Structured Review

Innovotech biofilms
Cells at the periphery of the <t>biofilm</t> respond to tobramycin
Biofilms, supplied by Innovotech, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 7 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
https://www.bioz.com/result/biofilms/product/Innovotech
Average 92 stars, based on 7 article reviews
Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
biofilms - by Bioz Stars, 2020-05
92/100 stars

Images

1) Product Images from "The extracellular matrix protects Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms by limiting the penetration of tobramycin"

Article Title: The extracellular matrix protects Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms by limiting the penetration of tobramycin

Journal: Environmental microbiology

doi: 10.1111/1462-2920.12155

Cells at the periphery of the biofilm respond to tobramycin
Figure Legend Snippet: Cells at the periphery of the biofilm respond to tobramycin

Techniques Used:

Ability of the biofilm to limit penetration can be overcome with high concentrations of tobramycin
Figure Legend Snippet: Ability of the biofilm to limit penetration can be overcome with high concentrations of tobramycin

Techniques Used:

Metal cations facilitate the penetration of tobramycin into biofilms
Figure Legend Snippet: Metal cations facilitate the penetration of tobramycin into biofilms

Techniques Used:

Limiting penetration of tobramycin protects biofilm cells
Figure Legend Snippet: Limiting penetration of tobramycin protects biofilm cells

Techniques Used:

Biofilms limit the penetration of tobramycin into the biomass
Figure Legend Snippet: Biofilms limit the penetration of tobramycin into the biomass

Techniques Used:

2) Product Images from "Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolite Profiling of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Differentiates between Biofilm and Planktonic Phenotypes"

Article Title: Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolite Profiling of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Differentiates between Biofilm and Planktonic Phenotypes

Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

doi: 10.1128/AEM.03658-14

Extracellular metabolites from 3-, 5-, and 7-day-old biofilm supernatants and LB medium (control). (A) PCA score plot of metabolites from biofilm supernatants (3 [blue], 5 [red], and 7 [green] days old). (B) Metabolites most affecting factor loading across PC-1 when comparing profiles of biofilms at 3, 5, and 7 days. (C) Normalized peak areas of the amino acids valine, pyroglutamic acid, phenylalanine, and isoleucine in 3-, 5-, and 7-day-old supernatants and LB medium (control). Eight independent biological samples were analyzed for each day, and five samples were analyzed for the control. The data are presented as the means ± SEM of normalized peak areas. All groups that were statistically different from the control ( P
Figure Legend Snippet: Extracellular metabolites from 3-, 5-, and 7-day-old biofilm supernatants and LB medium (control). (A) PCA score plot of metabolites from biofilm supernatants (3 [blue], 5 [red], and 7 [green] days old). (B) Metabolites most affecting factor loading across PC-1 when comparing profiles of biofilms at 3, 5, and 7 days. (C) Normalized peak areas of the amino acids valine, pyroglutamic acid, phenylalanine, and isoleucine in 3-, 5-, and 7-day-old supernatants and LB medium (control). Eight independent biological samples were analyzed for each day, and five samples were analyzed for the control. The data are presented as the means ± SEM of normalized peak areas. All groups that were statistically different from the control ( P

Techniques Used:

Extracellular metabolites from planktonic and biofilm supernatants and LB medium (control). (A) PCA score plot of metabolites from control, planktonic, and biofilm supernatants. (B) Metabolites most affecting factor loading across PC-1 when comparing profiles of planktonic and biofilm supernatants. (C) Peak areas, normalized to the internal standard, of the amino acids alanine, glycine, valine, isoleucine, glutamic acid, and ornithine in planktonic and biofilm supernatants and LB medium. Eight independent biological samples were analyzed for each condition, and five samples were analyzed for the control. The data are presented as the means ± SEM of normalized peak areas. All groups that were statistically different from the control ( P
Figure Legend Snippet: Extracellular metabolites from planktonic and biofilm supernatants and LB medium (control). (A) PCA score plot of metabolites from control, planktonic, and biofilm supernatants. (B) Metabolites most affecting factor loading across PC-1 when comparing profiles of planktonic and biofilm supernatants. (C) Peak areas, normalized to the internal standard, of the amino acids alanine, glycine, valine, isoleucine, glutamic acid, and ornithine in planktonic and biofilm supernatants and LB medium. Eight independent biological samples were analyzed for each condition, and five samples were analyzed for the control. The data are presented as the means ± SEM of normalized peak areas. All groups that were statistically different from the control ( P

Techniques Used:

Intracellular metabolites from 3-, 5-, and 7-day-old biofilm cells (blue, red, and green, respectively). Shown is a PCA score plot of metabolites from the biofilm cells.
Figure Legend Snippet: Intracellular metabolites from 3-, 5-, and 7-day-old biofilm cells (blue, red, and green, respectively). Shown is a PCA score plot of metabolites from the biofilm cells.

Techniques Used:

Intracellular metabolites from planktonic and biofilm cells. (A) PCA score plot of metabolites from planktonic and biofilm Salmonella Typhimurium cells. (B) Metabolites that had the greatest influence on the variance between samples when comparing profiles of planktonic and biofilm cells.
Figure Legend Snippet: Intracellular metabolites from planktonic and biofilm cells. (A) PCA score plot of metabolites from planktonic and biofilm Salmonella Typhimurium cells. (B) Metabolites that had the greatest influence on the variance between samples when comparing profiles of planktonic and biofilm cells.

Techniques Used:

3) Product Images from "Human cathelicidin LL-37 enhance the antibiofilm effect of EGCG on Streptococcus mutans"

Article Title: Human cathelicidin LL-37 enhance the antibiofilm effect of EGCG on Streptococcus mutans

Journal: BMC Oral Health

doi: 10.1186/s12903-016-0292-y

Biofilm inhibition assay. Standardized overnight cultures of S. mutans strains ( n = 10) were grown on MBEC pegs incubated with 0.2 mg/mL EGCG in the presence or absence of 80 μg/mL LL-37 for 12, 24, or 36 h at 37 °C. Adherent cells were then fixed with ethanol, stained with crystal violet, eluted with ethanol, and the absorbance was measured. Data are presented as the mean ± SD from three independent experiments. *, significant difference compared with untreated control ( p
Figure Legend Snippet: Biofilm inhibition assay. Standardized overnight cultures of S. mutans strains ( n = 10) were grown on MBEC pegs incubated with 0.2 mg/mL EGCG in the presence or absence of 80 μg/mL LL-37 for 12, 24, or 36 h at 37 °C. Adherent cells were then fixed with ethanol, stained with crystal violet, eluted with ethanol, and the absorbance was measured. Data are presented as the mean ± SD from three independent experiments. *, significant difference compared with untreated control ( p

Techniques Used: Inhibition, Incubation, Staining

Changes in number of planktonic cells and preformed biofilms following incubation of EGCG with/without LL-37. Representative images of bacterial cells observed by field emission-scanning electron microscope (working distance: 10 mm, field width: 5 μm) are shown. Streptococcus mutans suspensions incubated in the presence ( a ) or absence ( b ) of 0.2 mg/mL EGCG for 24 h. Streptococcus mutans biofilms on MBEC pegs incubated with 0.2 mg/mL EGCG ( c ), 0.2 mg/mL EGCG, and 80 μg/mL LL-37 ( d ), or BHI medium ( e ) for 24 h. The white arrow indicates the “ring” phenomena around damaged cells
Figure Legend Snippet: Changes in number of planktonic cells and preformed biofilms following incubation of EGCG with/without LL-37. Representative images of bacterial cells observed by field emission-scanning electron microscope (working distance: 10 mm, field width: 5 μm) are shown. Streptococcus mutans suspensions incubated in the presence ( a ) or absence ( b ) of 0.2 mg/mL EGCG for 24 h. Streptococcus mutans biofilms on MBEC pegs incubated with 0.2 mg/mL EGCG ( c ), 0.2 mg/mL EGCG, and 80 μg/mL LL-37 ( d ), or BHI medium ( e ) for 24 h. The white arrow indicates the “ring” phenomena around damaged cells

Techniques Used: Incubation, Microscopy

Biofilm susceptibility assays. Standardized overnight cultures of S. mutans strains grown on MBEC pegs and incubated overnight at 37 °C to form mature biofilms. The pegs were immersed in wells containing 0.2 mg/mL EGCG in the presence or absence of 80 μg/mL LL-37 for 3 and 5 h to allow the biofilm to disperse from the pegs to the wells below, and the absorbance was measured. Data are presented as the mean ± SD from three independent experiments. *, significant difference compared with untreated control ( p
Figure Legend Snippet: Biofilm susceptibility assays. Standardized overnight cultures of S. mutans strains grown on MBEC pegs and incubated overnight at 37 °C to form mature biofilms. The pegs were immersed in wells containing 0.2 mg/mL EGCG in the presence or absence of 80 μg/mL LL-37 for 3 and 5 h to allow the biofilm to disperse from the pegs to the wells below, and the absorbance was measured. Data are presented as the mean ± SD from three independent experiments. *, significant difference compared with untreated control ( p

Techniques Used: Incubation

4) Product Images from "Effects of an autoinducer analogue on antibiotic tolerance inPseudomonas aeruginosa"

Article Title: Effects of an autoinducer analogue on antibiotic tolerance inPseudomonas aeruginosa

Journal: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

doi: 10.1093/jac/dkx132

Efficacy of AIA-1 against PAO1 biofilms. (a) Effects of AIA-1 on PAO1 biofilm formation. Killing assay for biofilm cells using (b) 32 mg/L biapenem, (c) 32 mg/L tobramycin and (d) 2 mg/L levofloxacin. By assuming that survival before AIA-1 exposure was 100%, cfu values were converted to percentages. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Efficacy of AIA-1 against PAO1 biofilms. (a) Effects of AIA-1 on PAO1 biofilm formation. Killing assay for biofilm cells using (b) 32 mg/L biapenem, (c) 32 mg/L tobramycin and (d) 2 mg/L levofloxacin. By assuming that survival before AIA-1 exposure was 100%, cfu values were converted to percentages. * P

Techniques Used:

5) Product Images from "In Vitro Culture of Previously Uncultured Oral Bacterial Phylotypes"

Article Title: In Vitro Culture of Previously Uncultured Oral Bacterial Phylotypes

Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

doi: 10.1128/AEM.02156-15

Culture-independent analysis of subgingival plaque samples and in vitro biofilms.
Figure Legend Snippet: Culture-independent analysis of subgingival plaque samples and in vitro biofilms.

Techniques Used: In Vitro

Culture-independent analysis of subgingival plaque samples and in vitro biofilms.
Figure Legend Snippet: Culture-independent analysis of subgingival plaque samples and in vitro biofilms.

Techniques Used: In Vitro

Culture-independent analysis of subgingival plaque samples and in vitro biofilms.
Figure Legend Snippet: Culture-independent analysis of subgingival plaque samples and in vitro biofilms.

Techniques Used: In Vitro

6) Product Images from "The Chromosomal Toxin Gene yafQ Is a Determinant of Multidrug Tolerance for Escherichia coli Growing in a Biofilm ▿"

Article Title: The Chromosomal Toxin Gene yafQ Is a Determinant of Multidrug Tolerance for Escherichia coli Growing in a Biofilm ▿

Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

doi: 10.1128/AAC.00043-09

Stationary-phase planktonic cell populations of Δ yafQ and isogenic parental strain E. coli K-12 BW25113 had similar numbers of cells surviving exposure to cefazolin and tobramycin. Mean log killing was calculated after the biofilms had been exposed
Figure Legend Snippet: Stationary-phase planktonic cell populations of Δ yafQ and isogenic parental strain E. coli K-12 BW25113 had similar numbers of cells surviving exposure to cefazolin and tobramycin. Mean log killing was calculated after the biofilms had been exposed

Techniques Used:

Overexpression of yafQ from a high-copy-number plasmid had no effect on the number of cells in E. coli K-12 BW25113 biofilm populations surviving exposure to doxycycline or rifampin. Mean log killing was calculated from the viable cell counts after the
Figure Legend Snippet: Overexpression of yafQ from a high-copy-number plasmid had no effect on the number of cells in E. coli K-12 BW25113 biofilm populations surviving exposure to doxycycline or rifampin. Mean log killing was calculated from the viable cell counts after the

Techniques Used: Over Expression, Plasmid Preparation

Biofilm populations of the Δ yafQ strain have decreased numbers of cells surviving exposure to cefazolin and tobramycin compared to the numbers of parental E. coli K-12 BW25113 cells. Mean log killing was calculated after the biofilms had been
Figure Legend Snippet: Biofilm populations of the Δ yafQ strain have decreased numbers of cells surviving exposure to cefazolin and tobramycin compared to the numbers of parental E. coli K-12 BW25113 cells. Mean log killing was calculated after the biofilms had been

Techniques Used:

Biofilm formation by wild-type E. coli K-12 BW25113 is similar to that of its isogenic Δ yafQ mutant. (a) Biofilm mean viable cell counts and standard deviations were comparable for the two strains, and this assessment was based on the indicated
Figure Legend Snippet: Biofilm formation by wild-type E. coli K-12 BW25113 is similar to that of its isogenic Δ yafQ mutant. (a) Biofilm mean viable cell counts and standard deviations were comparable for the two strains, and this assessment was based on the indicated

Techniques Used: Mutagenesis

Biofilm populations of the Δ yafQ strain and isogenic parental strain E. coli K-12 BW25113 had similar numbers of cells surviving exposure to doxycycline and rifampin. Mean log killing was calculated from the viable cell counts after the biofilms
Figure Legend Snippet: Biofilm populations of the Δ yafQ strain and isogenic parental strain E. coli K-12 BW25113 had similar numbers of cells surviving exposure to doxycycline and rifampin. Mean log killing was calculated from the viable cell counts after the biofilms

Techniques Used:

Overexpression of yafQ from a high-copy-number plasmid increased the number of cells in E. coli K-12 BW25113 biofilm populations surviving exposure to bactericidal concentrations of cefazolin and tobramycin. Mean log killing was calculated from the viable
Figure Legend Snippet: Overexpression of yafQ from a high-copy-number plasmid increased the number of cells in E. coli K-12 BW25113 biofilm populations surviving exposure to bactericidal concentrations of cefazolin and tobramycin. Mean log killing was calculated from the viable

Techniques Used: Over Expression, Plasmid Preparation

7) Product Images from "ZapA, a Virulence Factor in a Rat Model of Proteus mirabilis-Induced Acute and Chronic Prostatitis ▿"

Article Title: ZapA, a Virulence Factor in a Rat Model of Proteus mirabilis-Induced Acute and Chronic Prostatitis ▿

Journal:

doi: 10.1128/IAI.00122-08

Biofilm growth curves for the WT and the ZapA − mutant (with and without antibiotic selection) on the Calgary biofilm device. The data presented are from triplicate samples from a single experiment; similar data were obtained in three independent
Figure Legend Snippet: Biofilm growth curves for the WT and the ZapA − mutant (with and without antibiotic selection) on the Calgary biofilm device. The data presented are from triplicate samples from a single experiment; similar data were obtained in three independent

Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Selection

8) Product Images from "Human cathelicidin LL-37 enhance the antibiofilm effect of EGCG on Streptococcus mutans"

Article Title: Human cathelicidin LL-37 enhance the antibiofilm effect of EGCG on Streptococcus mutans

Journal: BMC Oral Health

doi: 10.1186/s12903-016-0292-y

Biofilm inhibition assay. Standardized overnight cultures of S. mutans strains ( n = 10) were grown on MBEC pegs incubated with 0.2 mg/mL EGCG in the presence or absence of 80 μg/mL LL-37 for 12, 24, or 36 h at 37 °C. Adherent cells were then fixed with ethanol, stained with crystal violet, eluted with ethanol, and the absorbance was measured. Data are presented as the mean ± SD from three independent experiments. *, significant difference compared with untreated control ( p
Figure Legend Snippet: Biofilm inhibition assay. Standardized overnight cultures of S. mutans strains ( n = 10) were grown on MBEC pegs incubated with 0.2 mg/mL EGCG in the presence or absence of 80 μg/mL LL-37 for 12, 24, or 36 h at 37 °C. Adherent cells were then fixed with ethanol, stained with crystal violet, eluted with ethanol, and the absorbance was measured. Data are presented as the mean ± SD from three independent experiments. *, significant difference compared with untreated control ( p

Techniques Used: Inhibition, Incubation, Staining

Changes in number of planktonic cells and preformed biofilms following incubation of EGCG with/without LL-37. Representative images of bacterial cells observed by field emission-scanning electron microscope (working distance: 10 mm, field width: 5 μm) are shown. Streptococcus mutans suspensions incubated in the presence ( a ) or absence ( b ) of 0.2 mg/mL EGCG for 24 h. Streptococcus mutans biofilms on MBEC pegs incubated with 0.2 mg/mL EGCG ( c ), 0.2 mg/mL EGCG, and 80 μg/mL LL-37 ( d ), or BHI medium ( e ) for 24 h. The white arrow indicates the “ring” phenomena around damaged cells
Figure Legend Snippet: Changes in number of planktonic cells and preformed biofilms following incubation of EGCG with/without LL-37. Representative images of bacterial cells observed by field emission-scanning electron microscope (working distance: 10 mm, field width: 5 μm) are shown. Streptococcus mutans suspensions incubated in the presence ( a ) or absence ( b ) of 0.2 mg/mL EGCG for 24 h. Streptococcus mutans biofilms on MBEC pegs incubated with 0.2 mg/mL EGCG ( c ), 0.2 mg/mL EGCG, and 80 μg/mL LL-37 ( d ), or BHI medium ( e ) for 24 h. The white arrow indicates the “ring” phenomena around damaged cells

Techniques Used: Incubation, Microscopy

Biofilm susceptibility assays. Standardized overnight cultures of S. mutans strains grown on MBEC pegs and incubated overnight at 37 °C to form mature biofilms. The pegs were immersed in wells containing 0.2 mg/mL EGCG in the presence or absence of 80 μg/mL LL-37 for 3 and 5 h to allow the biofilm to disperse from the pegs to the wells below, and the absorbance was measured. Data are presented as the mean ± SD from three independent experiments. *, significant difference compared with untreated control ( p
Figure Legend Snippet: Biofilm susceptibility assays. Standardized overnight cultures of S. mutans strains grown on MBEC pegs and incubated overnight at 37 °C to form mature biofilms. The pegs were immersed in wells containing 0.2 mg/mL EGCG in the presence or absence of 80 μg/mL LL-37 for 3 and 5 h to allow the biofilm to disperse from the pegs to the wells below, and the absorbance was measured. Data are presented as the mean ± SD from three independent experiments. *, significant difference compared with untreated control ( p

Techniques Used: Incubation

9) Product Images from "msaABCR operon is involved in persister cell formation in Staphylococcus aureus"

Article Title: msaABCR operon is involved in persister cell formation in Staphylococcus aureus

Journal: BMC Microbiology

doi: 10.1186/s12866-017-1129-9

Persister cells from biofilms treated with combinations of antibiotics. Strains USA300 LAC, msaABCR deletion mutant, and the complementation were allowed to form biofilm on intravenous catheters for 24 h and then treated with combined antibiotics. a. daptomycin/rifampicin (80× MIC), b. vancomycin/rifampicin (40× MIC), c. linezolid/rifampicin (320× MIC), d. daptomycin/gentamicin (40× MIC), e. vancomycin/gentamicin (20× MIC), f. linezolid/gentamicin (20× MIC). These results represent the means of three independent experiments performed in triplicate. Error bars represent SE. Student’s t-test and one-way ANOVA (OriginPro) followed by Tukey’s test was used to compare the results of the wild-type to mutants at respective designated time points (* p -value
Figure Legend Snippet: Persister cells from biofilms treated with combinations of antibiotics. Strains USA300 LAC, msaABCR deletion mutant, and the complementation were allowed to form biofilm on intravenous catheters for 24 h and then treated with combined antibiotics. a. daptomycin/rifampicin (80× MIC), b. vancomycin/rifampicin (40× MIC), c. linezolid/rifampicin (320× MIC), d. daptomycin/gentamicin (40× MIC), e. vancomycin/gentamicin (20× MIC), f. linezolid/gentamicin (20× MIC). These results represent the means of three independent experiments performed in triplicate. Error bars represent SE. Student’s t-test and one-way ANOVA (OriginPro) followed by Tukey’s test was used to compare the results of the wild-type to mutants at respective designated time points (* p -value

Techniques Used: Mutagenesis

Persister cells on biofilms. Strains USA300 LAC, msaABCR deletion mutant, and the complementation were allowed to form biofilm on intravenous catheters for 24 h. Biofilm were then exposed to high concentration of antibiotics. a. no antibiotic control, b. daptomycin (20 μg/ml, 20× MIC), c. vancomycin (12.5 μg/ml, 20× MIC), d. rifampicin (4.8 μg/ml, 80× MIC), e. linezolid (100 μg/ml, 20× MIC), and f. gentamicin (100 μg/ml , 20× MIC). The arrow in the no antibiotic control ( a. ) represents the starting point for the antibiotic treatment in the tests. These results represent the means of three independent experiments performed in triplicate. Error bars represent SE. Student’s t-test and one-way ANOVA (OriginPro) followed by Tukey’s test was used to compare the results of the wild-type to mutants at respective designated time points (* p -value
Figure Legend Snippet: Persister cells on biofilms. Strains USA300 LAC, msaABCR deletion mutant, and the complementation were allowed to form biofilm on intravenous catheters for 24 h. Biofilm were then exposed to high concentration of antibiotics. a. no antibiotic control, b. daptomycin (20 μg/ml, 20× MIC), c. vancomycin (12.5 μg/ml, 20× MIC), d. rifampicin (4.8 μg/ml, 80× MIC), e. linezolid (100 μg/ml, 20× MIC), and f. gentamicin (100 μg/ml , 20× MIC). The arrow in the no antibiotic control ( a. ) represents the starting point for the antibiotic treatment in the tests. These results represent the means of three independent experiments performed in triplicate. Error bars represent SE. Student’s t-test and one-way ANOVA (OriginPro) followed by Tukey’s test was used to compare the results of the wild-type to mutants at respective designated time points (* p -value

Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Concentration Assay

Antibiotic susceptibility in biofilm. USA300 LAC, msaABCR deletion mutant, and the complementation strains biofilm were grown on MBEC™-HTP plates and treated overnight with 10X to 80X MIC of a. daptomycin, b. vancomycin or c. linezolid. These results represent the means of three independent experiments performed in triplicate. Control in each experiment represents the biofilm grown in regular biofilm media without antibiotics. Error bars represent SE. Student’s t-test and one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s test (OriginPro) was used to compare the results of the wild-type to mutants (* p -value
Figure Legend Snippet: Antibiotic susceptibility in biofilm. USA300 LAC, msaABCR deletion mutant, and the complementation strains biofilm were grown on MBEC™-HTP plates and treated overnight with 10X to 80X MIC of a. daptomycin, b. vancomycin or c. linezolid. These results represent the means of three independent experiments performed in triplicate. Control in each experiment represents the biofilm grown in regular biofilm media without antibiotics. Error bars represent SE. Student’s t-test and one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s test (OriginPro) was used to compare the results of the wild-type to mutants (* p -value

Techniques Used: Mutagenesis

Susceptibility of S. aureus biofilm to combinations of antibiotics. Strains USA300 LAC, msaABCR deletion mutant, and the complementation biofilm were grown on MBEC™-HTP plates and treated overnight with antibiotic combinations: a. daptomycin/rifampicin, b. vancomycin/rifampicin, c. linezolid/rifampicin, d. daptomycin/gentamicin, e. vancomycin/gentamicin, or f. linezolid/gentamicin. Antibiotics amount used are multiples of the combined MIC of the combination. These results represent the means of three independent experiments performed in triplicate. Control represents biofilm grown without antibiotics. Error bars represent SE. Student’s t-test and one-way ANOVA (OriginPro) followed by Tukey’s test was used to compare the results of the wild-type to mutants (* p -value
Figure Legend Snippet: Susceptibility of S. aureus biofilm to combinations of antibiotics. Strains USA300 LAC, msaABCR deletion mutant, and the complementation biofilm were grown on MBEC™-HTP plates and treated overnight with antibiotic combinations: a. daptomycin/rifampicin, b. vancomycin/rifampicin, c. linezolid/rifampicin, d. daptomycin/gentamicin, e. vancomycin/gentamicin, or f. linezolid/gentamicin. Antibiotics amount used are multiples of the combined MIC of the combination. These results represent the means of three independent experiments performed in triplicate. Control represents biofilm grown without antibiotics. Error bars represent SE. Student’s t-test and one-way ANOVA (OriginPro) followed by Tukey’s test was used to compare the results of the wild-type to mutants (* p -value

Techniques Used: Mutagenesis

10) Product Images from "Silver Oxynitrate, an Unexplored Silver Compound with Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm Activity"

Article Title: Silver Oxynitrate, an Unexplored Silver Compound with Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm Activity

Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

doi: 10.1128/AAC.05177-14

Ag 7 NO 11 eradicates established biofilms at lower concentrations than those of other metal compounds. The MBEC device was inoculated with E. coli (JM109), P. aeruginosa (PAO1), and S. aureus (ATCC 25923). Biofilms were established following a 24-h incubation.
Figure Legend Snippet: Ag 7 NO 11 eradicates established biofilms at lower concentrations than those of other metal compounds. The MBEC device was inoculated with E. coli (JM109), P. aeruginosa (PAO1), and S. aureus (ATCC 25923). Biofilms were established following a 24-h incubation.

Techniques Used: Incubation

Ag 7 NO 11 is more efficacious for eradicating mature biofilms of E. coli and S. aureus . E. coli (JM109), P. aeruginosa (PAO1), and S. aureus (ATCC 25923) biofilms were cultivated by using the MBEC device. Established biofilms were formed following incubation
Figure Legend Snippet: Ag 7 NO 11 is more efficacious for eradicating mature biofilms of E. coli and S. aureus . E. coli (JM109), P. aeruginosa (PAO1), and S. aureus (ATCC 25923) biofilms were cultivated by using the MBEC device. Established biofilms were formed following incubation

Techniques Used: Incubation

Ag 7 NO 11 has antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity against a MRSA strain (USA300). MRSA biofilms were cultivated by using the MBEC device. (A and B) The MBC for the planktonic population (A) and the MBEC for the biofilm population (B) were determined
Figure Legend Snippet: Ag 7 NO 11 has antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity against a MRSA strain (USA300). MRSA biofilms were cultivated by using the MBEC device. (A and B) The MBC for the planktonic population (A) and the MBEC for the biofilm population (B) were determined

Techniques Used: Activity Assay

Ag 7 NO 11 has antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity against UPEC (CFT703). UPEC biofilms were cultivated by using the MBEC device. (A and B) The MBC for the planktonic population (A) and the MBEC for the biofilm population (B) were determined after a 4-h
Figure Legend Snippet: Ag 7 NO 11 has antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity against UPEC (CFT703). UPEC biofilms were cultivated by using the MBEC device. (A and B) The MBC for the planktonic population (A) and the MBEC for the biofilm population (B) were determined after a 4-h

Techniques Used: Activity Assay

Ag 7 NO 11 reduces biofilm quantity. Biofilms of E. coli (JM109), P. aeruginosa (PAO1), and S. aureus (ATCC 25923) were established in the MBEC device for 24 h. The established biofilms were then exposed to 0 μM (A), 5 μM (B), and 12.5 μM
Figure Legend Snippet: Ag 7 NO 11 reduces biofilm quantity. Biofilms of E. coli (JM109), P. aeruginosa (PAO1), and S. aureus (ATCC 25923) were established in the MBEC device for 24 h. The established biofilms were then exposed to 0 μM (A), 5 μM (B), and 12.5 μM

Techniques Used:

Ag 7 NO 11 prevents biofilm formation at lower concentrations than those of other metal compounds. The MBEC device was inoculated with E. coli (JM109), P. aeruginosa (PAO1), and S. aureus (ATCC 25923) concurrently with serial dilutions (2-fold) of Ag 2 O,
Figure Legend Snippet: Ag 7 NO 11 prevents biofilm formation at lower concentrations than those of other metal compounds. The MBEC device was inoculated with E. coli (JM109), P. aeruginosa (PAO1), and S. aureus (ATCC 25923) concurrently with serial dilutions (2-fold) of Ag 2 O,

Techniques Used:

Ag 7 NO 11 has antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity against an FQRP isolate. FQRP biofilms were cultivated by using the MBEC device. (A and B) The MBC for the planktonic population (A) and the MBEC for the biofilm population (B) were determined after a
Figure Legend Snippet: Ag 7 NO 11 has antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity against an FQRP isolate. FQRP biofilms were cultivated by using the MBEC device. (A and B) The MBC for the planktonic population (A) and the MBEC for the biofilm population (B) were determined after a

Techniques Used: Activity Assay

Ag 7 NO 11 reduces biofilm biomass. Biofilms of E. coli (JM109), P. aeruginosa (PAO1), and S. aureus (ATCC 25923) were established in the MBEC device for 24 h. The biofilms were then exposed to various concentrations of CuSO 4 (A), AgNO 3 (B), and Ag 7 NO 11
Figure Legend Snippet: Ag 7 NO 11 reduces biofilm biomass. Biofilms of E. coli (JM109), P. aeruginosa (PAO1), and S. aureus (ATCC 25923) were established in the MBEC device for 24 h. The biofilms were then exposed to various concentrations of CuSO 4 (A), AgNO 3 (B), and Ag 7 NO 11

Techniques Used:

11) Product Images from "The effect of chlorhexidine on dental calculus formation: an in vitro study"

Article Title: The effect of chlorhexidine on dental calculus formation: an in vitro study

Journal: BMC Oral Health

doi: 10.1186/s12903-018-0517-3

Representative SEM images in the mineral uptake phase. Figure shows DW treatment with calcifying solution for 0, 12, 24, and 48 h ( a – d ) and CHG treatment with calcifying solution for 12, 24, and 48 h ( e – g ). White arrow heads indicate microorganisms, and white arrows show EPS-like structures. Calcium phosphate-like particles were seen, especially on the surface of the biofilm after 48 h incubation (inset in g; higher magnification of the area indicated by a rectangle). Scale bars = 5.0 μm
Figure Legend Snippet: Representative SEM images in the mineral uptake phase. Figure shows DW treatment with calcifying solution for 0, 12, 24, and 48 h ( a – d ) and CHG treatment with calcifying solution for 12, 24, and 48 h ( e – g ). White arrow heads indicate microorganisms, and white arrows show EPS-like structures. Calcium phosphate-like particles were seen, especially on the surface of the biofilm after 48 h incubation (inset in g; higher magnification of the area indicated by a rectangle). Scale bars = 5.0 μm

Techniques Used: Incubation

Ca and Pi uptake inside biofilm masses exposed to CHG. Ca ( a ) and Pi ( b ) concentrations and Ca: Pi ( c ) molar ratio in biofilms were determined. The three-day-old biofilms were periodically exposed to 1 min applications of 0.12% CHG every 12 h and incubated for up to 2 days in BHI containing a calcifying solution. Distilled water was used as the control. Results are shown as the mean ± SD of four independent experiments. There was a significant difference among three experimental conditions (indicated by bracket, * p
Figure Legend Snippet: Ca and Pi uptake inside biofilm masses exposed to CHG. Ca ( a ) and Pi ( b ) concentrations and Ca: Pi ( c ) molar ratio in biofilms were determined. The three-day-old biofilms were periodically exposed to 1 min applications of 0.12% CHG every 12 h and incubated for up to 2 days in BHI containing a calcifying solution. Distilled water was used as the control. Results are shown as the mean ± SD of four independent experiments. There was a significant difference among three experimental conditions (indicated by bracket, * p

Techniques Used: Incubation

Biofilm formation using an MBEC™ device. a A representation of biofilm formation on a peg. b Biofilm formation on a peg after 3 days incubation. c An SEM image of a peg. d An SEM image of saliva-related biofilm developed on the peg after 3 days incubation. Bars = 5.0 μm
Figure Legend Snippet: Biofilm formation using an MBEC™ device. a A representation of biofilm formation on a peg. b Biofilm formation on a peg after 3 days incubation. c An SEM image of a peg. d An SEM image of saliva-related biofilm developed on the peg after 3 days incubation. Bars = 5.0 μm

Techniques Used: Incubation

12) Product Images from "Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae 3841, deficient in 27-hydroxyoctacosanoate-modified lipopolysaccharide, is impaired in desiccation tolerance, biofilm formation and motility"

Article Title: Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae 3841, deficient in 27-hydroxyoctacosanoate-modified lipopolysaccharide, is impaired in desiccation tolerance, biofilm formation and motility

Journal: Microbiology

doi: 10.1099/mic.0.025031-0

CLSM of biofilms produced by wild-type, 3841 (a–c) and the fabF2/F1 mutant (d–f). Biofilms were stained with AO (a, d) or Syto-9 (green) and TRITC-ConA (red)
Figure Legend Snippet: CLSM of biofilms produced by wild-type, 3841 (a–c) and the fabF2/F1 mutant (d–f). Biofilms were stained with AO (a, d) or Syto-9 (green) and TRITC-ConA (red)

Techniques Used: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, Produced, Mutagenesis, Staining

13) Product Images from "Effects of an autoinducer analogue on antibiotic tolerance inPseudomonas aeruginosa"

Article Title: Effects of an autoinducer analogue on antibiotic tolerance inPseudomonas aeruginosa

Journal: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

doi: 10.1093/jac/dkx132

Efficacy of AIA-1 against PAO1 biofilms. (a) Effects of AIA-1 on PAO1 biofilm formation. Killing assay for biofilm cells using (b) 32 mg/L biapenem, (c) 32 mg/L tobramycin and (d) 2 mg/L levofloxacin. By assuming that survival before AIA-1 exposure was 100%, cfu values were converted to percentages. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Efficacy of AIA-1 against PAO1 biofilms. (a) Effects of AIA-1 on PAO1 biofilm formation. Killing assay for biofilm cells using (b) 32 mg/L biapenem, (c) 32 mg/L tobramycin and (d) 2 mg/L levofloxacin. By assuming that survival before AIA-1 exposure was 100%, cfu values were converted to percentages. * P

Techniques Used:

14) Product Images from "Identification of a novel ABC transporter required for desiccation tolerance, and biofilm formation in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841"

Article Title: Identification of a novel ABC transporter required for desiccation tolerance, and biofilm formation in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841

Journal: FEMS microbiology ecology

doi: 10.1111/j.1574-6941.2009.00824.x

CLSM of biofilms produced by wild-type Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841 (a and c) and the 17B mutant (b and d). Biofilms of the wild type and mutant strains were stained with acridine orange (a and b) or using the Live/Dead™ cell viability kit (c and d).
Figure Legend Snippet: CLSM of biofilms produced by wild-type Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841 (a and c) and the 17B mutant (b and d). Biofilms of the wild type and mutant strains were stained with acridine orange (a and b) or using the Live/Dead™ cell viability kit (c and d).

Techniques Used: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, Produced, Mutagenesis, Staining

15) Product Images from "Effects of an autoinducer analogue on antibiotic tolerance inPseudomonas aeruginosa"

Article Title: Effects of an autoinducer analogue on antibiotic tolerance inPseudomonas aeruginosa

Journal: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

doi: 10.1093/jac/dkx132

Efficacy of AIA-1 against PAO1 biofilms. (a) Effects of AIA-1 on PAO1 biofilm formation. Killing assay for biofilm cells using (b) 32 mg/L biapenem, (c) 32 mg/L tobramycin and (d) 2 mg/L levofloxacin. By assuming that survival before AIA-1 exposure was 100%, cfu values were converted to percentages. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Efficacy of AIA-1 against PAO1 biofilms. (a) Effects of AIA-1 on PAO1 biofilm formation. Killing assay for biofilm cells using (b) 32 mg/L biapenem, (c) 32 mg/L tobramycin and (d) 2 mg/L levofloxacin. By assuming that survival before AIA-1 exposure was 100%, cfu values were converted to percentages. * P

Techniques Used:

16) Product Images from "Eradicating uropathogenic Escherichia coli biofilms with a ciprofloxacin–dinitroxide conjugate biofilms with a ciprofloxacin–dinitroxide conjugate †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c9md00062c"

Article Title: Eradicating uropathogenic Escherichia coli biofilms with a ciprofloxacin–dinitroxide conjugate biofilms with a ciprofloxacin–dinitroxide conjugate †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c9md00062c

Journal: MedChemComm

doi: 10.1039/c9md00062c

UPEC biofilm eradication by dinitroxide-cirpofloxacin conjugate CDN 11 . Mature UPEC UTI89 biofilms were treated with CDN 11 at a concentration range of 6.25–400 μM for 24 hours (control represents biofilms treated with DMSO only (no antibiotic)). Cells were recovered from biofilms and viable CFU mL –1 were enumerated by serial dilution and plating on LB agar. Dot plots show data from 5 biological repeats each with 2 technical replicates. Horizontal lines with error bars show group means ± SD.
Figure Legend Snippet: UPEC biofilm eradication by dinitroxide-cirpofloxacin conjugate CDN 11 . Mature UPEC UTI89 biofilms were treated with CDN 11 at a concentration range of 6.25–400 μM for 24 hours (control represents biofilms treated with DMSO only (no antibiotic)). Cells were recovered from biofilms and viable CFU mL –1 were enumerated by serial dilution and plating on LB agar. Dot plots show data from 5 biological repeats each with 2 technical replicates. Horizontal lines with error bars show group means ± SD.

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay, Serial Dilution

17) Product Images from "Pharmacodynamics of Ceftiofur Selected by Genomic and Proteomic Approaches of Streptococcus parauberis Isolated from the Flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus"

Article Title: Pharmacodynamics of Ceftiofur Selected by Genomic and Proteomic Approaches of Streptococcus parauberis Isolated from the Flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

Journal: International Journal of Genomics

doi: 10.1155/2020/4850290

Quantitation of bacterial growth and biofilm formation in Streptococcus parauberis strains. Bacterial growth (a) vs. biofilm formation assay (b) of planktonic bacteria in brain heart infusion (BHI) and 0.5% glucose-supplemented BHI media. S. aureus is used as the positive control for biofilm formation whereas medium only is used as the normal control (NC). The optical density (OD) was read at wavelength of 550 nm. The absorbance was noted as
Figure Legend Snippet: Quantitation of bacterial growth and biofilm formation in Streptococcus parauberis strains. Bacterial growth (a) vs. biofilm formation assay (b) of planktonic bacteria in brain heart infusion (BHI) and 0.5% glucose-supplemented BHI media. S. aureus is used as the positive control for biofilm formation whereas medium only is used as the normal control (NC). The optical density (OD) was read at wavelength of 550 nm. The absorbance was noted as

Techniques Used: Quantitation Assay, Tube Formation Assay, Positive Control

18) Product Images from "A High-Throughput Screening Approach To Repurpose FDA-Approved Drugs for Bactericidal Applications against Staphylococcus aureus Small-Colony Variants"

Article Title: A High-Throughput Screening Approach To Repurpose FDA-Approved Drugs for Bactericidal Applications against Staphylococcus aureus Small-Colony Variants

Journal: mSphere

doi: 10.1128/mSphere.00422-18

Dose response of gentamicin, daunorubicin, ketoconazole, rifapentine, and sitafloxacin against established S. aureus biofilm using the MBEC assay. UAMS-1 biofilm was established on polystyrene pegs after 24 h of incubation with media supplemented with 10% (vol/vol) human plasma, and representative SEM is shown with magnifications of ×100 (A), ×1,000 (B), and ×5,000 (C). Biofilm was challenged by 1 to 128 µg/ml of each of the 4 validated HTS drugs and gentamicin (D). Sitafloxacin significantly killed biofilm at concentrations 4 to 128 µg/ml in comparison to gentamicin at each concentration. * indicates P
Figure Legend Snippet: Dose response of gentamicin, daunorubicin, ketoconazole, rifapentine, and sitafloxacin against established S. aureus biofilm using the MBEC assay. UAMS-1 biofilm was established on polystyrene pegs after 24 h of incubation with media supplemented with 10% (vol/vol) human plasma, and representative SEM is shown with magnifications of ×100 (A), ×1,000 (B), and ×5,000 (C). Biofilm was challenged by 1 to 128 µg/ml of each of the 4 validated HTS drugs and gentamicin (D). Sitafloxacin significantly killed biofilm at concentrations 4 to 128 µg/ml in comparison to gentamicin at each concentration. * indicates P

Techniques Used: Incubation, Concentration Assay

19) Product Images from "Marine-Derived Quorum-Sensing Inhibitory Activities Enhance the Antibacterial Efficacy of Tobramycin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa"

Article Title: Marine-Derived Quorum-Sensing Inhibitory Activities Enhance the Antibacterial Efficacy of Tobramycin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Journal: Marine Drugs

doi: 10.3390/md13010001

Scanning electron micrographs of ( A ) P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms grown on the CBD for 24 h at 37 °C; ( B ) PAO1 biofilms treated with KS8 8-day supernatant. Pictures were taken using using a field emission scanning electron microscope FE-SEM (JEOL JSM-6500F FE-SEM, JEOL Ltd., Tokyo, Japan).
Figure Legend Snippet: Scanning electron micrographs of ( A ) P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms grown on the CBD for 24 h at 37 °C; ( B ) PAO1 biofilms treated with KS8 8-day supernatant. Pictures were taken using using a field emission scanning electron microscope FE-SEM (JEOL JSM-6500F FE-SEM, JEOL Ltd., Tokyo, Japan).

Techniques Used: Microscopy

Biofilm removal assay. 48 h biofilm biomass (mean absorbance of biomass at 590 nm) of P. aeruginosa (PAO1) biofilms following 24 h challenge using 100 μL of sterile 3-day supernatants of marine isolates ABP4, LL53, LL67, KS6, KS8, JUN4, ISO1, ISO2, ISO4. CM = Conditioned media. Differences in mean absorbance were compared to the untreated control at each time-point and considered significant when p
Figure Legend Snippet: Biofilm removal assay. 48 h biofilm biomass (mean absorbance of biomass at 590 nm) of P. aeruginosa (PAO1) biofilms following 24 h challenge using 100 μL of sterile 3-day supernatants of marine isolates ABP4, LL53, LL67, KS6, KS8, JUN4, ISO1, ISO2, ISO4. CM = Conditioned media. Differences in mean absorbance were compared to the untreated control at each time-point and considered significant when p

Techniques Used:

( A ) Production of Pyocyanain (OD695 nm) by P. aeruginosa (PAO1) 48 h biofilms and planktonic cultures following 24 h treatment with KS8 crude organic extract. ( B ) Production of the QS-controlled siderophore Pyoverdine (Excitation 400 nm emission 450 nm/OD600 nm)) by P. aeruginosa (PAO1) 48 h biofilms and planktonic cultures following 24 h treatment with KS8 crude organic extract. Differences in mean absorbance were compared to the untreated control at each time-point and considered significant when p
Figure Legend Snippet: ( A ) Production of Pyocyanain (OD695 nm) by P. aeruginosa (PAO1) 48 h biofilms and planktonic cultures following 24 h treatment with KS8 crude organic extract. ( B ) Production of the QS-controlled siderophore Pyoverdine (Excitation 400 nm emission 450 nm/OD600 nm)) by P. aeruginosa (PAO1) 48 h biofilms and planktonic cultures following 24 h treatment with KS8 crude organic extract. Differences in mean absorbance were compared to the untreated control at each time-point and considered significant when p

Techniques Used:

Biofilm eradication assay. P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms were grown on the Calgary Biofilm Device for 24 h in LB broth at 37 °C and 150 rpm prior to challenge. Mean viable biofilm counts obtained following 24 h exposure to 100 μL of sterile 3-day supernatant of isolates ISO1, ISO6, LL67, KS6, KS8, SS1, SS2, and BW23. Each value is expressed as the mean and standard deviation of at least six replicates. Differences in mean absorbance were compared to the untreated control at each time-point and considered significant when p
Figure Legend Snippet: Biofilm eradication assay. P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms were grown on the Calgary Biofilm Device for 24 h in LB broth at 37 °C and 150 rpm prior to challenge. Mean viable biofilm counts obtained following 24 h exposure to 100 μL of sterile 3-day supernatant of isolates ISO1, ISO6, LL67, KS6, KS8, SS1, SS2, and BW23. Each value is expressed as the mean and standard deviation of at least six replicates. Differences in mean absorbance were compared to the untreated control at each time-point and considered significant when p

Techniques Used: Standard Deviation

Prevention of biofilm formation by isolate KS8 supernatant and determination of the optimal incubation period for bioactive production. P. aeruginosa (PAO1) mean biofilm counts following 24 h exposure to sterile 1-day, 3-day and 10-day supernatants of isolate KS8. PAO1 biofilms were grown on the Calgary Biofilm Device for 24 h in LB broth at 37 °C and 150 rpm. Differences in mean absorbance were compared to the untreated control at each time-point and considered significant when p
Figure Legend Snippet: Prevention of biofilm formation by isolate KS8 supernatant and determination of the optimal incubation period for bioactive production. P. aeruginosa (PAO1) mean biofilm counts following 24 h exposure to sterile 1-day, 3-day and 10-day supernatants of isolate KS8. PAO1 biofilms were grown on the Calgary Biofilm Device for 24 h in LB broth at 37 °C and 150 rpm. Differences in mean absorbance were compared to the untreated control at each time-point and considered significant when p

Techniques Used: Incubation

Biofilm prevention assay. 24 h biofilm biomass (mean absorbance of biomass at 590 nm) of P. aeruginosa PAO1 (green) following 24 h exposure to 100 μL of sterile 3-day supernatants of marine isolates ABP4, LL53, LL67, KS6, KS8, JUN4, ISO1, ISO2, ISO4. CM = Conditioned media. Differences in mean absorbance were compared to the untreated control at each time-point and considered significant when p
Figure Legend Snippet: Biofilm prevention assay. 24 h biofilm biomass (mean absorbance of biomass at 590 nm) of P. aeruginosa PAO1 (green) following 24 h exposure to 100 μL of sterile 3-day supernatants of marine isolates ABP4, LL53, LL67, KS6, KS8, JUN4, ISO1, ISO2, ISO4. CM = Conditioned media. Differences in mean absorbance were compared to the untreated control at each time-point and considered significant when p

Techniques Used:

20) Product Images from "Triclosan Is an Aminoglycoside Adjuvant for Eradication of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms"

Article Title: Triclosan Is an Aminoglycoside Adjuvant for Eradication of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms

Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

doi: 10.1128/AAC.00146-18

Triclosan enhances aminoglycoside killing of 24-h-old biofilms. Twenty-four-hour-old biofilms grown on minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) plates were treated for 6 h with 100 μM triclosan, 500 μM tobramycin, 100 μM gentamicin, or streptomycin, alone and in combination, and the number of viable cells within the biofilms was quantified using the BacTiter-Glo assay. The assay was performed at least three times in triplicate. The results represent the means ± the standard error of the mean (SEM). A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Bonferroni's multiple comparison post hoc test was used to determine statistical significance compared to each aminoglycoside alone (*, P
Figure Legend Snippet: Triclosan enhances aminoglycoside killing of 24-h-old biofilms. Twenty-four-hour-old biofilms grown on minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) plates were treated for 6 h with 100 μM triclosan, 500 μM tobramycin, 100 μM gentamicin, or streptomycin, alone and in combination, and the number of viable cells within the biofilms was quantified using the BacTiter-Glo assay. The assay was performed at least three times in triplicate. The results represent the means ± the standard error of the mean (SEM). A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Bonferroni's multiple comparison post hoc test was used to determine statistical significance compared to each aminoglycoside alone (*, P

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay, Glo Assay

FabI inhibition by triclosan is not responsible for the synergy. (A) Twenty-four-hour-old biofilms grown on MBEC plates by a FabI P. aeruginosa -deficient strain (Tn:: fabI mutant) were treated for 6 h with triclosan (100 μM), tobramycin (500 μM), gentamicin (100 μM), or streptomycin (100 μM), alone and in combination. (B) Twenty-four-hour-old biofilms grown on MBEC plates by PAO1 were treated for 6 h with triclocarban (100 μM) or tobramycin (500 μM), alone or in combination. The number of viable cells within the biofilms were quantified using the BacTiter-Glo assay. The assay was performed at least three times in triplicate. The results represent means ± the SEM. A one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's multiple-comparison post hoc test was used to determine statistical significance compared to tobramycin alone (*, P
Figure Legend Snippet: FabI inhibition by triclosan is not responsible for the synergy. (A) Twenty-four-hour-old biofilms grown on MBEC plates by a FabI P. aeruginosa -deficient strain (Tn:: fabI mutant) were treated for 6 h with triclosan (100 μM), tobramycin (500 μM), gentamicin (100 μM), or streptomycin (100 μM), alone and in combination. (B) Twenty-four-hour-old biofilms grown on MBEC plates by PAO1 were treated for 6 h with triclocarban (100 μM) or tobramycin (500 μM), alone or in combination. The number of viable cells within the biofilms were quantified using the BacTiter-Glo assay. The assay was performed at least three times in triplicate. The results represent means ± the SEM. A one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's multiple-comparison post hoc test was used to determine statistical significance compared to tobramycin alone (*, P

Techniques Used: Inhibition, Mutagenesis, Glo Assay

Triclosan enhances low concentrations of tobramycin. Twenty-four-hour-old biofilms grown on MBEC plates were treated for 6 h with checkerboard dilutions of triclosan combined with tobramycin. Numbers of viable cells within the biofilms were quantified using the BacTiter-Glo assay. The assay was performed at least three times in triplicate, and the mean is shown.
Figure Legend Snippet: Triclosan enhances low concentrations of tobramycin. Twenty-four-hour-old biofilms grown on MBEC plates were treated for 6 h with checkerboard dilutions of triclosan combined with tobramycin. Numbers of viable cells within the biofilms were quantified using the BacTiter-Glo assay. The assay was performed at least three times in triplicate, and the mean is shown.

Techniques Used: Glo Assay

Aminoglycosides combined with triclosan do not increase biofilm dispersal. (A) Twenty-four-hour-old biofilms grown on MBEC plates were treated with triclosan (100 μM), tobramycin (500 μM), gentamicin (100 μM), or streptomycin (100 μM), alone and in combination. The effect on biofilm biomass was quantified by staining with crystal violet. The experiment was performed at least five times in triplicate. The results represent the means ± SEM. A one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's multiple-comparison post hoc test was used to determine statistical significance compared to no treatment (*, P
Figure Legend Snippet: Aminoglycosides combined with triclosan do not increase biofilm dispersal. (A) Twenty-four-hour-old biofilms grown on MBEC plates were treated with triclosan (100 μM), tobramycin (500 μM), gentamicin (100 μM), or streptomycin (100 μM), alone and in combination. The effect on biofilm biomass was quantified by staining with crystal violet. The experiment was performed at least five times in triplicate. The results represent the means ± SEM. A one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's multiple-comparison post hoc test was used to determine statistical significance compared to no treatment (*, P

Techniques Used: Staining

Tobramycin and triclosan are effective against P. aeruginosa CF isolates. Twenty-four-hour-old biofilms grown on MBEC plates were treated with triclosan (100 μM,) tobramycin (500 μM), or a combination of the two for 6 h. The numbers of viable cells within the biofilms were quantified using the BacTiter-Glo assay. The assay was performed at least three times in triplicate. The results represent means ± the SEM. A one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's multiple comparison post hoc test was used to determine statistical significance compared to tobramycin alone (*, P
Figure Legend Snippet: Tobramycin and triclosan are effective against P. aeruginosa CF isolates. Twenty-four-hour-old biofilms grown on MBEC plates were treated with triclosan (100 μM,) tobramycin (500 μM), or a combination of the two for 6 h. The numbers of viable cells within the biofilms were quantified using the BacTiter-Glo assay. The assay was performed at least three times in triplicate. The results represent means ± the SEM. A one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's multiple comparison post hoc test was used to determine statistical significance compared to tobramycin alone (*, P

Techniques Used: Glo Assay

21) Product Images from "Inhibition of Biofilm Formation by Esomeprazole in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus"

Article Title: Inhibition of Biofilm Formation by Esomeprazole in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus

Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

doi: 10.1128/AAC.00544-12

Light micrograph images of 24-h biofilms of P. aeruginosa (A) or S. aureus (B) grown in the presence or absence of esomeprazole. Magnification, ×20.
Figure Legend Snippet: Light micrograph images of 24-h biofilms of P. aeruginosa (A) or S. aureus (B) grown in the presence or absence of esomeprazole. Magnification, ×20.

Techniques Used:

22) Product Images from "Impact of Silver-Containing Wound Dressings on Bacterial Biofilm Viability and Susceptibility to Antibiotics during Prolonged Treatment ▿"

Article Title: Impact of Silver-Containing Wound Dressings on Bacterial Biofilm Viability and Susceptibility to Antibiotics during Prolonged Treatment ▿

Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

doi: 10.1128/AAC.00825-10

SEM images of MRSA biofilms developed on the peg surface before exposure (left) to NCPE, MSN, SCMC, MSAL, and MSPU and after 1 day (middle) and 7 days (right) of the treatment in a daily transfer assay. Bar, 5 μm.
Figure Legend Snippet: SEM images of MRSA biofilms developed on the peg surface before exposure (left) to NCPE, MSN, SCMC, MSAL, and MSPU and after 1 day (middle) and 7 days (right) of the treatment in a daily transfer assay. Bar, 5 μm.

Techniques Used:

Time-dependent effects of silver-containing dressings on biofilm bacterial viability and colony morphology.
Figure Legend Snippet: Time-dependent effects of silver-containing dressings on biofilm bacterial viability and colony morphology.

Techniques Used:

SEM images of P. aeruginosa biofilms developed on the peg surface before exposure (left) to Acticoat nanocrystalline silver on polyethylene mesh (NCPE), Silverlon metallic silver on nylon core (MSN), Aquacel Ag silver carboxymethylcellulose (SCMC), SilverCel
Figure Legend Snippet: SEM images of P. aeruginosa biofilms developed on the peg surface before exposure (left) to Acticoat nanocrystalline silver on polyethylene mesh (NCPE), Silverlon metallic silver on nylon core (MSN), Aquacel Ag silver carboxymethylcellulose (SCMC), SilverCel

Techniques Used:

SEM images of E. coli biofilms developed on the peg surface before exposure (left) to NCPE, MSN, SCMC, MSAL, and MSPU and after 1 day (middle) and 7 days (right) of the treatment in a daily transfer assay. Bar, 5 μm.
Figure Legend Snippet: SEM images of E. coli biofilms developed on the peg surface before exposure (left) to NCPE, MSN, SCMC, MSAL, and MSPU and after 1 day (middle) and 7 days (right) of the treatment in a daily transfer assay. Bar, 5 μm.

Techniques Used:

Antibiotic susceptibilities of biofilms pretreated with silver dressings.
Figure Legend Snippet: Antibiotic susceptibilities of biofilms pretreated with silver dressings.

Techniques Used:

Accumulation of silver in the biofilms.
Figure Legend Snippet: Accumulation of silver in the biofilms.

Techniques Used:

23) Product Images from "Environmental interactions are regulated by temperature in Burkholderia seminalis TC3.4.2R3"

Article Title: Environmental interactions are regulated by temperature in Burkholderia seminalis TC3.4.2R3

Journal: Scientific Reports

doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-41778-x

Schematic presentation of thermoregulation in B. seminalis TC3.4.2R3. At 28 °C, more EPS and biofilm are produced favoring the establishment of colonization. At 37 °C, energy pathways are induced, and more motility can be observed. Capsule biosynthesis is also upregulated leading to a higher virulence in larvae model.
Figure Legend Snippet: Schematic presentation of thermoregulation in B. seminalis TC3.4.2R3. At 28 °C, more EPS and biofilm are produced favoring the establishment of colonization. At 37 °C, energy pathways are induced, and more motility can be observed. Capsule biosynthesis is also upregulated leading to a higher virulence in larvae model.

Techniques Used: Produced

Comparative phenotypic profile of B. seminalis TC3.4.2R3 at 28 °C and at 37 °C. ( a ) Biofilm production; ( b ) EPS production in dry weight; ( c ) swimming motility; and ( d ) growth in TSB medium. For ( a , d ), the error bars represent the standard deviation of three technical replicates and eight biological replicates each; *** p
Figure Legend Snippet: Comparative phenotypic profile of B. seminalis TC3.4.2R3 at 28 °C and at 37 °C. ( a ) Biofilm production; ( b ) EPS production in dry weight; ( c ) swimming motility; and ( d ) growth in TSB medium. For ( a , d ), the error bars represent the standard deviation of three technical replicates and eight biological replicates each; *** p

Techniques Used: Standard Deviation

24) Product Images from "Copper and Quaternary Ammonium Cations Exert Synergistic Bactericidal and Antibiofilm Activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa "

Article Title: Copper and Quaternary Ammonium Cations Exert Synergistic Bactericidal and Antibiofilm Activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

doi: 10.1128/AAC.00203-08

Combinations of Cu 2+ with other QACs show synergistic killing of P. aeruginosa ATCC 15442 biofilms. Viable cell counts were determined after exposure of biofilms to combinations of Cu 2+ and benzalkonium chloride (a), cetylpyridinium chloride
Figure Legend Snippet: Combinations of Cu 2+ with other QACs show synergistic killing of P. aeruginosa ATCC 15442 biofilms. Viable cell counts were determined after exposure of biofilms to combinations of Cu 2+ and benzalkonium chloride (a), cetylpyridinium chloride

Techniques Used:

Live/Dead BacLight staining of P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 biofilms exposed to Cu 2+ and Polycide indicates that these agents are bactericidal. In these pictures, green cells are live bacteria and red cells are dead bacteria. (a) Growth controls.
Figure Legend Snippet: Live/Dead BacLight staining of P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 biofilms exposed to Cu 2+ and Polycide indicates that these agents are bactericidal. In these pictures, green cells are live bacteria and red cells are dead bacteria. (a) Growth controls.

Techniques Used: Staining

High-throughput screening may be used to identify synergistic antimicrobial interactions that kill microbial biofilms. Starting from cryogenic stocks, the desired bacterial strain was streaked out twice on TSA (a), and colonies from the second subcultures
Figure Legend Snippet: High-throughput screening may be used to identify synergistic antimicrobial interactions that kill microbial biofilms. Starting from cryogenic stocks, the desired bacterial strain was streaked out twice on TSA (a), and colonies from the second subcultures

Techniques Used: High Throughput Screening Assay

P. aeruginosa ATCC 15442 biofilms were killed time dependently by combinations of Cu 2+ and Polycide. Viable cell counts were determined after exposure of biofilms to combinations of Cu 2+ and Polycide in ddH 2 O for 10 min (a) or 30 min (b)
Figure Legend Snippet: P. aeruginosa ATCC 15442 biofilms were killed time dependently by combinations of Cu 2+ and Polycide. Viable cell counts were determined after exposure of biofilms to combinations of Cu 2+ and Polycide in ddH 2 O for 10 min (a) or 30 min (b)

Techniques Used:

Killing of Escherichia coli (a), Pseudomonas fluorescens (b), Salmonella enterica serovar Cholerasuis (c), and Staphylococcus aureus (d) biofilms by combinations of Cu 2+ and Polycide. These data are for 24 h of exposure in dilute organics, and
Figure Legend Snippet: Killing of Escherichia coli (a), Pseudomonas fluorescens (b), Salmonella enterica serovar Cholerasuis (c), and Staphylococcus aureus (d) biofilms by combinations of Cu 2+ and Polycide. These data are for 24 h of exposure in dilute organics, and

Techniques Used:

25) Product Images from "Development and pyrosequencing analysis of an in-vitro oral biofilm model"

Article Title: Development and pyrosequencing analysis of an in-vitro oral biofilm model

Journal: BMC Microbiology

doi: 10.1186/s12866-015-0364-1

Principal coordinates analysis of saliva and seven-day biofilms. Plots are based on community membership using the Jaccard index (A) and community structure using the thetaYC calculator (B) . Blue - biofilms; red - saliva. Labels indicate the panel number. A: PC1 = 8.6% of variance, PC2 = 5.2% of variance. B: PC1 = 33.1% of variance, PC2 = 19.3% of variance.
Figure Legend Snippet: Principal coordinates analysis of saliva and seven-day biofilms. Plots are based on community membership using the Jaccard index (A) and community structure using the thetaYC calculator (B) . Blue - biofilms; red - saliva. Labels indicate the panel number. A: PC1 = 8.6% of variance, PC2 = 5.2% of variance. B: PC1 = 33.1% of variance, PC2 = 19.3% of variance.

Techniques Used:

Principal coordinates analysis of biofilm replicates from Panel 1 at different time points. Plots are based on community membership using the Jaccard index (A) and community structure using the thetaYC calculator (B) . Blue - Time 1; red - Time 2; black - Time 3. A: PC1 = 8.6% of variance, PC2 = 5.2% of variance. B: PC1 = 33.1% of variance, PC2 = 19.3% of variance.
Figure Legend Snippet: Principal coordinates analysis of biofilm replicates from Panel 1 at different time points. Plots are based on community membership using the Jaccard index (A) and community structure using the thetaYC calculator (B) . Blue - Time 1; red - Time 2; black - Time 3. A: PC1 = 8.6% of variance, PC2 = 5.2% of variance. B: PC1 = 33.1% of variance, PC2 = 19.3% of variance.

Techniques Used:

Linear Discriminant Analysis Effect Size (LEfSe) analysis showing those OTUs that were significantly differentially abundant between saliva and seven-day biofilms, ranked by effect size (all LDA scores > 3.5).
Figure Legend Snippet: Linear Discriminant Analysis Effect Size (LEfSe) analysis showing those OTUs that were significantly differentially abundant between saliva and seven-day biofilms, ranked by effect size (all LDA scores > 3.5).

Techniques Used:

Principal coordinates analysis of biofilms derived from different panels after different incubation times. Plots are based on community membership using the Jaccard index (A) and community structure using the thetaYC calculator (B) . Blue - Panel 1; red - Panel 2; black - Panel 3. Labels indicate the incubation time. A: PC1 = 8.6% of variance, PC2 = 5.2% of variance. B: PC1 = 33.1% of variance, PC2 = 19.3% of variance.
Figure Legend Snippet: Principal coordinates analysis of biofilms derived from different panels after different incubation times. Plots are based on community membership using the Jaccard index (A) and community structure using the thetaYC calculator (B) . Blue - Panel 1; red - Panel 2; black - Panel 3. Labels indicate the incubation time. A: PC1 = 8.6% of variance, PC2 = 5.2% of variance. B: PC1 = 33.1% of variance, PC2 = 19.3% of variance.

Techniques Used: Derivative Assay, Incubation

Predominant genera detected in the biofilms. The graph shows the mean relative abundances of genera that were detected in seven and 14-day biofilms derived from three panels. Genera shown are those with mean relative abundances of > 1%. Error bars show the standard error of the mean (SEM).
Figure Legend Snippet: Predominant genera detected in the biofilms. The graph shows the mean relative abundances of genera that were detected in seven and 14-day biofilms derived from three panels. Genera shown are those with mean relative abundances of > 1%. Error bars show the standard error of the mean (SEM).

Techniques Used: Derivative Assay

26) Product Images from "Selected Antimicrobial Essential Oils Eradicate Pseudomonas spp. and Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms"

Article Title: Selected Antimicrobial Essential Oils Eradicate Pseudomonas spp. and Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms

Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

doi: 10.1128/AEM.07499-11

Activities of selected antibiotics and antimicrobial essential oils against P. aeruginosa PAO1 (A, B) and P. putida KT2440 (C). The MIC and MBEC of various substances were determined by challenging bacteria that were planktonic or within biofilms, respectively. Asterisks represent data that extend beyond the plot range, indicating that no killing was observed at the tested concentrations. Each experiment was performed in triplicate, and the error bars represent standard errors.
Figure Legend Snippet: Activities of selected antibiotics and antimicrobial essential oils against P. aeruginosa PAO1 (A, B) and P. putida KT2440 (C). The MIC and MBEC of various substances were determined by challenging bacteria that were planktonic or within biofilms, respectively. Asterisks represent data that extend beyond the plot range, indicating that no killing was observed at the tested concentrations. Each experiment was performed in triplicate, and the error bars represent standard errors.

Techniques Used:

Cassia oil kills planktonic bacteria and biofilms with comparable efficiency. Cells were exposed to colistin or cassia oil for 2 h and then stained with a LIVE/DEAD stain to determine viabililty. Live cells are labeled in green (SYT09), and dead cells are labeled in red (propidium iodide).
Figure Legend Snippet: Cassia oil kills planktonic bacteria and biofilms with comparable efficiency. Cells were exposed to colistin or cassia oil for 2 h and then stained with a LIVE/DEAD stain to determine viabililty. Live cells are labeled in green (SYT09), and dead cells are labeled in red (propidium iodide).

Techniques Used: Staining, Labeling

Comparing two methods of biofilm cultivation for antibiotic and essential oil testing. P. aeruginosa biofilms were grown either on the sides of wells in a 96-well plate or on the pegs of an MBEC device, and their sensitivities toward antibiotics and essential oils were determined.
Figure Legend Snippet: Comparing two methods of biofilm cultivation for antibiotic and essential oil testing. P. aeruginosa biofilms were grown either on the sides of wells in a 96-well plate or on the pegs of an MBEC device, and their sensitivities toward antibiotics and essential oils were determined.

Techniques Used:

27) Product Images from "Rifamycin Derivatives Are Effective Against Staphylococcal Biofilms In Vitro and Elutable From PMMA"

Article Title: Rifamycin Derivatives Are Effective Against Staphylococcal Biofilms In Vitro and Elutable From PMMA

Journal: Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research

doi: 10.1007/s11999-015-4300-3

Representative SEM images show biofilms of S. aureus strain SAMMC-58 on individual pegs of the MBEC P G device after 24-hour recovery in antibiotic-free media with no treatment, ( A ) control, or after overnight antimicrobial treatment with ( B )
Figure Legend Snippet: Representative SEM images show biofilms of S. aureus strain SAMMC-58 on individual pegs of the MBEC P G device after 24-hour recovery in antibiotic-free media with no treatment, ( A ) control, or after overnight antimicrobial treatment with ( B )

Techniques Used:

28) Product Images from "Pexiganan in Combination with Nisin to Control Polymicrobial Diabetic Foot Infections"

Article Title: Pexiganan in Combination with Nisin to Control Polymicrobial Diabetic Foot Infections

Journal: Antibiotics

doi: 10.3390/antibiotics9030128

Minimum biofilm inhibitory concentrations (MBIC) ( a ) and minimum biofilm eradication concentrations (MBEC) ( b ) of pexiganan solution, pexiganan incorporated within guar-gum biogel, pexiganan and nisin dual-AMP solution and pexiganan and nisin dual-AMP biogel against S. aureus Z25.2, P. aeruginosa Z25.1 and dual-species biofilm cultures. Bars represent means ± standard deviation.
Figure Legend Snippet: Minimum biofilm inhibitory concentrations (MBIC) ( a ) and minimum biofilm eradication concentrations (MBEC) ( b ) of pexiganan solution, pexiganan incorporated within guar-gum biogel, pexiganan and nisin dual-AMP solution and pexiganan and nisin dual-AMP biogel against S. aureus Z25.2, P. aeruginosa Z25.1 and dual-species biofilm cultures. Bars represent means ± standard deviation.

Techniques Used: Standard Deviation

Related Articles

High Throughput Screening Assay:

Article Title: Human cathelicidin LL-37 enhance the antibiofilm effect of EGCG on Streptococcus mutans
Article Snippet: .. Biofilm susceptibility assays To measure the antimicrobial susceptibility of S. mutans growing in biofilms, the MBEC High-throughput (HTP) Assay (Innovotech Inc., Edmonton, Alberta, Canada) was performed [ ]. ..

Article Title: Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolite Profiling of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Differentiates between Biofilm and Planktonic Phenotypes
Article Snippet: .. Biofilms were formed using the MBEC high-throughput assay (MBEC Innovotech, Canada), as previously described by Ceri and colleagues , with some modifications ( ). ..

Concentration Assay:

Article Title: Effect of ciprofloxacin in the ultrastructure and development of biofilms formed by rapidly growing mycobacteria
Article Snippet: .. To determine the Minimum Biofilm Eradication Concentration (MBEC) the biofilm was developed in triplicate following the Calgary system with 96-well plates MBEC™ Biofilm Inoculator (Innovotech, Canada) and it was used according to instructions from the manufacturer with an increased period of incubation (7 days) [ ]. ..

Incubation:

Article Title: Effect of ciprofloxacin in the ultrastructure and development of biofilms formed by rapidly growing mycobacteria
Article Snippet: .. To determine the Minimum Biofilm Eradication Concentration (MBEC) the biofilm was developed in triplicate following the Calgary system with 96-well plates MBEC™ Biofilm Inoculator (Innovotech, Canada) and it was used according to instructions from the manufacturer with an increased period of incubation (7 days) [ ]. ..

Article Title: Effects of an autoinducer analogue on antibiotic tolerance inPseudomonas aeruginosa
Article Snippet: .. Biofilms were grown using the MBEC physiology and genetics assay kit (Innovotech Inc., Edmonton, Canada)., In order to examine the effects of AIA-1 on biofilm formation, cultures were incubated in the presence or absence of 32 mg/L AIA-1 at 37°C for 24 h. In the killing assay for biofilm cells, biofilms were exposed to 32 mg/L AIA-1 at 37°C for 1 h. Biofilms were then exposed to biapenem 32 mg/L, tobramycin 32 mg/L or levofloxacin 2 mg/L, at 37°C for 24 h. Biofilm cells were disrupted by sonication and bacterial survival was determined by culturing cells on LB agar plates. ..

Sonication:

Article Title: Effects of an autoinducer analogue on antibiotic tolerance inPseudomonas aeruginosa
Article Snippet: .. Biofilms were grown using the MBEC physiology and genetics assay kit (Innovotech Inc., Edmonton, Canada)., In order to examine the effects of AIA-1 on biofilm formation, cultures were incubated in the presence or absence of 32 mg/L AIA-1 at 37°C for 24 h. In the killing assay for biofilm cells, biofilms were exposed to 32 mg/L AIA-1 at 37°C for 1 h. Biofilms were then exposed to biapenem 32 mg/L, tobramycin 32 mg/L or levofloxacin 2 mg/L, at 37°C for 24 h. Biofilm cells were disrupted by sonication and bacterial survival was determined by culturing cells on LB agar plates. ..

Similar Products

  • Logo
  • About
  • News
  • Press Release
  • Team
  • Advisors
  • Partners
  • Contact
  • Bioz Stars
  • Bioz vStars
  • 90
    Innovotech biofilm formation test
    Effect of EGCG on living microbes after biofilms formation. <t>Biofilm</t> pegs treated different concentrations of EGCG for 6 hr or 8 hr at 37°C, and then, bacteria were moved from biofilm of pegs to count living cell within per 10 square millimeter where seeded on ager plate.
    Biofilm Formation Test, supplied by Innovotech, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/biofilm formation test/product/Innovotech
    Average 90 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    biofilm formation test - by Bioz Stars, 2020-05
    90/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    90
    Innovotech anti biofilm activities
    The MBEC (minimal <t>biofilm</t> eradication concentration) of PS-Du ( A ) and PS-Co ( B ) against S. aureus biofilm with peptide concentrations ranging from 4 mg/L (0.5 MIC) to 64 mg/L (8 MIC). Blank control was set up with culture medium, and positive control was represented by S. aureus biofilm growth culture. Data represent means ± SEM of 9 replicates.
    Anti Biofilm Activities, supplied by Innovotech, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/anti biofilm activities/product/Innovotech
    Average 90 stars, based on 2 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    anti biofilm activities - by Bioz Stars, 2020-05
    90/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    92
    Innovotech biofilms
    Cells at the periphery of the <t>biofilm</t> respond to tobramycin
    Biofilms, supplied by Innovotech, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 7 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/biofilms/product/Innovotech
    Average 92 stars, based on 7 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    biofilms - by Bioz Stars, 2020-05
    92/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    94
    Innovotech calgary biofilm device
    Stationary-phase planktonic cell populations of Δ yafQ and isogenic parental strain E. coli K-12 BW25113 had similar numbers of cells surviving exposure to cefazolin and tobramycin. Mean log killing was calculated after the <t>biofilms</t> had been exposed
    Calgary Biofilm Device, supplied by Innovotech, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 12 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/calgary biofilm device/product/Innovotech
    Average 94 stars, based on 12 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    calgary biofilm device - by Bioz Stars, 2020-05
    94/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    Image Search Results


    Effect of EGCG on living microbes after biofilms formation. Biofilm pegs treated different concentrations of EGCG for 6 hr or 8 hr at 37°C, and then, bacteria were moved from biofilm of pegs to count living cell within per 10 square millimeter where seeded on ager plate.

    Journal: The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science

    Article Title: Antimicrobial activity of tea catechin against canine oral bacteria and the functional mechanisms

    doi: 10.1292/jvms.16-0198

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of EGCG on living microbes after biofilms formation. Biofilm pegs treated different concentrations of EGCG for 6 hr or 8 hr at 37°C, and then, bacteria were moved from biofilm of pegs to count living cell within per 10 square millimeter where seeded on ager plate.

    Article Snippet: Biofilm formation test : The effect of EGCG on biofilm formation ofS. mutans was measured by using the Minimum Biofilm Eradication Concentration-High Throughput Plate (MBECTM -HTP, Innovotech, Inc., Edmonton, AB, Canada).

    Techniques:

    The damage effect of EGCG on S. mutans cell morphology and biofilm. (A) Untreated control. (B) Treated with 0.2 mg/m l of EGCG for 24 hr. The arrow in Fig. 5B indicates “ring” phenomena around the damaged cells. (C) Untreated control of biofilm on MBEC TM -HTP pegs. (D) Biofilm bacteria were treated with 0.2 mg/m l of EGCG for 24 hr.

    Journal: The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science

    Article Title: Antimicrobial activity of tea catechin against canine oral bacteria and the functional mechanisms

    doi: 10.1292/jvms.16-0198

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The damage effect of EGCG on S. mutans cell morphology and biofilm. (A) Untreated control. (B) Treated with 0.2 mg/m l of EGCG for 24 hr. The arrow in Fig. 5B indicates “ring” phenomena around the damaged cells. (C) Untreated control of biofilm on MBEC TM -HTP pegs. (D) Biofilm bacteria were treated with 0.2 mg/m l of EGCG for 24 hr.

    Article Snippet: Biofilm formation test : The effect of EGCG on biofilm formation ofS. mutans was measured by using the Minimum Biofilm Eradication Concentration-High Throughput Plate (MBECTM -HTP, Innovotech, Inc., Edmonton, AB, Canada).

    Techniques:

    Inhibitory effect of EGCG on biofilm formation. The pegs inserted into 10 7 CFU/m l planktonic cultures that had added final concentration of 0.2 mg/m l of EGCG to incubate for 12, 24 and 36 hr to form biofilm, respectively. The bacteria were moved from biofilm of pegs and seeded on agar plate to count and analyzed by t -test. Standard deviations indicated by error bars were calculated from 3 independent experiments. * Significantly different from the untreated controls (* P

    Journal: The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science

    Article Title: Antimicrobial activity of tea catechin against canine oral bacteria and the functional mechanisms

    doi: 10.1292/jvms.16-0198

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Inhibitory effect of EGCG on biofilm formation. The pegs inserted into 10 7 CFU/m l planktonic cultures that had added final concentration of 0.2 mg/m l of EGCG to incubate for 12, 24 and 36 hr to form biofilm, respectively. The bacteria were moved from biofilm of pegs and seeded on agar plate to count and analyzed by t -test. Standard deviations indicated by error bars were calculated from 3 independent experiments. * Significantly different from the untreated controls (* P

    Article Snippet: Biofilm formation test : The effect of EGCG on biofilm formation ofS. mutans was measured by using the Minimum Biofilm Eradication Concentration-High Throughput Plate (MBECTM -HTP, Innovotech, Inc., Edmonton, AB, Canada).

    Techniques: Concentration Assay

    The MBEC (minimal biofilm eradication concentration) of PS-Du ( A ) and PS-Co ( B ) against S. aureus biofilm with peptide concentrations ranging from 4 mg/L (0.5 MIC) to 64 mg/L (8 MIC). Blank control was set up with culture medium, and positive control was represented by S. aureus biofilm growth culture. Data represent means ± SEM of 9 replicates.

    Journal: Toxins

    Article Title: Discovery of Novel Bacterial Cell-Penetrating Phylloseptins in Defensive Skin Secretions of the South American Hylid Frogs, Phyllomedusa duellmani and Phyllomedusa coelestis

    doi: 10.3390/toxins8090255

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The MBEC (minimal biofilm eradication concentration) of PS-Du ( A ) and PS-Co ( B ) against S. aureus biofilm with peptide concentrations ranging from 4 mg/L (0.5 MIC) to 64 mg/L (8 MIC). Blank control was set up with culture medium, and positive control was represented by S. aureus biofilm growth culture. Data represent means ± SEM of 9 replicates.

    Article Snippet: Anti-Biofilm Activities of the Two Novel Peptides Tested on S. aureus Biofilm The anti-biofilm activities of the two novel peptides were tested on S. aureus biofilm following a standard method as per the manufacturer’s instructions (Innovotech, Edmonton, Canada) for evaluating the MBEC (minimal biofilm eradication concentration).

    Techniques: Concentration Assay, Positive Control

    Cells at the periphery of the biofilm respond to tobramycin

    Journal: Environmental microbiology

    Article Title: The extracellular matrix protects Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms by limiting the penetration of tobramycin

    doi: 10.1111/1462-2920.12155

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Cells at the periphery of the biofilm respond to tobramycin

    Article Snippet: Biofilms were cultivated in the Calgary Biofilm Device (MBEC™ Physiology and Genetics Assay, Innovotech Inc.) as described previously ( ; ).

    Techniques:

    Ability of the biofilm to limit penetration can be overcome with high concentrations of tobramycin

    Journal: Environmental microbiology

    Article Title: The extracellular matrix protects Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms by limiting the penetration of tobramycin

    doi: 10.1111/1462-2920.12155

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Ability of the biofilm to limit penetration can be overcome with high concentrations of tobramycin

    Article Snippet: Biofilms were cultivated in the Calgary Biofilm Device (MBEC™ Physiology and Genetics Assay, Innovotech Inc.) as described previously ( ; ).

    Techniques:

    Metal cations facilitate the penetration of tobramycin into biofilms

    Journal: Environmental microbiology

    Article Title: The extracellular matrix protects Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms by limiting the penetration of tobramycin

    doi: 10.1111/1462-2920.12155

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Metal cations facilitate the penetration of tobramycin into biofilms

    Article Snippet: Biofilms were cultivated in the Calgary Biofilm Device (MBEC™ Physiology and Genetics Assay, Innovotech Inc.) as described previously ( ; ).

    Techniques:

    Limiting penetration of tobramycin protects biofilm cells

    Journal: Environmental microbiology

    Article Title: The extracellular matrix protects Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms by limiting the penetration of tobramycin

    doi: 10.1111/1462-2920.12155

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Limiting penetration of tobramycin protects biofilm cells

    Article Snippet: Biofilms were cultivated in the Calgary Biofilm Device (MBEC™ Physiology and Genetics Assay, Innovotech Inc.) as described previously ( ; ).

    Techniques:

    Biofilms limit the penetration of tobramycin into the biomass

    Journal: Environmental microbiology

    Article Title: The extracellular matrix protects Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms by limiting the penetration of tobramycin

    doi: 10.1111/1462-2920.12155

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Biofilms limit the penetration of tobramycin into the biomass

    Article Snippet: Biofilms were cultivated in the Calgary Biofilm Device (MBEC™ Physiology and Genetics Assay, Innovotech Inc.) as described previously ( ; ).

    Techniques:

    Stationary-phase planktonic cell populations of Δ yafQ and isogenic parental strain E. coli K-12 BW25113 had similar numbers of cells surviving exposure to cefazolin and tobramycin. Mean log killing was calculated after the biofilms had been exposed

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: The Chromosomal Toxin Gene yafQ Is a Determinant of Multidrug Tolerance for Escherichia coli Growing in a Biofilm ▿

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.00043-09

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Stationary-phase planktonic cell populations of Δ yafQ and isogenic parental strain E. coli K-12 BW25113 had similar numbers of cells surviving exposure to cefazolin and tobramycin. Mean log killing was calculated after the biofilms had been exposed

    Article Snippet: Biofilms were grown in a Calgary biofilm device (commercially available as the MBEC physiology and genetics assay [Innovotech Inc., Edmonton, AB, Canada]), as originally described by Ceri et al. ( ).

    Techniques:

    Overexpression of yafQ from a high-copy-number plasmid had no effect on the number of cells in E. coli K-12 BW25113 biofilm populations surviving exposure to doxycycline or rifampin. Mean log killing was calculated from the viable cell counts after the

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: The Chromosomal Toxin Gene yafQ Is a Determinant of Multidrug Tolerance for Escherichia coli Growing in a Biofilm ▿

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.00043-09

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Overexpression of yafQ from a high-copy-number plasmid had no effect on the number of cells in E. coli K-12 BW25113 biofilm populations surviving exposure to doxycycline or rifampin. Mean log killing was calculated from the viable cell counts after the

    Article Snippet: Biofilms were grown in a Calgary biofilm device (commercially available as the MBEC physiology and genetics assay [Innovotech Inc., Edmonton, AB, Canada]), as originally described by Ceri et al. ( ).

    Techniques: Over Expression, Plasmid Preparation

    Biofilm populations of the Δ yafQ strain have decreased numbers of cells surviving exposure to cefazolin and tobramycin compared to the numbers of parental E. coli K-12 BW25113 cells. Mean log killing was calculated after the biofilms had been

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: The Chromosomal Toxin Gene yafQ Is a Determinant of Multidrug Tolerance for Escherichia coli Growing in a Biofilm ▿

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.00043-09

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Biofilm populations of the Δ yafQ strain have decreased numbers of cells surviving exposure to cefazolin and tobramycin compared to the numbers of parental E. coli K-12 BW25113 cells. Mean log killing was calculated after the biofilms had been

    Article Snippet: Biofilms were grown in a Calgary biofilm device (commercially available as the MBEC physiology and genetics assay [Innovotech Inc., Edmonton, AB, Canada]), as originally described by Ceri et al. ( ).

    Techniques:

    Biofilm formation by wild-type E. coli K-12 BW25113 is similar to that of its isogenic Δ yafQ mutant. (a) Biofilm mean viable cell counts and standard deviations were comparable for the two strains, and this assessment was based on the indicated

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: The Chromosomal Toxin Gene yafQ Is a Determinant of Multidrug Tolerance for Escherichia coli Growing in a Biofilm ▿

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.00043-09

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Biofilm formation by wild-type E. coli K-12 BW25113 is similar to that of its isogenic Δ yafQ mutant. (a) Biofilm mean viable cell counts and standard deviations were comparable for the two strains, and this assessment was based on the indicated

    Article Snippet: Biofilms were grown in a Calgary biofilm device (commercially available as the MBEC physiology and genetics assay [Innovotech Inc., Edmonton, AB, Canada]), as originally described by Ceri et al. ( ).

    Techniques: Mutagenesis

    Biofilm populations of the Δ yafQ strain and isogenic parental strain E. coli K-12 BW25113 had similar numbers of cells surviving exposure to doxycycline and rifampin. Mean log killing was calculated from the viable cell counts after the biofilms

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: The Chromosomal Toxin Gene yafQ Is a Determinant of Multidrug Tolerance for Escherichia coli Growing in a Biofilm ▿

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.00043-09

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Biofilm populations of the Δ yafQ strain and isogenic parental strain E. coli K-12 BW25113 had similar numbers of cells surviving exposure to doxycycline and rifampin. Mean log killing was calculated from the viable cell counts after the biofilms

    Article Snippet: Biofilms were grown in a Calgary biofilm device (commercially available as the MBEC physiology and genetics assay [Innovotech Inc., Edmonton, AB, Canada]), as originally described by Ceri et al. ( ).

    Techniques:

    Overexpression of yafQ from a high-copy-number plasmid increased the number of cells in E. coli K-12 BW25113 biofilm populations surviving exposure to bactericidal concentrations of cefazolin and tobramycin. Mean log killing was calculated from the viable

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: The Chromosomal Toxin Gene yafQ Is a Determinant of Multidrug Tolerance for Escherichia coli Growing in a Biofilm ▿

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.00043-09

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Overexpression of yafQ from a high-copy-number plasmid increased the number of cells in E. coli K-12 BW25113 biofilm populations surviving exposure to bactericidal concentrations of cefazolin and tobramycin. Mean log killing was calculated from the viable

    Article Snippet: Biofilms were grown in a Calgary biofilm device (commercially available as the MBEC physiology and genetics assay [Innovotech Inc., Edmonton, AB, Canada]), as originally described by Ceri et al. ( ).

    Techniques: Over Expression, Plasmid Preparation