Structured Review

Olympus biofilm
Microbial populations in the cospecies <t>biofilm.</t> Shown are the total viable counts (CFU) of S. mutans in single-species and cospecies biofilms (A) and of C. albicans in cospecies biofilms (B), grown for 42 h. C. albicans alone lacked the capacity to form
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Images

1) Product Images from "Symbiotic Relationship between Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans Synergizes Virulence of Plaque Biofilms In Vivo"

Article Title: Symbiotic Relationship between Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans Synergizes Virulence of Plaque Biofilms In Vivo

Journal: Infection and Immunity

doi: 10.1128/IAI.00087-14

Microbial populations in the cospecies biofilm. Shown are the total viable counts (CFU) of S. mutans in single-species and cospecies biofilms (A) and of C. albicans in cospecies biofilms (B), grown for 42 h. C. albicans alone lacked the capacity to form
Figure Legend Snippet: Microbial populations in the cospecies biofilm. Shown are the total viable counts (CFU) of S. mutans in single-species and cospecies biofilms (A) and of C. albicans in cospecies biofilms (B), grown for 42 h. C. albicans alone lacked the capacity to form

Techniques Used:

Temporal development and 3D architecture of cospecies biofilms.
Figure Legend Snippet: Temporal development and 3D architecture of cospecies biofilms.

Techniques Used:

Visualization and spatial distribution of β-glucan within cospecies biofilms. (A) Projection image of 42-h cospecies biofilms labeled with an anti-β-glucan antibody (purple), Alexa Fluor 647-dextran (EPS) (red), and ConA-tetramethylrhodamine
Figure Legend Snippet: Visualization and spatial distribution of β-glucan within cospecies biofilms. (A) Projection image of 42-h cospecies biofilms labeled with an anti-β-glucan antibody (purple), Alexa Fluor 647-dextran (EPS) (red), and ConA-tetramethylrhodamine

Techniques Used: Labeling

Three-dimensional architecture of the cospecies biofilm. Representative images of single-species and cospecies biofilms grown for 42 h are shown. Bacterial microcolonies expressing GFP appear green, while fungal cells labeled with ConA-tetramethylrhodamine
Figure Legend Snippet: Three-dimensional architecture of the cospecies biofilm. Representative images of single-species and cospecies biofilms grown for 42 h are shown. Bacterial microcolonies expressing GFP appear green, while fungal cells labeled with ConA-tetramethylrhodamine

Techniques Used: Expressing, Labeling

Architecture of cospecies biofilms formed with Δ gtf mutants. Shown are representative images of the architectures of cospecies biofilms formed by each of the Δ gtf :: kan mutant strains (at 42 h). Cospecies biofilms formed by the parental
Figure Legend Snippet: Architecture of cospecies biofilms formed with Δ gtf mutants. Shown are representative images of the architectures of cospecies biofilms formed by each of the Δ gtf :: kan mutant strains (at 42 h). Cospecies biofilms formed by the parental

Techniques Used: Mutagenesis

S. mutans - C. albicans interactions enhance the virulence of plaque biofilms in vivo .
Figure Legend Snippet: S. mutans - C. albicans interactions enhance the virulence of plaque biofilms in vivo .

Techniques Used: In Vivo

Viable counts in cospecies biofilms formed with Δ gtf :: kan mutant strains of S. mutans UA159. Shown are the total viable counts of S. mutans and C. albicans in 42-h cospecies biofilms formed with C. albicans SC5314 and one of the following S. mutans
Figure Legend Snippet: Viable counts in cospecies biofilms formed with Δ gtf :: kan mutant strains of S. mutans UA159. Shown are the total viable counts of S. mutans and C. albicans in 42-h cospecies biofilms formed with C. albicans SC5314 and one of the following S. mutans

Techniques Used: Mutagenesis

Expression profiles of S. mutans UA159 genes during the development of cospecies biofilms. The expression of selected S. mutans genes associated with EPS synthesis (A), EPS degradation and binding (B), and acid stress survival (C) is shown. The data (gene
Figure Legend Snippet: Expression profiles of S. mutans UA159 genes during the development of cospecies biofilms. The expression of selected S. mutans genes associated with EPS synthesis (A), EPS degradation and binding (B), and acid stress survival (C) is shown. The data (gene

Techniques Used: Expressing, Binding Assay

2) Product Images from "In Situ Microbial Community Succession on Mild Steel in Estuarine and Marine Environments: Exploring the Role of Iron-Oxidizing Bacteria"

Article Title: In Situ Microbial Community Succession on Mild Steel in Estuarine and Marine Environments: Exploring the Role of Iron-Oxidizing Bacteria

Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2016.00767

Microscopy images of stalk structures characteristic of FeOB from field incubations and macroscopic images of corrosion biofilms. (A) SEM image from GSB site day 6, (B) light microscopy image from GSB site day 41, (C) light microscopy image from BBH site day 6, and (D) light microscopy image from BBH site day 13. Macroscopic images of BBH biofilms at: (E) day 9, (F) day 13, and (G) day 43.
Figure Legend Snippet: Microscopy images of stalk structures characteristic of FeOB from field incubations and macroscopic images of corrosion biofilms. (A) SEM image from GSB site day 6, (B) light microscopy image from GSB site day 41, (C) light microscopy image from BBH site day 6, and (D) light microscopy image from BBH site day 13. Macroscopic images of BBH biofilms at: (E) day 9, (F) day 13, and (G) day 43.

Techniques Used: Microscopy, Light Microscopy

3) Product Images from "In Vitro and In Vivo Activity of a Novel Antifungal Small Molecule against Candida Infections"

Article Title: In Vitro and In Vivo Activity of a Novel Antifungal Small Molecule against Candida Infections

Journal: PLoS ONE

doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0085836

Strategy for screening for novel antifungal small molecules. We screened for Y-H inhibitors in a library containing 50,240 small molecules and found 20 active compounds. These 20 primary hits were further validated by assessing their activity in a dose-dependent manner, which led to the identification of eight potent Y-H inhibitors. The antifungal properties of the eight compounds were analysed in antifungal susceptibility tests, and the four most potent molecules were selected. Finally, the anti-biofilm activity of the four hits was evaluated, and SM21 was chosen for comprehensive in vitro and in vivo assays. HTS, high-throughput screening; AST, antifungal susceptibility test; ABT, anti-biofilm test.
Figure Legend Snippet: Strategy for screening for novel antifungal small molecules. We screened for Y-H inhibitors in a library containing 50,240 small molecules and found 20 active compounds. These 20 primary hits were further validated by assessing their activity in a dose-dependent manner, which led to the identification of eight potent Y-H inhibitors. The antifungal properties of the eight compounds were analysed in antifungal susceptibility tests, and the four most potent molecules were selected. Finally, the anti-biofilm activity of the four hits was evaluated, and SM21 was chosen for comprehensive in vitro and in vivo assays. HTS, high-throughput screening; AST, antifungal susceptibility test; ABT, anti-biofilm test.

Techniques Used: Activity Assay, In Vitro, In Vivo, High Throughput Screening Assay, AST Assay

Anti-biofilm properties of SM10, SM12, SM16 and SM21. The small molecules were added to the C. albicans SC5314 biofilm (A) before and after the adhesion phase; (B) after the adhesion phase; and incubated in 37°C for 24 h. The MIC biofilm was determined as the concentration where the viability of the biofilm was reduced by 50% as compared with the positive control. SM21 had the lowest MIC biofilm among the four hits in both cases, indicating its potent anti-biofilm property. NEG, negative control; POS, positive control.
Figure Legend Snippet: Anti-biofilm properties of SM10, SM12, SM16 and SM21. The small molecules were added to the C. albicans SC5314 biofilm (A) before and after the adhesion phase; (B) after the adhesion phase; and incubated in 37°C for 24 h. The MIC biofilm was determined as the concentration where the viability of the biofilm was reduced by 50% as compared with the positive control. SM21 had the lowest MIC biofilm among the four hits in both cases, indicating its potent anti-biofilm property. NEG, negative control; POS, positive control.

Techniques Used: Incubation, Concentration Assay, Positive Control, Negative Control

Effect of SM21 on C. albicans biofilm formation on denture acrylic. (A) Confocal images of C. albicans biofilm after treatment with SM21 and staining with fluorescent labels that distinguish between live and dead cells. All cells were labeled with the green fluorescence, while only the dead cells were labeled with red fluorescence. (B) Biofilm cell viability, quantified by XTT reduction assay, was reduced by 85% and 66%, respectively, when SM21 was added before or after the adhesion phase. The reduced biofilm viability was maximised (97%) when SM21 was added both before and after the adhesion phase. The standard deviations of each sample are shown in the graph, and all the mean differences between the control and test (SM21) were statistically significant (p-value
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of SM21 on C. albicans biofilm formation on denture acrylic. (A) Confocal images of C. albicans biofilm after treatment with SM21 and staining with fluorescent labels that distinguish between live and dead cells. All cells were labeled with the green fluorescence, while only the dead cells were labeled with red fluorescence. (B) Biofilm cell viability, quantified by XTT reduction assay, was reduced by 85% and 66%, respectively, when SM21 was added before or after the adhesion phase. The reduced biofilm viability was maximised (97%) when SM21 was added both before and after the adhesion phase. The standard deviations of each sample are shown in the graph, and all the mean differences between the control and test (SM21) were statistically significant (p-value

Techniques Used: Staining, Labeling, Fluorescence, Significance Assay

4) Product Images from "Epigallocatechin-3-gallate and Epigallocatechin-3-O-(3-O-methyl)-gallate Enhance the Bonding Stability of an Etch-and-Rinse Adhesive to Dentin"

Article Title: Epigallocatechin-3-gallate and Epigallocatechin-3-O-(3-O-methyl)-gallate Enhance the Bonding Stability of an Etch-and-Rinse Adhesive to Dentin

Journal: Materials

doi: 10.3390/ma10020183

The scanning electron micrographs (magnification 1000× and 3000×) of Streptococcus mutans biofilms on the specimens in the control group and in the EGCG groups: SB 2 ( A , B ); EGCG 200 ( C , D ); EGCG 400 ( E , F ); and EGCG 600 (G, H ). Dense biofilms have formed on the surface of the SB 2 specimens. EGCG 200, 400, and 600, epigallocatechin-3-gallate at 200 µg/mL, 400 µg/mL, and 600 µg/mL, respectively; EGCG-3Me 200, 400, and 600, epigallocatechin-3- O -(3- O -methyl)-gallate at 200 µg/mL, 400 µg/mL, and 600 µg/mL, respectively; SB 2, Single Bond 2 (3M ESPE, St. Paul. MN, USA).
Figure Legend Snippet: The scanning electron micrographs (magnification 1000× and 3000×) of Streptococcus mutans biofilms on the specimens in the control group and in the EGCG groups: SB 2 ( A , B ); EGCG 200 ( C , D ); EGCG 400 ( E , F ); and EGCG 600 (G, H ). Dense biofilms have formed on the surface of the SB 2 specimens. EGCG 200, 400, and 600, epigallocatechin-3-gallate at 200 µg/mL, 400 µg/mL, and 600 µg/mL, respectively; EGCG-3Me 200, 400, and 600, epigallocatechin-3- O -(3- O -methyl)-gallate at 200 µg/mL, 400 µg/mL, and 600 µg/mL, respectively; SB 2, Single Bond 2 (3M ESPE, St. Paul. MN, USA).

Techniques Used:

Scanning electron micrographs (magnification, 1000× and 3000×) of Streptococcus mutans biofilms on the specimens of the EGCG-3Me groups: EGCG-3Me 200 ( A , B ); EGCG-3Me 400 ( C , D ); and EGCG-3Me 600 ( E , F ). EGCG 200, 400, and 600, epigallocatechin-3-gallate at 200 µg/mL, 400 µg/mL, and 600 µg/mL, respectively; EGCG-3Me 200, 400, and 600, epigallocatechin-3- O -(3- O -methyl)-gallate at 200 µg/mL, 400 µg/mL, and 600 µg/mL, respectively; SB 2, Single Bond 2 (3M ESPE, St. Paul. MN, USA).
Figure Legend Snippet: Scanning electron micrographs (magnification, 1000× and 3000×) of Streptococcus mutans biofilms on the specimens of the EGCG-3Me groups: EGCG-3Me 200 ( A , B ); EGCG-3Me 400 ( C , D ); and EGCG-3Me 600 ( E , F ). EGCG 200, 400, and 600, epigallocatechin-3-gallate at 200 µg/mL, 400 µg/mL, and 600 µg/mL, respectively; EGCG-3Me 200, 400, and 600, epigallocatechin-3- O -(3- O -methyl)-gallate at 200 µg/mL, 400 µg/mL, and 600 µg/mL, respectively; SB 2, Single Bond 2 (3M ESPE, St. Paul. MN, USA).

Techniques Used:

Confocal laser scanning microscope images of the Streptococcus mutans biofilms on the specimens: SB 2 ( A ); EGCG 200 ( B ); EGCG 400 ( C ); EGCG 600 ( D ); EGCG-3Me 200 ( E ); EGCG-3Me 400 ( F ); and EGCG-3Me 600 ( G ). Green fluorescence indicates the live bacteria and red fluorescence indicates the dead bacteria. EGCG 200, 400, and 600, epigallocatechin-3-gallate at 200 µg/mL, 400 µg/mL, and 600 µg/mL, respectively; EGCG-3Me 200, 400, and 600, epigallocatechin-3- O -(3- O -methyl)-gallate at 200 µg/mL, 400 µg/mL, and 600 µg/mL, respectively; SB 2, Single Bond 2 (3M ESPE, St. Paul. MN, USA).
Figure Legend Snippet: Confocal laser scanning microscope images of the Streptococcus mutans biofilms on the specimens: SB 2 ( A ); EGCG 200 ( B ); EGCG 400 ( C ); EGCG 600 ( D ); EGCG-3Me 200 ( E ); EGCG-3Me 400 ( F ); and EGCG-3Me 600 ( G ). Green fluorescence indicates the live bacteria and red fluorescence indicates the dead bacteria. EGCG 200, 400, and 600, epigallocatechin-3-gallate at 200 µg/mL, 400 µg/mL, and 600 µg/mL, respectively; EGCG-3Me 200, 400, and 600, epigallocatechin-3- O -(3- O -methyl)-gallate at 200 µg/mL, 400 µg/mL, and 600 µg/mL, respectively; SB 2, Single Bond 2 (3M ESPE, St. Paul. MN, USA).

Techniques Used: Laser-Scanning Microscopy, Fluorescence

5) Product Images from "Exposure to Solute Stress Affects Genome-Wide Expression but Not the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Degrading Activity of Sphingomonas sp. Strain LH128 in Biofilms"

Article Title: Exposure to Solute Stress Affects Genome-Wide Expression but Not the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Degrading Activity of Sphingomonas sp. Strain LH128 in Biofilms

Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

doi: 10.1128/AEM.02516-12

Degree of saturation of membrane fatty acids of Sphingomonas sp. LH128 biofilm cells grown in flow chambers without solute stress (control) and with acute or chronic solute stress. The values shown are the average of three biological replicates with the indicated standard deviations. The asterisk indicates a statistically significant difference from the control (*, P
Figure Legend Snippet: Degree of saturation of membrane fatty acids of Sphingomonas sp. LH128 biofilm cells grown in flow chambers without solute stress (control) and with acute or chronic solute stress. The values shown are the average of three biological replicates with the indicated standard deviations. The asterisk indicates a statistically significant difference from the control (*, P

Techniques Used: Flow Cytometry

Oxygen concentrations in the influent and effluent of flow chambers colonized by Sphingomonas sp. LH128 biofilms and of noninoculated systems for comparison. The oxygen concentration was measured in the influent (black bars) and effluent (gray bars) before (A) and after (B) the application of solute stress in the inoculated systems. Values shown are the average of three biological replicates with the indicated standard deviations.
Figure Legend Snippet: Oxygen concentrations in the influent and effluent of flow chambers colonized by Sphingomonas sp. LH128 biofilms and of noninoculated systems for comparison. The oxygen concentration was measured in the influent (black bars) and effluent (gray bars) before (A) and after (B) the application of solute stress in the inoculated systems. Values shown are the average of three biological replicates with the indicated standard deviations.

Techniques Used: Flow Cytometry, Concentration Assay

6) Product Images from "Boeravinone B, A Novel Dual Inhibitor of NorA Bacterial Efflux Pump of Staphylococcus aureus and Human P-Glycoprotein, Reduces the Biofilm Formation and Intracellular Invasion of Bacteria"

Article Title: Boeravinone B, A Novel Dual Inhibitor of NorA Bacterial Efflux Pump of Staphylococcus aureus and Human P-Glycoprotein, Reduces the Biofilm Formation and Intracellular Invasion of Bacteria

Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.01868

CLSM of biofilm; untreated, treated with ciprofloxacin at subMBIC (0.25 × MBIC) and MBIC alone. Last column shows the presence of boeravinone B combined with subMBIC of ciprofloxacin. Upper line is stained with FITC and lower with DAPI.
Figure Legend Snippet: CLSM of biofilm; untreated, treated with ciprofloxacin at subMBIC (0.25 × MBIC) and MBIC alone. Last column shows the presence of boeravinone B combined with subMBIC of ciprofloxacin. Upper line is stained with FITC and lower with DAPI.

Techniques Used: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, Staining

7) Product Images from "Meloxicam inhibits biofilm formation and enhances antimicrobial agents efficacy by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, et al. Meloxicam inhibits biofilm formation and enhances antimicrobial agents efficacy by Pseudomonas aeruginosa"

Article Title: Meloxicam inhibits biofilm formation and enhances antimicrobial agents efficacy by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, et al. Meloxicam inhibits biofilm formation and enhances antimicrobial agents efficacy by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Journal: MicrobiologyOpen

doi: 10.1002/mbo3.545

Visualization of biofilm. PAO 1 biofilm was grown with various concentration of Melo on cover slides for 12 and 24 hr, respectively, and then stained with CV and observed by optical microscope (400 ×)
Figure Legend Snippet: Visualization of biofilm. PAO 1 biofilm was grown with various concentration of Melo on cover slides for 12 and 24 hr, respectively, and then stained with CV and observed by optical microscope (400 ×)

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay, Staining, Microscopy

Effect of Melo on extracellular matrix of PAO 1 biofilm. (a) Comparison of colony morphology on Congo red agar plates with different concentrations of Melo. (b) Melo decreased EPS ‐related genes ( pslA, pelA , and alg44 ) expression at the concentration of 15.63 μg/ mL . (c) Effect of Melo on eDNA production determined by agarose gel electrophoresis (the white lines indicated the blank bands were removed, and the left reference band was a copy of the right reference band) and analyzed by the software of ImageJ (d). Bars indicated SE of the mean. *indicates that the mean A570 nm is statistically different from the control group with p
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of Melo on extracellular matrix of PAO 1 biofilm. (a) Comparison of colony morphology on Congo red agar plates with different concentrations of Melo. (b) Melo decreased EPS ‐related genes ( pslA, pelA , and alg44 ) expression at the concentration of 15.63 μg/ mL . (c) Effect of Melo on eDNA production determined by agarose gel electrophoresis (the white lines indicated the blank bands were removed, and the left reference band was a copy of the right reference band) and analyzed by the software of ImageJ (d). Bars indicated SE of the mean. *indicates that the mean A570 nm is statistically different from the control group with p

Techniques Used: Expressing, Concentration Assay, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis, Software

Synergistic effects of Melo combined with antimicrobials on PAO 1 biofilm formation. Biofilms were exposed to Melo (15.63 or 31.25 μg/ mL ) alone or combined with TE , TOB , CTRX , OFLX , CAZ , NFLX , and DN ase for 24 hr. Biofilms incubated with 1% DMSO was used as a negative control. And biofilm biomass was quantified by CV staining method. Bars indicated SE of the mean. * indicates that the mean of A570 nm is statistically different between groups with p
Figure Legend Snippet: Synergistic effects of Melo combined with antimicrobials on PAO 1 biofilm formation. Biofilms were exposed to Melo (15.63 or 31.25 μg/ mL ) alone or combined with TE , TOB , CTRX , OFLX , CAZ , NFLX , and DN ase for 24 hr. Biofilms incubated with 1% DMSO was used as a negative control. And biofilm biomass was quantified by CV staining method. Bars indicated SE of the mean. * indicates that the mean of A570 nm is statistically different between groups with p

Techniques Used: Incubation, Negative Control, Staining

Effect of Melo on biofilm and planktonic cell of PAO 1. (a) Biofilm formation was indicated by A570 nm in microplate with CV staining; (b) Growth curves of PAO 1 with and without Melo. Total planktonic cell growth was traced by measuring A630 nm. Bars indicated standard error ( SE ) of the mean. * indicates that the mean A570 nm is statistically different from the control group with p
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of Melo on biofilm and planktonic cell of PAO 1. (a) Biofilm formation was indicated by A570 nm in microplate with CV staining; (b) Growth curves of PAO 1 with and without Melo. Total planktonic cell growth was traced by measuring A630 nm. Bars indicated standard error ( SE ) of the mean. * indicates that the mean A570 nm is statistically different from the control group with p

Techniques Used: Staining

8) Product Images from "Discriminating Multi-Species Populations in Biofilms with Peptide Nucleic Acid Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (PNA FISH)"

Article Title: Discriminating Multi-Species Populations in Biofilms with Peptide Nucleic Acid Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (PNA FISH)

Journal: PLoS ONE

doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0014786

Biofilm formation profiles for each species on single- and dual-species biofilms. Cultivability (A) and PNA FISH/DAPI (B) areas showing the populations variations when co-cultured with a different species. (C) CV areas showing two typical CV profiles, the E. coli profile (at grey) suggesting a high production of exopolymers, and the L. monocytogenes and S. enterica profile (at pink) showing a reduced ability to produce exoplimers. The CV profile for E. coli/S. enterica biofilm suggests that Salmonella affected the E. coli ability to produce exopolymers.
Figure Legend Snippet: Biofilm formation profiles for each species on single- and dual-species biofilms. Cultivability (A) and PNA FISH/DAPI (B) areas showing the populations variations when co-cultured with a different species. (C) CV areas showing two typical CV profiles, the E. coli profile (at grey) suggesting a high production of exopolymers, and the L. monocytogenes and S. enterica profile (at pink) showing a reduced ability to produce exoplimers. The CV profile for E. coli/S. enterica biofilm suggests that Salmonella affected the E. coli ability to produce exopolymers.

Techniques Used: Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization, Cell Culture

Schematic representation of the tri-species biofilm formation showing the main steps and the key factors involved on the two layers appearing.
Figure Legend Snippet: Schematic representation of the tri-species biofilm formation showing the main steps and the key factors involved on the two layers appearing.

Techniques Used:

Tri-species biofilm formation. (A) Biofilm populations for 24 and 48 hours on each support material. (B) CLSM images distinguishing each bacteria and the superposition of the three fields. (D) CLSM showing the biofilm three-dimensional spatial distribution. A frontal quadrant (red rectangle) was removed to show the existence of an upper layer exclusively formed by E. coli, over a mixed Salmonella and Listeria layer. The bottom blank rectangle shows a transversal biofilm image showing the well defined layers.
Figure Legend Snippet: Tri-species biofilm formation. (A) Biofilm populations for 24 and 48 hours on each support material. (B) CLSM images distinguishing each bacteria and the superposition of the three fields. (D) CLSM showing the biofilm three-dimensional spatial distribution. A frontal quadrant (red rectangle) was removed to show the existence of an upper layer exclusively formed by E. coli, over a mixed Salmonella and Listeria layer. The bottom blank rectangle shows a transversal biofilm image showing the well defined layers.

Techniques Used: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy

Dual-species biofilms spatial organization for 48 h. (A) Epifluorescence images showing an homogeneous distribution of the species. (B) CLSM transversal images showing that dual-species biofilms with E. coli presented two well defined layers. For Salmonella / Listeria biofim, it was not observed the formation of two layers.
Figure Legend Snippet: Dual-species biofilms spatial organization for 48 h. (A) Epifluorescence images showing an homogeneous distribution of the species. (B) CLSM transversal images showing that dual-species biofilms with E. coli presented two well defined layers. For Salmonella / Listeria biofim, it was not observed the formation of two layers.

Techniques Used: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy

Comparison between PNA FISH/DAPI and cultivability measurements. Viable and cultivable bacteria adhered to the different material for S. enterica (AI) and L. monocytogenes (AII) pure culture biofilm and Salmonella/Listeria dual-especie biofilm (AII). Percentages of cells detected by cultivability for each specie, on single and dual-specie biofilm, adhered to copper (BII) and the remaining six material (BI- average values determined for the six materials together). Correlation between the PNA FISH counts and the CFU counts for 24 and 48 h biofilms (C) (all the 6 biofilm experiments included).
Figure Legend Snippet: Comparison between PNA FISH/DAPI and cultivability measurements. Viable and cultivable bacteria adhered to the different material for S. enterica (AI) and L. monocytogenes (AII) pure culture biofilm and Salmonella/Listeria dual-especie biofilm (AII). Percentages of cells detected by cultivability for each specie, on single and dual-specie biofilm, adhered to copper (BII) and the remaining six material (BI- average values determined for the six materials together). Correlation between the PNA FISH counts and the CFU counts for 24 and 48 h biofilms (C) (all the 6 biofilm experiments included).

Techniques Used: Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization

Biofilm formation for single- and dual-species biofilms. On panel A it is possible observe the normalized areas for each biofilm on each adhesion material for cultivability, CV and PNA FISH/DAPI graphs (A). Panels B, C and D are shown as examples of CV, PNA FISH/DAPI and cultivability graphs, respectively, on the glass support. Similar graphs for the remaining supports are provided in the Figures S2 , S3 , S4 and S5 .
Figure Legend Snippet: Biofilm formation for single- and dual-species biofilms. On panel A it is possible observe the normalized areas for each biofilm on each adhesion material for cultivability, CV and PNA FISH/DAPI graphs (A). Panels B, C and D are shown as examples of CV, PNA FISH/DAPI and cultivability graphs, respectively, on the glass support. Similar graphs for the remaining supports are provided in the Figures S2 , S3 , S4 and S5 .

Techniques Used: Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization

PNA FISH validation for biofilm samples. (A) Percentage of cells detected by PNA FISH for 24 and 48 h biofilms, in comparison with the total cells counts by DAPI. (B) Correlation between the PNA FISH counts and the DAPI counts for 24 and 48 h S. enterica e L. monocytogenes pure- culture biofilms. A high correlation between the two methods was observed and up to 48 hours at least 90% of the populations is detected by PNA FISH.
Figure Legend Snippet: PNA FISH validation for biofilm samples. (A) Percentage of cells detected by PNA FISH for 24 and 48 h biofilms, in comparison with the total cells counts by DAPI. (B) Correlation between the PNA FISH counts and the DAPI counts for 24 and 48 h S. enterica e L. monocytogenes pure- culture biofilms. A high correlation between the two methods was observed and up to 48 hours at least 90% of the populations is detected by PNA FISH.

Techniques Used: Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization

9) Product Images from "Mechanistic action of weak acid drugs on biofilms"

Article Title: Mechanistic action of weak acid drugs on biofilms

Journal: Scientific Reports

doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-05178-3

( A ) Comparison of the effect of HCl and NAC on the killing of biofilm bacteria. The black and red curve compare the behavior of 1 mg/ml NAC (pH 3.4) and 10% LB with pH adjusted to 3.4 using HCl. No swelling at pH 3.4 without NAC indicates no killing of bacteria (confirmed with dead cell staining). ( B ) Effect of NAC with pH adjusted using sodium hydroxide on the killing of biofilm bacteria. The red curve shows the action of 60 mg/ml NAC in 10% LB. The blue and the black curves shows the effect of 60 mg/ml NAC with pH adjusted to 3.9 and 6.8 respectively. ( C ) Comparison of the effect of acetic acid and NAC on the killing of biofilm bacteria. Acetic acid and NAC at pH 3.5 lead to the swelling of the microcolonies. Acetic acid at pH 4.2 and above did not significantly affect the microcolonies.
Figure Legend Snippet: ( A ) Comparison of the effect of HCl and NAC on the killing of biofilm bacteria. The black and red curve compare the behavior of 1 mg/ml NAC (pH 3.4) and 10% LB with pH adjusted to 3.4 using HCl. No swelling at pH 3.4 without NAC indicates no killing of bacteria (confirmed with dead cell staining). ( B ) Effect of NAC with pH adjusted using sodium hydroxide on the killing of biofilm bacteria. The red curve shows the action of 60 mg/ml NAC in 10% LB. The blue and the black curves shows the effect of 60 mg/ml NAC with pH adjusted to 3.9 and 6.8 respectively. ( C ) Comparison of the effect of acetic acid and NAC on the killing of biofilm bacteria. Acetic acid and NAC at pH 3.5 lead to the swelling of the microcolonies. Acetic acid at pH 4.2 and above did not significantly affect the microcolonies.

Techniques Used: Staining

( A ) Schematic of a flow cell. ( B ) Biofilms are grown in flow cells with a glass base and a PDMS top with a continuous supply of 10% Luria-Bertani broth (LB) supplied using gravity driven flow. The drug is injected into the flow cell through the PDMS while the flow is stopped. Microcolonies grow on the glass base to a size of approximately 200 μ m after a period of 2 days.
Figure Legend Snippet: ( A ) Schematic of a flow cell. ( B ) Biofilms are grown in flow cells with a glass base and a PDMS top with a continuous supply of 10% Luria-Bertani broth (LB) supplied using gravity driven flow. The drug is injected into the flow cell through the PDMS while the flow is stopped. Microcolonies grow on the glass base to a size of approximately 200 μ m after a period of 2 days.

Techniques Used: Flow Cytometry, Injection

10) Product Images from "Obliteration of bacterial growth and biofilm through ROS generation by facilely synthesized green silver nanoparticles"

Article Title: Obliteration of bacterial growth and biofilm through ROS generation by facilely synthesized green silver nanoparticles

Journal: PLoS ONE

doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0181363

Reactive oxygen species experiments. (a) ROS production in presence of AgNPs in (a) E . coli (b) S . mutans . Error bars represent standard deviations of triplicate incubations. (b) Visualization of ROS generation by DCFH-DA green fluor probe in nanoparticle treated bacterial biofilms. AgNPs show the significant increment of green color fluorescence (ROS specific DCFH-DA probed) during 60 min incubation as compared to control bacterial biofilms. (i)a S . mutans control biofilm (i)b S . mutans treated biofilm. (ii)a E . coli control biofilm (ii)b E . coli treated biofilm. (c) Plasmid (DNA) cleavage assay in presence AgNPs (1.5 μg ml -1 ) and various free radical scavengers (DMSO, NaN3, TBA, and SOD). Lane 1, 3, 4 and 5 show the intact plasmid DNA; Lane 2 shows the cleaved plasmid DNA.
Figure Legend Snippet: Reactive oxygen species experiments. (a) ROS production in presence of AgNPs in (a) E . coli (b) S . mutans . Error bars represent standard deviations of triplicate incubations. (b) Visualization of ROS generation by DCFH-DA green fluor probe in nanoparticle treated bacterial biofilms. AgNPs show the significant increment of green color fluorescence (ROS specific DCFH-DA probed) during 60 min incubation as compared to control bacterial biofilms. (i)a S . mutans control biofilm (i)b S . mutans treated biofilm. (ii)a E . coli control biofilm (ii)b E . coli treated biofilm. (c) Plasmid (DNA) cleavage assay in presence AgNPs (1.5 μg ml -1 ) and various free radical scavengers (DMSO, NaN3, TBA, and SOD). Lane 1, 3, 4 and 5 show the intact plasmid DNA; Lane 2 shows the cleaved plasmid DNA.

Techniques Used: Fluorescence, Incubation, Plasmid Preparation, DNA Cleavage Assay

Visualization of the biofilm inhibition [i] Biofilms of E . coli . (a) (b) images displays control and treated biofilm stained by crystal violet. (c) (d) images shows the difference in biofilm after treatment as visualized by the SEM. Red arrows indicate the damage in the bacterial cells due to action of AgNPs. (e) (f) are CLSM images of the control and treated biofilms. [ii] Biofilms of S . mutans (a) (b) images displays control and treated biofilm stained by crystal violet. (c) (d) images shows the difference in biofilm after treatment as visualized by the SEM. Red arrows indicate the damage in the bacterial cells due to action of AgNPs. (e) (f) are CLSM images of the control and treated biofilms.
Figure Legend Snippet: Visualization of the biofilm inhibition [i] Biofilms of E . coli . (a) (b) images displays control and treated biofilm stained by crystal violet. (c) (d) images shows the difference in biofilm after treatment as visualized by the SEM. Red arrows indicate the damage in the bacterial cells due to action of AgNPs. (e) (f) are CLSM images of the control and treated biofilms. [ii] Biofilms of S . mutans (a) (b) images displays control and treated biofilm stained by crystal violet. (c) (d) images shows the difference in biofilm after treatment as visualized by the SEM. Red arrows indicate the damage in the bacterial cells due to action of AgNPs. (e) (f) are CLSM images of the control and treated biofilms.

Techniques Used: Inhibition, Staining, Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy

Graphical presentation of the anti-biofilm potency of the nanoparticles on catheter surface using scanning electron microscopy. (a) Untreated catheter incubated bacterial biofilm (b) nanoparticles treated catheter showing inhibition of biofilm on nano-modified surface.
Figure Legend Snippet: Graphical presentation of the anti-biofilm potency of the nanoparticles on catheter surface using scanning electron microscopy. (a) Untreated catheter incubated bacterial biofilm (b) nanoparticles treated catheter showing inhibition of biofilm on nano-modified surface.

Techniques Used: Electron Microscopy, Incubation, Inhibition, Modification

AgNPs antibiofilm activity against biofilms of E . coli and S . mutans . Error bars represent standard deviations of triplicate incubations.
Figure Legend Snippet: AgNPs antibiofilm activity against biofilms of E . coli and S . mutans . Error bars represent standard deviations of triplicate incubations.

Techniques Used: Activity Assay

11) Product Images from "Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Response and Resistance to Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Is Linked to the Redox-Active Molecule Phenazine"

Article Title: Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Response and Resistance to Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Is Linked to the Redox-Active Molecule Phenazine

Journal: PLoS ONE

doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0130373

Survival of PAO1 phenazine mutants upon plasma exposure. CFU counts per coupon of MPAO1 wild-type and phz mutant biofilms exposed to 3 min argon plasma. Error bars denote standard deviation of triplicate cell counts.
Figure Legend Snippet: Survival of PAO1 phenazine mutants upon plasma exposure. CFU counts per coupon of MPAO1 wild-type and phz mutant biofilms exposed to 3 min argon plasma. Error bars denote standard deviation of triplicate cell counts.

Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Standard Deviation

Confocal images of P . aeruginosa biofilms cells after argon plasma treatment stained with Bac Light Live/Dead. Viable cells are stained green and dead cells are stained red A) Untreated control, B) 10 min argon gas control, C) 1 min plasma, D) 3 min plasma, E) 5 min plasma and F) 10 min plasma treatment. Each image shows a representative horizontal section (main picture), and two vertical sections (to the right of and below the green lines on the right-hand side and bottom of the main picture, respectively). The vertical sections correspond to the two yellow lines in the main picture.
Figure Legend Snippet: Confocal images of P . aeruginosa biofilms cells after argon plasma treatment stained with Bac Light Live/Dead. Viable cells are stained green and dead cells are stained red A) Untreated control, B) 10 min argon gas control, C) 1 min plasma, D) 3 min plasma, E) 5 min plasma and F) 10 min plasma treatment. Each image shows a representative horizontal section (main picture), and two vertical sections (to the right of and below the green lines on the right-hand side and bottom of the main picture, respectively). The vertical sections correspond to the two yellow lines in the main picture.

Techniques Used: Staining, BAC Assay

12) Product Images from "Effects of human serum and apo‐Transferrin on Staphylococcus epidermidis RP62A biofilm formation"

Article Title: Effects of human serum and apo‐Transferrin on Staphylococcus epidermidis RP62A biofilm formation

Journal: MicrobiologyOpen

doi: 10.1002/mbo3.379

Effect of albumin on Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 35984 biofilm formation. Error bars indicate SD .
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of albumin on Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 35984 biofilm formation. Error bars indicate SD .

Techniques Used:

Human serum ( HS ) has no effect on Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 35984 mature biofilm eradication. Twenty‐four‐hour mature biofilms were cultured overnight with HS at concentrations ranging from 0% to 100% at 37°C for another 24 h and the quantification of biofilm biomass determined by CV assay (A, C) and by XTT assay (B, C). Error bars indicate SD . CV, crystal violet.
Figure Legend Snippet: Human serum ( HS ) has no effect on Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 35984 mature biofilm eradication. Twenty‐four‐hour mature biofilms were cultured overnight with HS at concentrations ranging from 0% to 100% at 37°C for another 24 h and the quantification of biofilm biomass determined by CV assay (A, C) and by XTT assay (B, C). Error bars indicate SD . CV, crystal violet.

Techniques Used: Cell Culture, XTT Assay

Effect of VAN with and without transferrin on biofilm formation of Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 35984. The graph presents biofilm biomass (%) for the strain grown in LB broth (control) or in LB broth amended with subinhibitory concentrations (sub‐ MIC ) of VAN or apo‐Tf (4 mg/mL) or both of them (apo‐Tf + sub‐ MIC ). Statistically significant differences are indicated for each sample treated with apo‐Tf alone or apo‐Tf combined with sub‐ MIC VAN compared to the control and sample treated with sub‐ MIC VAN only (* P
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of VAN with and without transferrin on biofilm formation of Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 35984. The graph presents biofilm biomass (%) for the strain grown in LB broth (control) or in LB broth amended with subinhibitory concentrations (sub‐ MIC ) of VAN or apo‐Tf (4 mg/mL) or both of them (apo‐Tf + sub‐ MIC ). Statistically significant differences are indicated for each sample treated with apo‐Tf alone or apo‐Tf combined with sub‐ MIC VAN compared to the control and sample treated with sub‐ MIC VAN only (* P

Techniques Used:

Human serum ( HS ) inhibits Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 35984 biofilm formation. Overnight culture was treated with 0–100% HS at 37°C for 24 h. The volume of biofilm was determined by CV assay (A, C) and by XTT assay (B, C). * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Human serum ( HS ) inhibits Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 35984 biofilm formation. Overnight culture was treated with 0–100% HS at 37°C for 24 h. The volume of biofilm was determined by CV assay (A, C) and by XTT assay (B, C). * P

Techniques Used: XTT Assay

Effects of the HS component transferrin on Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 35984. (A) Biofilm formation by S. epidermidis in the presence of apo‐Tf and holo‐Tf at the concentration ranging from 0 to 41.67 mg/mL. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of the HS component transferrin on Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 35984. (A) Biofilm formation by S. epidermidis in the presence of apo‐Tf and holo‐Tf at the concentration ranging from 0 to 41.67 mg/mL. * P

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

The inhibitory effect of human serum ( HS ) on Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 35984 biofilm can be fractionated. Complement (C) and protein (Pro) were removed from HS , respectively. Besides, HS was divided into two fractions, one containing proteins ≤100 Da and the other containing proteins > 100 kDa. The effects of those fractions on the formation of S. epidermidis biofilm were examined by CV assay (A, C) and by XTT assay (B, C). * P
Figure Legend Snippet: The inhibitory effect of human serum ( HS ) on Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 35984 biofilm can be fractionated. Complement (C) and protein (Pro) were removed from HS , respectively. Besides, HS was divided into two fractions, one containing proteins ≤100 Da and the other containing proteins > 100 kDa. The effects of those fractions on the formation of S. epidermidis biofilm were examined by CV assay (A, C) and by XTT assay (B, C). * P

Techniques Used: XTT Assay

Optical micrographs showing the effects of human serum ( HS ) on Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 35984 biofilm formation (A) and eradication (B). Representative images (magnification, 10 × 40) of biofilm was treated with different concentrations of HS , and the effects of HS were assessed by crystal violet staining.
Figure Legend Snippet: Optical micrographs showing the effects of human serum ( HS ) on Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 35984 biofilm formation (A) and eradication (B). Representative images (magnification, 10 × 40) of biofilm was treated with different concentrations of HS , and the effects of HS were assessed by crystal violet staining.

Techniques Used: Staining

13) Product Images from "Sustained Release of a Novel Anti-Quorum-Sensing Agent against Oral Fungal Biofilms"

Article Title: Sustained Release of a Novel Anti-Quorum-Sensing Agent against Oral Fungal Biofilms

Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

doi: 10.1128/AAC.04212-14

Effect of SRM–S-8 on C. albicans membrane-associated biofilm formation. C. albicans cells were incubated with SRM containing 4 to 256 μg/ml S-8 for 24, 48, and 72 h. The metabolic activity of membrane-associated biofilm cells was measured
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of SRM–S-8 on C. albicans membrane-associated biofilm formation. C. albicans cells were incubated with SRM containing 4 to 256 μg/ml S-8 for 24, 48, and 72 h. The metabolic activity of membrane-associated biofilm cells was measured

Techniques Used: Incubation, Activity Assay

Effect of SRM–S-8 on C. albicans biofilm formed around the membrane. (A) C. albicans cells were incubated with SRM containing 4 to 256 μg/ml S-8 for 24, 48, and 72 h. The metabolic activity of cells in the biofilm around the membrane was
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of SRM–S-8 on C. albicans biofilm formed around the membrane. (A) C. albicans cells were incubated with SRM containing 4 to 256 μg/ml S-8 for 24, 48, and 72 h. The metabolic activity of cells in the biofilm around the membrane was

Techniques Used: Incubation, Activity Assay

CLSM images of biofilms around the SRM–S-8. The z axes of three-dimensional constructed images indicate biofilm thickness. (A, D, G) Merged images of metabolically active GFP-expressing fungal cells embedded in EPS. (B, E, H) Images of fungal
Figure Legend Snippet: CLSM images of biofilms around the SRM–S-8. The z axes of three-dimensional constructed images indicate biofilm thickness. (A, D, G) Merged images of metabolically active GFP-expressing fungal cells embedded in EPS. (B, E, H) Images of fungal

Techniques Used: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, Construct, Metabolic Labelling, Expressing

Long-term effect of SRM–S-8 on C. albicans membrane-associated biofilm formation. Prior to 24-h inoculation with C. albicans cells, the SRMs were preincubated with fungal growth medium for 72 h. The metabolic activity of cells in the membrane-associated
Figure Legend Snippet: Long-term effect of SRM–S-8 on C. albicans membrane-associated biofilm formation. Prior to 24-h inoculation with C. albicans cells, the SRMs were preincubated with fungal growth medium for 72 h. The metabolic activity of cells in the membrane-associated

Techniques Used: Activity Assay

Effect of treatment with SRM–S-8 on maintenance of preformed biofilms. C. albicans biofilms were allowed to form for 24 h and then treated for 24 h with SRM containing 4 to 256 μg/ml S-8. The structures of preformed biofilms exposed to
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of treatment with SRM–S-8 on maintenance of preformed biofilms. C. albicans biofilms were allowed to form for 24 h and then treated for 24 h with SRM containing 4 to 256 μg/ml S-8. The structures of preformed biofilms exposed to

Techniques Used:

14) Product Images from "The N-Terminus of Human Lactoferrin Displays Anti-biofilm Activity on Candida parapsilosis in Lumen Catheters"

Article Title: The N-Terminus of Human Lactoferrin Displays Anti-biofilm Activity on Candida parapsilosis in Lumen Catheters

Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.02218

Inverted microscope images show sessile cell organization of strain CP 7 (strong biofilm producer) in the absence (A) and following co-incubation with 44 mg/L (B) or 88 mg/L (C) hLF 1-11 for 24 h at 37°C. Bars denote 50 μm.
Figure Legend Snippet: Inverted microscope images show sessile cell organization of strain CP 7 (strong biofilm producer) in the absence (A) and following co-incubation with 44 mg/L (B) or 88 mg/L (C) hLF 1-11 for 24 h at 37°C. Bars denote 50 μm.

Techniques Used: Inverted Microscopy, Incubation

Activity of hLF 1-11 on mature biofilm produced on the catheter lumen following incubation at 37° for 24 h in four-fold diluted RPMI or 10% glucose solution. Data are expressed as means of three independent experiments ± SEM. ∗ P ≤ 0.05; ∗∗ P ≤ 0.01; ∗∗∗ P ≤ 0.001.
Figure Legend Snippet: Activity of hLF 1-11 on mature biofilm produced on the catheter lumen following incubation at 37° for 24 h in four-fold diluted RPMI or 10% glucose solution. Data are expressed as means of three independent experiments ± SEM. ∗ P ≤ 0.05; ∗∗ P ≤ 0.01; ∗∗∗ P ≤ 0.001.

Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Produced, Incubation

Inverted microscope images (400×) show biofilms produced by C. parapsilosis CP 7 (A) , CP 558 (B) , CP 577 (C) , CP 508 (D) , and ATCC 22019 (E) strains, following incubation for 24 h at 37°C in a polystyrene microtiter plate. Bar denotes 50 μm.
Figure Legend Snippet: Inverted microscope images (400×) show biofilms produced by C. parapsilosis CP 7 (A) , CP 558 (B) , CP 577 (C) , CP 508 (D) , and ATCC 22019 (E) strains, following incubation for 24 h at 37°C in a polystyrene microtiter plate. Bar denotes 50 μm.

Techniques Used: Inverted Microscopy, Produced, Incubation

Effect of hLF 1-11 on mature biofilm of C. parapsilosis. Yeast cells were incubated for 24 h and then co-incubated with hLF 1-11 at different concentrations for 24 h at 37°C. The peptide anti-biofilm activity was assessed in terms of reduction of biofilm biomass (A) and metabolic activity (B) . Data are expressed as means of three independent experiments ± SEM. ∗ P ≤ 0.05; ∗∗ P ≤ 0.01; ∗∗∗ P ≤ 0.001.
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of hLF 1-11 on mature biofilm of C. parapsilosis. Yeast cells were incubated for 24 h and then co-incubated with hLF 1-11 at different concentrations for 24 h at 37°C. The peptide anti-biofilm activity was assessed in terms of reduction of biofilm biomass (A) and metabolic activity (B) . Data are expressed as means of three independent experiments ± SEM. ∗ P ≤ 0.05; ∗∗ P ≤ 0.01; ∗∗∗ P ≤ 0.001.

Techniques Used: Incubation, Activity Assay

Effect of hLF 1-11 on pre-adhered cells of C. parapsilosis. Yeast cells were incubated at different time points (1.5, 3, 6, and 24 h) and then co-incubated with hLF 1-11 at two different concentrations for 24 h at 37°C. The peptide anti-biofilm activity was assessed in terms of reduction of biofilm biomass (A) and metabolic activity (B) . Data are expressed as means of three independent experiments ± SEM. ∗ P ≤ 0.05; ∗∗ P ≤ 0.01; ∗∗∗ P ≤ 0.001.
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of hLF 1-11 on pre-adhered cells of C. parapsilosis. Yeast cells were incubated at different time points (1.5, 3, 6, and 24 h) and then co-incubated with hLF 1-11 at two different concentrations for 24 h at 37°C. The peptide anti-biofilm activity was assessed in terms of reduction of biofilm biomass (A) and metabolic activity (B) . Data are expressed as means of three independent experiments ± SEM. ∗ P ≤ 0.05; ∗∗ P ≤ 0.01; ∗∗∗ P ≤ 0.001.

Techniques Used: Incubation, Activity Assay

Relative gene expression of C. parapsilosis biofilm-related genes assessed by qRT-PCR. Strain CP 7 was co-incubated in the absence and presence of hLF 1-11 44 mg/L for 24 h at 37°C in a 24-wells plate and transcriptional levels of the target genes were determined by qRTPCR using CpACT1 as reference gene for normalization. Mutant strain CP 508 lacking both copies of BCR1 was included as control. Data are expressed as means of three independent experiments ± SEM. ∗ P ≤ 0.05; ∗∗ P ≤ 0.01.
Figure Legend Snippet: Relative gene expression of C. parapsilosis biofilm-related genes assessed by qRT-PCR. Strain CP 7 was co-incubated in the absence and presence of hLF 1-11 44 mg/L for 24 h at 37°C in a 24-wells plate and transcriptional levels of the target genes were determined by qRTPCR using CpACT1 as reference gene for normalization. Mutant strain CP 508 lacking both copies of BCR1 was included as control. Data are expressed as means of three independent experiments ± SEM. ∗ P ≤ 0.05; ∗∗ P ≤ 0.01.

Techniques Used: Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR, Incubation, Mutagenesis

Effect of hLF 1-11 on biofilm formation by three Candida parapsilosis strains. Yeast cells were co-incubated with different concentrations of hLF 1-11 for 24 h at 37°C. The peptide activity was assessed in terms of biofilm biomass (A) and metabolic activity (B) . Data are expressed as means of three independent experiments ± SEM. ∗∗∗ P ≤ 0.001.
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of hLF 1-11 on biofilm formation by three Candida parapsilosis strains. Yeast cells were co-incubated with different concentrations of hLF 1-11 for 24 h at 37°C. The peptide activity was assessed in terms of biofilm biomass (A) and metabolic activity (B) . Data are expressed as means of three independent experiments ± SEM. ∗∗∗ P ≤ 0.001.

Techniques Used: Incubation, Activity Assay

(A) Reduction of biofilm formation in catheters co-incubated for 24 h at 37°C with two different concentrations of hLF 1-11, compared with the untreated control. Catheters were incubated in four-fold diluted RPMI or in a 10% glucose solution. Data are expressed as means of three independent experiments ± SEM. ∗ P ≤ 0.05; ∗∗ P ≤ 0.01; ∗∗∗ P ≤ 0.001. (B) CLSM images of (i) un-colonized catheter lumen, and catheters co-incubated with strain CP 7 in the absence (ii) or presence (iii) of 44 mg/L hLF 1-11 for 24 h at 37°C in four-fold diluted RPMI. Bars denote 50 μm.
Figure Legend Snippet: (A) Reduction of biofilm formation in catheters co-incubated for 24 h at 37°C with two different concentrations of hLF 1-11, compared with the untreated control. Catheters were incubated in four-fold diluted RPMI or in a 10% glucose solution. Data are expressed as means of three independent experiments ± SEM. ∗ P ≤ 0.05; ∗∗ P ≤ 0.01; ∗∗∗ P ≤ 0.001. (B) CLSM images of (i) un-colonized catheter lumen, and catheters co-incubated with strain CP 7 in the absence (ii) or presence (iii) of 44 mg/L hLF 1-11 for 24 h at 37°C in four-fold diluted RPMI. Bars denote 50 μm.

Techniques Used: Incubation, Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy

15) Product Images from "A Novel RNase 3/ECP Peptide for Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Eradication That Combines Antimicrobial, Lipopolysaccharide Binding, and Cell-Agglutinating Activities"

Article Title: A Novel RNase 3/ECP Peptide for Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Eradication That Combines Antimicrobial, Lipopolysaccharide Binding, and Cell-Agglutinating Activities

Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

doi: 10.1128/AAC.00830-16

Effects against established P. aeruginosa biofilms, determined via confocal microscopy. Live/Dead stain (green and red cells, respectively) and DAPI-FITC and WGA stains (blue and green, respectively) were used. White arrows show bacterial agglutination on the biofilm at a protein/peptide concentration of 10 μM. Bars, 20 μm.
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects against established P. aeruginosa biofilms, determined via confocal microscopy. Live/Dead stain (green and red cells, respectively) and DAPI-FITC and WGA stains (blue and green, respectively) were used. White arrows show bacterial agglutination on the biofilm at a protein/peptide concentration of 10 μM. Bars, 20 μm.

Techniques Used: Confocal Microscopy, Staining, Whole Genome Amplification, Agglutination, Concentration Assay

16) Product Images from "Real-time optotracing of curli and cellulose in live Salmonella biofilms using luminescent oligothiophenes"

Article Title: Real-time optotracing of curli and cellulose in live Salmonella biofilms using luminescent oligothiophenes

Journal: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes

doi: 10.1038/npjbiofilms.2016.24

LCO-based morphotyping of Salmonella biofilms from agar plates. ( a ) Morphotypes of strain 3934 wt, Δ csgD , Δ bcsA and Δ csgA based on the drop assay on Congo red plates. ( b ) Normalised spectra of h-FTAA mixed with re-suspended biofilm colonies harvested from indicated strains grown for 48 h on LB agar w/o salt, with emission read at 545 nm. h-FTAA mixed with cellulose and PBS were assayed in parallel for reference. ( c ) Morphotype of a 3934 wt biofilm colony originating from an individual bacterium on Congo red plates monitored for three consecutive days. ( d and e ) Spectra of h-FTAA mixed with harvested 3934 wt biofilm colonies at ( d ) days 2 and 3, and ( e ) day 1, including cellulose and PBS for reference. Arrows indicate the shift in λ max for h-FTAA in the presence of various amounts of cellulose. n : 1 of 5 in b and d , n : 2 of 5 in e . Scale bars=1 cm. ( f ) Emission spectra of h-FTAA-supplemented cultures of strain 3934 wt, Δ bcsA , Δ csgA and Δ csgD after 24 h incubation, using excitation at 405 nm for curli detection. ( g ) Same experimental setup as in f using excitation at 500 nm for cellulose detection. Arrows indicate λ max of emission in Δ csgA and Δ csgD mutant strains. ( h ) Normalised fluorescence spectra for cellulose detection from g . Data represent n : 1 of 3. RFU, relative fluorescence units.
Figure Legend Snippet: LCO-based morphotyping of Salmonella biofilms from agar plates. ( a ) Morphotypes of strain 3934 wt, Δ csgD , Δ bcsA and Δ csgA based on the drop assay on Congo red plates. ( b ) Normalised spectra of h-FTAA mixed with re-suspended biofilm colonies harvested from indicated strains grown for 48 h on LB agar w/o salt, with emission read at 545 nm. h-FTAA mixed with cellulose and PBS were assayed in parallel for reference. ( c ) Morphotype of a 3934 wt biofilm colony originating from an individual bacterium on Congo red plates monitored for three consecutive days. ( d and e ) Spectra of h-FTAA mixed with harvested 3934 wt biofilm colonies at ( d ) days 2 and 3, and ( e ) day 1, including cellulose and PBS for reference. Arrows indicate the shift in λ max for h-FTAA in the presence of various amounts of cellulose. n : 1 of 5 in b and d , n : 2 of 5 in e . Scale bars=1 cm. ( f ) Emission spectra of h-FTAA-supplemented cultures of strain 3934 wt, Δ bcsA , Δ csgA and Δ csgD after 24 h incubation, using excitation at 405 nm for curli detection. ( g ) Same experimental setup as in f using excitation at 500 nm for cellulose detection. Arrows indicate λ max of emission in Δ csgA and Δ csgD mutant strains. ( h ) Normalised fluorescence spectra for cellulose detection from g . Data represent n : 1 of 3. RFU, relative fluorescence units.

Techniques Used: Incubation, Mutagenesis, Fluorescence

h-FTAA enables simultaneous, real-time detection of curli and cellulose in liquid Salmonella cultures. ( a – d ) Combined real-time recording of bacterial growth (left y -axis) measured by intensity of GFP ( λ Ex 445 nm, λ Em 510 nm), and h-FTAA staining extracellular curli ( λ Ex 405 nm, λ Em 556 nm) and cellulose ( λ Ex 500 nm, λ Em 600 nm; right y -axis) in liquid cultures of strains 3934 ( a ) wt, ( b ) Δ csgD , ( c ) Δ csgA and ( d ) Δ bcsA harbouring plasmid p2777. ( e ) Autofluorescence from LB medium only (□), as well as the combined background fluorescence from biofilm-forming, GFP-expressing bacteria in LB medium (○). ( f ) Combined real-time recording of bacterial growth, monitored by GFP expression (dashed line, left y -axis) from strain 3934 wt p2777, and appearance of cellulose detected by h-FTAA (right y -axis) in the absence (dotted line) and presence (solid line) of the cellulose-digesting enzyme cellulase.
Figure Legend Snippet: h-FTAA enables simultaneous, real-time detection of curli and cellulose in liquid Salmonella cultures. ( a – d ) Combined real-time recording of bacterial growth (left y -axis) measured by intensity of GFP ( λ Ex 445 nm, λ Em 510 nm), and h-FTAA staining extracellular curli ( λ Ex 405 nm, λ Em 556 nm) and cellulose ( λ Ex 500 nm, λ Em 600 nm; right y -axis) in liquid cultures of strains 3934 ( a ) wt, ( b ) Δ csgD , ( c ) Δ csgA and ( d ) Δ bcsA harbouring plasmid p2777. ( e ) Autofluorescence from LB medium only (□), as well as the combined background fluorescence from biofilm-forming, GFP-expressing bacteria in LB medium (○). ( f ) Combined real-time recording of bacterial growth, monitored by GFP expression (dashed line, left y -axis) from strain 3934 wt p2777, and appearance of cellulose detected by h-FTAA (right y -axis) in the absence (dotted line) and presence (solid line) of the cellulose-digesting enzyme cellulase.

Techniques Used: Staining, Plasmid Preparation, Fluorescence, Expressing

LCO-based fluorometric biofilm quantification in a small-volume 96-well assay. ( a ) Growth curve, shown as viable counts, of strain 3934 wt cultured in the absence (control) and presence of h-HTAA and h-FTAA. ( b and c ) End point quantification of biofilm formed by 3934 wt at indicated times based on ( b ) fluorescence from cultures grown in the presence of h-HTAA and h-FTAA and ( c ) the crystal violet assay. ( d – f ) Quantification of biofilm formed at 24 and 48 h by 3934 wt (■), Δ bcsA ( ), Δ csgA (▨) and Δ csgD (□) based on fluorescence from ( d ) h-HTAA, ( e ) h-FTAA, and based on the ( f ) crystal violet assay. Data represent n : 1 of 3 with standard deviations shown. CFU, colony forming units; CV, crystal violet; RFU, relative fluorescence units.
Figure Legend Snippet: LCO-based fluorometric biofilm quantification in a small-volume 96-well assay. ( a ) Growth curve, shown as viable counts, of strain 3934 wt cultured in the absence (control) and presence of h-HTAA and h-FTAA. ( b and c ) End point quantification of biofilm formed by 3934 wt at indicated times based on ( b ) fluorescence from cultures grown in the presence of h-HTAA and h-FTAA and ( c ) the crystal violet assay. ( d – f ) Quantification of biofilm formed at 24 and 48 h by 3934 wt (■), Δ bcsA ( ), Δ csgA (▨) and Δ csgD (□) based on fluorescence from ( d ) h-HTAA, ( e ) h-FTAA, and based on the ( f ) crystal violet assay. Data represent n : 1 of 3 with standard deviations shown. CFU, colony forming units; CV, crystal violet; RFU, relative fluorescence units.

Techniques Used: Cell Culture, Fluorescence, Crystal Violet Assay

Individual and simultaneous LCO-based quantification of curli and cellulose in longitudinal biofilm cultures. ( a ) Fluorescence of h-HTAA at 24 and 48 h in non-disrupted liquid cultures of 3934 wt (■), Δ bcsA ( ), Δ csgA (▨) and Δ csgD (□). ( b ) Spectra of h-HTAA in cultures at 24 h of 3934 wt (△) Δ bcsA (◊), Δ csgA (□) and Δ csgD (○), with emission read at 545 nm. ( c ) Fluorescence of h-FTAA at 24 and 48 h in non-disrupted liquid cultures of 3934 wt (■), Δ bcsA ( ), Δ csgA (▨) and Δ csgD (□). ( d ) Spectra of h-FTAA at 24 h of 3934 wt (△)Δ bcsA (◊), Δ csgA (□) and Δ csgD (○), with emission read at 545 nm. ( e ) Spectra of h-FTAA mixed with cellulose (5 mg/ml) with emission read at 545 nm. Data represent n : 1 of 3 with standard deviations shown in a and c . RFU, relative fluorescence units.
Figure Legend Snippet: Individual and simultaneous LCO-based quantification of curli and cellulose in longitudinal biofilm cultures. ( a ) Fluorescence of h-HTAA at 24 and 48 h in non-disrupted liquid cultures of 3934 wt (■), Δ bcsA ( ), Δ csgA (▨) and Δ csgD (□). ( b ) Spectra of h-HTAA in cultures at 24 h of 3934 wt (△) Δ bcsA (◊), Δ csgA (□) and Δ csgD (○), with emission read at 545 nm. ( c ) Fluorescence of h-FTAA at 24 and 48 h in non-disrupted liquid cultures of 3934 wt (■), Δ bcsA ( ), Δ csgA (▨) and Δ csgD (□). ( d ) Spectra of h-FTAA at 24 h of 3934 wt (△)Δ bcsA (◊), Δ csgA (□) and Δ csgD (○), with emission read at 545 nm. ( e ) Spectra of h-FTAA mixed with cellulose (5 mg/ml) with emission read at 545 nm. Data represent n : 1 of 3 with standard deviations shown in a and c . RFU, relative fluorescence units.

Techniques Used: Fluorescence

LCO staining patterns distinguish Salmonella biofilms. ( a ) Structure of h-HTAA and h-FTAA. ( b ) Schematic of the incline glass coverslip setup enabling microscopic analysis of biofilm at air–liquid interface after removal of coverslips. ( c – f ) Fluorescence confocal microscopy using indicated excitation and emission wavelengths (left) and transmission confocal microscopy (right) of h-HTAA- and h-FTAA-stained biofilms from strains 3934 ( c ) wt, ( d ) Δ csgD , ( e ) Δ bcsA and ( f) Δ csgA with indicated curli and cellulose phenotypes. Single optical sections are shown. Scale bar=50 μm.
Figure Legend Snippet: LCO staining patterns distinguish Salmonella biofilms. ( a ) Structure of h-HTAA and h-FTAA. ( b ) Schematic of the incline glass coverslip setup enabling microscopic analysis of biofilm at air–liquid interface after removal of coverslips. ( c – f ) Fluorescence confocal microscopy using indicated excitation and emission wavelengths (left) and transmission confocal microscopy (right) of h-HTAA- and h-FTAA-stained biofilms from strains 3934 ( c ) wt, ( d ) Δ csgD , ( e ) Δ bcsA and ( f) Δ csgA with indicated curli and cellulose phenotypes. Single optical sections are shown. Scale bar=50 μm.

Techniques Used: Staining, Fluorescence, Confocal Microscopy, Transmission Assay

Visualisation of ECM components in biofilms formed by S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium in the presence of h-FTAA. ( a – c ) Fluorescence confocal microscopy of unfixed biofilm formed by S. Enteritidis strain 3934 wt p2777 at ( a ) lower and (b ) higher magnification, as well as ( c ) S. Typhimurium strain 14028 ssaG:gfp + during growth on inclined coverslips in medium supplemented with h-FTAA. Bacteria (green) and ECM (red) are detected at indicated wavelengths, representing the microscopes’ pre-defined detection settings for GFP and Cy3. ( d – f ) Fluorescence confocal microscopy images of 14028 ssaG:gfp + (green) infected ( d ) CRL-4031 epithelial cells, and ( e ) RAW264.7 macrophage cell and in ( f ) sections of mouse livers stained with h-FTAA (red). Staining with Hoechst 33324 shows nuclei (blue) of each cell type. Single optical sections are shown. Scale bar=10 μm.
Figure Legend Snippet: Visualisation of ECM components in biofilms formed by S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium in the presence of h-FTAA. ( a – c ) Fluorescence confocal microscopy of unfixed biofilm formed by S. Enteritidis strain 3934 wt p2777 at ( a ) lower and (b ) higher magnification, as well as ( c ) S. Typhimurium strain 14028 ssaG:gfp + during growth on inclined coverslips in medium supplemented with h-FTAA. Bacteria (green) and ECM (red) are detected at indicated wavelengths, representing the microscopes’ pre-defined detection settings for GFP and Cy3. ( d – f ) Fluorescence confocal microscopy images of 14028 ssaG:gfp + (green) infected ( d ) CRL-4031 epithelial cells, and ( e ) RAW264.7 macrophage cell and in ( f ) sections of mouse livers stained with h-FTAA (red). Staining with Hoechst 33324 shows nuclei (blue) of each cell type. Single optical sections are shown. Scale bar=10 μm.

Techniques Used: Fluorescence, Confocal Microscopy, Infection, Staining

17) Product Images from "Effect of Silver Nitrate and Sodium Fluoride with Tri-Calcium Phosphate on Streptococcus mutans and Demineralised Dentine"

Article Title: Effect of Silver Nitrate and Sodium Fluoride with Tri-Calcium Phosphate on Streptococcus mutans and Demineralised Dentine

Journal: International Journal of Molecular Sciences

doi: 10.3390/ijms19051288

Representative scanning electron micrographs (images in the upper row) of the biofilm topography, and typical images of confocal laser scanning microscopy images (images in the lower row) of the Streptococcus mutans biofilm of the four treatment groups. Dead bacterial cells are marked red, and live cells are marked green (at magnification ×100).
Figure Legend Snippet: Representative scanning electron micrographs (images in the upper row) of the biofilm topography, and typical images of confocal laser scanning microscopy images (images in the lower row) of the Streptococcus mutans biofilm of the four treatment groups. Dead bacterial cells are marked red, and live cells are marked green (at magnification ×100).

Techniques Used: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy

18) Product Images from "A Novel Organo-Selenium Bandage that Inhibits Biofilm Development in a Wound by Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Wound Pathogens"

Article Title: A Novel Organo-Selenium Bandage that Inhibits Biofilm Development in a Wound by Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Wound Pathogens

Journal: Antibiotics

doi: 10.3390/antibiotics3030435

CLSM picture of biofilm development by S. aureus AH133 and P. aeruginosa PAO1/pMRP9-1 on a bandage with different treatments.
Figure Legend Snippet: CLSM picture of biofilm development by S. aureus AH133 and P. aeruginosa PAO1/pMRP9-1 on a bandage with different treatments.

Techniques Used: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy

In vivo inhibition of a S. aureus AH1333 bacterial biofilm in both the bandage and underlying tissue. The CFU assay is for a 1 cm 2 bandage or per gram of tissue.
Figure Legend Snippet: In vivo inhibition of a S. aureus AH1333 bacterial biofilm in both the bandage and underlying tissue. The CFU assay is for a 1 cm 2 bandage or per gram of tissue.

Techniques Used: In Vivo, Inhibition, Colony-forming Unit Assay

One month stability study of the selenium bandage bacterial biofilm formation. The CFU determination is for a 1 cm 2 bandage in 1 mL of solution. ( A ) S. aureus 31; ( B ) P. aeruginosa PAO1 SW .
Figure Legend Snippet: One month stability study of the selenium bandage bacterial biofilm formation. The CFU determination is for a 1 cm 2 bandage in 1 mL of solution. ( A ) S. aureus 31; ( B ) P. aeruginosa PAO1 SW .

Techniques Used:

Dose response of an organo-selenium coated bandage on the inhibition of bacterial biofilm formation. The colony forming unit (CFU) determination is for a 1 cm 2 bandage in 1 mL of solution. ( A ) S. aureus 31; ( B ) P. aeruginosa PAO1 SW.
Figure Legend Snippet: Dose response of an organo-selenium coated bandage on the inhibition of bacterial biofilm formation. The colony forming unit (CFU) determination is for a 1 cm 2 bandage in 1 mL of solution. ( A ) S. aureus 31; ( B ) P. aeruginosa PAO1 SW.

Techniques Used: Inhibition

Stability of S. aureus 31 biofilm inhibition by the selenium bandage after boiling in water for 15 min. The CFU assay is for a 1 cm 2 bandage in 1 mL of solution.
Figure Legend Snippet: Stability of S. aureus 31 biofilm inhibition by the selenium bandage after boiling in water for 15 min. The CFU assay is for a 1 cm 2 bandage in 1 mL of solution.

Techniques Used: Inhibition, Colony-forming Unit Assay

Dose response of an organo-selenium coated bandage on the inhibition of biofilm formation by different clinical isolate strains. The CFU determination is for a 1 cm 2 bandage in 1 mL of solution. ( A ) S. aureus Cl 1; ( B ) S. aureus Cl 2; ( C ) P. aeruginosa Cl; ( D ) S. epidermidis Cl.
Figure Legend Snippet: Dose response of an organo-selenium coated bandage on the inhibition of biofilm formation by different clinical isolate strains. The CFU determination is for a 1 cm 2 bandage in 1 mL of solution. ( A ) S. aureus Cl 1; ( B ) S. aureus Cl 2; ( C ) P. aeruginosa Cl; ( D ) S. epidermidis Cl.

Techniques Used: Inhibition

CLSM study of the in vivo inhibition of a S. aureus AH1333 ( A ) and P. aeruginosa GFP/pMRP9-1 ( B ) bacterial biofilm in both the bandage and underlying tissue.
Figure Legend Snippet: CLSM study of the in vivo inhibition of a S. aureus AH1333 ( A ) and P. aeruginosa GFP/pMRP9-1 ( B ) bacterial biofilm in both the bandage and underlying tissue.

Techniques Used: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, In Vivo, Inhibition

Six-year stability study of the selenium bandage bacterial biofilm formation. The CFU determination is for a 1 cm 2 bandage in 1 mL of solution. ( A ) Ability of an organo-selenium (1%) coated bandage (which set on a shelf at room temperature for over 6 years) to inhibit S. aureus AH1333 biofilm formation. CLSM study of the in vitro inhibition of a S. aureus AH133 bacterial biofilm in a bandage coated with ( B ) AAEMA and with ( C ) Se-AAEMA after setting on a shelf at room temperature for over 6 years.
Figure Legend Snippet: Six-year stability study of the selenium bandage bacterial biofilm formation. The CFU determination is for a 1 cm 2 bandage in 1 mL of solution. ( A ) Ability of an organo-selenium (1%) coated bandage (which set on a shelf at room temperature for over 6 years) to inhibit S. aureus AH1333 biofilm formation. CLSM study of the in vitro inhibition of a S. aureus AH133 bacterial biofilm in a bandage coated with ( B ) AAEMA and with ( C ) Se-AAEMA after setting on a shelf at room temperature for over 6 years.

Techniques Used: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, In Vitro, Inhibition

19) Product Images from "A new transformation method with nanographene oxides of antisense carryingyycG RNA improved antibacterial properties on methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus biofilm"

Article Title: A new transformation method with nanographene oxides of antisense carryingyycG RNA improved antibacterial properties on methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus biofilm

Journal: The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science

doi: 10.1292/jvms.19-0216

GO-PEI-AS yycG suppressed bacterial growth and biofilm formation in MRSA biofilms. (A) Crystal violet staining for the MRSA strains; (B) Biomass was quantified by crystal violet staining; Optical densities at 600 nm were measured (n=10, * P
Figure Legend Snippet: GO-PEI-AS yycG suppressed bacterial growth and biofilm formation in MRSA biofilms. (A) Crystal violet staining for the MRSA strains; (B) Biomass was quantified by crystal violet staining; Optical densities at 600 nm were measured (n=10, * P

Techniques Used: Staining

GO-PEI-AS yycG suppressed the vital cells in MRSA biofilms. (A) Double labeling of the biofilms in the MRSA and AS yycG- , GO- and GO-PEI-AS yycG -treated strains (GO solution with concentration at 50 mg/m l determined by cell viability assay). Green, vital cells (SYTO 9); red, dead cells (PI); scale bars, 100 µ m; (B) Volume ratio of the vital bacterial biomass in the biofilms (n=10, * P
Figure Legend Snippet: GO-PEI-AS yycG suppressed the vital cells in MRSA biofilms. (A) Double labeling of the biofilms in the MRSA and AS yycG- , GO- and GO-PEI-AS yycG -treated strains (GO solution with concentration at 50 mg/m l determined by cell viability assay). Green, vital cells (SYTO 9); red, dead cells (PI); scale bars, 100 µ m; (B) Volume ratio of the vital bacterial biomass in the biofilms (n=10, * P

Techniques Used: Labeling, Concentration Assay, Viability Assay

20) Product Images from "Surface-Associated Lipoproteins Link Enterococcus faecalis Virulence to Colitogenic Activity in IL-10-Deficient Mice Independent of Their Expression Levels"

Article Title: Surface-Associated Lipoproteins Link Enterococcus faecalis Virulence to Colitogenic Activity in IL-10-Deficient Mice Independent of Their Expression Levels

Journal: PLoS Pathogens

doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1004911

E . faecalis biofilm and associated microcolony formation are dependent on epaB . (A) Microcolonies formed by E . faecalis OG1RF, ΔepaB , Δlgt or reconstituted ΔepaB strain in vitro after incubation for 20 hours on a fixed monolayer of murine Ptk6 intestinal epithelial cells. Representative images stained by immunofluorescence for E . faecalis (red), E-cadherin (intracellular domain, green) and nuclei (blue) showing 3D-reassembling of single stacks and (B) quantitation of total microcolony biomass. (C) Biofilm indices representing total biofilm formation of E . faecalis OG1RF, ΔepaB or Δlgt or reconstituted ΔepaB strain on polystyrene surface after 20 hours incubation stained for biofilm matrix with Hucker’s crystal violet. Differences were considered significant for *p
Figure Legend Snippet: E . faecalis biofilm and associated microcolony formation are dependent on epaB . (A) Microcolonies formed by E . faecalis OG1RF, ΔepaB , Δlgt or reconstituted ΔepaB strain in vitro after incubation for 20 hours on a fixed monolayer of murine Ptk6 intestinal epithelial cells. Representative images stained by immunofluorescence for E . faecalis (red), E-cadherin (intracellular domain, green) and nuclei (blue) showing 3D-reassembling of single stacks and (B) quantitation of total microcolony biomass. (C) Biofilm indices representing total biofilm formation of E . faecalis OG1RF, ΔepaB or Δlgt or reconstituted ΔepaB strain on polystyrene surface after 20 hours incubation stained for biofilm matrix with Hucker’s crystal violet. Differences were considered significant for *p

Techniques Used: In Vitro, Incubation, Staining, Immunofluorescence, Quantitation Assay

21) Product Images from "Impact of Nutrient Restriction on the Structure of Listeria monocytogenes Biofilm Grown in a Microfluidic System"

Article Title: Impact of Nutrient Restriction on the Structure of Listeria monocytogenes Biofilm Grown in a Microfluidic System

Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.00864

Biovolume calculation of biofilm formed in static conditions by Listeria monocytogenes Lm76 and Lm132 strains grown in a rich medium BHI and poor medium BHI/10 for 24 h at 30°C; (A,B) Total biovolume of biofilm formation by Lm76 and Lm132 strains respectively which corresponds to some of the live and dead biomass in each biofilm; (C,D) Biovolume of live (green cells) and dead (red cells) biomasses in Lm76 and Lm132 biofilm respectively. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Biovolume calculation of biofilm formed in static conditions by Listeria monocytogenes Lm76 and Lm132 strains grown in a rich medium BHI and poor medium BHI/10 for 24 h at 30°C; (A,B) Total biovolume of biofilm formation by Lm76 and Lm132 strains respectively which corresponds to some of the live and dead biomass in each biofilm; (C,D) Biovolume of live (green cells) and dead (red cells) biomasses in Lm76 and Lm132 biofilm respectively. * P

Techniques Used:

Composition of dead and live cells in the biofilm of Lm76 and Lm132 strains of L. monocytogenes formed in rich medium BHI and diluted medium BHI/10 for 24 h; (A) individual visualization of live population of the biofilm (left images), dead population (middle image) and the merge of the two images which represents the compilation of all images taken from the top of the biofilm to the bottom and corresponds to the total biomass formed in the biofilm (right image). (B) higher magnification (taken with a 100X objective) of Lm76 biofilm grown in the diluted medium BHI/10 showing dead (right image) and live (left image) biomass organization; arrows show filaments mostly present in dead biomass in the biofilm.
Figure Legend Snippet: Composition of dead and live cells in the biofilm of Lm76 and Lm132 strains of L. monocytogenes formed in rich medium BHI and diluted medium BHI/10 for 24 h; (A) individual visualization of live population of the biofilm (left images), dead population (middle image) and the merge of the two images which represents the compilation of all images taken from the top of the biofilm to the bottom and corresponds to the total biomass formed in the biofilm (right image). (B) higher magnification (taken with a 100X objective) of Lm76 biofilm grown in the diluted medium BHI/10 showing dead (right image) and live (left image) biomass organization; arrows show filaments mostly present in dead biomass in the biofilm.

Techniques Used:

Biofilm visualization of two strains of Listeria monocytogenes : Lm76 and Lm132 after 24 h of incubation at 30°C static conditions . Biofilm was grown in BHI medium (right images) and BHI/10 (left images); (A) Biofilm stained with Crystal violet 0.1% (B) 3D reconstruction, zoomed images of a view from above of L. monocytogenes biofilm stained with live/dead; Syto9 showing live cells in green and Propidium Iodide showing dead/damaged cells and e-DNA in red.
Figure Legend Snippet: Biofilm visualization of two strains of Listeria monocytogenes : Lm76 and Lm132 after 24 h of incubation at 30°C static conditions . Biofilm was grown in BHI medium (right images) and BHI/10 (left images); (A) Biofilm stained with Crystal violet 0.1% (B) 3D reconstruction, zoomed images of a view from above of L. monocytogenes biofilm stained with live/dead; Syto9 showing live cells in green and Propidium Iodide showing dead/damaged cells and e-DNA in red.

Techniques Used: Incubation, Staining

Biovolume calculation of biofilm formed in microfluidic conditions by Listeria monocytogenes Lm76 and Lm132 strains grown in a rich medium BHI and poor medium BHI/10 for 24 h at 30°C; (A,B) Total biovolume of biofilm formation by Lm76 and Lm132 strains respectively which corresponds to the some of the live and dead biomass in each biofilm; (C,D) Biovolume of live (green cells) and dead (red cells) biomasses in Lm76 and Lm132 biofilm, respectively. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Biovolume calculation of biofilm formed in microfluidic conditions by Listeria monocytogenes Lm76 and Lm132 strains grown in a rich medium BHI and poor medium BHI/10 for 24 h at 30°C; (A,B) Total biovolume of biofilm formation by Lm76 and Lm132 strains respectively which corresponds to the some of the live and dead biomass in each biofilm; (C,D) Biovolume of live (green cells) and dead (red cells) biomasses in Lm76 and Lm132 biofilm, respectively. * P

Techniques Used:

Biofilm of Lm76 and Lm132 grown under BHI or BHI/10 medium as a control (right images) and BHI or BHI/10 containing 100 μg/ml of DNase I (left images) . All biofilms were stained with Syto9 and PI dyes after 18 h with DNase treatment or without treatment. The images show, from the left to the right, biofilm stained with Syto9 and PI without treatment (the two left images) and biofilm stained with Syto9 and PI after DNase treatment to show the decrease of e-DNA and dead/damaged biomass.
Figure Legend Snippet: Biofilm of Lm76 and Lm132 grown under BHI or BHI/10 medium as a control (right images) and BHI or BHI/10 containing 100 μg/ml of DNase I (left images) . All biofilms were stained with Syto9 and PI dyes after 18 h with DNase treatment or without treatment. The images show, from the left to the right, biofilm stained with Syto9 and PI without treatment (the two left images) and biofilm stained with Syto9 and PI after DNase treatment to show the decrease of e-DNA and dead/damaged biomass.

Techniques Used: Staining

Biofilm visualization of two strains of Listeria monocytogenes —Lm76 and Lm132—after 24 h of incubation at 30°C in microfluidic conditions . Biofilm was grown in BHI medium (left images) and BHI/10 (right images); (A) Biofilm stained with Crystal violet 0.1% (B) 3D reconstruction of L. monocytogenes biofilm stained with live/dead; Syto9 showing live cells in green and Propidium iodide showing dead/damaged cells and e-DNA in red (B) .
Figure Legend Snippet: Biofilm visualization of two strains of Listeria monocytogenes —Lm76 and Lm132—after 24 h of incubation at 30°C in microfluidic conditions . Biofilm was grown in BHI medium (left images) and BHI/10 (right images); (A) Biofilm stained with Crystal violet 0.1% (B) 3D reconstruction of L. monocytogenes biofilm stained with live/dead; Syto9 showing live cells in green and Propidium iodide showing dead/damaged cells and e-DNA in red (B) .

Techniques Used: Incubation, Staining

22) Product Images from "Impact of Nutrient Restriction on the Structure of Listeria monocytogenes Biofilm Grown in a Microfluidic System"

Article Title: Impact of Nutrient Restriction on the Structure of Listeria monocytogenes Biofilm Grown in a Microfluidic System

Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.00864

Biovolume calculation of biofilm formed in static conditions by Listeria monocytogenes Lm76 and Lm132 strains grown in a rich medium BHI and poor medium BHI/10 for 24 h at 30°C; (A,B) Total biovolume of biofilm formation by Lm76 and Lm132 strains respectively which corresponds to some of the live and dead biomass in each biofilm; (C,D) Biovolume of live (green cells) and dead (red cells) biomasses in Lm76 and Lm132 biofilm respectively. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Biovolume calculation of biofilm formed in static conditions by Listeria monocytogenes Lm76 and Lm132 strains grown in a rich medium BHI and poor medium BHI/10 for 24 h at 30°C; (A,B) Total biovolume of biofilm formation by Lm76 and Lm132 strains respectively which corresponds to some of the live and dead biomass in each biofilm; (C,D) Biovolume of live (green cells) and dead (red cells) biomasses in Lm76 and Lm132 biofilm respectively. * P

Techniques Used:

Composition of dead and live cells in the biofilm of Lm76 and Lm132 strains of L. monocytogenes formed in rich medium BHI and diluted medium BHI/10 for 24 h; (A) individual visualization of live population of the biofilm (left images), dead population (middle image) and the merge of the two images which represents the compilation of all images taken from the top of the biofilm to the bottom and corresponds to the total biomass formed in the biofilm (right image). (B) higher magnification (taken with a 100X objective) of Lm76 biofilm grown in the diluted medium BHI/10 showing dead (right image) and live (left image) biomass organization; arrows show filaments mostly present in dead biomass in the biofilm.
Figure Legend Snippet: Composition of dead and live cells in the biofilm of Lm76 and Lm132 strains of L. monocytogenes formed in rich medium BHI and diluted medium BHI/10 for 24 h; (A) individual visualization of live population of the biofilm (left images), dead population (middle image) and the merge of the two images which represents the compilation of all images taken from the top of the biofilm to the bottom and corresponds to the total biomass formed in the biofilm (right image). (B) higher magnification (taken with a 100X objective) of Lm76 biofilm grown in the diluted medium BHI/10 showing dead (right image) and live (left image) biomass organization; arrows show filaments mostly present in dead biomass in the biofilm.

Techniques Used:

Biofilm visualization of two strains of Listeria monocytogenes : Lm76 and Lm132 after 24 h of incubation at 30°C static conditions . Biofilm was grown in BHI medium (right images) and BHI/10 (left images); (A) Biofilm stained with Crystal violet 0.1% (B) 3D reconstruction, zoomed images of a view from above of L. monocytogenes biofilm stained with live/dead; Syto9 showing live cells in green and Propidium Iodide showing dead/damaged cells and e-DNA in red.
Figure Legend Snippet: Biofilm visualization of two strains of Listeria monocytogenes : Lm76 and Lm132 after 24 h of incubation at 30°C static conditions . Biofilm was grown in BHI medium (right images) and BHI/10 (left images); (A) Biofilm stained with Crystal violet 0.1% (B) 3D reconstruction, zoomed images of a view from above of L. monocytogenes biofilm stained with live/dead; Syto9 showing live cells in green and Propidium Iodide showing dead/damaged cells and e-DNA in red.

Techniques Used: Incubation, Staining

Biovolume calculation of biofilm formed in microfluidic conditions by Listeria monocytogenes Lm76 and Lm132 strains grown in a rich medium BHI and poor medium BHI/10 for 24 h at 30°C; (A,B) Total biovolume of biofilm formation by Lm76 and Lm132 strains respectively which corresponds to the some of the live and dead biomass in each biofilm; (C,D) Biovolume of live (green cells) and dead (red cells) biomasses in Lm76 and Lm132 biofilm, respectively. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Biovolume calculation of biofilm formed in microfluidic conditions by Listeria monocytogenes Lm76 and Lm132 strains grown in a rich medium BHI and poor medium BHI/10 for 24 h at 30°C; (A,B) Total biovolume of biofilm formation by Lm76 and Lm132 strains respectively which corresponds to the some of the live and dead biomass in each biofilm; (C,D) Biovolume of live (green cells) and dead (red cells) biomasses in Lm76 and Lm132 biofilm, respectively. * P

Techniques Used:

Biofilm of Lm76 and Lm132 grown under BHI or BHI/10 medium as a control (right images) and BHI or BHI/10 containing 100 μg/ml of DNase I (left images) . All biofilms were stained with Syto9 and PI dyes after 18 h with DNase treatment or without treatment. The images show, from the left to the right, biofilm stained with Syto9 and PI without treatment (the two left images) and biofilm stained with Syto9 and PI after DNase treatment to show the decrease of e-DNA and dead/damaged biomass.
Figure Legend Snippet: Biofilm of Lm76 and Lm132 grown under BHI or BHI/10 medium as a control (right images) and BHI or BHI/10 containing 100 μg/ml of DNase I (left images) . All biofilms were stained with Syto9 and PI dyes after 18 h with DNase treatment or without treatment. The images show, from the left to the right, biofilm stained with Syto9 and PI without treatment (the two left images) and biofilm stained with Syto9 and PI after DNase treatment to show the decrease of e-DNA and dead/damaged biomass.

Techniques Used: Staining

Biofilm visualization of two strains of Listeria monocytogenes —Lm76 and Lm132—after 24 h of incubation at 30°C in microfluidic conditions . Biofilm was grown in BHI medium (left images) and BHI/10 (right images); (A) Biofilm stained with Crystal violet 0.1% (B) 3D reconstruction of L. monocytogenes biofilm stained with live/dead; Syto9 showing live cells in green and Propidium iodide showing dead/damaged cells and e-DNA in red (B) .
Figure Legend Snippet: Biofilm visualization of two strains of Listeria monocytogenes —Lm76 and Lm132—after 24 h of incubation at 30°C in microfluidic conditions . Biofilm was grown in BHI medium (left images) and BHI/10 (right images); (A) Biofilm stained with Crystal violet 0.1% (B) 3D reconstruction of L. monocytogenes biofilm stained with live/dead; Syto9 showing live cells in green and Propidium iodide showing dead/damaged cells and e-DNA in red (B) .

Techniques Used: Incubation, Staining

23) Product Images from "Cleaning effect of osteoconductive powder abrasive treatment on explanted human implants and biofilm‐coated titanium discs. Cleaning effect of osteoconductive powder abrasive treatment on explanted human implants and biofilm‐coated titanium discs"

Article Title: Cleaning effect of osteoconductive powder abrasive treatment on explanted human implants and biofilm‐coated titanium discs. Cleaning effect of osteoconductive powder abrasive treatment on explanted human implants and biofilm‐coated titanium discs

Journal: Clinical and Experimental Dental Research

doi: 10.1002/cre2.100

(a and b) Explanted implant surface mineral accumulations. (c and d) Freshly fixed biofilm on a peri‐implantitis exposed biofilm. (e and f) CaOH accumulated in vitro biofilm on a titanium disc
Figure Legend Snippet: (a and b) Explanted implant surface mineral accumulations. (c and d) Freshly fixed biofilm on a peri‐implantitis exposed biofilm. (e and f) CaOH accumulated in vitro biofilm on a titanium disc

Techniques Used: In Vitro

(a) Pretreatment photo of the implant showing calculus on the threads (red circle [triangle]). (b) Posttreatment photo of the same implant after “erythritol cleaning + low coating.” Large calculus is removed (blue circle [star]); however, some powder accumulations are visible on the treated implant surface (yellow circle [square]). (c) Large magnification Scanning electron microscopy photo showing the powder particles embedded on the surface of the same implant. (d) Large magnification scanning electron microscopy photo of another implant showing the biofilm remnant and powder particles on the surface
Figure Legend Snippet: (a) Pretreatment photo of the implant showing calculus on the threads (red circle [triangle]). (b) Posttreatment photo of the same implant after “erythritol cleaning + low coating.” Large calculus is removed (blue circle [star]); however, some powder accumulations are visible on the treated implant surface (yellow circle [square]). (c) Large magnification Scanning electron microscopy photo showing the powder particles embedded on the surface of the same implant. (d) Large magnification scanning electron microscopy photo of another implant showing the biofilm remnant and powder particles on the surface

Techniques Used: Electron Microscopy

24) Product Images from "Characterization of the Poly-?-1,6-N-Acetylglucosamine Polysaccharide Component of Burkholderia Biofilms ▿"

Article Title: Characterization of the Poly-?-1,6-N-Acetylglucosamine Polysaccharide Component of Burkholderia Biofilms ▿

Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

doi: 10.1128/AEM.05814-11

Comparison of the biofilm dispersal effect of dispersin B on wild-type B. multivorans with that on the pgaBC mutant. Values are means ± standard deviations from two experiments with six replicates per sample. *, P
Figure Legend Snippet: Comparison of the biofilm dispersal effect of dispersin B on wild-type B. multivorans with that on the pgaBC mutant. Values are means ± standard deviations from two experiments with six replicates per sample. *, P

Techniques Used: Mutagenesis

Effect of untreated control (▪) and dispersin B (□) on biofilm formation (a) and biofilm dispersal (b) in B. multivorans (Bm), B. vietnamiensis (Bv), B. cepacia (Bc), and B. cenocepacia (Bcn). The values are means ± standard deviations.
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of untreated control (▪) and dispersin B (□) on biofilm formation (a) and biofilm dispersal (b) in B. multivorans (Bm), B. vietnamiensis (Bv), B. cepacia (Bc), and B. cenocepacia (Bcn). The values are means ± standard deviations.

Techniques Used:

Confocal image of B. multivorans biofilm formation on plastic coverslip. (a) Wild-type biofilm in the absence of dispersin B; (b) wild-type biofilm in the presence of 200 μg/ml dispersin B; (c) B. multivorans Mu5 (Δ pgaBC ) biofilm in the
Figure Legend Snippet: Confocal image of B. multivorans biofilm formation on plastic coverslip. (a) Wild-type biofilm in the absence of dispersin B; (b) wild-type biofilm in the presence of 200 μg/ml dispersin B; (c) B. multivorans Mu5 (Δ pgaBC ) biofilm in the

Techniques Used:

25) Product Images from "Bacillus subtilis biofilm development in the presence of soil clay minerals and iron oxides"

Article Title: Bacillus subtilis biofilm development in the presence of soil clay minerals and iron oxides

Journal: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes

doi: 10.1038/s41522-017-0013-6

ATR-FTIR assays of the biofilm formation at 24 ( a ), 36 ( b ), 48 ( c ), and 60 h ( d ). At each time point, the absorbance spectra were given for control (Ctrl), goethite (Goe), montmorillonite (Mon), and kaolinite (Kao) seperatedly, as indicated in figure legends. Representive peaks (nucleic acids, polysaccharides, proteins, etc.) were labeled on the top of curves, respectively
Figure Legend Snippet: ATR-FTIR assays of the biofilm formation at 24 ( a ), 36 ( b ), 48 ( c ), and 60 h ( d ). At each time point, the absorbance spectra were given for control (Ctrl), goethite (Goe), montmorillonite (Mon), and kaolinite (Kao) seperatedly, as indicated in figure legends. Representive peaks (nucleic acids, polysaccharides, proteins, etc.) were labeled on the top of curves, respectively

Techniques Used: Labeling

Contact of minerals and bacteria cells, and the resulting gene experssion changes. AFM height ( a ) and peak force images ( b ) of B. subtilis biofilm formed on mineral surfaces after 24 and 48 h (20 × 20 μm 2 ). Top panel : B. subtilis on montmorillonite-coated surface (Mon); Middle panel : B. subtilis on kaolinite-coated surface (Kao); Bottom panel : B. subtilis on goethite-coated surface (Goe). c – f : Quantitative expression analyses of the sinR ( c , e for 24, 48 h, respectively) and abrB ( d , f for 24, 48 h, respectively) genes. Both of the genes are critical regulators that involved in the regulation of B. subtilis biofilm formation and cell motility
Figure Legend Snippet: Contact of minerals and bacteria cells, and the resulting gene experssion changes. AFM height ( a ) and peak force images ( b ) of B. subtilis biofilm formed on mineral surfaces after 24 and 48 h (20 × 20 μm 2 ). Top panel : B. subtilis on montmorillonite-coated surface (Mon); Middle panel : B. subtilis on kaolinite-coated surface (Kao); Bottom panel : B. subtilis on goethite-coated surface (Goe). c – f : Quantitative expression analyses of the sinR ( c , e for 24, 48 h, respectively) and abrB ( d , f for 24, 48 h, respectively) genes. Both of the genes are critical regulators that involved in the regulation of B. subtilis biofilm formation and cell motility

Techniques Used: Expressing

Mineral-induced lethal effects and their role in biofilm formation. a Live/Dead staining assays. Except for the control, cells were exposed to minerals for 24 h and their viabilities were determined and given as percentages. b CFU of control and mineral-exposed cells. CFUs were normalized to the control and showed as relative percentages, respectively. c Effects of different concentrations of dead cells on B. subtilis biofilm formation under different treatments
Figure Legend Snippet: Mineral-induced lethal effects and their role in biofilm formation. a Live/Dead staining assays. Except for the control, cells were exposed to minerals for 24 h and their viabilities were determined and given as percentages. b CFU of control and mineral-exposed cells. CFUs were normalized to the control and showed as relative percentages, respectively. c Effects of different concentrations of dead cells on B. subtilis biofilm formation under different treatments

Techniques Used: Staining

Biofilm formation of B. subtilis at differernt time intervals in supplement with different clay minerals. a Pellicles with wrinkles were showed for control (Ctrl), montmorillonite (Mon), kaolinite (Kao), and goethite (Goe) at 0, 24, 36, 48, and 60 h as indicated on the left/top, respectively. b Quantitive assessment of biofilm formation as determined by crystal violet assays
Figure Legend Snippet: Biofilm formation of B. subtilis at differernt time intervals in supplement with different clay minerals. a Pellicles with wrinkles were showed for control (Ctrl), montmorillonite (Mon), kaolinite (Kao), and goethite (Goe) at 0, 24, 36, 48, and 60 h as indicated on the left/top, respectively. b Quantitive assessment of biofilm formation as determined by crystal violet assays

Techniques Used:

Proposed model for the effects of goethite on B. subtilis biofilm formation. Bacteria interact with goethite in suspension and the adsorption to goethite of bacteria can induce cell damage or death ( left panel ). Live cells utilize the intracellular materials released by damaged or dead cells. In response to lethal stress, the abrB and sinR genes, which are the key to the transformation of bacilli between biofilm and free-living mode-of-life, are upregulated and this increase cell mobility and inhibit EPS secretion. In order to avoid damage of goethite, bacteria prefer to move to air–liquid interface ( middle panel ). As bacteria aggregate on the air–liquid interface, both abrB and sinR are downregulated, which decreases cell mobility and increases EPS secretion, and the biofilm is formed rapidly ( right panel )
Figure Legend Snippet: Proposed model for the effects of goethite on B. subtilis biofilm formation. Bacteria interact with goethite in suspension and the adsorption to goethite of bacteria can induce cell damage or death ( left panel ). Live cells utilize the intracellular materials released by damaged or dead cells. In response to lethal stress, the abrB and sinR genes, which are the key to the transformation of bacilli between biofilm and free-living mode-of-life, are upregulated and this increase cell mobility and inhibit EPS secretion. In order to avoid damage of goethite, bacteria prefer to move to air–liquid interface ( middle panel ). As bacteria aggregate on the air–liquid interface, both abrB and sinR are downregulated, which decreases cell mobility and increases EPS secretion, and the biofilm is formed rapidly ( right panel )

Techniques Used: Adsorption, Transformation Assay

26) Product Images from "Organo-Selenium-Containing Polyester Bandage Inhibits Bacterial Biofilm Growth on the Bandage and in the Wound"

Article Title: Organo-Selenium-Containing Polyester Bandage Inhibits Bacterial Biofilm Growth on the Bandage and in the Wound

Journal: Biomedicines

doi: 10.3390/biomedicines8030062

Mouse wounds after 5 days. Representative confocal laser scanning microscopy images of ( A ) Staphylococcus aureus GFP AH133 with untreated polyester showing bacteria in the AAEMA bandage, and ( B ) is the same except it is with a Se-AAEMA bandage, while ( E ) is the tissue under bandage ( A ), and ( F ) is the tissue under bandage ( B ). ( C ) is Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 GFP biofilms formed on the AAEMA treated polyester dressings and ( D ) is the same as ( A ) except it is with the SeAAEMA treated dressing. ( G ) is the tissue under the polyester dressings ( A ), and ( H ) is the tissue under the SeAAEMA bandage ( D ). Bar is 100 μm.
Figure Legend Snippet: Mouse wounds after 5 days. Representative confocal laser scanning microscopy images of ( A ) Staphylococcus aureus GFP AH133 with untreated polyester showing bacteria in the AAEMA bandage, and ( B ) is the same except it is with a Se-AAEMA bandage, while ( E ) is the tissue under bandage ( A ), and ( F ) is the tissue under bandage ( B ). ( C ) is Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 GFP biofilms formed on the AAEMA treated polyester dressings and ( D ) is the same as ( A ) except it is with the SeAAEMA treated dressing. ( G ) is the tissue under the polyester dressings ( A ), and ( H ) is the tissue under the SeAAEMA bandage ( D ). Bar is 100 μm.

Techniques Used: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy

Graph of the colony-forming units of ( A ) Staphylococcus aureus GFP AH133, ( B ) Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 GFP, ( C ) Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus CI 1, and ( D ) Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus CI 2 biofilms formed on the polyester dressings and in the tissue under the polyester dressings on a mouse wound. Values represent the means of six replicate experiments ± SEM. A two-tailed unpaired t test was used to determine statistical significance. Untreated polyester has AAEMA but no selenium.
Figure Legend Snippet: Graph of the colony-forming units of ( A ) Staphylococcus aureus GFP AH133, ( B ) Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 GFP, ( C ) Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus CI 1, and ( D ) Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus CI 2 biofilms formed on the polyester dressings and in the tissue under the polyester dressings on a mouse wound. Values represent the means of six replicate experiments ± SEM. A two-tailed unpaired t test was used to determine statistical significance. Untreated polyester has AAEMA but no selenium.

Techniques Used: Two Tailed Test

Representative IVIS in vivo live images of ( A ) S. aureus Lux Xen29 under AAEMA polyester dressing and ( B ) Se-AAEMA polyester dressing. ( C ) P. aeruginosa Lux Xen5 biofilms formed under the AAEMA polyester dressings and ( D ) the Se-AAEMA polyester dressing.
Figure Legend Snippet: Representative IVIS in vivo live images of ( A ) S. aureus Lux Xen29 under AAEMA polyester dressing and ( B ) Se-AAEMA polyester dressing. ( C ) P. aeruginosa Lux Xen5 biofilms formed under the AAEMA polyester dressings and ( D ) the Se-AAEMA polyester dressing.

Techniques Used: In Vivo

Stability study of bandage after one month in PBS at 37 °C. The inhibitory effect of the organo-selenium coating is long-lasting against Staphylococcus aureus GFP AH133 biofilms formed on untreated polyester and 1% Se-AAEMA polyester, which were previously soaked in 1× PBS (pH = 7.4) for three months. Values represent the means of quadruplicate experiments ± SEM. ( A ) two-tailed unpaired t test was used to determine statistical significance. Representative confocal laser scanning microscopy images of ( B ) Staphylococcus aureus GFP AH133 biofilms formed on untreated polyester and ( C ) 1% Se-AAEMA polyester, which were previously soaked in 1× PBS (pH = 7.4) for three months. Untreated polyester has AAEMA but no selenium. Bar is 200 m.
Figure Legend Snippet: Stability study of bandage after one month in PBS at 37 °C. The inhibitory effect of the organo-selenium coating is long-lasting against Staphylococcus aureus GFP AH133 biofilms formed on untreated polyester and 1% Se-AAEMA polyester, which were previously soaked in 1× PBS (pH = 7.4) for three months. Values represent the means of quadruplicate experiments ± SEM. ( A ) two-tailed unpaired t test was used to determine statistical significance. Representative confocal laser scanning microscopy images of ( B ) Staphylococcus aureus GFP AH133 biofilms formed on untreated polyester and ( C ) 1% Se-AAEMA polyester, which were previously soaked in 1× PBS (pH = 7.4) for three months. Untreated polyester has AAEMA but no selenium. Bar is 200 m.

Techniques Used: Two Tailed Test, Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy

Graph of the colony-forming units of ( A ) Staphylococcus aureus GFP AH133, ( B ) Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ATCC ® 53199™, ( C ) Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 GFP, ( D ) Enterococcus faecalis GFP, ( E ) Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus CI 1, ( F ) Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus CI 2, and ( G ) Staphylococcus epidermidis CI biofilms formed on untreated polyester and 1% Se-AAEMA polyester. Values represent the means of triplicate experiments ± SEM. A two-tailed unpaired t test was used to determine statistical significance. Untreated polyester has AAEMA but no selenium.
Figure Legend Snippet: Graph of the colony-forming units of ( A ) Staphylococcus aureus GFP AH133, ( B ) Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ATCC ® 53199™, ( C ) Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 GFP, ( D ) Enterococcus faecalis GFP, ( E ) Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus CI 1, ( F ) Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus CI 2, and ( G ) Staphylococcus epidermidis CI biofilms formed on untreated polyester and 1% Se-AAEMA polyester. Values represent the means of triplicate experiments ± SEM. A two-tailed unpaired t test was used to determine statistical significance. Untreated polyester has AAEMA but no selenium.

Techniques Used: Two Tailed Test

In Vitro study. Representative confocal laser scanning microscopy images of ( A ) Staphylococcus aureus GFP AH133, ( B ) Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 GFP, and ( C ) Enterococcus faecalis GFP biofilm formed on untreated polyester and 1% Se-AAEMA polyester. Untreated polyester has AAEMA but no selenium. ( D – F ) are the same samples as those above however they have Se-AAEMA. As seen all the bacteria are eliminated. The bar is 200 μm.
Figure Legend Snippet: In Vitro study. Representative confocal laser scanning microscopy images of ( A ) Staphylococcus aureus GFP AH133, ( B ) Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 GFP, and ( C ) Enterococcus faecalis GFP biofilm formed on untreated polyester and 1% Se-AAEMA polyester. Untreated polyester has AAEMA but no selenium. ( D – F ) are the same samples as those above however they have Se-AAEMA. As seen all the bacteria are eliminated. The bar is 200 μm.

Techniques Used: In Vitro, Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy

27) Product Images from "Spatial transcriptomes within the Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm architecture"

Article Title: Spatial transcriptomes within the Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm architecture

Journal: Molecular Microbiology

doi: 10.1111/mmi.13863

Spatial gene‐expression in the P. aeruginosa biofilm. A. A GFP‐tagged P. aeruginosa strain was used to grow biofilm on stainless steel coupons. After 72 h growth, the biofilm was fixed, embedded in Tissue‐Tek OCT compound, and vertically sectioned. The Zeiss PALM system was used to isolate approximately 150 μm 2 sections from the surface, middle, and interior portions of the biofilm. Scale bar is 10 μm. Three biological replicates of the sections were obtained in each spatial location. B. Linear expression map of all genes detected from different locations in the biofilm. Each line represents a single gene, with the rainbow colors (red to purple) indicating positive to negative log 2 fold‐change values. Genes above the line of log 2 fold‐change = 1 are considered up‐regulated, whereas genes below the line of log 2 fold‐change = −1 are considered down‐regulated in the biofilm compared to those in planktonically growing cells.
Figure Legend Snippet: Spatial gene‐expression in the P. aeruginosa biofilm. A. A GFP‐tagged P. aeruginosa strain was used to grow biofilm on stainless steel coupons. After 72 h growth, the biofilm was fixed, embedded in Tissue‐Tek OCT compound, and vertically sectioned. The Zeiss PALM system was used to isolate approximately 150 μm 2 sections from the surface, middle, and interior portions of the biofilm. Scale bar is 10 μm. Three biological replicates of the sections were obtained in each spatial location. B. Linear expression map of all genes detected from different locations in the biofilm. Each line represents a single gene, with the rainbow colors (red to purple) indicating positive to negative log 2 fold‐change values. Genes above the line of log 2 fold‐change = 1 are considered up‐regulated, whereas genes below the line of log 2 fold‐change = −1 are considered down‐regulated in the biofilm compared to those in planktonically growing cells.

Techniques Used: Expressing

Characterization of biofilm defective mutants. A. Heat map of 13 hypothetical protein genes essential for biofilm formation. Genes were sorted according to accession numbers. Fold‐changes of spatially expressed genes are shown with a red‐black‐green double color gradient. Green indicates up‐regulation and red indicates down‐regulation, as shown in the color gradient bar at the top (log 2 FC = 2 to −2). For each location within the biofilm, the first three boxes represent the results from three biological replicates, and the fourth box represents the average fold‐change of the replicates. Each biological replicate was hybridized to three microarrays and processed as technical triplicate. Grey boxes indicate no detection of transcript in at least one of the three technical triplicates. B. All mutants showed significant defects in crystal violet biofilm assay, and were fully complemented by an exogenous copy of the corresponding gene inserted at the chromosomal attTn7 site. *, P
Figure Legend Snippet: Characterization of biofilm defective mutants. A. Heat map of 13 hypothetical protein genes essential for biofilm formation. Genes were sorted according to accession numbers. Fold‐changes of spatially expressed genes are shown with a red‐black‐green double color gradient. Green indicates up‐regulation and red indicates down‐regulation, as shown in the color gradient bar at the top (log 2 FC = 2 to −2). For each location within the biofilm, the first three boxes represent the results from three biological replicates, and the fourth box represents the average fold‐change of the replicates. Each biological replicate was hybridized to three microarrays and processed as technical triplicate. Grey boxes indicate no detection of transcript in at least one of the three technical triplicates. B. All mutants showed significant defects in crystal violet biofilm assay, and were fully complemented by an exogenous copy of the corresponding gene inserted at the chromosomal attTn7 site. *, P

Techniques Used: Biofilm Production Assay

28) Product Images from "Cleaning effect of osteoconductive powder abrasive treatment on explanted human implants and biofilm‐coated titanium discs. Cleaning effect of osteoconductive powder abrasive treatment on explanted human implants and biofilm‐coated titanium discs"

Article Title: Cleaning effect of osteoconductive powder abrasive treatment on explanted human implants and biofilm‐coated titanium discs. Cleaning effect of osteoconductive powder abrasive treatment on explanted human implants and biofilm‐coated titanium discs

Journal: Clinical and Experimental Dental Research

doi: 10.1002/cre2.100

(a and b) Explanted implant surface mineral accumulations. (c and d) Freshly fixed biofilm on a peri‐implantitis exposed biofilm. (e and f) CaOH accumulated in vitro biofilm on a titanium disc
Figure Legend Snippet: (a and b) Explanted implant surface mineral accumulations. (c and d) Freshly fixed biofilm on a peri‐implantitis exposed biofilm. (e and f) CaOH accumulated in vitro biofilm on a titanium disc

Techniques Used: In Vitro

(a) Pretreatment photo of the implant showing calculus on the threads (red circle [triangle]). (b) Posttreatment photo of the same implant after “erythritol cleaning + low coating.” Large calculus is removed (blue circle [star]); however, some powder accumulations are visible on the treated implant surface (yellow circle [square]). (c) Large magnification Scanning electron microscopy photo showing the powder particles embedded on the surface of the same implant. (d) Large magnification scanning electron microscopy photo of another implant showing the biofilm remnant and powder particles on the surface
Figure Legend Snippet: (a) Pretreatment photo of the implant showing calculus on the threads (red circle [triangle]). (b) Posttreatment photo of the same implant after “erythritol cleaning + low coating.” Large calculus is removed (blue circle [star]); however, some powder accumulations are visible on the treated implant surface (yellow circle [square]). (c) Large magnification Scanning electron microscopy photo showing the powder particles embedded on the surface of the same implant. (d) Large magnification scanning electron microscopy photo of another implant showing the biofilm remnant and powder particles on the surface

Techniques Used: Electron Microscopy

29) Product Images from "Antibiofilm Activity of GlmU Enzyme Inhibitors against Catheter-Associated Uropathogens"

Article Title: Antibiofilm Activity of GlmU Enzyme Inhibitors against Catheter-Associated Uropathogens

Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

doi: 10.1128/AAC.50.5.1835-1840.2006

Effect of GlmU inhibitors on growth (□) and biofilm formation (▪) of gram-positive catheter-associated pathogens (a) E. coli P18, (b) P. aeruginosa , and (c) K. pneumoniae as determined by a microtiter plate assay. Error bars are not visible where the standard deviations are less than the area occupied by a given symbol.
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of GlmU inhibitors on growth (□) and biofilm formation (▪) of gram-positive catheter-associated pathogens (a) E. coli P18, (b) P. aeruginosa , and (c) K. pneumoniae as determined by a microtiter plate assay. Error bars are not visible where the standard deviations are less than the area occupied by a given symbol.

Techniques Used:

Effect of GlmU inhibitors on growth (□) and biofilm formation (▪) of E. coli P18 as determined by a microtiter plate assay. Error bars are not visible where the standard deviations are less than the area occupied by a given symbol.
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of GlmU inhibitors on growth (□) and biofilm formation (▪) of E. coli P18 as determined by a microtiter plate assay. Error bars are not visible where the standard deviations are less than the area occupied by a given symbol.

Techniques Used:

Effect of oPDM and PS alone and in combination on growth (□) and biofilm formation ( ) of P. mirabilis , S. epidermidis , and K. pneumoniae as determined by a microtiter plate assay. Error bars are not visible where the standard deviations are less than the area occupied by a given symbol. Asterisks indicate a significant difference ( P
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of oPDM and PS alone and in combination on growth (□) and biofilm formation ( ) of P. mirabilis , S. epidermidis , and K. pneumoniae as determined by a microtiter plate assay. Error bars are not visible where the standard deviations are less than the area occupied by a given symbol. Asterisks indicate a significant difference ( P

Techniques Used:

30) Product Images from "Novel dual-regulators of Pseudomonas aeruginosa are essential for productive biofilms and virulence"

Article Title: Novel dual-regulators of Pseudomonas aeruginosa are essential for productive biofilms and virulence

Journal: Molecular microbiology

doi: 10.1111/mmi.14063

). Gene expression fold-changes are shown with a red-black-green double color gradient. (B) The mutant of PA1226 has significantly reduced biofilm formation via crystal violet assay (**, P
Figure Legend Snippet: ). Gene expression fold-changes are shown with a red-black-green double color gradient. (B) The mutant of PA1226 has significantly reduced biofilm formation via crystal violet assay (**, P

Techniques Used: Expressing, Mutagenesis, Crystal Violet Assay

31) Product Images from "Influence of Hydrodynamics and Cell Signaling on the Structure and Behavior of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms"

Article Title: Influence of Hydrodynamics and Cell Signaling on the Structure and Behavior of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms

Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

doi: 10.1128/AEM.68.9.4457-4464.2002

P. aeruginosa PAO1 and JP1 biofilms grown in turbulent and laminar flow cells. PAO1 biofilm in turbulent (A to C) and laminar (G to I) flow cells and JP1 biofilm in turbulent (D to F) and laminar (J to L) flow cells on days 1 (top row), 3 (middle row), and 6 (bottom row) (scale bars = 20 μm, 100 μm, and 100 μm, respectively) are shown. By day 3 in turbulent flow, both the PAO1 and JP1 strains had formed similar streamlined patchy biofilms. In laminar flow, both PAO1 and JP1 formed a flat monolayer of cells with occasional circular colonies. C, circular colony; R, ripple structure; S, streamers; SP, streamlined patches. The flow direction is from right to left on each panel.
Figure Legend Snippet: P. aeruginosa PAO1 and JP1 biofilms grown in turbulent and laminar flow cells. PAO1 biofilm in turbulent (A to C) and laminar (G to I) flow cells and JP1 biofilm in turbulent (D to F) and laminar (J to L) flow cells on days 1 (top row), 3 (middle row), and 6 (bottom row) (scale bars = 20 μm, 100 μm, and 100 μm, respectively) are shown. By day 3 in turbulent flow, both the PAO1 and JP1 strains had formed similar streamlined patchy biofilms. In laminar flow, both PAO1 and JP1 formed a flat monolayer of cells with occasional circular colonies. C, circular colony; R, ripple structure; S, streamers; SP, streamlined patches. The flow direction is from right to left on each panel.

Techniques Used: Flow Cytometry

Biofilm development and accumulation measured by surface area coverage (A) and thickness (B) over the course of the experiments. JP1 in turbulent conditions (solid bars), PAO1 in turbulent conditions (open bars), JP1 in laminar conditions (dark gray bars), and PAO1 in laminar conditions (light gray bars) are shown. Error bars represent 1 standard error; n = 15.
Figure Legend Snippet: Biofilm development and accumulation measured by surface area coverage (A) and thickness (B) over the course of the experiments. JP1 in turbulent conditions (solid bars), PAO1 in turbulent conditions (open bars), JP1 in laminar conditions (dark gray bars), and PAO1 in laminar conditions (light gray bars) are shown. Error bars represent 1 standard error; n = 15.

Techniques Used:

Ripple structures formed in PAO1 and JP1 biofilms. Images of PAO1 biofilm ripple structures in the biofilms growing in the turbulent flow cell (A) and the laminar flow cell (B), taken at days 4 and 5, respectively, are shown. The ripples were aligned perpendicularly to the flow direction (right to left). Scale bar, 200 μm. (C) JP1 biofilm ripple structures in the turbulent flow cell taken on day 6. Scale bar, 200 μm. The ripple structures were much less evident under higher magnification (the images in panels D and F are of the same fields as those in panels A and C, respectively). Scale bar, 20 μm. (E) Patchy PAO1 biofilm structures in the turbulent flow cell, run 3, day 5. Scale bar, 100 μm.
Figure Legend Snippet: Ripple structures formed in PAO1 and JP1 biofilms. Images of PAO1 biofilm ripple structures in the biofilms growing in the turbulent flow cell (A) and the laminar flow cell (B), taken at days 4 and 5, respectively, are shown. The ripples were aligned perpendicularly to the flow direction (right to left). Scale bar, 200 μm. (C) JP1 biofilm ripple structures in the turbulent flow cell taken on day 6. Scale bar, 200 μm. The ripple structures were much less evident under higher magnification (the images in panels D and F are of the same fields as those in panels A and C, respectively). Scale bar, 20 μm. (E) Patchy PAO1 biofilm structures in the turbulent flow cell, run 3, day 5. Scale bar, 100 μm.

Techniques Used: Flow Cytometry

32) Product Images from "Culturing Toxic Benthic Blooms: The Fate of Natural Biofilms in a Microcosm System"

Article Title: Culturing Toxic Benthic Blooms: The Fate of Natural Biofilms in a Microcosm System

Journal: Microorganisms

doi: 10.3390/microorganisms5030046

CLSM volume rendering of biofilm at initial phase ( a ), 3D reconstruction ( b ) and volume rendering ( c ) of samples at the active phase, signals are colour-coded as in Figure 7 . Network ( b, arrow ) and layering ( c, arrow ) across the biofilm thickness are visible in the most advanced growth phases as well as the presence of voids ( c, double arrow ). Bars = 40 µm.
Figure Legend Snippet: CLSM volume rendering of biofilm at initial phase ( a ), 3D reconstruction ( b ) and volume rendering ( c ) of samples at the active phase, signals are colour-coded as in Figure 7 . Network ( b, arrow ) and layering ( c, arrow ) across the biofilm thickness are visible in the most advanced growth phases as well as the presence of voids ( c, double arrow ). Bars = 40 µm.

Techniques Used: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy

Light microscopy showed shifts in biofilm composition in all Runs and prevalence of cyanobacteria in late growth phases. O. cf. ovata cells were healthy and proliferating at initial ( a , b ) and active phases. Coscinodiscus sp. ( b, arrow ) at initial phase of Run 3. Tube dwelling diatoms ( c , f ); active phase, Run 2) were abundant in all biofilms, along with Ceratoneis closterium ( g, arrow ) and Amphora spp. layered cells ( i, arrow ), while Oscillatorialean cyanobacteria ( d , g , h ) dominated the last development phases. Amphidinium cf. carterae ( e , i ) was also abundant in the last phases. Bars = 10 μm.
Figure Legend Snippet: Light microscopy showed shifts in biofilm composition in all Runs and prevalence of cyanobacteria in late growth phases. O. cf. ovata cells were healthy and proliferating at initial ( a , b ) and active phases. Coscinodiscus sp. ( b, arrow ) at initial phase of Run 3. Tube dwelling diatoms ( c , f ); active phase, Run 2) were abundant in all biofilms, along with Ceratoneis closterium ( g, arrow ) and Amphora spp. layered cells ( i, arrow ), while Oscillatorialean cyanobacteria ( d , g , h ) dominated the last development phases. Amphidinium cf. carterae ( e , i ) was also abundant in the last phases. Bars = 10 μm.

Techniques Used: Light Microscopy

CLSM 3D recontructions of biofilm at mature phases showing layering of oriented, filamentous cyanobacteria (brighter autofluorescence at filament apex is possibly due to a light stimulus response) in ( a ) and occasional observation of loosely attached filamentous phototrophs or streamers, floating in flow direction ( b ), colour coded as in Figure 7 . Bars = 40 µm.
Figure Legend Snippet: CLSM 3D recontructions of biofilm at mature phases showing layering of oriented, filamentous cyanobacteria (brighter autofluorescence at filament apex is possibly due to a light stimulus response) in ( a ) and occasional observation of loosely attached filamentous phototrophs or streamers, floating in flow direction ( b ), colour coded as in Figure 7 . Bars = 40 µm.

Techniques Used: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, Flow Cytometry

Biofilm capsular exopolysaccharides (CPS) monosaccharides in mature samples grown at each Run. Different proportions of 8 neutral sugars differed between Runs, data are expressed as mol % ( a ). Dry weight ( b ) and chlorophyll a content ( c ) values of biofilms at the three development phases, increasing trends over time were detected for both biomass indicators.
Figure Legend Snippet: Biofilm capsular exopolysaccharides (CPS) monosaccharides in mature samples grown at each Run. Different proportions of 8 neutral sugars differed between Runs, data are expressed as mol % ( a ). Dry weight ( b ) and chlorophyll a content ( c ) values of biofilms at the three development phases, increasing trends over time were detected for both biomass indicators.

Techniques Used:

Microcosm lane with bottom slides colonised by biofilm. Coverage is patchy and differently pigmented portions are visible.
Figure Legend Snippet: Microcosm lane with bottom slides colonised by biofilm. Coverage is patchy and differently pigmented portions are visible.

Techniques Used:

Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) 3D biofilm reconstruction at initial ( a , b ), and active ( c , d ) phases. O. cf. ovata cells are clearly visible in the median part of the uppermost images ( a,b, arrows ) showing numerous, elongated chloroplasts located at the cell periphery. Green signal was obtained with a 488-nm laser source, emission of frustule autofluorescence [ 39 , 40 ] is visible in ( a, asterisk ) where elongated diatoms occurr sparse on the slide, while a dense cluster of Coscinodiscus sp. lies interspersed with thin cyanobacterial trichomes in ( d ). White and red signals were captured after 543- and 635-nm laser excitation of accessory pigments and chlorophyll a of biofilm phototrophs. Filaments of small naviculoids are visible in pale red in ( c, arrows ) Bars = 30 ( a,b ), 40 ( c,d ) µm.
Figure Legend Snippet: Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) 3D biofilm reconstruction at initial ( a , b ), and active ( c , d ) phases. O. cf. ovata cells are clearly visible in the median part of the uppermost images ( a,b, arrows ) showing numerous, elongated chloroplasts located at the cell periphery. Green signal was obtained with a 488-nm laser source, emission of frustule autofluorescence [ 39 , 40 ] is visible in ( a, asterisk ) where elongated diatoms occurr sparse on the slide, while a dense cluster of Coscinodiscus sp. lies interspersed with thin cyanobacterial trichomes in ( d ). White and red signals were captured after 543- and 635-nm laser excitation of accessory pigments and chlorophyll a of biofilm phototrophs. Filaments of small naviculoids are visible in pale red in ( c, arrows ) Bars = 30 ( a,b ), 40 ( c,d ) µm.

Techniques Used: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy

CLSM volume renderings ( a , c , d ), and 3D reconstruction ( b ) of biofilm at mature phases. Networks of diverse, more or less oriented, filamentous cyanobacteria lie close to clusters of Amphidinium cf. carterae cells, apparently excluding other biofilm organisms ( a, arrow ), and of large raphid diatoms ( b , arrow ). 3D renderings evidencing microcolonies of actively dividing coccal, colonial cyanobacteria ( c arrow ), forming channels ( c, double arrow ) and valleys ( d, arrow )). White signal was obtained with a 488-nm laser source, magenta and cyan colour codes using 543-nm and 635-nm laser sources, respectively. Bars = 40 µm.
Figure Legend Snippet: CLSM volume renderings ( a , c , d ), and 3D reconstruction ( b ) of biofilm at mature phases. Networks of diverse, more or less oriented, filamentous cyanobacteria lie close to clusters of Amphidinium cf. carterae cells, apparently excluding other biofilm organisms ( a, arrow ), and of large raphid diatoms ( b , arrow ). 3D renderings evidencing microcolonies of actively dividing coccal, colonial cyanobacteria ( c arrow ), forming channels ( c, double arrow ) and valleys ( d, arrow )). White signal was obtained with a 488-nm laser source, magenta and cyan colour codes using 543-nm and 635-nm laser sources, respectively. Bars = 40 µm.

Techniques Used: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy

Methodological approach. Host organisms were sampled ( a ) and the biofilms washed off and collected ( b ). Cell suspensions were filtered and inoculated in the flow lane incubator ( c ).
Figure Legend Snippet: Methodological approach. Host organisms were sampled ( a ) and the biofilms washed off and collected ( b ). Cell suspensions were filtered and inoculated in the flow lane incubator ( c ).

Techniques Used: Flow Cytometry

33) Product Images from "Formation of Multilayered Photosynthetic Biofilms in an Alkaline Thermal Spring in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming ▿"

Article Title: Formation of Multilayered Photosynthetic Biofilms in an Alkaline Thermal Spring in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming ▿

Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

doi: 10.1128/AEM.01802-08

Color plates showing graphs of pigments and bacterial retrieval rates. (A) Graphs showing pigment analysis and retrieval of phototrophs. In the top graph, total pigment was methanol extracted from each 0.02-g biofilm homogenate (for 1- to 8-month samples)
Figure Legend Snippet: Color plates showing graphs of pigments and bacterial retrieval rates. (A) Graphs showing pigment analysis and retrieval of phototrophs. In the top graph, total pigment was methanol extracted from each 0.02-g biofilm homogenate (for 1- to 8-month samples)

Techniques Used:

Biofilm modeling experimental site.
Figure Legend Snippet: Biofilm modeling experimental site.

Techniques Used:

Color plates showing macroscopic site and microscopic biofilm images. (A) Site images. Image a shows the natural splash mats located at the air-water interface by Fairy Geyser; the arrow indicates the community that has previously been sampled and described.
Figure Legend Snippet: Color plates showing macroscopic site and microscopic biofilm images. (A) Site images. Image a shows the natural splash mats located at the air-water interface by Fairy Geyser; the arrow indicates the community that has previously been sampled and described.

Techniques Used:

Maximum parsimony tree of Chloroflexi library clones. Known Chloroflexi are indicated in italics, with the GenBank accession numbers in parentheses. Representative water and biofilm clones are signified by bold clone names and numbers (Table
Figure Legend Snippet: Maximum parsimony tree of Chloroflexi library clones. Known Chloroflexi are indicated in italics, with the GenBank accession numbers in parentheses. Representative water and biofilm clones are signified by bold clone names and numbers (Table

Techniques Used: Clone Assay

34) Product Images from "Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm Activity against Streptococcus mutans of Individual and Mixtures of the Main Polyphenolic Compounds Found in Chilean Propolis"

Article Title: Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm Activity against Streptococcus mutans of Individual and Mixtures of the Main Polyphenolic Compounds Found in Chilean Propolis

Journal: BioMed Research International

doi: 10.1155/2019/7602343

Images of bacterial biofilms from S. mutans cultures obtained by confocal microscopy. (a) Control group. (b) Chlorhexidine. (c) Pinocembrin. (d) Apigenin. (e) CAPE. (f) Quercitin.
Figure Legend Snippet: Images of bacterial biofilms from S. mutans cultures obtained by confocal microscopy. (a) Control group. (b) Chlorhexidine. (c) Pinocembrin. (d) Apigenin. (e) CAPE. (f) Quercitin.

Techniques Used: Confocal Microscopy

Evaluation of bacterial biofilm thickness in S. mutans cultures treated with individual and mixtures of polyphenols. Each values of individual experiments were expressed as a mean ± standard deviation. P-value was determined by ANOVA and Tukey Post Test. ∗ p
Figure Legend Snippet: Evaluation of bacterial biofilm thickness in S. mutans cultures treated with individual and mixtures of polyphenols. Each values of individual experiments were expressed as a mean ± standard deviation. P-value was determined by ANOVA and Tukey Post Test. ∗ p

Techniques Used: Standard Deviation

35) Product Images from "The N-Terminus of Human Lactoferrin Displays Anti-biofilm Activity on Candida parapsilosis in Lumen Catheters"

Article Title: The N-Terminus of Human Lactoferrin Displays Anti-biofilm Activity on Candida parapsilosis in Lumen Catheters

Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.02218

Inverted microscope images show sessile cell organization of strain CP 7 (strong biofilm producer) in the absence (A) and following co-incubation with 44 mg/L (B) or 88 mg/L (C) hLF 1-11 for 24 h at 37°C. Bars denote 50 μm.
Figure Legend Snippet: Inverted microscope images show sessile cell organization of strain CP 7 (strong biofilm producer) in the absence (A) and following co-incubation with 44 mg/L (B) or 88 mg/L (C) hLF 1-11 for 24 h at 37°C. Bars denote 50 μm.

Techniques Used: Inverted Microscopy, Incubation

Activity of hLF 1-11 on mature biofilm produced on the catheter lumen following incubation at 37° for 24 h in four-fold diluted RPMI or 10% glucose solution. Data are expressed as means of three independent experiments ± SEM. ∗ P ≤ 0.05; ∗∗ P ≤ 0.01; ∗∗∗ P ≤ 0.001.
Figure Legend Snippet: Activity of hLF 1-11 on mature biofilm produced on the catheter lumen following incubation at 37° for 24 h in four-fold diluted RPMI or 10% glucose solution. Data are expressed as means of three independent experiments ± SEM. ∗ P ≤ 0.05; ∗∗ P ≤ 0.01; ∗∗∗ P ≤ 0.001.

Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Produced, Incubation

Inverted microscope images (400×) show biofilms produced by C. parapsilosis CP 7 (A) , CP 558 (B) , CP 577 (C) , CP 508 (D) , and ATCC 22019 (E) strains, following incubation for 24 h at 37°C in a polystyrene microtiter plate. Bar denotes 50 μm.
Figure Legend Snippet: Inverted microscope images (400×) show biofilms produced by C. parapsilosis CP 7 (A) , CP 558 (B) , CP 577 (C) , CP 508 (D) , and ATCC 22019 (E) strains, following incubation for 24 h at 37°C in a polystyrene microtiter plate. Bar denotes 50 μm.

Techniques Used: Inverted Microscopy, Produced, Incubation

Effect of hLF 1-11 on mature biofilm of C. parapsilosis. Yeast cells were incubated for 24 h and then co-incubated with hLF 1-11 at different concentrations for 24 h at 37°C. The peptide anti-biofilm activity was assessed in terms of reduction of biofilm biomass (A) and metabolic activity (B) . Data are expressed as means of three independent experiments ± SEM. ∗ P ≤ 0.05; ∗∗ P ≤ 0.01; ∗∗∗ P ≤ 0.001.
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of hLF 1-11 on mature biofilm of C. parapsilosis. Yeast cells were incubated for 24 h and then co-incubated with hLF 1-11 at different concentrations for 24 h at 37°C. The peptide anti-biofilm activity was assessed in terms of reduction of biofilm biomass (A) and metabolic activity (B) . Data are expressed as means of three independent experiments ± SEM. ∗ P ≤ 0.05; ∗∗ P ≤ 0.01; ∗∗∗ P ≤ 0.001.

Techniques Used: Incubation, Activity Assay

Effect of hLF 1-11 on pre-adhered cells of C. parapsilosis. Yeast cells were incubated at different time points (1.5, 3, 6, and 24 h) and then co-incubated with hLF 1-11 at two different concentrations for 24 h at 37°C. The peptide anti-biofilm activity was assessed in terms of reduction of biofilm biomass (A) and metabolic activity (B) . Data are expressed as means of three independent experiments ± SEM. ∗ P ≤ 0.05; ∗∗ P ≤ 0.01; ∗∗∗ P ≤ 0.001.
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of hLF 1-11 on pre-adhered cells of C. parapsilosis. Yeast cells were incubated at different time points (1.5, 3, 6, and 24 h) and then co-incubated with hLF 1-11 at two different concentrations for 24 h at 37°C. The peptide anti-biofilm activity was assessed in terms of reduction of biofilm biomass (A) and metabolic activity (B) . Data are expressed as means of three independent experiments ± SEM. ∗ P ≤ 0.05; ∗∗ P ≤ 0.01; ∗∗∗ P ≤ 0.001.

Techniques Used: Incubation, Activity Assay

Relative gene expression of C. parapsilosis biofilm-related genes assessed by qRT-PCR. Strain CP 7 was co-incubated in the absence and presence of hLF 1-11 44 mg/L for 24 h at 37°C in a 24-wells plate and transcriptional levels of the target genes were determined by qRTPCR using CpACT1 as reference gene for normalization. Mutant strain CP 508 lacking both copies of BCR1 was included as control. Data are expressed as means of three independent experiments ± SEM. ∗ P ≤ 0.05; ∗∗ P ≤ 0.01.
Figure Legend Snippet: Relative gene expression of C. parapsilosis biofilm-related genes assessed by qRT-PCR. Strain CP 7 was co-incubated in the absence and presence of hLF 1-11 44 mg/L for 24 h at 37°C in a 24-wells plate and transcriptional levels of the target genes were determined by qRTPCR using CpACT1 as reference gene for normalization. Mutant strain CP 508 lacking both copies of BCR1 was included as control. Data are expressed as means of three independent experiments ± SEM. ∗ P ≤ 0.05; ∗∗ P ≤ 0.01.

Techniques Used: Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR, Incubation, Mutagenesis

Effect of hLF 1-11 on biofilm formation by three Candida parapsilosis strains. Yeast cells were co-incubated with different concentrations of hLF 1-11 for 24 h at 37°C. The peptide activity was assessed in terms of biofilm biomass (A) and metabolic activity (B) . Data are expressed as means of three independent experiments ± SEM. ∗∗∗ P ≤ 0.001.
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of hLF 1-11 on biofilm formation by three Candida parapsilosis strains. Yeast cells were co-incubated with different concentrations of hLF 1-11 for 24 h at 37°C. The peptide activity was assessed in terms of biofilm biomass (A) and metabolic activity (B) . Data are expressed as means of three independent experiments ± SEM. ∗∗∗ P ≤ 0.001.

Techniques Used: Incubation, Activity Assay

(A) Reduction of biofilm formation in catheters co-incubated for 24 h at 37°C with two different concentrations of hLF 1-11, compared with the untreated control. Catheters were incubated in four-fold diluted RPMI or in a 10% glucose solution. Data are expressed as means of three independent experiments ± SEM. ∗ P ≤ 0.05; ∗∗ P ≤ 0.01; ∗∗∗ P ≤ 0.001. (B) CLSM images of (i) un-colonized catheter lumen, and catheters co-incubated with strain CP 7 in the absence (ii) or presence (iii) of 44 mg/L hLF 1-11 for 24 h at 37°C in four-fold diluted RPMI. Bars denote 50 μm.
Figure Legend Snippet: (A) Reduction of biofilm formation in catheters co-incubated for 24 h at 37°C with two different concentrations of hLF 1-11, compared with the untreated control. Catheters were incubated in four-fold diluted RPMI or in a 10% glucose solution. Data are expressed as means of three independent experiments ± SEM. ∗ P ≤ 0.05; ∗∗ P ≤ 0.01; ∗∗∗ P ≤ 0.001. (B) CLSM images of (i) un-colonized catheter lumen, and catheters co-incubated with strain CP 7 in the absence (ii) or presence (iii) of 44 mg/L hLF 1-11 for 24 h at 37°C in four-fold diluted RPMI. Bars denote 50 μm.

Techniques Used: Incubation, Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy

36) Product Images from "Antibacterial effect of copper-bearing titanium alloy (Ti-Cu) against Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis"

Article Title: Antibacterial effect of copper-bearing titanium alloy (Ti-Cu) against Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis

Journal: Scientific Reports

doi: 10.1038/srep29985

Fluorescent images and 3-D representations of S. mutans and P. gingivalis biofilms on surfaces of Ti and Ti-Cu alloy after incubation at 37 °C for 24 h, thickness of S. mutans biofilm on Ti is 40 μm, and not quantifiable on Ti-Cu alloy, while thickness of P. gingivalis biofilm on Ti is 36 μm, and that on Ti-Cu alloy is 18 μm.
Figure Legend Snippet: Fluorescent images and 3-D representations of S. mutans and P. gingivalis biofilms on surfaces of Ti and Ti-Cu alloy after incubation at 37 °C for 24 h, thickness of S. mutans biofilm on Ti is 40 μm, and not quantifiable on Ti-Cu alloy, while thickness of P. gingivalis biofilm on Ti is 36 μm, and that on Ti-Cu alloy is 18 μm.

Techniques Used: Incubation

( A ) Gene expressions of P. gingivalis (16s RNA) and S. mutans (glucosyltransferase, in short “ gtf ”) in the biofilm, **P ≤ 0.01, ***P ≤ 0.001; ( B ) SEM micrographs and DAPI images of S. mutans and P. gingivalis on surfaces of Ti (a, c, e and g) and Ti-Cu alloy (b,d,f and h) after co-culture for 24 h.
Figure Legend Snippet: ( A ) Gene expressions of P. gingivalis (16s RNA) and S. mutans (glucosyltransferase, in short “ gtf ”) in the biofilm, **P ≤ 0.01, ***P ≤ 0.001; ( B ) SEM micrographs and DAPI images of S. mutans and P. gingivalis on surfaces of Ti (a, c, e and g) and Ti-Cu alloy (b,d,f and h) after co-culture for 24 h.

Techniques Used: Co-Culture Assay

37) Product Images from "Differences in survival, virulence and biofilm formation between sialidase-deficient and W83 wild-type Porphyromonas gingivalis strains under stressful environmental conditions"

Article Title: Differences in survival, virulence and biofilm formation between sialidase-deficient and W83 wild-type Porphyromonas gingivalis strains under stressful environmental conditions

Journal: BMC Microbiology

doi: 10.1186/s12866-017-1087-2

Confocal microscopy images of the P. gingivalis W83 and ΔPG0352 biofilms (stained with live/dead bacterial viability kit) cultured under varying pH values ( a ), temperatures ( b ) and oxidative stress conditions ( c ). Bar: 50 μm
Figure Legend Snippet: Confocal microscopy images of the P. gingivalis W83 and ΔPG0352 biofilms (stained with live/dead bacterial viability kit) cultured under varying pH values ( a ), temperatures ( b ) and oxidative stress conditions ( c ). Bar: 50 μm

Techniques Used: Confocal Microscopy, Staining, Cell Culture

Comparison of the mean thickness ( a, b and c ) and fluorescence density ( d, e and f ) of biofilms between the P. gingivalis W83 (■) and ΔPG0352 (□) strains cultured under stressful conditions. † for P. gingivalis W83, the difference is significant between normal and stressful conditions, P
Figure Legend Snippet: Comparison of the mean thickness ( a, b and c ) and fluorescence density ( d, e and f ) of biofilms between the P. gingivalis W83 (■) and ΔPG0352 (□) strains cultured under stressful conditions. † for P. gingivalis W83, the difference is significant between normal and stressful conditions, P

Techniques Used: Fluorescence, Cell Culture

38) Product Images from "Antimicrobial and Physicochemical Properties of Artificial Saliva Formulations Supplemented with Core-Shell Magnetic Nanoparticles"

Article Title: Antimicrobial and Physicochemical Properties of Artificial Saliva Formulations Supplemented with Core-Shell Magnetic Nanoparticles

Journal: International Journal of Molecular Sciences

doi: 10.3390/ijms21061979

The effect of tested artificial saliva preparations on the growth of representative oral microorganism. Panel ( a ) indicate the ability of tested preparations to restrict their division. Panel ( b , c ) shows the influence of tested saliva preparations on the initial stage (adhesion) and the formation of biofilm. Viability of the cell embedded in the biofilm matrix after treatment by tested saliva formulations are presented at panel ( d ). Statistical significance for the tested preparations compared to control was marked by (*) p ≤ 0.05. The data showed medium results from three measurements ±SD.
Figure Legend Snippet: The effect of tested artificial saliva preparations on the growth of representative oral microorganism. Panel ( a ) indicate the ability of tested preparations to restrict their division. Panel ( b , c ) shows the influence of tested saliva preparations on the initial stage (adhesion) and the formation of biofilm. Viability of the cell embedded in the biofilm matrix after treatment by tested saliva formulations are presented at panel ( d ). Statistical significance for the tested preparations compared to control was marked by (*) p ≤ 0.05. The data showed medium results from three measurements ±SD.

Techniques Used:

The addition of magnetic nanoparticles to artificial saliva preparations inhibits the growth and biofilm formation of selected oral pathogens in the presence of dental plaque (DP). Panels ( a , b ) show the ability of tested saliva preparations containing magnetic nanoparticles against the microorganism adhesion and the formation of biofilm in the presence of dental plaque. Decreased viability of the cells embedded in the biofilm matrix after treatment with tested saliva formulations containing magnetic nanoparticles in the presence of dental plaque is presented at the panel ( c ). Statistical significance for the tested preparations compared to control was marked by (*) p ≤ 0.05. Results from 3 measurements ±SD.
Figure Legend Snippet: The addition of magnetic nanoparticles to artificial saliva preparations inhibits the growth and biofilm formation of selected oral pathogens in the presence of dental plaque (DP). Panels ( a , b ) show the ability of tested saliva preparations containing magnetic nanoparticles against the microorganism adhesion and the formation of biofilm in the presence of dental plaque. Decreased viability of the cells embedded in the biofilm matrix after treatment with tested saliva formulations containing magnetic nanoparticles in the presence of dental plaque is presented at the panel ( c ). Statistical significance for the tested preparations compared to control was marked by (*) p ≤ 0.05. Results from 3 measurements ±SD.

Techniques Used:

CLSM images of C. tropicalis 48 h biofilm treated with preparation B and preparation B with the addition of magnetic nanoparticles MNP@Au and MNP@NH 2 .
Figure Legend Snippet: CLSM images of C. tropicalis 48 h biofilm treated with preparation B and preparation B with the addition of magnetic nanoparticles MNP@Au and MNP@NH 2 .

Techniques Used: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy

The addition of magnetic nanoparticles to artificial saliva preparations inhibits the growth and biofilm formation of selected oral pathogens. Panel ( a ) indicated the ability of tested formulations to restrict the proliferation of selected oral pathogens. Panels ( b , c ) show the ability of tested saliva preparations containing magnetic nanoparticles against the microorganism adhesion and the formation of biofilm. Decreased viability of the cells embedded in the biofilm matrix after treatment with tested saliva formulations containing magnetic nanoparticles is presented at panel ( d ). Statistical significance for the tested preparations, compared to control, was marked by (*) p ≤ 0.05. Results from three measurements ±SD.
Figure Legend Snippet: The addition of magnetic nanoparticles to artificial saliva preparations inhibits the growth and biofilm formation of selected oral pathogens. Panel ( a ) indicated the ability of tested formulations to restrict the proliferation of selected oral pathogens. Panels ( b , c ) show the ability of tested saliva preparations containing magnetic nanoparticles against the microorganism adhesion and the formation of biofilm. Decreased viability of the cells embedded in the biofilm matrix after treatment with tested saliva formulations containing magnetic nanoparticles is presented at panel ( d ). Statistical significance for the tested preparations, compared to control, was marked by (*) p ≤ 0.05. Results from three measurements ±SD.

Techniques Used:

39) Product Images from "Preventing root caries development under oral biofilm challenge in an artificial mouth"

Article Title: Preventing root caries development under oral biofilm challenge in an artificial mouth

Journal: Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal

doi: 10.4317/medoral.18768

CLSM images of biofilm (×3,000). The green-fluorescent SYTO® 9 stain penetrated healthy bacterial cells and labelled both live and dead bacteria. The red-fluorescent propidium iodide stain penetrated only bacteria with damaged membranes, reducing the SYTO® 9 fluorescence. Dead bacteria with damaged membranes that fluoresced red dominated the test group, whereas live bacteria with intact membranes that fluoresced green dominated the control group.
Figure Legend Snippet: CLSM images of biofilm (×3,000). The green-fluorescent SYTO® 9 stain penetrated healthy bacterial cells and labelled both live and dead bacteria. The red-fluorescent propidium iodide stain penetrated only bacteria with damaged membranes, reducing the SYTO® 9 fluorescence. Dead bacteria with damaged membranes that fluoresced red dominated the test group, whereas live bacteria with intact membranes that fluoresced green dominated the control group.

Techniques Used: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, Staining, Fluorescence

SEM images of biofilm (×15,000). Small clusters of bacterial cells were observed as isolated groups on the dentine surface treated with chlorhexidine, whereas a mono-layer of sparse biofilm was observed in the control group.
Figure Legend Snippet: SEM images of biofilm (×15,000). Small clusters of bacterial cells were observed as isolated groups on the dentine surface treated with chlorhexidine, whereas a mono-layer of sparse biofilm was observed in the control group.

Techniques Used: Isolation

40) Product Images from "Bacillus subtilis biofilm development in the presence of soil clay minerals and iron oxides"

Article Title: Bacillus subtilis biofilm development in the presence of soil clay minerals and iron oxides

Journal: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes

doi: 10.1038/s41522-017-0013-6

ATR-FTIR assays of the biofilm formation at 24 ( a ), 36 ( b ), 48 ( c ), and 60 h ( d ). At each time point, the absorbance spectra were given for control (Ctrl), goethite (Goe), montmorillonite (Mon), and kaolinite (Kao) seperatedly, as indicated in figure legends. Representive peaks (nucleic acids, polysaccharides, proteins, etc.) were labeled on the top of curves, respectively
Figure Legend Snippet: ATR-FTIR assays of the biofilm formation at 24 ( a ), 36 ( b ), 48 ( c ), and 60 h ( d ). At each time point, the absorbance spectra were given for control (Ctrl), goethite (Goe), montmorillonite (Mon), and kaolinite (Kao) seperatedly, as indicated in figure legends. Representive peaks (nucleic acids, polysaccharides, proteins, etc.) were labeled on the top of curves, respectively

Techniques Used: Labeling

Contact of minerals and bacteria cells, and the resulting gene experssion changes. AFM height ( a ) and peak force images ( b ) of B. subtilis biofilm formed on mineral surfaces after 24 and 48 h (20 × 20 μm 2 ). Top panel : B. subtilis on montmorillonite-coated surface (Mon); Middle panel : B. subtilis on kaolinite-coated surface (Kao); Bottom panel : B. subtilis on goethite-coated surface (Goe). c – f : Quantitative expression analyses of the sinR ( c , e for 24, 48 h, respectively) and abrB ( d , f for 24, 48 h, respectively) genes. Both of the genes are critical regulators that involved in the regulation of B. subtilis biofilm formation and cell motility
Figure Legend Snippet: Contact of minerals and bacteria cells, and the resulting gene experssion changes. AFM height ( a ) and peak force images ( b ) of B. subtilis biofilm formed on mineral surfaces after 24 and 48 h (20 × 20 μm 2 ). Top panel : B. subtilis on montmorillonite-coated surface (Mon); Middle panel : B. subtilis on kaolinite-coated surface (Kao); Bottom panel : B. subtilis on goethite-coated surface (Goe). c – f : Quantitative expression analyses of the sinR ( c , e for 24, 48 h, respectively) and abrB ( d , f for 24, 48 h, respectively) genes. Both of the genes are critical regulators that involved in the regulation of B. subtilis biofilm formation and cell motility

Techniques Used: Expressing

Mineral-induced lethal effects and their role in biofilm formation. a Live/Dead staining assays. Except for the control, cells were exposed to minerals for 24 h and their viabilities were determined and given as percentages. b CFU of control and mineral-exposed cells. CFUs were normalized to the control and showed as relative percentages, respectively. c Effects of different concentrations of dead cells on B. subtilis biofilm formation under different treatments
Figure Legend Snippet: Mineral-induced lethal effects and their role in biofilm formation. a Live/Dead staining assays. Except for the control, cells were exposed to minerals for 24 h and their viabilities were determined and given as percentages. b CFU of control and mineral-exposed cells. CFUs were normalized to the control and showed as relative percentages, respectively. c Effects of different concentrations of dead cells on B. subtilis biofilm formation under different treatments

Techniques Used: Staining

Biofilm formation of B. subtilis at differernt time intervals in supplement with different clay minerals. a Pellicles with wrinkles were showed for control (Ctrl), montmorillonite (Mon), kaolinite (Kao), and goethite (Goe) at 0, 24, 36, 48, and 60 h as indicated on the left/top, respectively. b Quantitive assessment of biofilm formation as determined by crystal violet assays
Figure Legend Snippet: Biofilm formation of B. subtilis at differernt time intervals in supplement with different clay minerals. a Pellicles with wrinkles were showed for control (Ctrl), montmorillonite (Mon), kaolinite (Kao), and goethite (Goe) at 0, 24, 36, 48, and 60 h as indicated on the left/top, respectively. b Quantitive assessment of biofilm formation as determined by crystal violet assays

Techniques Used:

Proposed model for the effects of goethite on B. subtilis biofilm formation. Bacteria interact with goethite in suspension and the adsorption to goethite of bacteria can induce cell damage or death ( left panel ). Live cells utilize the intracellular materials released by damaged or dead cells. In response to lethal stress, the abrB and sinR genes, which are the key to the transformation of bacilli between biofilm and free-living mode-of-life, are upregulated and this increase cell mobility and inhibit EPS secretion. In order to avoid damage of goethite, bacteria prefer to move to air–liquid interface ( middle panel ). As bacteria aggregate on the air–liquid interface, both abrB and sinR are downregulated, which decreases cell mobility and increases EPS secretion, and the biofilm is formed rapidly ( right panel )
Figure Legend Snippet: Proposed model for the effects of goethite on B. subtilis biofilm formation. Bacteria interact with goethite in suspension and the adsorption to goethite of bacteria can induce cell damage or death ( left panel ). Live cells utilize the intracellular materials released by damaged or dead cells. In response to lethal stress, the abrB and sinR genes, which are the key to the transformation of bacilli between biofilm and free-living mode-of-life, are upregulated and this increase cell mobility and inhibit EPS secretion. In order to avoid damage of goethite, bacteria prefer to move to air–liquid interface ( middle panel ). As bacteria aggregate on the air–liquid interface, both abrB and sinR are downregulated, which decreases cell mobility and increases EPS secretion, and the biofilm is formed rapidly ( right panel )

Techniques Used: Adsorption, Transformation Assay

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Flow Cytometry:

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Cell Attachment Assay:

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Fluorescence:

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Laser-Scanning Microscopy:

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Microscopy:

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Article Snippet: .. The biofilm was finally washed in 0.89% NaCl and was then imaged using the Olympus FV 1000 microscope equipped with a 25× LPlan N (numerical aperture, 1.05) objective as described in the preceding section. ..

Incubation:

Article Title: Enhanced Biofilm Formation and Increased Resistance to Antimicrobial Agents and Bacterial Invasion Are Caused by Synergistic Interactions in Multispecies Biofilms †
Article Snippet: .. Cultures were incubated without flow for 1 h to allow cell attachment, followed by maturation of biofilms in the presence of flow (flow rate of 150 μl min−1 ) for 2 h. The biofilms were inoculated with 106 cells ml−1 of an overnight culture of green fluorescent protein-labeled P. tunicata , and the flow was stopped for 1 h. After resumption of the flow, the biofilms were monitored at regular intervals for a period of 44 h. Biofilms were stained with Syto 59 (diluted to 3 μl ml−1 in 20% VNSS) and visualized with a confocal laser scanning microscope (Olympus, Tokyo, Japan) using fluorescein isothiocyanate and tetramethyl rhodamine isocyanate optical filters. .. The flow cells were examined for red and green fluorescence, and the percent surface coverages of P. tunicata and of other cells were calculated using image analysis (ImageJ; NIH, Bethesda, Maryland).

Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy:

Article Title: Photoactivated rose bengal functionalized chitosan nanoparticles produce antibacterial/biofilm activity and stabilize dentin-collagen
Article Snippet: .. The structure of the biofilms following CSRBnp treatment was assessed using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) (Olympus IX81 inverted fluorescence microscope SU X1 with spinning disk confocal scan head, Tokyo, Japan). .. The biofilm-structures were assessed after staining with Live/Dead Baclight stain (Molecular Probes, Eugene, OR) in the dark for 10 minutes.

Imaging:

Article Title: l-Arginine Modifies the Exopolysaccharide Matrix and Thwarts Streptococcus mutans Outgrowth within Mixed-Species Oral Biofilms
Article Snippet: .. Laser scanning confocal fluorescence imaging of 67-h biofilms was obtained with an Olympus FV 1000 two-photon laser scanning microscope (Olympus, Tokyo, Japan) equipped with a 20× (0.45 numerical aperture) water immersion objective lens. .. The confocal image series were generated by optical sectioning at each selected position, and the step size of z-series scanning was 2 μm.

Staining:

Article Title: Enhanced Biofilm Formation and Increased Resistance to Antimicrobial Agents and Bacterial Invasion Are Caused by Synergistic Interactions in Multispecies Biofilms †
Article Snippet: .. Cultures were incubated without flow for 1 h to allow cell attachment, followed by maturation of biofilms in the presence of flow (flow rate of 150 μl min−1 ) for 2 h. The biofilms were inoculated with 106 cells ml−1 of an overnight culture of green fluorescent protein-labeled P. tunicata , and the flow was stopped for 1 h. After resumption of the flow, the biofilms were monitored at regular intervals for a period of 44 h. Biofilms were stained with Syto 59 (diluted to 3 μl ml−1 in 20% VNSS) and visualized with a confocal laser scanning microscope (Olympus, Tokyo, Japan) using fluorescein isothiocyanate and tetramethyl rhodamine isocyanate optical filters. .. The flow cells were examined for red and green fluorescence, and the percent surface coverages of P. tunicata and of other cells were calculated using image analysis (ImageJ; NIH, Bethesda, Maryland).

Software:

Article Title: Proteomic analysis of protein phosphatase Z1 from Candida albicans
Article Snippet: .. Microscopy Samples of biofilms formed in 12-well plates were temporary mounted on microscope slides and photographed using an Olympus BD40 microscope equipped with an Olympus 40X lens and a digital microscope camera, with the Olympus DP Controller software, with phase contrast illumination. .. Statistical analysis To compare the values obtained for biofilm dry biomass, biofilm to total biomass ratio, and absorbance values after CV staining, Student’s 2-sample t-test or Welch’s test (depending on the equality of variance) was applied.

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  • 94
    Olympus biofilms
    Pyocin endolysin Lys is required for eDNA release in interstitial <t>biofilms</t> under inducing and non-inducing conditions. ( a ) and ( b ) Phase-contrast (left) and TOTO-1-stained eDNA (green, right) of interstitial biofilms of ( a ) PAK and PAKΔ lys and ( b ) PAO1 and PAO1Δ lys containing either pJN105 (vector control) or pJN105 lys cultured in the presence of filter discs saturated in water or MMC; scale bar, 10 μm. ( c ) Lys catalytic activity is required for eDNA release in P. aeruginosa PAO1 interstitial biofilms; n =30; mean±s.e.m. # P
    Biofilms, supplied by Olympus, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 60 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Olympus tannic acid treated biofilm
    P. aeruginosa N6P6 <t>biofilm</t> growth in the presence of tannic acid (calculated as raw integrated density using IMAGE J).
    Tannic Acid Treated Biofilm, supplied by Olympus, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Image Search Results


    Pyocin endolysin Lys is required for eDNA release in interstitial biofilms under inducing and non-inducing conditions. ( a ) and ( b ) Phase-contrast (left) and TOTO-1-stained eDNA (green, right) of interstitial biofilms of ( a ) PAK and PAKΔ lys and ( b ) PAO1 and PAO1Δ lys containing either pJN105 (vector control) or pJN105 lys cultured in the presence of filter discs saturated in water or MMC; scale bar, 10 μm. ( c ) Lys catalytic activity is required for eDNA release in P. aeruginosa PAO1 interstitial biofilms; n =30; mean±s.e.m. # P

    Journal: Nature Communications

    Article Title: Explosive cell lysis as a mechanism for the biogenesis of bacterial membrane vesicles and biofilms

    doi: 10.1038/ncomms11220

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Pyocin endolysin Lys is required for eDNA release in interstitial biofilms under inducing and non-inducing conditions. ( a ) and ( b ) Phase-contrast (left) and TOTO-1-stained eDNA (green, right) of interstitial biofilms of ( a ) PAK and PAKΔ lys and ( b ) PAO1 and PAO1Δ lys containing either pJN105 (vector control) or pJN105 lys cultured in the presence of filter discs saturated in water or MMC; scale bar, 10 μm. ( c ) Lys catalytic activity is required for eDNA release in P. aeruginosa PAO1 interstitial biofilms; n =30; mean±s.e.m. # P

    Article Snippet: To analyse the frequency of microcolonies in submerged biofilms, random images of the substrate surface were obtained (Olympus IX71; × 40 objective) and ‘Particles' (microcolonies) > 100 μm2 identified by auto-thresholding using FIJI .

    Techniques: Staining, Plasmid Preparation, Cell Culture, Activity Assay

    PQS is not required for MV production in interstitial biofilms. ( a ) f3D-SIM of PA14 pqsA and PAO1 pqs A biofilms cultured in the presence of FM1-43FX (white) showing MV patches; scale bar, 1 μm. ( b ) Quantification of MVs in random fields of view (40 μm × 40 μm) of PA14 ( n =54), PA14 pqsA ( n =60), PAO1 ( n =22) and PAO1 pqsA ( n =24); # P

    Journal: Nature Communications

    Article Title: Explosive cell lysis as a mechanism for the biogenesis of bacterial membrane vesicles and biofilms

    doi: 10.1038/ncomms11220

    Figure Lengend Snippet: PQS is not required for MV production in interstitial biofilms. ( a ) f3D-SIM of PA14 pqsA and PAO1 pqs A biofilms cultured in the presence of FM1-43FX (white) showing MV patches; scale bar, 1 μm. ( b ) Quantification of MVs in random fields of view (40 μm × 40 μm) of PA14 ( n =54), PA14 pqsA ( n =60), PAO1 ( n =22) and PAO1 pqsA ( n =24); # P

    Article Snippet: To analyse the frequency of microcolonies in submerged biofilms, random images of the substrate surface were obtained (Olympus IX71; × 40 objective) and ‘Particles' (microcolonies) > 100 μm2 identified by auto-thresholding using FIJI .

    Techniques: Cell Culture

    MVs are present within P. aeruginosa interstitial biofilms. ( a ) f3D-SIM of PAK biofilms cultured in the presence of FM1-43FX (white), scale bar, 1 μm. ( b ) Frequency distribution of diameters of MVs measured in situ in live PAK biofilms ( n =268, bin size=50 nm). ( c ) f3D-SIM of PAK biofilms cultured in the presence FM1-43FX (blue) and EthHD-2 (red); scale bar, 2 μm. ( d ) Quantification of MVs in random fields of view (40 μm × 40 μm) of PAO1 ( n =35) and PAO1Δ lys ( n =22) biofilms cultured in the presence of FM1-43FX and imaged with f3D-SIM.

    Journal: Nature Communications

    Article Title: Explosive cell lysis as a mechanism for the biogenesis of bacterial membrane vesicles and biofilms

    doi: 10.1038/ncomms11220

    Figure Lengend Snippet: MVs are present within P. aeruginosa interstitial biofilms. ( a ) f3D-SIM of PAK biofilms cultured in the presence of FM1-43FX (white), scale bar, 1 μm. ( b ) Frequency distribution of diameters of MVs measured in situ in live PAK biofilms ( n =268, bin size=50 nm). ( c ) f3D-SIM of PAK biofilms cultured in the presence FM1-43FX (blue) and EthHD-2 (red); scale bar, 2 μm. ( d ) Quantification of MVs in random fields of view (40 μm × 40 μm) of PAO1 ( n =35) and PAO1Δ lys ( n =22) biofilms cultured in the presence of FM1-43FX and imaged with f3D-SIM.

    Article Snippet: To analyse the frequency of microcolonies in submerged biofilms, random images of the substrate surface were obtained (Olympus IX71; × 40 objective) and ‘Particles' (microcolonies) > 100 μm2 identified by auto-thresholding using FIJI .

    Techniques: Cell Culture, In Situ

    Explosive cell lysis is required for microcolony development in submerged hydrated biofilms. ( a ) Time series of the initial stages of PAO1 biofilm development 1 h after inoculation showing attachment of a rod cell, its transition to round cell morphotype and subsequent explosion releasing eDNA (TOTO-1, green). Time in min (top right); scale bar, 5 μm. ( b , c ) Microcolonies in 8-h submerged biofilms of PAO1 (upper), PAO1Δ lys (middle), and PAO1 cultured in the presence of DNaseI (lower). ( b ) Representative phase contrast (left) and eDNA (EthHD-2, right) images; scale bar, 10 μm. Inset shows magnified view of round cell at arrow-head ( c ) Microcolonies in 8-h submerged biofilms per mm 2 , n =30. Mean±s.e.m. * P

    Journal: Nature Communications

    Article Title: Explosive cell lysis as a mechanism for the biogenesis of bacterial membrane vesicles and biofilms

    doi: 10.1038/ncomms11220

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Explosive cell lysis is required for microcolony development in submerged hydrated biofilms. ( a ) Time series of the initial stages of PAO1 biofilm development 1 h after inoculation showing attachment of a rod cell, its transition to round cell morphotype and subsequent explosion releasing eDNA (TOTO-1, green). Time in min (top right); scale bar, 5 μm. ( b , c ) Microcolonies in 8-h submerged biofilms of PAO1 (upper), PAO1Δ lys (middle), and PAO1 cultured in the presence of DNaseI (lower). ( b ) Representative phase contrast (left) and eDNA (EthHD-2, right) images; scale bar, 10 μm. Inset shows magnified view of round cell at arrow-head ( c ) Microcolonies in 8-h submerged biofilms per mm 2 , n =30. Mean±s.e.m. * P

    Article Snippet: To analyse the frequency of microcolonies in submerged biofilms, random images of the substrate surface were obtained (Olympus IX71; × 40 objective) and ‘Particles' (microcolonies) > 100 μm2 identified by auto-thresholding using FIJI .

    Techniques: Lysis, Cell Culture

    MVs are produced as a consequence of explosive cell lysis in P. aeruginosa biofilms. ( a , b ) f3D-SIM time-series of live interstitial biofilms in the presence of FM1-43FX (white). Time in seconds, top right; scale bar, 0.5 μm. ( c ) f3D-SIM of P. aeruginosa PAK-expressing mChFP (red) in the presence of FM1-43FX (blue). xy (left) and corresponding yz (right) views showing a large MV containing mChFP (arrow); scale bar, 0.5 μm. ( d ) f3D-SIM of live PAK interstitial biofilms in the presence of FM1-43FX (blue) and EthHD-2 (red). xy (upper) and corresponding xz (lower) views showing a large MV containing eDNA (arrow); scale bar, 0.5 μm

    Journal: Nature Communications

    Article Title: Explosive cell lysis as a mechanism for the biogenesis of bacterial membrane vesicles and biofilms

    doi: 10.1038/ncomms11220

    Figure Lengend Snippet: MVs are produced as a consequence of explosive cell lysis in P. aeruginosa biofilms. ( a , b ) f3D-SIM time-series of live interstitial biofilms in the presence of FM1-43FX (white). Time in seconds, top right; scale bar, 0.5 μm. ( c ) f3D-SIM of P. aeruginosa PAK-expressing mChFP (red) in the presence of FM1-43FX (blue). xy (left) and corresponding yz (right) views showing a large MV containing mChFP (arrow); scale bar, 0.5 μm. ( d ) f3D-SIM of live PAK interstitial biofilms in the presence of FM1-43FX (blue) and EthHD-2 (red). xy (upper) and corresponding xz (lower) views showing a large MV containing eDNA (arrow); scale bar, 0.5 μm

    Article Snippet: To analyse the frequency of microcolonies in submerged biofilms, random images of the substrate surface were obtained (Olympus IX71; × 40 objective) and ‘Particles' (microcolonies) > 100 μm2 identified by auto-thresholding using FIJI .

    Techniques: Produced, Lysis, Expressing

    Explosive cell lysis occurs in P. aeruginosa interstitial biofilms. ( a ) Phase-contrast (left) and TOTO-1-stained eDNA (green, right); scale bar, 50 μm. ( b ) Time series of a rod-to-round cell transition (dotted white line, upper panels) and subsequent lysis releasing eDNA stained by TOTO-1 (green, lower panels). Time in seconds (top right); scale bar, 1 μm. ( c ) P. aeruginosa PAK-expressing cytoplasmic CFP (magenta) cultured in the presence of the eDNA stain TOTO-1 (yellow) showing that sites of eDNA release (arrow, left panel) contain extracellular CFP (arrow, right panel); scale bar, 2 μm. ( d ) Frequency distribution of survival times in seconds (s) of round cells from formation to explosion ( n =150, bin size 60s). Another 12 round cells were observed that had either formed within a time-series or were present at the start of a time-series and which did not explode by the end of the time-series. Survival times of these cells were at least 10–45 min including one that we tracked for several hours. ( e ) Frequency distribution of round cell survival for those cells surviving

    Journal: Nature Communications

    Article Title: Explosive cell lysis as a mechanism for the biogenesis of bacterial membrane vesicles and biofilms

    doi: 10.1038/ncomms11220

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Explosive cell lysis occurs in P. aeruginosa interstitial biofilms. ( a ) Phase-contrast (left) and TOTO-1-stained eDNA (green, right); scale bar, 50 μm. ( b ) Time series of a rod-to-round cell transition (dotted white line, upper panels) and subsequent lysis releasing eDNA stained by TOTO-1 (green, lower panels). Time in seconds (top right); scale bar, 1 μm. ( c ) P. aeruginosa PAK-expressing cytoplasmic CFP (magenta) cultured in the presence of the eDNA stain TOTO-1 (yellow) showing that sites of eDNA release (arrow, left panel) contain extracellular CFP (arrow, right panel); scale bar, 2 μm. ( d ) Frequency distribution of survival times in seconds (s) of round cells from formation to explosion ( n =150, bin size 60s). Another 12 round cells were observed that had either formed within a time-series or were present at the start of a time-series and which did not explode by the end of the time-series. Survival times of these cells were at least 10–45 min including one that we tracked for several hours. ( e ) Frequency distribution of round cell survival for those cells surviving

    Article Snippet: To analyse the frequency of microcolonies in submerged biofilms, random images of the substrate surface were obtained (Olympus IX71; × 40 objective) and ‘Particles' (microcolonies) > 100 μm2 identified by auto-thresholding using FIJI .

    Techniques: Lysis, Staining, Expressing, Cell Culture

    Effect of AC-PACs on C. albicans biofilm formation . Panel A: C. albicans biofilms were quantified by staining with crystal violet. Assays were done in triplicate and the means ± SD from three independent experiments were calculated. A value of 100% was assigned to the biofilm formed in the absence of AC-PACs. *, significantly lower than the value for the untreated control ( P

    Journal: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Article Title: Cranberry proanthocyanidins inhibit the adherence properties of Candida albicans and cytokine secretion by oral epithelial cells

    doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-12-6

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of AC-PACs on C. albicans biofilm formation . Panel A: C. albicans biofilms were quantified by staining with crystal violet. Assays were done in triplicate and the means ± SD from three independent experiments were calculated. A value of 100% was assigned to the biofilm formed in the absence of AC-PACs. *, significantly lower than the value for the untreated control ( P

    Article Snippet: Biofilm images of unstained preparations were acquired in phase-contrast mode using an Olympus FSX100 fluorescence microscope (Olympus, Tokyo, Japan).

    Techniques: Staining

    Effect of AC-PACs on C. albicans biofilm desorption . Newly formed biofilms (48 h) of C. albicans biofilms were treated (30 and 120 min) with AC-PACs prior to determine biofilm biomass by staining with crystal violet. Assays were done in triplicate and the means ± SD from three independent experiments were calculated. A value of 100% was assigned to the preformed biofilm unexposed to AC-PACs. *, significantly lower than the value for the unexposed control ( P

    Journal: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Article Title: Cranberry proanthocyanidins inhibit the adherence properties of Candida albicans and cytokine secretion by oral epithelial cells

    doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-12-6

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of AC-PACs on C. albicans biofilm desorption . Newly formed biofilms (48 h) of C. albicans biofilms were treated (30 and 120 min) with AC-PACs prior to determine biofilm biomass by staining with crystal violet. Assays were done in triplicate and the means ± SD from three independent experiments were calculated. A value of 100% was assigned to the preformed biofilm unexposed to AC-PACs. *, significantly lower than the value for the unexposed control ( P

    Article Snippet: Biofilm images of unstained preparations were acquired in phase-contrast mode using an Olympus FSX100 fluorescence microscope (Olympus, Tokyo, Japan).

    Techniques: Staining

    Protein-protein interaction network of the S . cerevisiae orthologs of the C . albicans proteins affected by CaPpz1 deletion. The network of proteins listed in Table 3 and the two budding yeast phosphatase paralogs Ppz1 and Ppz2 was generated using String 10.5 with default settings at medium stringency. The network nodes are proteins identified by the gene name, while the lines are edges representing functional associations based on different types of evidence according to the String color coding scheme. The black boxes highlight the proteins which are associated with biofilm formation. The black arrows represent the two putative substrates of Ppz1.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Proteomic analysis of protein phosphatase Z1 from Candida albicans

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0183176

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Protein-protein interaction network of the S . cerevisiae orthologs of the C . albicans proteins affected by CaPpz1 deletion. The network of proteins listed in Table 3 and the two budding yeast phosphatase paralogs Ppz1 and Ppz2 was generated using String 10.5 with default settings at medium stringency. The network nodes are proteins identified by the gene name, while the lines are edges representing functional associations based on different types of evidence according to the String color coding scheme. The black boxes highlight the proteins which are associated with biofilm formation. The black arrows represent the two putative substrates of Ppz1.

    Article Snippet: Microscopy Samples of biofilms formed in 12-well plates were temporary mounted on microscope slides and photographed using an Olympus BD40 microscope equipped with an Olympus 40X lens and a digital microscope camera, with the Olympus DP Controller software, with phase contrast illumination.

    Techniques: Generated, Functional Assay

    P. aeruginosa N6P6 biofilm growth in the presence of tannic acid (calculated as raw integrated density using IMAGE J).

    Journal: Bioengineered

    Article Title: Synergistic effect of quorum sensing genes in biofilm development and PAHs degradation by a marine bacterium. Involvement of quorum sensing genes in biofilm development and degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by a marine bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa N6P6. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

    doi: 10.1080/21655979.2016.1174797

    Figure Lengend Snippet: P. aeruginosa N6P6 biofilm growth in the presence of tannic acid (calculated as raw integrated density using IMAGE J).

    Article Snippet: Tannic acid treated biofilm was stained with aqueous solution of acridine orange (0.02 %) were analyzed with fluorescence microscope (Olympus, 1X71, Japan) under 20X magnification.

    Techniques: