c violaceum atcc 12472  (ATCC)


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  • 99
    Name:
    Chromobacterium violaceum MK NCIB 9131 NCTC 9757
    Description:

    Catalog Number:
    12472
    Price:
    None
    Applications:
    Produces restriction endonuclease CviI Serine hydroxymethyltransferase synthesis
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    Structured Review

    ATCC c violaceum atcc 12472
    Percentage (%) of violacein production by C. <t>violaceum</t> ATCC 12472 in absence and presence of furanone C30, sub-MIC of pulp, and seed phenolic extracts of S. cumini (L.) Skeels. Bars represent % violacein production and points represent bacterial population in log CFU/mL. Means followed by different letters differ statistically ( p

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    Images

    1) Product Images from "Bioactive Properties of Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels Pulp and Seed Phenolic Extracts"

    Article Title: Bioactive Properties of Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels Pulp and Seed Phenolic Extracts

    Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

    doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2020.00990

    Percentage (%) of violacein production by C. violaceum ATCC 12472 in absence and presence of furanone C30, sub-MIC of pulp, and seed phenolic extracts of S. cumini (L.) Skeels. Bars represent % violacein production and points represent bacterial population in log CFU/mL. Means followed by different letters differ statistically ( p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Percentage (%) of violacein production by C. violaceum ATCC 12472 in absence and presence of furanone C30, sub-MIC of pulp, and seed phenolic extracts of S. cumini (L.) Skeels. Bars represent % violacein production and points represent bacterial population in log CFU/mL. Means followed by different letters differ statistically ( p

    Techniques Used:

    Molecular docking of 3QP8 structure of CviR protein of C. violaceum ATCC 12472 with 3-OH-C10-HSL, gallotannins, catechin 3- O -gallate, chlorogenic acid, dihydroquercetin, and furarone C30. (A–F) Backbone representation of 3QP8 structure with hydrogen bond between the amino acid residues and evaluated compounds, (G–L) surface and backbone representations, and (M–R) surface representation. Gray surface representation, CviR; yellow surface representation, 3-OH-C10-HSL; green surface representation, gallotannins; pink surface representation, catechin 3- O -gallate; blue surface representation, chlorogenic acid; red surface representation, dihydroquercetin; cyan surface representation, furarone C30; gray backbone representation, CviR; black arrow indicates the binding site; yellow arrow, 3-OH-C10-HSL or gallotannins or catechin 3- O -gallate or chlorogenic acid or dihydroquercetin or furarone C30; blue dashed line, hydrogen bond.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Molecular docking of 3QP8 structure of CviR protein of C. violaceum ATCC 12472 with 3-OH-C10-HSL, gallotannins, catechin 3- O -gallate, chlorogenic acid, dihydroquercetin, and furarone C30. (A–F) Backbone representation of 3QP8 structure with hydrogen bond between the amino acid residues and evaluated compounds, (G–L) surface and backbone representations, and (M–R) surface representation. Gray surface representation, CviR; yellow surface representation, 3-OH-C10-HSL; green surface representation, gallotannins; pink surface representation, catechin 3- O -gallate; blue surface representation, chlorogenic acid; red surface representation, dihydroquercetin; cyan surface representation, furarone C30; gray backbone representation, CviR; black arrow indicates the binding site; yellow arrow, 3-OH-C10-HSL or gallotannins or catechin 3- O -gallate or chlorogenic acid or dihydroquercetin or furarone C30; blue dashed line, hydrogen bond.

    Techniques Used: Binding Assay

    Percentage (%) of violacein production by C. violaceum ATCC 12472 in the absence and presence of the active films incorporating pulp and seed phenolic extracts of S. cumini (L.) Skeels. Means followed by different letters differ statistically ( p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Percentage (%) of violacein production by C. violaceum ATCC 12472 in the absence and presence of the active films incorporating pulp and seed phenolic extracts of S. cumini (L.) Skeels. Means followed by different letters differ statistically ( p

    Techniques Used:

    2) Product Images from "Bioactive Properties of Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels Pulp and Seed Phenolic Extracts"

    Article Title: Bioactive Properties of Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels Pulp and Seed Phenolic Extracts

    Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

    doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2020.00990

    Percentage (%) of violacein production by C. violaceum ATCC 12472 in absence and presence of furanone C30, sub-MIC of pulp, and seed phenolic extracts of S. cumini (L.) Skeels. Bars represent % violacein production and points represent bacterial population in log CFU/mL. Means followed by different letters differ statistically ( p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Percentage (%) of violacein production by C. violaceum ATCC 12472 in absence and presence of furanone C30, sub-MIC of pulp, and seed phenolic extracts of S. cumini (L.) Skeels. Bars represent % violacein production and points represent bacterial population in log CFU/mL. Means followed by different letters differ statistically ( p

    Techniques Used:

    Molecular docking of 3QP8 structure of CviR protein of C. violaceum ATCC 12472 with 3-OH-C10-HSL, gallotannins, catechin 3- O -gallate, chlorogenic acid, dihydroquercetin, and furarone C30. (A–F) Backbone representation of 3QP8 structure with hydrogen bond between the amino acid residues and evaluated compounds, (G–L) surface and backbone representations, and (M–R) surface representation. Gray surface representation, CviR; yellow surface representation, 3-OH-C10-HSL; green surface representation, gallotannins; pink surface representation, catechin 3- O -gallate; blue surface representation, chlorogenic acid; red surface representation, dihydroquercetin; cyan surface representation, furarone C30; gray backbone representation, CviR; black arrow indicates the binding site; yellow arrow, 3-OH-C10-HSL or gallotannins or catechin 3- O -gallate or chlorogenic acid or dihydroquercetin or furarone C30; blue dashed line, hydrogen bond.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Molecular docking of 3QP8 structure of CviR protein of C. violaceum ATCC 12472 with 3-OH-C10-HSL, gallotannins, catechin 3- O -gallate, chlorogenic acid, dihydroquercetin, and furarone C30. (A–F) Backbone representation of 3QP8 structure with hydrogen bond between the amino acid residues and evaluated compounds, (G–L) surface and backbone representations, and (M–R) surface representation. Gray surface representation, CviR; yellow surface representation, 3-OH-C10-HSL; green surface representation, gallotannins; pink surface representation, catechin 3- O -gallate; blue surface representation, chlorogenic acid; red surface representation, dihydroquercetin; cyan surface representation, furarone C30; gray backbone representation, CviR; black arrow indicates the binding site; yellow arrow, 3-OH-C10-HSL or gallotannins or catechin 3- O -gallate or chlorogenic acid or dihydroquercetin or furarone C30; blue dashed line, hydrogen bond.

    Techniques Used: Binding Assay

    Percentage (%) of violacein production by C. violaceum ATCC 12472 in the absence and presence of the active films incorporating pulp and seed phenolic extracts of S. cumini (L.) Skeels. Means followed by different letters differ statistically ( p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Percentage (%) of violacein production by C. violaceum ATCC 12472 in the absence and presence of the active films incorporating pulp and seed phenolic extracts of S. cumini (L.) Skeels. Means followed by different letters differ statistically ( p

    Techniques Used:

    3) Product Images from "Identification of N-acyl-l-homoserine lactones produced by non-pigmented Chromobacterium aquaticum CC-SEYA-1T and pigmented Chromobacterium subtsugae PRAA4-1T"

    Article Title: Identification of N-acyl-l-homoserine lactones produced by non-pigmented Chromobacterium aquaticum CC-SEYA-1T and pigmented Chromobacterium subtsugae PRAA4-1T

    Journal: 3 Biotech

    doi: 10.1007/s13205-011-0029-1

    Zones of clearance around colonies of a C. violaceum ATCC 12472, b C. aquaticum CC-SEYA-1 T , and c C. subtsugae PRAA4-1 T on sheep blood agar indicating hemolysis
    Figure Legend Snippet: Zones of clearance around colonies of a C. violaceum ATCC 12472, b C. aquaticum CC-SEYA-1 T , and c C. subtsugae PRAA4-1 T on sheep blood agar indicating hemolysis

    Techniques Used:

    4) Product Images from "Identification of N-acyl-l-homoserine lactones produced by non-pigmented Chromobacterium aquaticum CC-SEYA-1T and pigmented Chromobacterium subtsugae PRAA4-1T"

    Article Title: Identification of N-acyl-l-homoserine lactones produced by non-pigmented Chromobacterium aquaticum CC-SEYA-1T and pigmented Chromobacterium subtsugae PRAA4-1T

    Journal: 3 Biotech

    doi: 10.1007/s13205-011-0029-1

    Zones of clearance around colonies of a C. violaceum ATCC 12472, b C. aquaticum CC-SEYA-1 T , and c C. subtsugae PRAA4-1 T on sheep blood agar indicating hemolysis
    Figure Legend Snippet: Zones of clearance around colonies of a C. violaceum ATCC 12472, b C. aquaticum CC-SEYA-1 T , and c C. subtsugae PRAA4-1 T on sheep blood agar indicating hemolysis

    Techniques Used:

    5) Product Images from "Antibiofilm Activity of the Brown Alga Halidrys siliquosa against Clinically Relevant Human Pathogens"

    Article Title: Antibiofilm Activity of the Brown Alga Halidrys siliquosa against Clinically Relevant Human Pathogens

    Journal: Marine Drugs

    doi: 10.3390/md13063581

    Disc diffusion assay against C. violaceum ATCC 12472 of fractions obtained using Flash Chromatography. Antimicrobial activity was detected in fractions 35–36 (not shown) and 46–52.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Disc diffusion assay against C. violaceum ATCC 12472 of fractions obtained using Flash Chromatography. Antimicrobial activity was detected in fractions 35–36 (not shown) and 46–52.

    Techniques Used: Diffusion-based Assay, Chromatography, Activity Assay

    Screening fresh H. siliquosa fronds for antimicrobial, QSI and QS activity using the overlay method. ( A ) Very weak antimicrobial activity (2 mm inhibition zone) against E. coli ATCC 11303; ( B ) No antimicrobial activity detected against K. pneumonia NCTC 204; ( C ) Pronounced antimicrobial activity of H. siliquosa against S. aureus (MRSA) ATCC 33595; ( D , E ) Weak antimicrobial activity of H. siliquosa against P. aeruginosa PAO1 and PA14; ( F ) No antimicrobial nor QSI activity detected against Serratia sp. ATCC39006; ( G ) No antimicrobial activity against E. cloacae . ( H , I ) Pronounced antimicrobial activity of H. siliquosa against QSI reporter strain C. violaceum ATCC 12472 and QS reporter strain C. violaceum CV026.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Screening fresh H. siliquosa fronds for antimicrobial, QSI and QS activity using the overlay method. ( A ) Very weak antimicrobial activity (2 mm inhibition zone) against E. coli ATCC 11303; ( B ) No antimicrobial activity detected against K. pneumonia NCTC 204; ( C ) Pronounced antimicrobial activity of H. siliquosa against S. aureus (MRSA) ATCC 33595; ( D , E ) Weak antimicrobial activity of H. siliquosa against P. aeruginosa PAO1 and PA14; ( F ) No antimicrobial nor QSI activity detected against Serratia sp. ATCC39006; ( G ) No antimicrobial activity against E. cloacae . ( H , I ) Pronounced antimicrobial activity of H. siliquosa against QSI reporter strain C. violaceum ATCC 12472 and QS reporter strain C. violaceum CV026.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Inhibition

    6) Product Images from "Anti-quorum Sensing Activities of Selected Coral Symbiotic Bacterial Extracts From the South China Sea"

    Article Title: Anti-quorum Sensing Activities of Selected Coral Symbiotic Bacterial Extracts From the South China Sea

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2018.00144

    Effect of DL-homocysteine thiolactone on violacein production by C. violaceum ATCC 12472. (A) Percentage of inhibition of the violacein pigment after incubation with different concentrations of DL-homocysteine thiolactone. A dose-response effect in the production of violacein was observed in a series of concentrations (0.0625, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 μg/mL) of DL-homocysteine thiolactone. Data show the mean (±SD) of three independent experiments. (B) Anti-QS activity of pure DL-homocysteine thiolactone at different concentrations. A, 0.0625 μg/ml; B, 0.125 μg/ml; C, 0.25 μg/ml; D, 0.5 μg/ml; and E, 1.0 μg/ml. LB medium, DMSO only and furanone (dissolved in DMSO, 1.0 μg/ml) were used as blank, negative and positive controls, respectively.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of DL-homocysteine thiolactone on violacein production by C. violaceum ATCC 12472. (A) Percentage of inhibition of the violacein pigment after incubation with different concentrations of DL-homocysteine thiolactone. A dose-response effect in the production of violacein was observed in a series of concentrations (0.0625, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 μg/mL) of DL-homocysteine thiolactone. Data show the mean (±SD) of three independent experiments. (B) Anti-QS activity of pure DL-homocysteine thiolactone at different concentrations. A, 0.0625 μg/ml; B, 0.125 μg/ml; C, 0.25 μg/ml; D, 0.5 μg/ml; and E, 1.0 μg/ml. LB medium, DMSO only and furanone (dissolved in DMSO, 1.0 μg/ml) were used as blank, negative and positive controls, respectively.

    Techniques Used: Inhibition, Incubation, Activity Assay

    (A) Bacterial cell count of the flask incubation assay. The five test isolates were D11 ( Staphylococcus hominis ), D35 ( Staphylococcus warneri ), H1 ( Lysinibacillus fusiform ), D12 ( Bacillus cereus ), and H12 ( Vibrio alginolyticus ). C. violaceum ATCC 12472 was incubated for 16 h, and 100 μl of the bacteria, adjusted to OD 600nm of 0.1 (approximately 1 × 10 8 CFU/ml), were spread on LB plates. The growth inhibition were compared with control. Data are presented as the logarithm of mean CFU ± SD. (B) Inhibition of violacein production by test strains. Violacein production was measured spectrophotometrically as described in the Materials and Methods. Data are presented as mean ± SD of absorbance at 585 nm. Asterisks indicate a statistically difference between experimental groups and control groups ( * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: (A) Bacterial cell count of the flask incubation assay. The five test isolates were D11 ( Staphylococcus hominis ), D35 ( Staphylococcus warneri ), H1 ( Lysinibacillus fusiform ), D12 ( Bacillus cereus ), and H12 ( Vibrio alginolyticus ). C. violaceum ATCC 12472 was incubated for 16 h, and 100 μl of the bacteria, adjusted to OD 600nm of 0.1 (approximately 1 × 10 8 CFU/ml), were spread on LB plates. The growth inhibition were compared with control. Data are presented as the logarithm of mean CFU ± SD. (B) Inhibition of violacein production by test strains. Violacein production was measured spectrophotometrically as described in the Materials and Methods. Data are presented as mean ± SD of absorbance at 585 nm. Asterisks indicate a statistically difference between experimental groups and control groups ( * P

    Techniques Used: Cell Counting, Incubation, Inhibition

    Screening of anti-QS strains on biosensor plates containing reference strain C. violaceum ATCC 12472 and filter paper for sample detection. Water, LB medium and furanone (diluted 10 times with DMSO) were used as blank, negative and positive controls, respectively. The absence of purple or formation of a pigment inhibition was considered to indicate a potential QS inhibitor. The red arrows refer to the positive anti-QS strains and the pigment inhibition can be observed on a clear background on the plate. Notes: the number indicated the test isolate strains. H samples come from Heilong Island, and D samples come from Daming Island.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Screening of anti-QS strains on biosensor plates containing reference strain C. violaceum ATCC 12472 and filter paper for sample detection. Water, LB medium and furanone (diluted 10 times with DMSO) were used as blank, negative and positive controls, respectively. The absence of purple or formation of a pigment inhibition was considered to indicate a potential QS inhibitor. The red arrows refer to the positive anti-QS strains and the pigment inhibition can be observed on a clear background on the plate. Notes: the number indicated the test isolate strains. H samples come from Heilong Island, and D samples come from Daming Island.

    Techniques Used: Inhibition

    7) Product Images from "Quorum Sensing Inhibiting Activity of Streptomyces coelicoflavus Isolated from Soil"

    Article Title: Quorum Sensing Inhibiting Activity of Streptomyces coelicoflavus Isolated from Soil

    Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

    doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2016.00659

    Screening of quorum sensing (QS) inhibiting activity of tested Streptomyces isolates and the nature of QS inhibitory components of Streptomyces S17. (A) Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472 culture (100 μl of 1 × 10 7 CFU/ml) was inoculated into 5 ml LB soft agar (0.5% agar) and overlaid on the surface of LB agar plate. A cup of growing Streptomyces isolates was placed into the surface of the bioassay plate and the plates were incubated at 30°C for 24 h for disappearance of violet color of C. violaceum . Isolates S6, S12, and S17 showed QS inhibiting activity. (B) Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 (100 μl of 1 × 10 7 CFU/ml) was inoculated into 5 ml LB soft agar (0.5% agar) containing 50 nM N -(hexanoyl)- L -homoserine lactone, and the mixture was overlaid on the surface of LB agar plate. The plates were incubated at 30°C for 24 h and QSI activity was assigned by disappearance for the violet color. The cell free supernatant of S17 (1 mg/ml) treated with 5 mg proteinase K maintained QSI activity. The ethyl acetate extract of S17 (1 mg/ml) and solvent control were applied into wells at opposite sides of a Petri dish containing a layer of water agar. The extract in ethyl acetate also retained the QSI activity, compared to solvent control.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Screening of quorum sensing (QS) inhibiting activity of tested Streptomyces isolates and the nature of QS inhibitory components of Streptomyces S17. (A) Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472 culture (100 μl of 1 × 10 7 CFU/ml) was inoculated into 5 ml LB soft agar (0.5% agar) and overlaid on the surface of LB agar plate. A cup of growing Streptomyces isolates was placed into the surface of the bioassay plate and the plates were incubated at 30°C for 24 h for disappearance of violet color of C. violaceum . Isolates S6, S12, and S17 showed QS inhibiting activity. (B) Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 (100 μl of 1 × 10 7 CFU/ml) was inoculated into 5 ml LB soft agar (0.5% agar) containing 50 nM N -(hexanoyl)- L -homoserine lactone, and the mixture was overlaid on the surface of LB agar plate. The plates were incubated at 30°C for 24 h and QSI activity was assigned by disappearance for the violet color. The cell free supernatant of S17 (1 mg/ml) treated with 5 mg proteinase K maintained QSI activity. The ethyl acetate extract of S17 (1 mg/ml) and solvent control were applied into wells at opposite sides of a Petri dish containing a layer of water agar. The extract in ethyl acetate also retained the QSI activity, compared to solvent control.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Incubation

    8) Product Images from "Chromobacterium violaceum Pathogenicity: Updates and Insights from Genome Sequencing of Novel Chromobacterium Species"

    Article Title: Chromobacterium violaceum Pathogenicity: Updates and Insights from Genome Sequencing of Novel Chromobacterium Species

    Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

    doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.02213

    Genomic organization of Chromobacterium pathogenicity island 1 (Cpi-1) in members of the Chromobacterium genus. The T3SS genes are either split into two gene clusters (Cpi-1/1a) (A) ; or grouped together (Cpi-1) on the chromosome (B) . Comparison was performed using T3SS gene clusters from C. violaceum ATCC 12472 (Cpi-1a, CV2417-CV2423 and Cpi-1, CV2615-CV2642) as previously annotated ( Betts et al., 2004 ). Genes are colored according to functional category (genes in gray are that absent in C. violaceum ATCC 12472). For C. vaccinii , the two genes surrounded in blue are present only in MWU205 strain.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Genomic organization of Chromobacterium pathogenicity island 1 (Cpi-1) in members of the Chromobacterium genus. The T3SS genes are either split into two gene clusters (Cpi-1/1a) (A) ; or grouped together (Cpi-1) on the chromosome (B) . Comparison was performed using T3SS gene clusters from C. violaceum ATCC 12472 (Cpi-1a, CV2417-CV2423 and Cpi-1, CV2615-CV2642) as previously annotated ( Betts et al., 2004 ). Genes are colored according to functional category (genes in gray are that absent in C. violaceum ATCC 12472). For C. vaccinii , the two genes surrounded in blue are present only in MWU205 strain.

    Techniques Used: Functional Assay

    9) Product Images from "Thymoquinone Inhibits Virulence Related Traits of Cronobacter sakazakii ATCC 29544 and Has Anti-biofilm Formation Potential"

    Article Title: Thymoquinone Inhibits Virulence Related Traits of Cronobacter sakazakii ATCC 29544 and Has Anti-biofilm Formation Potential

    Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

    doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.02220

    Inhibition of violacein production by C. violaceum ATCC 12472 at different concentrations of TQ. Bars represent the standard deviation ( n = 3). ** P ≤ 0.01 compared to control.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Inhibition of violacein production by C. violaceum ATCC 12472 at different concentrations of TQ. Bars represent the standard deviation ( n = 3). ** P ≤ 0.01 compared to control.

    Techniques Used: Inhibition, Standard Deviation

    10) Product Images from "Thymoquinone Inhibits Virulence Related Traits of Cronobacter sakazakii ATCC 29544 and Has Anti-biofilm Formation Potential"

    Article Title: Thymoquinone Inhibits Virulence Related Traits of Cronobacter sakazakii ATCC 29544 and Has Anti-biofilm Formation Potential

    Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

    doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.02220

    Inhibition of violacein production by C. violaceum ATCC 12472 at different concentrations of TQ. Bars represent the standard deviation ( n = 3). ** P ≤ 0.01 compared to control.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Inhibition of violacein production by C. violaceum ATCC 12472 at different concentrations of TQ. Bars represent the standard deviation ( n = 3). ** P ≤ 0.01 compared to control.

    Techniques Used: Inhibition, Standard Deviation

    11) Product Images from "Phillyrin is an effective inhibitor of quorum sensing with potential as an anti-Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection therapy"

    Article Title: Phillyrin is an effective inhibitor of quorum sensing with potential as an anti-Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection therapy

    Journal: The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science

    doi: 10.1292/jvms.18-0523

    Assessment of the anti-quorum sensing (anti-QS) properties of phillyrin by subjecting the reporter strain Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472 to a diffusion assay. (A) With 0.125 mg/m l phillyrin; (B) with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Assessment of the anti-quorum sensing (anti-QS) properties of phillyrin by subjecting the reporter strain Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472 to a diffusion assay. (A) With 0.125 mg/m l phillyrin; (B) with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO).

    Techniques Used: Diffusion-based Assay

    12) Product Images from "Phillyrin is an effective inhibitor of quorum sensing with potential as an anti-Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection therapy"

    Article Title: Phillyrin is an effective inhibitor of quorum sensing with potential as an anti-Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection therapy

    Journal: The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science

    doi: 10.1292/jvms.18-0523

    Assessment of the anti-quorum sensing (anti-QS) properties of phillyrin by subjecting the reporter strain Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472 to a diffusion assay. (A) With 0.125 mg/m l phillyrin; (B) with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Assessment of the anti-quorum sensing (anti-QS) properties of phillyrin by subjecting the reporter strain Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472 to a diffusion assay. (A) With 0.125 mg/m l phillyrin; (B) with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO).

    Techniques Used: Diffusion-based Assay

    13) Product Images from "Bioautography and GC-MS based identification of piperine and trichostachine as the active quorum quenching compounds in black pepper"

    Article Title: Bioautography and GC-MS based identification of piperine and trichostachine as the active quorum quenching compounds in black pepper

    Journal: Heliyon

    doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e03137

    Molecular docking of CviR crystalized structure of C. violaceum ATCC 12472 with C6-HSL (A–B), piperine (C–F) or trichostachine (G–J). Surface (A, C, E, G, I) and backbone (B, D, F, H, J) representations of CviR for interaction with the respective ligand are showed. Small grid box size conditions were used for A-D, G and H. Big grid box conditions were used for I and J. C6-HSL green backbone, piperine purple backbone and piperine sky-blue backbone. Red atoms = oxygen. Withe atoms = hydrogen. Navy-blue atoms = nitrogen.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Molecular docking of CviR crystalized structure of C. violaceum ATCC 12472 with C6-HSL (A–B), piperine (C–F) or trichostachine (G–J). Surface (A, C, E, G, I) and backbone (B, D, F, H, J) representations of CviR for interaction with the respective ligand are showed. Small grid box size conditions were used for A-D, G and H. Big grid box conditions were used for I and J. C6-HSL green backbone, piperine purple backbone and piperine sky-blue backbone. Red atoms = oxygen. Withe atoms = hydrogen. Navy-blue atoms = nitrogen.

    Techniques Used:

    14) Product Images from "Anti-Quorum Sensing Potential of Crude Kigelia africana Fruit Extracts"

    Article Title: Anti-Quorum Sensing Potential of Crude Kigelia africana Fruit Extracts

    Journal: Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)

    doi: 10.3390/s130302802

    Antimicrobial activity of Kigelia africana ethyl acetate ( a ) and methanol extracts ( b ) [0.5, 2 and 4 mg/mL] against purple-pigmented Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472. Translucent zones indicate inhibition of growth, while opaque zones represent inhibition of violacein production.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Antimicrobial activity of Kigelia africana ethyl acetate ( a ) and methanol extracts ( b ) [0.5, 2 and 4 mg/mL] against purple-pigmented Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472. Translucent zones indicate inhibition of growth, while opaque zones represent inhibition of violacein production.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Inhibition

    Quorum sensing inhibition by sub-inhibitory concentrations (2 mg/mL ) of Kigelia africana extracts (EX 1–EX 4; a–d) demonstrating modulation of AHL receptor activity (LuxR; up) and AHL synthesis (LuxI; down) in the double ring agar diffusion assay with the Agrobacterium tumefaciens A136/KYC6 biosensor system (left) and A. tumefaciens A136/ Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472 combination (right).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Quorum sensing inhibition by sub-inhibitory concentrations (2 mg/mL ) of Kigelia africana extracts (EX 1–EX 4; a–d) demonstrating modulation of AHL receptor activity (LuxR; up) and AHL synthesis (LuxI; down) in the double ring agar diffusion assay with the Agrobacterium tumefaciens A136/KYC6 biosensor system (left) and A. tumefaciens A136/ Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472 combination (right).

    Techniques Used: Inhibition, Activity Assay, Diffusion-based Assay

    Quantitative analysis of the concentration-dependent inhibitory effects of four Kigelia africana extracts, EX 1–EX 4, on violacein production by Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472. Cultures were grown in the presence of 0–8.2 mg/mL of respective K. africana extracts: EX 1—ethyl acetate extract, EX 2—dichloromethane extract, EX 3—methanol extract and EX 4—hexane extract. Data are the average of three triplicate independent experiments and SD are shown.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Quantitative analysis of the concentration-dependent inhibitory effects of four Kigelia africana extracts, EX 1–EX 4, on violacein production by Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472. Cultures were grown in the presence of 0–8.2 mg/mL of respective K. africana extracts: EX 1—ethyl acetate extract, EX 2—dichloromethane extract, EX 3—methanol extract and EX 4—hexane extract. Data are the average of three triplicate independent experiments and SD are shown.

    Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

    Concentration-dependent inhibitory effects of four Kigelia africana extracts, EX 1–EX 4, on violacein production by Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472. ( A – D ): Effect of K. africana extracts EX 1–EX 4 on violacein production by C. violaceum ATCC 12472. ( a ) Untreated control; ( b – i ) extract-treated cultures showing progressive reduction in violacein production at the concentrations of 0–8.2 mg/mL, respectively.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Concentration-dependent inhibitory effects of four Kigelia africana extracts, EX 1–EX 4, on violacein production by Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472. ( A – D ): Effect of K. africana extracts EX 1–EX 4 on violacein production by C. violaceum ATCC 12472. ( a ) Untreated control; ( b – i ) extract-treated cultures showing progressive reduction in violacein production at the concentrations of 0–8.2 mg/mL, respectively.

    Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

    15) Product Images from "Antibiofilm Activity of the Brown Alga Halidrys siliquosa against Clinically Relevant Human Pathogens"

    Article Title: Antibiofilm Activity of the Brown Alga Halidrys siliquosa against Clinically Relevant Human Pathogens

    Journal: Marine Drugs

    doi: 10.3390/md13063581

    Disc diffusion assay against C. violaceum ATCC 12472 of fractions obtained using Flash Chromatography. Antimicrobial activity was detected in fractions 35–36 (not shown) and 46–52.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Disc diffusion assay against C. violaceum ATCC 12472 of fractions obtained using Flash Chromatography. Antimicrobial activity was detected in fractions 35–36 (not shown) and 46–52.

    Techniques Used: Diffusion-based Assay, Chromatography, Activity Assay

    Screening fresh H. siliquosa fronds for antimicrobial, QSI and QS activity using the overlay method. ( A ) Very weak antimicrobial activity (2 mm inhibition zone) against E. coli ATCC 11303; ( B ) No antimicrobial activity detected against K. pneumonia NCTC 204; ( C ) Pronounced antimicrobial activity of H. siliquosa against S. aureus (MRSA) ATCC 33595; ( D , E ) Weak antimicrobial activity of H. siliquosa against P. aeruginosa PAO1 and PA14; ( F ) No antimicrobial nor QSI activity detected against Serratia sp. ATCC39006; ( G ) No antimicrobial activity against E. cloacae . ( H , I ) Pronounced antimicrobial activity of H. siliquosa against QSI reporter strain C. violaceum ATCC 12472 and QS reporter strain C. violaceum CV026.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Screening fresh H. siliquosa fronds for antimicrobial, QSI and QS activity using the overlay method. ( A ) Very weak antimicrobial activity (2 mm inhibition zone) against E. coli ATCC 11303; ( B ) No antimicrobial activity detected against K. pneumonia NCTC 204; ( C ) Pronounced antimicrobial activity of H. siliquosa against S. aureus (MRSA) ATCC 33595; ( D , E ) Weak antimicrobial activity of H. siliquosa against P. aeruginosa PAO1 and PA14; ( F ) No antimicrobial nor QSI activity detected against Serratia sp. ATCC39006; ( G ) No antimicrobial activity against E. cloacae . ( H , I ) Pronounced antimicrobial activity of H. siliquosa against QSI reporter strain C. violaceum ATCC 12472 and QS reporter strain C. violaceum CV026.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Inhibition

    16) Product Images from "Anti-quorum Sensing Activities of Selected Coral Symbiotic Bacterial Extracts From the South China Sea"

    Article Title: Anti-quorum Sensing Activities of Selected Coral Symbiotic Bacterial Extracts From the South China Sea

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2018.00144

    Effect of DL-homocysteine thiolactone on violacein production by C. violaceum ATCC 12472. (A) Percentage of inhibition of the violacein pigment after incubation with different concentrations of DL-homocysteine thiolactone. A dose-response effect in the production of violacein was observed in a series of concentrations (0.0625, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 μg/mL) of DL-homocysteine thiolactone. Data show the mean (±SD) of three independent experiments. (B) Anti-QS activity of pure DL-homocysteine thiolactone at different concentrations. A, 0.0625 μg/ml; B, 0.125 μg/ml; C, 0.25 μg/ml; D, 0.5 μg/ml; and E, 1.0 μg/ml. LB medium, DMSO only and furanone (dissolved in DMSO, 1.0 μg/ml) were used as blank, negative and positive controls, respectively.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of DL-homocysteine thiolactone on violacein production by C. violaceum ATCC 12472. (A) Percentage of inhibition of the violacein pigment after incubation with different concentrations of DL-homocysteine thiolactone. A dose-response effect in the production of violacein was observed in a series of concentrations (0.0625, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 μg/mL) of DL-homocysteine thiolactone. Data show the mean (±SD) of three independent experiments. (B) Anti-QS activity of pure DL-homocysteine thiolactone at different concentrations. A, 0.0625 μg/ml; B, 0.125 μg/ml; C, 0.25 μg/ml; D, 0.5 μg/ml; and E, 1.0 μg/ml. LB medium, DMSO only and furanone (dissolved in DMSO, 1.0 μg/ml) were used as blank, negative and positive controls, respectively.

    Techniques Used: Inhibition, Incubation, Activity Assay

    (A) Bacterial cell count of the flask incubation assay. The five test isolates were D11 ( Staphylococcus hominis ), D35 ( Staphylococcus warneri ), H1 ( Lysinibacillus fusiform ), D12 ( Bacillus cereus ), and H12 ( Vibrio alginolyticus ). C. violaceum ATCC 12472 was incubated for 16 h, and 100 μl of the bacteria, adjusted to OD 600nm of 0.1 (approximately 1 × 10 8 CFU/ml), were spread on LB plates. The growth inhibition were compared with control. Data are presented as the logarithm of mean CFU ± SD. (B) Inhibition of violacein production by test strains. Violacein production was measured spectrophotometrically as described in the Materials and Methods. Data are presented as mean ± SD of absorbance at 585 nm. Asterisks indicate a statistically difference between experimental groups and control groups ( * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: (A) Bacterial cell count of the flask incubation assay. The five test isolates were D11 ( Staphylococcus hominis ), D35 ( Staphylococcus warneri ), H1 ( Lysinibacillus fusiform ), D12 ( Bacillus cereus ), and H12 ( Vibrio alginolyticus ). C. violaceum ATCC 12472 was incubated for 16 h, and 100 μl of the bacteria, adjusted to OD 600nm of 0.1 (approximately 1 × 10 8 CFU/ml), were spread on LB plates. The growth inhibition were compared with control. Data are presented as the logarithm of mean CFU ± SD. (B) Inhibition of violacein production by test strains. Violacein production was measured spectrophotometrically as described in the Materials and Methods. Data are presented as mean ± SD of absorbance at 585 nm. Asterisks indicate a statistically difference between experimental groups and control groups ( * P

    Techniques Used: Cell Counting, Incubation, Inhibition

    Screening of anti-QS strains on biosensor plates containing reference strain C. violaceum ATCC 12472 and filter paper for sample detection. Water, LB medium and furanone (diluted 10 times with DMSO) were used as blank, negative and positive controls, respectively. The absence of purple or formation of a pigment inhibition was considered to indicate a potential QS inhibitor. The red arrows refer to the positive anti-QS strains and the pigment inhibition can be observed on a clear background on the plate. Notes: the number indicated the test isolate strains. H samples come from Heilong Island, and D samples come from Daming Island.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Screening of anti-QS strains on biosensor plates containing reference strain C. violaceum ATCC 12472 and filter paper for sample detection. Water, LB medium and furanone (diluted 10 times with DMSO) were used as blank, negative and positive controls, respectively. The absence of purple or formation of a pigment inhibition was considered to indicate a potential QS inhibitor. The red arrows refer to the positive anti-QS strains and the pigment inhibition can be observed on a clear background on the plate. Notes: the number indicated the test isolate strains. H samples come from Heilong Island, and D samples come from Daming Island.

    Techniques Used: Inhibition

    17) Product Images from "Anti-quorum Sensing Activities of Selected Coral Symbiotic Bacterial Extracts From the South China Sea"

    Article Title: Anti-quorum Sensing Activities of Selected Coral Symbiotic Bacterial Extracts From the South China Sea

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2018.00144

    Effect of DL-homocysteine thiolactone on violacein production by C. violaceum ATCC 12472. (A) Percentage of inhibition of the violacein pigment after incubation with different concentrations of DL-homocysteine thiolactone. A dose-response effect in the production of violacein was observed in a series of concentrations (0.0625, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 μg/mL) of DL-homocysteine thiolactone. Data show the mean (±SD) of three independent experiments. (B) Anti-QS activity of pure DL-homocysteine thiolactone at different concentrations. A, 0.0625 μg/ml; B, 0.125 μg/ml; C, 0.25 μg/ml; D, 0.5 μg/ml; and E, 1.0 μg/ml. LB medium, DMSO only and furanone (dissolved in DMSO, 1.0 μg/ml) were used as blank, negative and positive controls, respectively.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of DL-homocysteine thiolactone on violacein production by C. violaceum ATCC 12472. (A) Percentage of inhibition of the violacein pigment after incubation with different concentrations of DL-homocysteine thiolactone. A dose-response effect in the production of violacein was observed in a series of concentrations (0.0625, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 μg/mL) of DL-homocysteine thiolactone. Data show the mean (±SD) of three independent experiments. (B) Anti-QS activity of pure DL-homocysteine thiolactone at different concentrations. A, 0.0625 μg/ml; B, 0.125 μg/ml; C, 0.25 μg/ml; D, 0.5 μg/ml; and E, 1.0 μg/ml. LB medium, DMSO only and furanone (dissolved in DMSO, 1.0 μg/ml) were used as blank, negative and positive controls, respectively.

    Techniques Used: Inhibition, Incubation, Activity Assay

    (A) Bacterial cell count of the flask incubation assay. The five test isolates were D11 ( Staphylococcus hominis ), D35 ( Staphylococcus warneri ), H1 ( Lysinibacillus fusiform ), D12 ( Bacillus cereus ), and H12 ( Vibrio alginolyticus ). C. violaceum ATCC 12472 was incubated for 16 h, and 100 μl of the bacteria, adjusted to OD 600nm of 0.1 (approximately 1 × 10 8 CFU/ml), were spread on LB plates. The growth inhibition were compared with control. Data are presented as the logarithm of mean CFU ± SD. (B) Inhibition of violacein production by test strains. Violacein production was measured spectrophotometrically as described in the Materials and Methods. Data are presented as mean ± SD of absorbance at 585 nm. Asterisks indicate a statistically difference between experimental groups and control groups ( * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: (A) Bacterial cell count of the flask incubation assay. The five test isolates were D11 ( Staphylococcus hominis ), D35 ( Staphylococcus warneri ), H1 ( Lysinibacillus fusiform ), D12 ( Bacillus cereus ), and H12 ( Vibrio alginolyticus ). C. violaceum ATCC 12472 was incubated for 16 h, and 100 μl of the bacteria, adjusted to OD 600nm of 0.1 (approximately 1 × 10 8 CFU/ml), were spread on LB plates. The growth inhibition were compared with control. Data are presented as the logarithm of mean CFU ± SD. (B) Inhibition of violacein production by test strains. Violacein production was measured spectrophotometrically as described in the Materials and Methods. Data are presented as mean ± SD of absorbance at 585 nm. Asterisks indicate a statistically difference between experimental groups and control groups ( * P

    Techniques Used: Cell Counting, Incubation, Inhibition

    Screening of anti-QS strains on biosensor plates containing reference strain C. violaceum ATCC 12472 and filter paper for sample detection. Water, LB medium and furanone (diluted 10 times with DMSO) were used as blank, negative and positive controls, respectively. The absence of purple or formation of a pigment inhibition was considered to indicate a potential QS inhibitor. The red arrows refer to the positive anti-QS strains and the pigment inhibition can be observed on a clear background on the plate. Notes: the number indicated the test isolate strains. H samples come from Heilong Island, and D samples come from Daming Island.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Screening of anti-QS strains on biosensor plates containing reference strain C. violaceum ATCC 12472 and filter paper for sample detection. Water, LB medium and furanone (diluted 10 times with DMSO) were used as blank, negative and positive controls, respectively. The absence of purple or formation of a pigment inhibition was considered to indicate a potential QS inhibitor. The red arrows refer to the positive anti-QS strains and the pigment inhibition can be observed on a clear background on the plate. Notes: the number indicated the test isolate strains. H samples come from Heilong Island, and D samples come from Daming Island.

    Techniques Used: Inhibition

    18) Product Images from "Anti-quorum Sensing Activities of Selected Coral Symbiotic Bacterial Extracts From the South China Sea"

    Article Title: Anti-quorum Sensing Activities of Selected Coral Symbiotic Bacterial Extracts From the South China Sea

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2018.00144

    Effect of DL-homocysteine thiolactone on violacein production by C. violaceum ATCC 12472. (A) Percentage of inhibition of the violacein pigment after incubation with different concentrations of DL-homocysteine thiolactone. A dose-response effect in the production of violacein was observed in a series of concentrations (0.0625, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 μg/mL) of DL-homocysteine thiolactone. Data show the mean (±SD) of three independent experiments. (B) Anti-QS activity of pure DL-homocysteine thiolactone at different concentrations. A, 0.0625 μg/ml; B, 0.125 μg/ml; C, 0.25 μg/ml; D, 0.5 μg/ml; and E, 1.0 μg/ml. LB medium, DMSO only and furanone (dissolved in DMSO, 1.0 μg/ml) were used as blank, negative and positive controls, respectively.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of DL-homocysteine thiolactone on violacein production by C. violaceum ATCC 12472. (A) Percentage of inhibition of the violacein pigment after incubation with different concentrations of DL-homocysteine thiolactone. A dose-response effect in the production of violacein was observed in a series of concentrations (0.0625, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 μg/mL) of DL-homocysteine thiolactone. Data show the mean (±SD) of three independent experiments. (B) Anti-QS activity of pure DL-homocysteine thiolactone at different concentrations. A, 0.0625 μg/ml; B, 0.125 μg/ml; C, 0.25 μg/ml; D, 0.5 μg/ml; and E, 1.0 μg/ml. LB medium, DMSO only and furanone (dissolved in DMSO, 1.0 μg/ml) were used as blank, negative and positive controls, respectively.

    Techniques Used: Inhibition, Incubation, Activity Assay

    (A) Bacterial cell count of the flask incubation assay. The five test isolates were D11 ( Staphylococcus hominis ), D35 ( Staphylococcus warneri ), H1 ( Lysinibacillus fusiform ), D12 ( Bacillus cereus ), and H12 ( Vibrio alginolyticus ). C. violaceum ATCC 12472 was incubated for 16 h, and 100 μl of the bacteria, adjusted to OD 600nm of 0.1 (approximately 1 × 10 8 CFU/ml), were spread on LB plates. The growth inhibition were compared with control. Data are presented as the logarithm of mean CFU ± SD. (B) Inhibition of violacein production by test strains. Violacein production was measured spectrophotometrically as described in the Materials and Methods. Data are presented as mean ± SD of absorbance at 585 nm. Asterisks indicate a statistically difference between experimental groups and control groups ( * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: (A) Bacterial cell count of the flask incubation assay. The five test isolates were D11 ( Staphylococcus hominis ), D35 ( Staphylococcus warneri ), H1 ( Lysinibacillus fusiform ), D12 ( Bacillus cereus ), and H12 ( Vibrio alginolyticus ). C. violaceum ATCC 12472 was incubated for 16 h, and 100 μl of the bacteria, adjusted to OD 600nm of 0.1 (approximately 1 × 10 8 CFU/ml), were spread on LB plates. The growth inhibition were compared with control. Data are presented as the logarithm of mean CFU ± SD. (B) Inhibition of violacein production by test strains. Violacein production was measured spectrophotometrically as described in the Materials and Methods. Data are presented as mean ± SD of absorbance at 585 nm. Asterisks indicate a statistically difference between experimental groups and control groups ( * P

    Techniques Used: Cell Counting, Incubation, Inhibition

    Screening of anti-QS strains on biosensor plates containing reference strain C. violaceum ATCC 12472 and filter paper for sample detection. Water, LB medium and furanone (diluted 10 times with DMSO) were used as blank, negative and positive controls, respectively. The absence of purple or formation of a pigment inhibition was considered to indicate a potential QS inhibitor. The red arrows refer to the positive anti-QS strains and the pigment inhibition can be observed on a clear background on the plate. Notes: the number indicated the test isolate strains. H samples come from Heilong Island, and D samples come from Daming Island.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Screening of anti-QS strains on biosensor plates containing reference strain C. violaceum ATCC 12472 and filter paper for sample detection. Water, LB medium and furanone (diluted 10 times with DMSO) were used as blank, negative and positive controls, respectively. The absence of purple or formation of a pigment inhibition was considered to indicate a potential QS inhibitor. The red arrows refer to the positive anti-QS strains and the pigment inhibition can be observed on a clear background on the plate. Notes: the number indicated the test isolate strains. H samples come from Heilong Island, and D samples come from Daming Island.

    Techniques Used: Inhibition

    19) Product Images from "Bioautography and GC-MS based identification of piperine and trichostachine as the active quorum quenching compounds in black pepper"

    Article Title: Bioautography and GC-MS based identification of piperine and trichostachine as the active quorum quenching compounds in black pepper

    Journal: Heliyon

    doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e03137

    Molecular docking of CviR crystalized structure of C. violaceum ATCC 12472 with C6-HSL (A–B), piperine (C–F) or trichostachine (G–J). Surface (A, C, E, G, I) and backbone (B, D, F, H, J) representations of CviR for interaction with the respective ligand are showed. Small grid box size conditions were used for A-D, G and H. Big grid box conditions were used for I and J. C6-HSL green backbone, piperine purple backbone and piperine sky-blue backbone. Red atoms = oxygen. Withe atoms = hydrogen. Navy-blue atoms = nitrogen.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Molecular docking of CviR crystalized structure of C. violaceum ATCC 12472 with C6-HSL (A–B), piperine (C–F) or trichostachine (G–J). Surface (A, C, E, G, I) and backbone (B, D, F, H, J) representations of CviR for interaction with the respective ligand are showed. Small grid box size conditions were used for A-D, G and H. Big grid box conditions were used for I and J. C6-HSL green backbone, piperine purple backbone and piperine sky-blue backbone. Red atoms = oxygen. Withe atoms = hydrogen. Navy-blue atoms = nitrogen.

    Techniques Used:

    20) Product Images from "Bioactive Properties of Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels Pulp and Seed Phenolic Extracts"

    Article Title: Bioactive Properties of Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels Pulp and Seed Phenolic Extracts

    Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

    doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2020.00990

    Percentage (%) of violacein production by C. violaceum ATCC 12472 in absence and presence of furanone C30, sub-MIC of pulp, and seed phenolic extracts of S. cumini (L.) Skeels. Bars represent % violacein production and points represent bacterial population in log CFU/mL. Means followed by different letters differ statistically ( p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Percentage (%) of violacein production by C. violaceum ATCC 12472 in absence and presence of furanone C30, sub-MIC of pulp, and seed phenolic extracts of S. cumini (L.) Skeels. Bars represent % violacein production and points represent bacterial population in log CFU/mL. Means followed by different letters differ statistically ( p

    Techniques Used:

    Molecular docking of 3QP8 structure of CviR protein of C. violaceum ATCC 12472 with 3-OH-C10-HSL, gallotannins, catechin 3- O -gallate, chlorogenic acid, dihydroquercetin, and furarone C30. (A–F) Backbone representation of 3QP8 structure with hydrogen bond between the amino acid residues and evaluated compounds, (G–L) surface and backbone representations, and (M–R) surface representation. Gray surface representation, CviR; yellow surface representation, 3-OH-C10-HSL; green surface representation, gallotannins; pink surface representation, catechin 3- O -gallate; blue surface representation, chlorogenic acid; red surface representation, dihydroquercetin; cyan surface representation, furarone C30; gray backbone representation, CviR; black arrow indicates the binding site; yellow arrow, 3-OH-C10-HSL or gallotannins or catechin 3- O -gallate or chlorogenic acid or dihydroquercetin or furarone C30; blue dashed line, hydrogen bond.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Molecular docking of 3QP8 structure of CviR protein of C. violaceum ATCC 12472 with 3-OH-C10-HSL, gallotannins, catechin 3- O -gallate, chlorogenic acid, dihydroquercetin, and furarone C30. (A–F) Backbone representation of 3QP8 structure with hydrogen bond between the amino acid residues and evaluated compounds, (G–L) surface and backbone representations, and (M–R) surface representation. Gray surface representation, CviR; yellow surface representation, 3-OH-C10-HSL; green surface representation, gallotannins; pink surface representation, catechin 3- O -gallate; blue surface representation, chlorogenic acid; red surface representation, dihydroquercetin; cyan surface representation, furarone C30; gray backbone representation, CviR; black arrow indicates the binding site; yellow arrow, 3-OH-C10-HSL or gallotannins or catechin 3- O -gallate or chlorogenic acid or dihydroquercetin or furarone C30; blue dashed line, hydrogen bond.

    Techniques Used: Binding Assay

    Percentage (%) of violacein production by C. violaceum ATCC 12472 in the absence and presence of the active films incorporating pulp and seed phenolic extracts of S. cumini (L.) Skeels. Means followed by different letters differ statistically ( p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Percentage (%) of violacein production by C. violaceum ATCC 12472 in the absence and presence of the active films incorporating pulp and seed phenolic extracts of S. cumini (L.) Skeels. Means followed by different letters differ statistically ( p

    Techniques Used:

    21) Product Images from "A Chemical Counterpunch: Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 31532 Produces Violacein in Response to Translation-Inhibiting Antibiotics"

    Article Title: A Chemical Counterpunch: Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 31532 Produces Violacein in Response to Translation-Inhibiting Antibiotics

    Journal: mBio

    doi: 10.1128/mBio.00948-20

    Insecticidal activity of C. violaceum is enhanced by tetracycline. Insecticidal activity of C. violaceum against Drosophila melanogaster with and without a sublethal concentration of tetracycline. C. violaceum (CvATCC31532) wild type (WT), airS , vioS , and vioS cviI mutants, and C. violaceum ATCC 12472 (CvATCC12472) wild type (WT) were evaluated. Tet, tetracycline.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Insecticidal activity of C. violaceum is enhanced by tetracycline. Insecticidal activity of C. violaceum against Drosophila melanogaster with and without a sublethal concentration of tetracycline. C. violaceum (CvATCC31532) wild type (WT), airS , vioS , and vioS cviI mutants, and C. violaceum ATCC 12472 (CvATCC12472) wild type (WT) were evaluated. Tet, tetracycline.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Concentration Assay

    22) Product Images from "Calpurnia aurea (Aiton) Benth Extracts Reduce Quorum Sensing Controlled Virulence Factors in Pseudomonas aeruginosa"

    Article Title: Calpurnia aurea (Aiton) Benth Extracts Reduce Quorum Sensing Controlled Virulence Factors in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Journal: Molecules

    doi: 10.3390/molecules25102283

    Violacein production by Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472 at different concentrations. C. aurea extracts: Ca.E—Ethanol, Ca.A—Acetone, and Ca.Y—Ethyl acetate extract. Data presented are mean ± SD, n = 3. Different letters represent statistical difference at p -value = 0.05 (GLM: generalized linear model and LSD: least significant difference).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Violacein production by Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472 at different concentrations. C. aurea extracts: Ca.E—Ethanol, Ca.A—Acetone, and Ca.Y—Ethyl acetate extract. Data presented are mean ± SD, n = 3. Different letters represent statistical difference at p -value = 0.05 (GLM: generalized linear model and LSD: least significant difference).

    Techniques Used:

    23) Product Images from "Anti-Quorum Sensing Potential of Crude Kigelia africana Fruit Extracts"

    Article Title: Anti-Quorum Sensing Potential of Crude Kigelia africana Fruit Extracts

    Journal: Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)

    doi: 10.3390/s130302802

    Antimicrobial activity of Kigelia africana ethyl acetate ( a ) and methanol extracts ( b ) [0.5, 2 and 4 mg/mL] against purple-pigmented Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472. Translucent zones indicate inhibition of growth, while opaque zones represent inhibition of violacein production.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Antimicrobial activity of Kigelia africana ethyl acetate ( a ) and methanol extracts ( b ) [0.5, 2 and 4 mg/mL] against purple-pigmented Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472. Translucent zones indicate inhibition of growth, while opaque zones represent inhibition of violacein production.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Inhibition

    Quorum sensing inhibition by sub-inhibitory concentrations (2 mg/mL ) of Kigelia africana extracts (EX 1–EX 4; a–d) demonstrating modulation of AHL receptor activity (LuxR; up) and AHL synthesis (LuxI; down) in the double ring agar diffusion assay with the Agrobacterium tumefaciens A136/KYC6 biosensor system (left) and A. tumefaciens A136/ Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472 combination (right).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Quorum sensing inhibition by sub-inhibitory concentrations (2 mg/mL ) of Kigelia africana extracts (EX 1–EX 4; a–d) demonstrating modulation of AHL receptor activity (LuxR; up) and AHL synthesis (LuxI; down) in the double ring agar diffusion assay with the Agrobacterium tumefaciens A136/KYC6 biosensor system (left) and A. tumefaciens A136/ Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472 combination (right).

    Techniques Used: Inhibition, Activity Assay, Diffusion-based Assay

    Quantitative analysis of the concentration-dependent inhibitory effects of four Kigelia africana extracts, EX 1–EX 4, on violacein production by Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472. Cultures were grown in the presence of 0–8.2 mg/mL of respective K. africana extracts: EX 1—ethyl acetate extract, EX 2—dichloromethane extract, EX 3—methanol extract and EX 4—hexane extract. Data are the average of three triplicate independent experiments and SD are shown.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Quantitative analysis of the concentration-dependent inhibitory effects of four Kigelia africana extracts, EX 1–EX 4, on violacein production by Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472. Cultures were grown in the presence of 0–8.2 mg/mL of respective K. africana extracts: EX 1—ethyl acetate extract, EX 2—dichloromethane extract, EX 3—methanol extract and EX 4—hexane extract. Data are the average of three triplicate independent experiments and SD are shown.

    Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

    Concentration-dependent inhibitory effects of four Kigelia africana extracts, EX 1–EX 4, on violacein production by Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472. ( A – D ): Effect of K. africana extracts EX 1–EX 4 on violacein production by C. violaceum ATCC 12472. ( a ) Untreated control; ( b – i ) extract-treated cultures showing progressive reduction in violacein production at the concentrations of 0–8.2 mg/mL, respectively.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Concentration-dependent inhibitory effects of four Kigelia africana extracts, EX 1–EX 4, on violacein production by Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472. ( A – D ): Effect of K. africana extracts EX 1–EX 4 on violacein production by C. violaceum ATCC 12472. ( a ) Untreated control; ( b – i ) extract-treated cultures showing progressive reduction in violacein production at the concentrations of 0–8.2 mg/mL, respectively.

    Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

    24) Product Images from "Anti-Quorum Sensing Potential of Crude Kigelia africana Fruit Extracts"

    Article Title: Anti-Quorum Sensing Potential of Crude Kigelia africana Fruit Extracts

    Journal: Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)

    doi: 10.3390/s130302802

    Antimicrobial activity of Kigelia africana ethyl acetate ( a ) and methanol extracts ( b ) [0.5, 2 and 4 mg/mL] against purple-pigmented Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472. Translucent zones indicate inhibition of growth, while opaque zones represent inhibition of violacein production.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Antimicrobial activity of Kigelia africana ethyl acetate ( a ) and methanol extracts ( b ) [0.5, 2 and 4 mg/mL] against purple-pigmented Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472. Translucent zones indicate inhibition of growth, while opaque zones represent inhibition of violacein production.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Inhibition

    Quorum sensing inhibition by sub-inhibitory concentrations (2 mg/mL ) of Kigelia africana extracts (EX 1–EX 4; a–d) demonstrating modulation of AHL receptor activity (LuxR; up) and AHL synthesis (LuxI; down) in the double ring agar diffusion assay with the Agrobacterium tumefaciens A136/KYC6 biosensor system (left) and A. tumefaciens A136/ Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472 combination (right).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Quorum sensing inhibition by sub-inhibitory concentrations (2 mg/mL ) of Kigelia africana extracts (EX 1–EX 4; a–d) demonstrating modulation of AHL receptor activity (LuxR; up) and AHL synthesis (LuxI; down) in the double ring agar diffusion assay with the Agrobacterium tumefaciens A136/KYC6 biosensor system (left) and A. tumefaciens A136/ Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472 combination (right).

    Techniques Used: Inhibition, Activity Assay, Diffusion-based Assay

    Quantitative analysis of the concentration-dependent inhibitory effects of four Kigelia africana extracts, EX 1–EX 4, on violacein production by Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472. Cultures were grown in the presence of 0–8.2 mg/mL of respective K. africana extracts: EX 1—ethyl acetate extract, EX 2—dichloromethane extract, EX 3—methanol extract and EX 4—hexane extract. Data are the average of three triplicate independent experiments and SD are shown.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Quantitative analysis of the concentration-dependent inhibitory effects of four Kigelia africana extracts, EX 1–EX 4, on violacein production by Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472. Cultures were grown in the presence of 0–8.2 mg/mL of respective K. africana extracts: EX 1—ethyl acetate extract, EX 2—dichloromethane extract, EX 3—methanol extract and EX 4—hexane extract. Data are the average of three triplicate independent experiments and SD are shown.

    Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

    Concentration-dependent inhibitory effects of four Kigelia africana extracts, EX 1–EX 4, on violacein production by Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472. ( A – D ): Effect of K. africana extracts EX 1–EX 4 on violacein production by C. violaceum ATCC 12472. ( a ) Untreated control; ( b – i ) extract-treated cultures showing progressive reduction in violacein production at the concentrations of 0–8.2 mg/mL, respectively.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Concentration-dependent inhibitory effects of four Kigelia africana extracts, EX 1–EX 4, on violacein production by Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472. ( A – D ): Effect of K. africana extracts EX 1–EX 4 on violacein production by C. violaceum ATCC 12472. ( a ) Untreated control; ( b – i ) extract-treated cultures showing progressive reduction in violacein production at the concentrations of 0–8.2 mg/mL, respectively.

    Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

    25) Product Images from "General metabolism of Laribacter hongkongensis: a genome-wide analysis"

    Article Title: General metabolism of Laribacter hongkongensis: a genome-wide analysis

    Journal: Cell & Bioscience

    doi: 10.1186/2045-3701-1-16

    Sulfate assimilation in L. hongkongensis HLHK9 . (A) Sulfate assimilation pathways in bacteria. Two pathways exist in bacteria which differ in the form of sulfate being activated. In one pathway that was once assumed to be the only one, APS is converted to PAPS by APS kinase and subsequently reduced to sulfite by PAPS reductase (green arrow). In the other pathway, APS is directly reduced to sulfite by APS reductase (orange arrow). Homologues of genes found in L. hongkongensis HLHK9 were specified with gene numbers in blue. APS, adenosine 5'-adenylylsulfate; PAPS, 3'-phosphoadenylylsulfate. (B) Multiple sequence alignment of predicted APS reductase in L. hongkongensis with other characterized or related bacterial APS and PAPS reductases. Characterized APS reductases include those from Burkholderia cepacia , Arabidopsis thaliana , Rhizobium meliloti whereas characterized PAPS reductases include the one from E. coli. Only the selected region which contains two-cysteine motifs, CCXXRKXXPL and SXGCXXCT, in the C-terminal of APS reductase is shown. The conserved cysteine residues are shaded in yellow. The sequences were aligned with ClustalW. The abbreviations used and accession numbers (shown in parentheses) are as follows: At, A. thaliana (GenBank: NP_193930 ); Bc, B. cenocepacia J2315 [GenBank: YP_002231786 ]; Cv, C. violaceum ATCC 12472 [GenBank: NP_903244 ]; Ec, E. coli K-12 MG1655, [GenBank: NP_417242 ]; Lh, L. hongkongensis HLHK9 [GenBank: YP_002794611 ]; Nm, N. meningitidis MC58, [GenBank: NP_274183 ]; Se, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Newport str. SL317 [GenBank: ZP_02697826 ]; Sp, Shewenella putrefaciens 200 [GenBank: ZP_01705880 ]; Sm, Rhizobium ( Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021) [GenBank: NP_385050 ] and Vc, Vibrio cholera TM 11079-80 [GenBank: ZP_04409338 ].
    Figure Legend Snippet: Sulfate assimilation in L. hongkongensis HLHK9 . (A) Sulfate assimilation pathways in bacteria. Two pathways exist in bacteria which differ in the form of sulfate being activated. In one pathway that was once assumed to be the only one, APS is converted to PAPS by APS kinase and subsequently reduced to sulfite by PAPS reductase (green arrow). In the other pathway, APS is directly reduced to sulfite by APS reductase (orange arrow). Homologues of genes found in L. hongkongensis HLHK9 were specified with gene numbers in blue. APS, adenosine 5'-adenylylsulfate; PAPS, 3'-phosphoadenylylsulfate. (B) Multiple sequence alignment of predicted APS reductase in L. hongkongensis with other characterized or related bacterial APS and PAPS reductases. Characterized APS reductases include those from Burkholderia cepacia , Arabidopsis thaliana , Rhizobium meliloti whereas characterized PAPS reductases include the one from E. coli. Only the selected region which contains two-cysteine motifs, CCXXRKXXPL and SXGCXXCT, in the C-terminal of APS reductase is shown. The conserved cysteine residues are shaded in yellow. The sequences were aligned with ClustalW. The abbreviations used and accession numbers (shown in parentheses) are as follows: At, A. thaliana (GenBank: NP_193930 ); Bc, B. cenocepacia J2315 [GenBank: YP_002231786 ]; Cv, C. violaceum ATCC 12472 [GenBank: NP_903244 ]; Ec, E. coli K-12 MG1655, [GenBank: NP_417242 ]; Lh, L. hongkongensis HLHK9 [GenBank: YP_002794611 ]; Nm, N. meningitidis MC58, [GenBank: NP_274183 ]; Se, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Newport str. SL317 [GenBank: ZP_02697826 ]; Sp, Shewenella putrefaciens 200 [GenBank: ZP_01705880 ]; Sm, Rhizobium ( Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021) [GenBank: NP_385050 ] and Vc, Vibrio cholera TM 11079-80 [GenBank: ZP_04409338 ].

    Techniques Used: Papanicolaou Stain, Sequencing

    Phylogenetic relationship of 16S rRNA among L. hongkongensis HLHK9 , N. meningitidis MC58 , N. gonorrhoeae FA 1090 , C. violaceum ATCC 12472 , E. coli K12 MG1655 and C. jejuni NCTC 11168 . The tree was inferred from 16S rRNA data by the neighbor-joining method. Bootstrap values were calculated from 1,000 trees. The scale bar indicates the estimated number of substitutions per 50 bases. Names and accession numbers are given as cited in the GenBank database.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Phylogenetic relationship of 16S rRNA among L. hongkongensis HLHK9 , N. meningitidis MC58 , N. gonorrhoeae FA 1090 , C. violaceum ATCC 12472 , E. coli K12 MG1655 and C. jejuni NCTC 11168 . The tree was inferred from 16S rRNA data by the neighbor-joining method. Bootstrap values were calculated from 1,000 trees. The scale bar indicates the estimated number of substitutions per 50 bases. Names and accession numbers are given as cited in the GenBank database.

    Techniques Used:

    26) Product Images from "Marine-Derived Quorum-Sensing Inhibitory Activities Enhance the Antibacterial Efficacy of Tobramycin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa"

    Article Title: Marine-Derived Quorum-Sensing Inhibitory Activities Enhance the Antibacterial Efficacy of Tobramycin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Journal: Marine Drugs

    doi: 10.3390/md13010001

    Quorum sensing inhibitory compound (QSI) screening of bacterial isolates using reporter strain C. violaceum ATCC 12472; ( A ) ISO1, weak antimicrobial activity, strong QSI activity; ( B ) ISO9 no QSI activity detected; ( C ) LL1 no QSI activity detected; ( D ) LL5 no QSI activity detected; ( E ) KS8 strong QSI activity; ( F ) ISO6 strong QSI activity; ( G ) KS6 strong QSI activity; ( H ) GS5 medium-strong QSI activity and weak antimicrobial activity; ( I ) GS9 no QSI activity and medium-strong antimicrobial activity; ( J ) JUN4 strong QSI activity; ( K ) LL67 strong QSI activity; ( L ) A15-1 weak QSI activity; ( M ) C. violaceum ATCC 12472, negative QSI control; ( N ) B. cereus NCTC 9945 harboring the aiiA lactonase gene (positive QSI control) displaying modest QSI activity.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Quorum sensing inhibitory compound (QSI) screening of bacterial isolates using reporter strain C. violaceum ATCC 12472; ( A ) ISO1, weak antimicrobial activity, strong QSI activity; ( B ) ISO9 no QSI activity detected; ( C ) LL1 no QSI activity detected; ( D ) LL5 no QSI activity detected; ( E ) KS8 strong QSI activity; ( F ) ISO6 strong QSI activity; ( G ) KS6 strong QSI activity; ( H ) GS5 medium-strong QSI activity and weak antimicrobial activity; ( I ) GS9 no QSI activity and medium-strong antimicrobial activity; ( J ) JUN4 strong QSI activity; ( K ) LL67 strong QSI activity; ( L ) A15-1 weak QSI activity; ( M ) C. violaceum ATCC 12472, negative QSI control; ( N ) B. cereus NCTC 9945 harboring the aiiA lactonase gene (positive QSI control) displaying modest QSI activity.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay

    Disc diffusion assays on QSI-reporter strain C. violaceum ATCC 12472 using the crude organic extract of marine isolate KS8. A disc loaded with 60 μL of EtOAc and allowed to air-dry was included in the plate as a solvent control (top). Two discs were loaded with 40 μL of the crude organic extract of marine isolate KS8 (10 mg/mL). QSI activity was detected as an opaque halo surrounding the test discs.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Disc diffusion assays on QSI-reporter strain C. violaceum ATCC 12472 using the crude organic extract of marine isolate KS8. A disc loaded with 60 μL of EtOAc and allowed to air-dry was included in the plate as a solvent control (top). Two discs were loaded with 40 μL of the crude organic extract of marine isolate KS8 (10 mg/mL). QSI activity was detected as an opaque halo surrounding the test discs.

    Techniques Used: Diffusion-based Assay, Activity Assay

    27) Product Images from "Anti-Quorum Sensing Potential of Crude Kigelia africana Fruit Extracts"

    Article Title: Anti-Quorum Sensing Potential of Crude Kigelia africana Fruit Extracts

    Journal: Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)

    doi: 10.3390/s130302802

    Antimicrobial activity of Kigelia africana ethyl acetate ( a ) and methanol extracts ( b ) [0.5, 2 and 4 mg/mL] against purple-pigmented Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472. Translucent zones indicate inhibition of growth, while opaque zones represent inhibition of violacein production.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Antimicrobial activity of Kigelia africana ethyl acetate ( a ) and methanol extracts ( b ) [0.5, 2 and 4 mg/mL] against purple-pigmented Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472. Translucent zones indicate inhibition of growth, while opaque zones represent inhibition of violacein production.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Inhibition

    Quorum sensing inhibition by sub-inhibitory concentrations (2 mg/mL ) of Kigelia africana extracts (EX 1–EX 4; a–d) demonstrating modulation of AHL receptor activity (LuxR; up) and AHL synthesis (LuxI; down) in the double ring agar diffusion assay with the Agrobacterium tumefaciens A136/KYC6 biosensor system (left) and A. tumefaciens A136/ Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472 combination (right).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Quorum sensing inhibition by sub-inhibitory concentrations (2 mg/mL ) of Kigelia africana extracts (EX 1–EX 4; a–d) demonstrating modulation of AHL receptor activity (LuxR; up) and AHL synthesis (LuxI; down) in the double ring agar diffusion assay with the Agrobacterium tumefaciens A136/KYC6 biosensor system (left) and A. tumefaciens A136/ Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472 combination (right).

    Techniques Used: Inhibition, Activity Assay, Diffusion-based Assay

    Quantitative analysis of the concentration-dependent inhibitory effects of four Kigelia africana extracts, EX 1–EX 4, on violacein production by Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472. Cultures were grown in the presence of 0–8.2 mg/mL of respective K. africana extracts: EX 1—ethyl acetate extract, EX 2—dichloromethane extract, EX 3—methanol extract and EX 4—hexane extract. Data are the average of three triplicate independent experiments and SD are shown.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Quantitative analysis of the concentration-dependent inhibitory effects of four Kigelia africana extracts, EX 1–EX 4, on violacein production by Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472. Cultures were grown in the presence of 0–8.2 mg/mL of respective K. africana extracts: EX 1—ethyl acetate extract, EX 2—dichloromethane extract, EX 3—methanol extract and EX 4—hexane extract. Data are the average of three triplicate independent experiments and SD are shown.

    Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

    Concentration-dependent inhibitory effects of four Kigelia africana extracts, EX 1–EX 4, on violacein production by Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472. ( A – D ): Effect of K. africana extracts EX 1–EX 4 on violacein production by C. violaceum ATCC 12472. ( a ) Untreated control; ( b – i ) extract-treated cultures showing progressive reduction in violacein production at the concentrations of 0–8.2 mg/mL, respectively.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Concentration-dependent inhibitory effects of four Kigelia africana extracts, EX 1–EX 4, on violacein production by Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472. ( A – D ): Effect of K. africana extracts EX 1–EX 4 on violacein production by C. violaceum ATCC 12472. ( a ) Untreated control; ( b – i ) extract-treated cultures showing progressive reduction in violacein production at the concentrations of 0–8.2 mg/mL, respectively.

    Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

    28) Product Images from "Antibiofilm Activity of the Brown Alga Halidrys siliquosa against Clinically Relevant Human Pathogens"

    Article Title: Antibiofilm Activity of the Brown Alga Halidrys siliquosa against Clinically Relevant Human Pathogens

    Journal: Marine Drugs

    doi: 10.3390/md13063581

    Disc diffusion assay against C. violaceum ATCC 12472 of fractions obtained using Flash Chromatography. Antimicrobial activity was detected in fractions 35–36 (not shown) and 46–52.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Disc diffusion assay against C. violaceum ATCC 12472 of fractions obtained using Flash Chromatography. Antimicrobial activity was detected in fractions 35–36 (not shown) and 46–52.

    Techniques Used: Diffusion-based Assay, Chromatography, Activity Assay

    Screening fresh H. siliquosa fronds for antimicrobial, QSI and QS activity using the overlay method. ( A ) Very weak antimicrobial activity (2 mm inhibition zone) against E. coli ATCC 11303; ( B ) No antimicrobial activity detected against K. pneumonia NCTC 204; ( C ) Pronounced antimicrobial activity of H. siliquosa against S. aureus (MRSA) ATCC 33595; ( D , E ) Weak antimicrobial activity of H. siliquosa against P. aeruginosa PAO1 and PA14; ( F ) No antimicrobial nor QSI activity detected against Serratia sp. ATCC39006; ( G ) No antimicrobial activity against E. cloacae . ( H , I ) Pronounced antimicrobial activity of H. siliquosa against QSI reporter strain C. violaceum ATCC 12472 and QS reporter strain C. violaceum CV026.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Screening fresh H. siliquosa fronds for antimicrobial, QSI and QS activity using the overlay method. ( A ) Very weak antimicrobial activity (2 mm inhibition zone) against E. coli ATCC 11303; ( B ) No antimicrobial activity detected against K. pneumonia NCTC 204; ( C ) Pronounced antimicrobial activity of H. siliquosa against S. aureus (MRSA) ATCC 33595; ( D , E ) Weak antimicrobial activity of H. siliquosa against P. aeruginosa PAO1 and PA14; ( F ) No antimicrobial nor QSI activity detected against Serratia sp. ATCC39006; ( G ) No antimicrobial activity against E. cloacae . ( H , I ) Pronounced antimicrobial activity of H. siliquosa against QSI reporter strain C. violaceum ATCC 12472 and QS reporter strain C. violaceum CV026.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Inhibition

    29) Product Images from "Antibiofilm Activity of the Brown Alga Halidrys siliquosa against Clinically Relevant Human Pathogens"

    Article Title: Antibiofilm Activity of the Brown Alga Halidrys siliquosa against Clinically Relevant Human Pathogens

    Journal: Marine Drugs

    doi: 10.3390/md13063581

    Disc diffusion assay against C. violaceum ATCC 12472 of fractions obtained using Flash Chromatography. Antimicrobial activity was detected in fractions 35–36 (not shown) and 46–52.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Disc diffusion assay against C. violaceum ATCC 12472 of fractions obtained using Flash Chromatography. Antimicrobial activity was detected in fractions 35–36 (not shown) and 46–52.

    Techniques Used: Diffusion-based Assay, Chromatography, Activity Assay

    Screening fresh H. siliquosa fronds for antimicrobial, QSI and QS activity using the overlay method. ( A ) Very weak antimicrobial activity (2 mm inhibition zone) against E. coli ATCC 11303; ( B ) No antimicrobial activity detected against K. pneumonia NCTC 204; ( C ) Pronounced antimicrobial activity of H. siliquosa against S. aureus (MRSA) ATCC 33595; ( D , E ) Weak antimicrobial activity of H. siliquosa against P. aeruginosa PAO1 and PA14; ( F ) No antimicrobial nor QSI activity detected against Serratia sp. ATCC39006; ( G ) No antimicrobial activity against E. cloacae . ( H , I ) Pronounced antimicrobial activity of H. siliquosa against QSI reporter strain C. violaceum ATCC 12472 and QS reporter strain C. violaceum CV026.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Screening fresh H. siliquosa fronds for antimicrobial, QSI and QS activity using the overlay method. ( A ) Very weak antimicrobial activity (2 mm inhibition zone) against E. coli ATCC 11303; ( B ) No antimicrobial activity detected against K. pneumonia NCTC 204; ( C ) Pronounced antimicrobial activity of H. siliquosa against S. aureus (MRSA) ATCC 33595; ( D , E ) Weak antimicrobial activity of H. siliquosa against P. aeruginosa PAO1 and PA14; ( F ) No antimicrobial nor QSI activity detected against Serratia sp. ATCC39006; ( G ) No antimicrobial activity against E. cloacae . ( H , I ) Pronounced antimicrobial activity of H. siliquosa against QSI reporter strain C. violaceum ATCC 12472 and QS reporter strain C. violaceum CV026.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Inhibition

    30) Product Images from "Quorum Sensing Inhibiting Activity of Streptomyces coelicoflavus Isolated from Soil"

    Article Title: Quorum Sensing Inhibiting Activity of Streptomyces coelicoflavus Isolated from Soil

    Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

    doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2016.00659

    Screening of quorum sensing (QS) inhibiting activity of tested Streptomyces isolates and the nature of QS inhibitory components of Streptomyces S17. (A) Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472 culture (100 μl of 1 × 10 7 CFU/ml) was inoculated into 5 ml LB soft agar (0.5% agar) and overlaid on the surface of LB agar plate. A cup of growing Streptomyces isolates was placed into the surface of the bioassay plate and the plates were incubated at 30°C for 24 h for disappearance of violet color of C. violaceum . Isolates S6, S12, and S17 showed QS inhibiting activity. (B) Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 (100 μl of 1 × 10 7 CFU/ml) was inoculated into 5 ml LB soft agar (0.5% agar) containing 50 nM N -(hexanoyl)- L -homoserine lactone, and the mixture was overlaid on the surface of LB agar plate. The plates were incubated at 30°C for 24 h and QSI activity was assigned by disappearance for the violet color. The cell free supernatant of S17 (1 mg/ml) treated with 5 mg proteinase K maintained QSI activity. The ethyl acetate extract of S17 (1 mg/ml) and solvent control were applied into wells at opposite sides of a Petri dish containing a layer of water agar. The extract in ethyl acetate also retained the QSI activity, compared to solvent control.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Screening of quorum sensing (QS) inhibiting activity of tested Streptomyces isolates and the nature of QS inhibitory components of Streptomyces S17. (A) Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472 culture (100 μl of 1 × 10 7 CFU/ml) was inoculated into 5 ml LB soft agar (0.5% agar) and overlaid on the surface of LB agar plate. A cup of growing Streptomyces isolates was placed into the surface of the bioassay plate and the plates were incubated at 30°C for 24 h for disappearance of violet color of C. violaceum . Isolates S6, S12, and S17 showed QS inhibiting activity. (B) Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 (100 μl of 1 × 10 7 CFU/ml) was inoculated into 5 ml LB soft agar (0.5% agar) containing 50 nM N -(hexanoyl)- L -homoserine lactone, and the mixture was overlaid on the surface of LB agar plate. The plates were incubated at 30°C for 24 h and QSI activity was assigned by disappearance for the violet color. The cell free supernatant of S17 (1 mg/ml) treated with 5 mg proteinase K maintained QSI activity. The ethyl acetate extract of S17 (1 mg/ml) and solvent control were applied into wells at opposite sides of a Petri dish containing a layer of water agar. The extract in ethyl acetate also retained the QSI activity, compared to solvent control.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Incubation

    31) Product Images from "Quorum Sensing Inhibiting Activity of Streptomyces coelicoflavus Isolated from Soil"

    Article Title: Quorum Sensing Inhibiting Activity of Streptomyces coelicoflavus Isolated from Soil

    Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

    doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2016.00659

    Screening of quorum sensing (QS) inhibiting activity of tested Streptomyces isolates and the nature of QS inhibitory components of Streptomyces S17. (A) Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472 culture (100 μl of 1 × 10 7 CFU/ml) was inoculated into 5 ml LB soft agar (0.5% agar) and overlaid on the surface of LB agar plate. A cup of growing Streptomyces isolates was placed into the surface of the bioassay plate and the plates were incubated at 30°C for 24 h for disappearance of violet color of C. violaceum . Isolates S6, S12, and S17 showed QS inhibiting activity. (B) Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 (100 μl of 1 × 10 7 CFU/ml) was inoculated into 5 ml LB soft agar (0.5% agar) containing 50 nM N -(hexanoyl)- L -homoserine lactone, and the mixture was overlaid on the surface of LB agar plate. The plates were incubated at 30°C for 24 h and QSI activity was assigned by disappearance for the violet color. The cell free supernatant of S17 (1 mg/ml) treated with 5 mg proteinase K maintained QSI activity. The ethyl acetate extract of S17 (1 mg/ml) and solvent control were applied into wells at opposite sides of a Petri dish containing a layer of water agar. The extract in ethyl acetate also retained the QSI activity, compared to solvent control.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Screening of quorum sensing (QS) inhibiting activity of tested Streptomyces isolates and the nature of QS inhibitory components of Streptomyces S17. (A) Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472 culture (100 μl of 1 × 10 7 CFU/ml) was inoculated into 5 ml LB soft agar (0.5% agar) and overlaid on the surface of LB agar plate. A cup of growing Streptomyces isolates was placed into the surface of the bioassay plate and the plates were incubated at 30°C for 24 h for disappearance of violet color of C. violaceum . Isolates S6, S12, and S17 showed QS inhibiting activity. (B) Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 (100 μl of 1 × 10 7 CFU/ml) was inoculated into 5 ml LB soft agar (0.5% agar) containing 50 nM N -(hexanoyl)- L -homoserine lactone, and the mixture was overlaid on the surface of LB agar plate. The plates were incubated at 30°C for 24 h and QSI activity was assigned by disappearance for the violet color. The cell free supernatant of S17 (1 mg/ml) treated with 5 mg proteinase K maintained QSI activity. The ethyl acetate extract of S17 (1 mg/ml) and solvent control were applied into wells at opposite sides of a Petri dish containing a layer of water agar. The extract in ethyl acetate also retained the QSI activity, compared to solvent control.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Incubation

    32) Product Images from "Denitrification and Nitrate-Dependent Fe(II) Oxidation in Various Pseudogulbenkiania Strains"

    Article Title: Denitrification and Nitrate-Dependent Fe(II) Oxidation in Various Pseudogulbenkiania Strains

    Journal: Microbes and Environments

    doi: 10.1264/jsme2.ME16001

    Comparison of genomes of Pseudogulbenkiania sp. strain NH8B, strain 2002, and Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472. (A) Circular representation of the Pseudogulbenkiania sp. NH8B genome. From the outside in: circles 1 and 2 of the chromosome show the positions of protein-coding sequences on the positive and negative strands, respectively. Circles 3 and 4 show the positions of protein-coding sequences that have orthologs in Pseudogulbenkiania sp. 2002 and Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472, respectively. Circle 5 shows the positions of the prophages (purple) and integrative elements (pink). Circle 6 shows the positions of tRNA genes (green) and rRNA genes (red). Circle 7 shows a plot of the G + C content (higher values outward). Circle 8 shows a plot of the GC skew ([G − C]/[G + C]; light blue indicates values > 0; red indicates values
    Figure Legend Snippet: Comparison of genomes of Pseudogulbenkiania sp. strain NH8B, strain 2002, and Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472. (A) Circular representation of the Pseudogulbenkiania sp. NH8B genome. From the outside in: circles 1 and 2 of the chromosome show the positions of protein-coding sequences on the positive and negative strands, respectively. Circles 3 and 4 show the positions of protein-coding sequences that have orthologs in Pseudogulbenkiania sp. 2002 and Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472, respectively. Circle 5 shows the positions of the prophages (purple) and integrative elements (pink). Circle 6 shows the positions of tRNA genes (green) and rRNA genes (red). Circle 7 shows a plot of the G + C content (higher values outward). Circle 8 shows a plot of the GC skew ([G − C]/[G + C]; light blue indicates values > 0; red indicates values

    Techniques Used:

    33) Product Images from "EmrR-Dependent Upregulation of the Efflux Pump EmrCAB Contributes to Antibiotic Resistance in Chromobacterium violaceum"

    Article Title: EmrR-Dependent Upregulation of the Efflux Pump EmrCAB Contributes to Antibiotic Resistance in Chromobacterium violaceum

    Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

    doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.02756

    Point mutations in EmrR and GyrA confer distinct levels of quinolone resistance in C. violaceum . (A) Profile of quinolone resistance in the spontaneous mutant emrR R92H indicated specific resistance to nalidixic acid. (Upper panel) Scheme showing the MarR domain of the EmrR protein (dark gray, entry IPR000835 from the InterPro database) with a predicted four-element fingerprint signature for the MarR family (light gray, entry PR00598 from the PRINTS database). Substitution of arginine for histidine at position 92 found in the mutant emrR R92H is indicated (red bar). (Bottom panel) Disk diffusion assay performed on MH plates in triplicate with the indicated strains to verify the susceptibility to nalidixic acid (NAL), ciprofloxacin (CIP), norfloxacin (NOR), and levofloxacin (LVX). (B) MIC assay on LB plate with increasing concentrations of nalidixic acid in emrR mutant strains. (1) C. violaceum ATCC 12472; (2) Δ emrR ; (3) emrR R92H ; (4) WT(pMR20); (5) Δ emrR (pMR emrR ); (6) Δ emrR (pMR20). (C) Point mutation in gyrA conferred resistance to multiple quinolones. (Upper panel) Schema locating the mutation in threonine 85 (red bar) of the spontaneous mutant gyrA T85I within the QRDR region (amino acids 67–106) of GyrA. Domains of GyrA are indicated (DNA topoisomerase N and C-terminal domains indicated in dark and light gray). (Bottom panel) Disk diffusion assay for gyrA T85I mutant with NAL, CIP, NOR, and LVX as stated in A. EmrR and GyrA proteins in the scheme are not in scale. P -values were determined by two-way ANOVA Sidak’s multiple comparisons test: ∗∗∗∗ P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Point mutations in EmrR and GyrA confer distinct levels of quinolone resistance in C. violaceum . (A) Profile of quinolone resistance in the spontaneous mutant emrR R92H indicated specific resistance to nalidixic acid. (Upper panel) Scheme showing the MarR domain of the EmrR protein (dark gray, entry IPR000835 from the InterPro database) with a predicted four-element fingerprint signature for the MarR family (light gray, entry PR00598 from the PRINTS database). Substitution of arginine for histidine at position 92 found in the mutant emrR R92H is indicated (red bar). (Bottom panel) Disk diffusion assay performed on MH plates in triplicate with the indicated strains to verify the susceptibility to nalidixic acid (NAL), ciprofloxacin (CIP), norfloxacin (NOR), and levofloxacin (LVX). (B) MIC assay on LB plate with increasing concentrations of nalidixic acid in emrR mutant strains. (1) C. violaceum ATCC 12472; (2) Δ emrR ; (3) emrR R92H ; (4) WT(pMR20); (5) Δ emrR (pMR emrR ); (6) Δ emrR (pMR20). (C) Point mutation in gyrA conferred resistance to multiple quinolones. (Upper panel) Schema locating the mutation in threonine 85 (red bar) of the spontaneous mutant gyrA T85I within the QRDR region (amino acids 67–106) of GyrA. Domains of GyrA are indicated (DNA topoisomerase N and C-terminal domains indicated in dark and light gray). (Bottom panel) Disk diffusion assay for gyrA T85I mutant with NAL, CIP, NOR, and LVX as stated in A. EmrR and GyrA proteins in the scheme are not in scale. P -values were determined by two-way ANOVA Sidak’s multiple comparisons test: ∗∗∗∗ P

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Diffusion-based Assay

    The EmrR regulon includes mainly EmrR-repressed genes. (A) Data from DNA microarray analysis for selected EmrR-repressed genes are shown as average ratios with standard deviations from three biological replicates comparing transcriptome from C. violaceum ATCC 12472 with Δ emrR mutant. For a complete list of the genes with altered expression levels, see Supplementary Table S4 . (B) Northern blot assays validated several genes as members of the EmrR regulon. Total RNA extracted from C. violaceum ATCC 12472 and Δ emrR mutant were probed for the indicated genes. Levels of rRNA indicated equal RNA loading (bottom panels).
    Figure Legend Snippet: The EmrR regulon includes mainly EmrR-repressed genes. (A) Data from DNA microarray analysis for selected EmrR-repressed genes are shown as average ratios with standard deviations from three biological replicates comparing transcriptome from C. violaceum ATCC 12472 with Δ emrR mutant. For a complete list of the genes with altered expression levels, see Supplementary Table S4 . (B) Northern blot assays validated several genes as members of the EmrR regulon. Total RNA extracted from C. violaceum ATCC 12472 and Δ emrR mutant were probed for the indicated genes. Levels of rRNA indicated equal RNA loading (bottom panels).

    Techniques Used: Microarray, Mutagenesis, Expressing, Northern Blot

    The phenotypes of increased antibiotic resistance and decreased violacein production in Δ emrR are relieved by deletion of emrCAB in this mutant strain. (A) Disk diffusion assays for nalidixic acid performed on MH plates in triplicate with the indicated C. violaceum strains. The error bars indicate standard deviations. (B) MIC assay on LB plate with increasing concentrations of nalidixic acid: (1) C. violaceum ATCC 12472; (2) Δ emrR ; (3) Δ emrCAB ; (4) Δ emrRCAB . (C) Production of violacein in the C. violaceum strains. The indicated strains were grown in LB broth at 37°C for 24 h. The emrR R92H mutant produces a little more violacein than the Δ emrR mutant does, but both strains have decreased violacein production. (D,E) Quantification of violacein production in the biosensor strain Δ cviI (poured into the agar) stimulated by supernatants of the indicated strains revealed that Δ emrR accumulates extracellular AHLs. Supernatant of a Δ cviI culture was used as negative control. (F) Quantification of biofilm production by the indicated strains grown under static conditions. P -values were determined by t -test Student: ∗∗ P = 0.0061; ∗∗∗ P
    Figure Legend Snippet: The phenotypes of increased antibiotic resistance and decreased violacein production in Δ emrR are relieved by deletion of emrCAB in this mutant strain. (A) Disk diffusion assays for nalidixic acid performed on MH plates in triplicate with the indicated C. violaceum strains. The error bars indicate standard deviations. (B) MIC assay on LB plate with increasing concentrations of nalidixic acid: (1) C. violaceum ATCC 12472; (2) Δ emrR ; (3) Δ emrCAB ; (4) Δ emrRCAB . (C) Production of violacein in the C. violaceum strains. The indicated strains were grown in LB broth at 37°C for 24 h. The emrR R92H mutant produces a little more violacein than the Δ emrR mutant does, but both strains have decreased violacein production. (D,E) Quantification of violacein production in the biosensor strain Δ cviI (poured into the agar) stimulated by supernatants of the indicated strains revealed that Δ emrR accumulates extracellular AHLs. Supernatant of a Δ cviI culture was used as negative control. (F) Quantification of biofilm production by the indicated strains grown under static conditions. P -values were determined by t -test Student: ∗∗ P = 0.0061; ∗∗∗ P

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Diffusion-based Assay, Negative Control

    34) Product Images from "Marine-Derived Quorum-Sensing Inhibitory Activities Enhance the Antibacterial Efficacy of Tobramycin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa"

    Article Title: Marine-Derived Quorum-Sensing Inhibitory Activities Enhance the Antibacterial Efficacy of Tobramycin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Journal: Marine Drugs

    doi: 10.3390/md13010001

    Quorum sensing inhibitory compound (QSI) screening of bacterial isolates using reporter strain C. violaceum ATCC 12472; ( A ) ISO1, weak antimicrobial activity, strong QSI activity; ( B ) ISO9 no QSI activity detected; ( C ) LL1 no QSI activity detected; ( D ) LL5 no QSI activity detected; ( E ) KS8 strong QSI activity; ( F ) ISO6 strong QSI activity; ( G ) KS6 strong QSI activity; ( H ) GS5 medium-strong QSI activity and weak antimicrobial activity; ( I ) GS9 no QSI activity and medium-strong antimicrobial activity; ( J ) JUN4 strong QSI activity; ( K ) LL67 strong QSI activity; ( L ) A15-1 weak QSI activity; ( M ) C. violaceum ATCC 12472, negative QSI control; ( N ) B. cereus NCTC 9945 harboring the aiiA lactonase gene (positive QSI control) displaying modest QSI activity.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Quorum sensing inhibitory compound (QSI) screening of bacterial isolates using reporter strain C. violaceum ATCC 12472; ( A ) ISO1, weak antimicrobial activity, strong QSI activity; ( B ) ISO9 no QSI activity detected; ( C ) LL1 no QSI activity detected; ( D ) LL5 no QSI activity detected; ( E ) KS8 strong QSI activity; ( F ) ISO6 strong QSI activity; ( G ) KS6 strong QSI activity; ( H ) GS5 medium-strong QSI activity and weak antimicrobial activity; ( I ) GS9 no QSI activity and medium-strong antimicrobial activity; ( J ) JUN4 strong QSI activity; ( K ) LL67 strong QSI activity; ( L ) A15-1 weak QSI activity; ( M ) C. violaceum ATCC 12472, negative QSI control; ( N ) B. cereus NCTC 9945 harboring the aiiA lactonase gene (positive QSI control) displaying modest QSI activity.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay

    Disc diffusion assays on QSI-reporter strain C. violaceum ATCC 12472 using the crude organic extract of marine isolate KS8. A disc loaded with 60 μL of EtOAc and allowed to air-dry was included in the plate as a solvent control (top). Two discs were loaded with 40 μL of the crude organic extract of marine isolate KS8 (10 mg/mL). QSI activity was detected as an opaque halo surrounding the test discs.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Disc diffusion assays on QSI-reporter strain C. violaceum ATCC 12472 using the crude organic extract of marine isolate KS8. A disc loaded with 60 μL of EtOAc and allowed to air-dry was included in the plate as a solvent control (top). Two discs were loaded with 40 μL of the crude organic extract of marine isolate KS8 (10 mg/mL). QSI activity was detected as an opaque halo surrounding the test discs.

    Techniques Used: Diffusion-based Assay, Activity Assay

    35) Product Images from "Identification of N-acyl-l-homoserine lactones produced by non-pigmented Chromobacterium aquaticum CC-SEYA-1T and pigmented Chromobacterium subtsugae PRAA4-1T"

    Article Title: Identification of N-acyl-l-homoserine lactones produced by non-pigmented Chromobacterium aquaticum CC-SEYA-1T and pigmented Chromobacterium subtsugae PRAA4-1T

    Journal: 3 Biotech

    doi: 10.1007/s13205-011-0029-1

    Zones of clearance around colonies of a C. violaceum ATCC 12472, b C. aquaticum CC-SEYA-1 T , and c C. subtsugae PRAA4-1 T on sheep blood agar indicating hemolysis
    Figure Legend Snippet: Zones of clearance around colonies of a C. violaceum ATCC 12472, b C. aquaticum CC-SEYA-1 T , and c C. subtsugae PRAA4-1 T on sheep blood agar indicating hemolysis

    Techniques Used:

    36) Product Images from "Antibiofilm Activity of the Brown Alga Halidrys siliquosa against Clinically Relevant Human Pathogens"

    Article Title: Antibiofilm Activity of the Brown Alga Halidrys siliquosa against Clinically Relevant Human Pathogens

    Journal: Marine Drugs

    doi: 10.3390/md13063581

    Disc diffusion assay against C. violaceum ATCC 12472 of fractions obtained using Flash Chromatography. Antimicrobial activity was detected in fractions 35–36 (not shown) and 46–52.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Disc diffusion assay against C. violaceum ATCC 12472 of fractions obtained using Flash Chromatography. Antimicrobial activity was detected in fractions 35–36 (not shown) and 46–52.

    Techniques Used: Diffusion-based Assay, Chromatography, Activity Assay

    Screening fresh H. siliquosa fronds for antimicrobial, QSI and QS activity using the overlay method. ( A ) Very weak antimicrobial activity (2 mm inhibition zone) against E. coli ATCC 11303; ( B ) No antimicrobial activity detected against K. pneumonia NCTC 204; ( C ) Pronounced antimicrobial activity of H. siliquosa against S. aureus (MRSA) ATCC 33595; ( D , E ) Weak antimicrobial activity of H. siliquosa against P. aeruginosa PAO1 and PA14; ( F ) No antimicrobial nor QSI activity detected against Serratia sp. ATCC39006; ( G ) No antimicrobial activity against E. cloacae . ( H , I ) Pronounced antimicrobial activity of H. siliquosa against QSI reporter strain C. violaceum ATCC 12472 and QS reporter strain C. violaceum CV026.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Screening fresh H. siliquosa fronds for antimicrobial, QSI and QS activity using the overlay method. ( A ) Very weak antimicrobial activity (2 mm inhibition zone) against E. coli ATCC 11303; ( B ) No antimicrobial activity detected against K. pneumonia NCTC 204; ( C ) Pronounced antimicrobial activity of H. siliquosa against S. aureus (MRSA) ATCC 33595; ( D , E ) Weak antimicrobial activity of H. siliquosa against P. aeruginosa PAO1 and PA14; ( F ) No antimicrobial nor QSI activity detected against Serratia sp. ATCC39006; ( G ) No antimicrobial activity against E. cloacae . ( H , I ) Pronounced antimicrobial activity of H. siliquosa against QSI reporter strain C. violaceum ATCC 12472 and QS reporter strain C. violaceum CV026.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Inhibition

    37) Product Images from "Antibiofilm Activity of the Brown Alga Halidrys siliquosa against Clinically Relevant Human Pathogens"

    Article Title: Antibiofilm Activity of the Brown Alga Halidrys siliquosa against Clinically Relevant Human Pathogens

    Journal: Marine Drugs

    doi: 10.3390/md13063581

    Disc diffusion assay against C. violaceum ATCC 12472 of fractions obtained using Flash Chromatography. Antimicrobial activity was detected in fractions 35–36 (not shown) and 46–52.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Disc diffusion assay against C. violaceum ATCC 12472 of fractions obtained using Flash Chromatography. Antimicrobial activity was detected in fractions 35–36 (not shown) and 46–52.

    Techniques Used: Diffusion-based Assay, Chromatography, Activity Assay

    Screening fresh H. siliquosa fronds for antimicrobial, QSI and QS activity using the overlay method. ( A ) Very weak antimicrobial activity (2 mm inhibition zone) against E. coli ATCC 11303; ( B ) No antimicrobial activity detected against K. pneumonia NCTC 204; ( C ) Pronounced antimicrobial activity of H. siliquosa against S. aureus (MRSA) ATCC 33595; ( D , E ) Weak antimicrobial activity of H. siliquosa against P. aeruginosa PAO1 and PA14; ( F ) No antimicrobial nor QSI activity detected against Serratia sp. ATCC39006; ( G ) No antimicrobial activity against E. cloacae . ( H , I ) Pronounced antimicrobial activity of H. siliquosa against QSI reporter strain C. violaceum ATCC 12472 and QS reporter strain C. violaceum CV026.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Screening fresh H. siliquosa fronds for antimicrobial, QSI and QS activity using the overlay method. ( A ) Very weak antimicrobial activity (2 mm inhibition zone) against E. coli ATCC 11303; ( B ) No antimicrobial activity detected against K. pneumonia NCTC 204; ( C ) Pronounced antimicrobial activity of H. siliquosa against S. aureus (MRSA) ATCC 33595; ( D , E ) Weak antimicrobial activity of H. siliquosa against P. aeruginosa PAO1 and PA14; ( F ) No antimicrobial nor QSI activity detected against Serratia sp. ATCC39006; ( G ) No antimicrobial activity against E. cloacae . ( H , I ) Pronounced antimicrobial activity of H. siliquosa against QSI reporter strain C. violaceum ATCC 12472 and QS reporter strain C. violaceum CV026.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Inhibition

    38) Product Images from "A Chemical Counterpunch: Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 31532 Produces Violacein in Response to Translation-Inhibiting Antibiotics"

    Article Title: A Chemical Counterpunch: Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 31532 Produces Violacein in Response to Translation-Inhibiting Antibiotics

    Journal: mBio

    doi: 10.1128/mBio.00948-20

    Insecticidal activity of C. violaceum is enhanced by tetracycline. Insecticidal activity of C. violaceum against Drosophila melanogaster with and without a sublethal concentration of tetracycline. C. violaceum (CvATCC31532) wild type (WT), airS , vioS , and vioS cviI mutants, and C. violaceum ATCC 12472 (CvATCC12472) wild type (WT) were evaluated. Tet, tetracycline.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Insecticidal activity of C. violaceum is enhanced by tetracycline. Insecticidal activity of C. violaceum against Drosophila melanogaster with and without a sublethal concentration of tetracycline. C. violaceum (CvATCC31532) wild type (WT), airS , vioS , and vioS cviI mutants, and C. violaceum ATCC 12472 (CvATCC12472) wild type (WT) were evaluated. Tet, tetracycline.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Concentration Assay

    39) Product Images from "Calpurnia aurea (Aiton) Benth Extracts Reduce Quorum Sensing Controlled Virulence Factors in Pseudomonas aeruginosa"

    Article Title: Calpurnia aurea (Aiton) Benth Extracts Reduce Quorum Sensing Controlled Virulence Factors in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Journal: Molecules

    doi: 10.3390/molecules25102283

    Violacein production by Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472 at different concentrations. C. aurea extracts: Ca.E—Ethanol, Ca.A—Acetone, and Ca.Y—Ethyl acetate extract. Data presented are mean ± SD, n = 3. Different letters represent statistical difference at p -value = 0.05 (GLM: generalized linear model and LSD: least significant difference).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Violacein production by Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472 at different concentrations. C. aurea extracts: Ca.E—Ethanol, Ca.A—Acetone, and Ca.Y—Ethyl acetate extract. Data presented are mean ± SD, n = 3. Different letters represent statistical difference at p -value = 0.05 (GLM: generalized linear model and LSD: least significant difference).

    Techniques Used:

    40) Product Images from "Anti-quorum Sensing Activities of Selected Coral Symbiotic Bacterial Extracts From the South China Sea"

    Article Title: Anti-quorum Sensing Activities of Selected Coral Symbiotic Bacterial Extracts From the South China Sea

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2018.00144

    Effect of DL-homocysteine thiolactone on violacein production by C. violaceum ATCC 12472. (A) Percentage of inhibition of the violacein pigment after incubation with different concentrations of DL-homocysteine thiolactone. A dose-response effect in the production of violacein was observed in a series of concentrations (0.0625, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 μg/mL) of DL-homocysteine thiolactone. Data show the mean (±SD) of three independent experiments. (B) Anti-QS activity of pure DL-homocysteine thiolactone at different concentrations. A, 0.0625 μg/ml; B, 0.125 μg/ml; C, 0.25 μg/ml; D, 0.5 μg/ml; and E, 1.0 μg/ml. LB medium, DMSO only and furanone (dissolved in DMSO, 1.0 μg/ml) were used as blank, negative and positive controls, respectively.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of DL-homocysteine thiolactone on violacein production by C. violaceum ATCC 12472. (A) Percentage of inhibition of the violacein pigment after incubation with different concentrations of DL-homocysteine thiolactone. A dose-response effect in the production of violacein was observed in a series of concentrations (0.0625, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 μg/mL) of DL-homocysteine thiolactone. Data show the mean (±SD) of three independent experiments. (B) Anti-QS activity of pure DL-homocysteine thiolactone at different concentrations. A, 0.0625 μg/ml; B, 0.125 μg/ml; C, 0.25 μg/ml; D, 0.5 μg/ml; and E, 1.0 μg/ml. LB medium, DMSO only and furanone (dissolved in DMSO, 1.0 μg/ml) were used as blank, negative and positive controls, respectively.

    Techniques Used: Inhibition, Incubation, Activity Assay

    (A) Bacterial cell count of the flask incubation assay. The five test isolates were D11 ( Staphylococcus hominis ), D35 ( Staphylococcus warneri ), H1 ( Lysinibacillus fusiform ), D12 ( Bacillus cereus ), and H12 ( Vibrio alginolyticus ). C. violaceum ATCC 12472 was incubated for 16 h, and 100 μl of the bacteria, adjusted to OD 600nm of 0.1 (approximately 1 × 10 8 CFU/ml), were spread on LB plates. The growth inhibition were compared with control. Data are presented as the logarithm of mean CFU ± SD. (B) Inhibition of violacein production by test strains. Violacein production was measured spectrophotometrically as described in the Materials and Methods. Data are presented as mean ± SD of absorbance at 585 nm. Asterisks indicate a statistically difference between experimental groups and control groups ( * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: (A) Bacterial cell count of the flask incubation assay. The five test isolates were D11 ( Staphylococcus hominis ), D35 ( Staphylococcus warneri ), H1 ( Lysinibacillus fusiform ), D12 ( Bacillus cereus ), and H12 ( Vibrio alginolyticus ). C. violaceum ATCC 12472 was incubated for 16 h, and 100 μl of the bacteria, adjusted to OD 600nm of 0.1 (approximately 1 × 10 8 CFU/ml), were spread on LB plates. The growth inhibition were compared with control. Data are presented as the logarithm of mean CFU ± SD. (B) Inhibition of violacein production by test strains. Violacein production was measured spectrophotometrically as described in the Materials and Methods. Data are presented as mean ± SD of absorbance at 585 nm. Asterisks indicate a statistically difference between experimental groups and control groups ( * P

    Techniques Used: Cell Counting, Incubation, Inhibition

    Screening of anti-QS strains on biosensor plates containing reference strain C. violaceum ATCC 12472 and filter paper for sample detection. Water, LB medium and furanone (diluted 10 times with DMSO) were used as blank, negative and positive controls, respectively. The absence of purple or formation of a pigment inhibition was considered to indicate a potential QS inhibitor. The red arrows refer to the positive anti-QS strains and the pigment inhibition can be observed on a clear background on the plate. Notes: the number indicated the test isolate strains. H samples come from Heilong Island, and D samples come from Daming Island.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Screening of anti-QS strains on biosensor plates containing reference strain C. violaceum ATCC 12472 and filter paper for sample detection. Water, LB medium and furanone (diluted 10 times with DMSO) were used as blank, negative and positive controls, respectively. The absence of purple or formation of a pigment inhibition was considered to indicate a potential QS inhibitor. The red arrows refer to the positive anti-QS strains and the pigment inhibition can be observed on a clear background on the plate. Notes: the number indicated the test isolate strains. H samples come from Heilong Island, and D samples come from Daming Island.

    Techniques Used: Inhibition

    Related Articles

    Functional Assay:

    Article Title: Expression and efficient secretion of a functional chitinase from Chromobacterium violaceum in Escherichia coli
    Article Snippet: .. These sequence analyses suggest that the CV2935 ORF of C . violaceum ATCC 12472 likely encodes a functional GH18 chitinase that contains an accessory domain that is able to bind to chitin. ..

    Genomic Sequencing:

    Article Title: Expression and efficient secretion of a functional chitinase from Chromobacterium violaceum in Escherichia coli
    Article Snippet: .. Therefore, the multiple chitinases unveiled by the genomic sequencing of C . violaceum ATCC 12472 may represent a new source of biocontrol molecules against phytopathogens and plant-parasitic nematodes. ..

    Sequencing:

    Article Title: Expression and efficient secretion of a functional chitinase from Chromobacterium violaceum in Escherichia coli
    Article Snippet: .. These sequence analyses suggest that the CV2935 ORF of C . violaceum ATCC 12472 likely encodes a functional GH18 chitinase that contains an accessory domain that is able to bind to chitin. ..

    Activity Assay:

    Article Title: Antibiofilm Activity of the Brown Alga Halidrys siliquosa against Clinically Relevant Human Pathogens
    Article Snippet: .. Marked antimicrobial activity was observed against S. aureus MRSA ATCC 33593 and the two QS-reporter strains C. violaceum ATCC 12472 and C. violaceum CV026 and weak antimicrobial activity was observed against P. aeruginosa PAO1 and PA14 ( ). .. A very weak antimicrobial activity was detected against E. coli ATCC 11303 consisting in an inhibition zone of approximately 2 mm surrounding the fresh algal sample.

    Article Title: Antibiofilm Activity of the Brown Alga Halidrys siliquosa against Clinically Relevant Human Pathogens
    Article Snippet: .. The pronounced antimicrobial activity displayed by fresh H. siliquosa fronds against reporter strains C. violaceum ATCC 12472 and CV026 prevented the detection of QSI or QS compounds using these two reporter strains. .. The overlay of fresh H. siliquosa fronds using QSI reporter Serratia sp. ATCC 39006 failed to detect relevant QSI or antimicrobial activity against this strain.

    Marker:

    Article Title: Inhibition of Quorum Sensing Mediated Virulence Factors Production in Urinary Pathogen Serratia marcescens PS1 by Marine Sponges
    Article Snippet: .. C. violaceum ( ATCC 12472) and CV026 were used as marker strains. .. C. violaceum (ATCC 12472) is a wild type strain and has the ability to synthesize QS mediated violacein pigment by its own autoinducer known as N -hexanoyl homoserine lactone (C6-AHL); whereas, CV026 is unable to synthesis C6-AHL but respond to external source of AHL.

    Plasmid Preparation:

    Article Title: Exploiting the Feedstock Flexibility of the Emergent Synthetic Biology Chassis Vibrio natriegens for Engineered Natural Product Production
    Article Snippet: .. For violacein production, a plasmid (pVio) containing the violacein biosynthetic pathway (vioABEDC from Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472) was used ( B; for plasmid map see , ). ..

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    ATCC qs reporter strains c violaceum atcc 12472
    Disc diffusion assay against C. <t>violaceum</t> <t>ATCC</t> 12472 of fractions obtained using Flash Chromatography. Antimicrobial activity was detected in fractions 35–36 (not shown) and 46–52.
    Qs Reporter Strains C Violaceum Atcc 12472, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 17 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Disc diffusion assay against C. violaceum ATCC 12472 of fractions obtained using Flash Chromatography. Antimicrobial activity was detected in fractions 35–36 (not shown) and 46–52.

    Journal: Marine Drugs

    Article Title: Antibiofilm Activity of the Brown Alga Halidrys siliquosa against Clinically Relevant Human Pathogens

    doi: 10.3390/md13063581

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Disc diffusion assay against C. violaceum ATCC 12472 of fractions obtained using Flash Chromatography. Antimicrobial activity was detected in fractions 35–36 (not shown) and 46–52.

    Article Snippet: Marked antimicrobial activity was observed against S. aureus MRSA ATCC 33593 and the two QS-reporter strains C. violaceum ATCC 12472 and C. violaceum CV026 and weak antimicrobial activity was observed against P. aeruginosa PAO1 and PA14 ( ).

    Techniques: Diffusion-based Assay, Chromatography, Activity Assay

    Screening fresh H. siliquosa fronds for antimicrobial, QSI and QS activity using the overlay method. ( A ) Very weak antimicrobial activity (2 mm inhibition zone) against E. coli ATCC 11303; ( B ) No antimicrobial activity detected against K. pneumonia NCTC 204; ( C ) Pronounced antimicrobial activity of H. siliquosa against S. aureus (MRSA) ATCC 33595; ( D , E ) Weak antimicrobial activity of H. siliquosa against P. aeruginosa PAO1 and PA14; ( F ) No antimicrobial nor QSI activity detected against Serratia sp. ATCC39006; ( G ) No antimicrobial activity against E. cloacae . ( H , I ) Pronounced antimicrobial activity of H. siliquosa against QSI reporter strain C. violaceum ATCC 12472 and QS reporter strain C. violaceum CV026.

    Journal: Marine Drugs

    Article Title: Antibiofilm Activity of the Brown Alga Halidrys siliquosa against Clinically Relevant Human Pathogens

    doi: 10.3390/md13063581

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Screening fresh H. siliquosa fronds for antimicrobial, QSI and QS activity using the overlay method. ( A ) Very weak antimicrobial activity (2 mm inhibition zone) against E. coli ATCC 11303; ( B ) No antimicrobial activity detected against K. pneumonia NCTC 204; ( C ) Pronounced antimicrobial activity of H. siliquosa against S. aureus (MRSA) ATCC 33595; ( D , E ) Weak antimicrobial activity of H. siliquosa against P. aeruginosa PAO1 and PA14; ( F ) No antimicrobial nor QSI activity detected against Serratia sp. ATCC39006; ( G ) No antimicrobial activity against E. cloacae . ( H , I ) Pronounced antimicrobial activity of H. siliquosa against QSI reporter strain C. violaceum ATCC 12472 and QS reporter strain C. violaceum CV026.

    Article Snippet: Marked antimicrobial activity was observed against S. aureus MRSA ATCC 33593 and the two QS-reporter strains C. violaceum ATCC 12472 and C. violaceum CV026 and weak antimicrobial activity was observed against P. aeruginosa PAO1 and PA14 ( ).

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Inhibition

    Effect of sponge extracts on C6-AHL dependent violacein production in C. violaceum . A Qualitative inhibition of violacein production in C. violaceum (ATCC 12472) by methanol extracts of marine sponges at a concentration of 7 mg/ml. ( Row A : Well

    Journal: Indian Journal of Microbiology

    Article Title: Inhibition of Quorum Sensing Mediated Virulence Factors Production in Urinary Pathogen Serratia marcescens PS1 by Marine Sponges

    doi: 10.1007/s12088-012-0272-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of sponge extracts on C6-AHL dependent violacein production in C. violaceum . A Qualitative inhibition of violacein production in C. violaceum (ATCC 12472) by methanol extracts of marine sponges at a concentration of 7 mg/ml. ( Row A : Well

    Article Snippet: C. violaceum ( ATCC 12472) and CV026 were used as marker strains.

    Techniques: Inhibition, Concentration Assay

    Effect of sponge extracts (7 mg/ml) on growth of a C. violaceum (ATCC 12472) and b S. marcescens PS1. Extracts were added at 0 h. The data represent the mean values of experiments performed in triplicates. Data are presented as the absorbance

    Journal: Indian Journal of Microbiology

    Article Title: Inhibition of Quorum Sensing Mediated Virulence Factors Production in Urinary Pathogen Serratia marcescens PS1 by Marine Sponges

    doi: 10.1007/s12088-012-0272-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of sponge extracts (7 mg/ml) on growth of a C. violaceum (ATCC 12472) and b S. marcescens PS1. Extracts were added at 0 h. The data represent the mean values of experiments performed in triplicates. Data are presented as the absorbance

    Article Snippet: C. violaceum ( ATCC 12472) and CV026 were used as marker strains.

    Techniques: