques: