Structured Review

Merck KGaA biofilm
<t>Biofilm</t> formation inhibition assay performed on S. epidermidis . Values are mean of three replicates, ± standard error.
Biofilm, supplied by Merck KGaA, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 5 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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Images

1) Product Images from "Characterization of Rhamnolipids Produced by an Arctic Marine Bacterium from the Pseudomonas fluorescence Group"

Article Title: Characterization of Rhamnolipids Produced by an Arctic Marine Bacterium from the Pseudomonas fluorescence Group

Journal: Marine Drugs

doi: 10.3390/md16050163

Biofilm formation inhibition assay performed on S. epidermidis . Values are mean of three replicates, ± standard error.
Figure Legend Snippet: Biofilm formation inhibition assay performed on S. epidermidis . Values are mean of three replicates, ± standard error.

Techniques Used: Inhibition

2) Product Images from "Elastin increases biofilm and extracellular matrix production of Aspergillus fumigatus"

Article Title: Elastin increases biofilm and extracellular matrix production of Aspergillus fumigatus

Journal: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology

doi: 10.1016/j.bjm.2017.10.004

Influence of elastin on the growth of A. fumigatus biofilm. The graphics represent the mean values with SDs of the biofilm production of both isolates of A. fumigatus measured by absorbance with 0.5% crystal violet (A) and (B) the dry weight. A significant increase in the presence of 10 mg/mL of elastin (gray bars) compared to RPMI alone (black bars) was observed for all time periods (** p
Figure Legend Snippet: Influence of elastin on the growth of A. fumigatus biofilm. The graphics represent the mean values with SDs of the biofilm production of both isolates of A. fumigatus measured by absorbance with 0.5% crystal violet (A) and (B) the dry weight. A significant increase in the presence of 10 mg/mL of elastin (gray bars) compared to RPMI alone (black bars) was observed for all time periods (** p

Techniques Used:

Decreased hydrophobicity of A. fumigatus biofilm. A. fumigatus URM5992 (environmental origin) biofilm after 48 h at 37 °C. (A and B) Biofilm Grown in RPMI without elastin under light microscopy and stained with latex beads, respectively. (C and D) biofilm grown in RPMI with elastin – 10 mg/mL under light microscopy and stained with latex beads, respectively. Scale bar, 50 μm.
Figure Legend Snippet: Decreased hydrophobicity of A. fumigatus biofilm. A. fumigatus URM5992 (environmental origin) biofilm after 48 h at 37 °C. (A and B) Biofilm Grown in RPMI without elastin under light microscopy and stained with latex beads, respectively. (C and D) biofilm grown in RPMI with elastin – 10 mg/mL under light microscopy and stained with latex beads, respectively. Scale bar, 50 μm.

Techniques Used: Light Microscopy, Staining

Influence of elastin on extracellular matrix (ECM) of A. fumigatus biofilm. The means and SDs show that the amount of ECM produced in the presence of elastin (gray bars) was significantly greater ( p = 0.0042), than that produced in RPMI alone (black bars). The difference between isolates of clinical (URM6573) and environmental (URM5992) origin was highly significant ( p
Figure Legend Snippet: Influence of elastin on extracellular matrix (ECM) of A. fumigatus biofilm. The means and SDs show that the amount of ECM produced in the presence of elastin (gray bars) was significantly greater ( p = 0.0042), than that produced in RPMI alone (black bars). The difference between isolates of clinical (URM6573) and environmental (URM5992) origin was highly significant ( p

Techniques Used: Produced

Enhanced production extracellular matrix (ECM) of A. fumigatus biofilm. Photomicrographs taken by scanning electron microscopy analysis of A. fumigatus URM6575 biofilm in RPMI (A) and RPMI with elastin (B) show increased production of ECM in the presence of elastin (yellow arrow). Magnification of 2000×. A. fumigatus URM6575 biofilm grown in RPMI supplemented with 10 mg/mL of elastin (C) under light microscopy and stained with concanavalin A-Alexa Fluor 488 ® (D) show greater amounts of ECM at the ends of the hyphae (white arrow). Scale bar, 50 μm.
Figure Legend Snippet: Enhanced production extracellular matrix (ECM) of A. fumigatus biofilm. Photomicrographs taken by scanning electron microscopy analysis of A. fumigatus URM6575 biofilm in RPMI (A) and RPMI with elastin (B) show increased production of ECM in the presence of elastin (yellow arrow). Magnification of 2000×. A. fumigatus URM6575 biofilm grown in RPMI supplemented with 10 mg/mL of elastin (C) under light microscopy and stained with concanavalin A-Alexa Fluor 488 ® (D) show greater amounts of ECM at the ends of the hyphae (white arrow). Scale bar, 50 μm.

Techniques Used: Electron Microscopy, Light Microscopy, Staining

Influence of elastin on the hydrophobicity of A. fumigatus biofilm. The hydrophobicity in the presence of elastin (gray bars) was significantly lower ( p = 0.005) than that in RPMI alone (black bars). The difference between the clinical (URM6573) and environmental (URM5992) isolates was highly significant ( p
Figure Legend Snippet: Influence of elastin on the hydrophobicity of A. fumigatus biofilm. The hydrophobicity in the presence of elastin (gray bars) was significantly lower ( p = 0.005) than that in RPMI alone (black bars). The difference between the clinical (URM6573) and environmental (URM5992) isolates was highly significant ( p

Techniques Used:

3) Product Images from "Curcumin Quantum Dots Mediated Degradation of Bacterial Biofilms"

Article Title: Curcumin Quantum Dots Mediated Degradation of Bacterial Biofilms

Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.01517

Co-localization maps revealing the strong physical association of CurQDs with the biofilm matrix in the different layers as seen in Figures 7B’–E’ .
Figure Legend Snippet: Co-localization maps revealing the strong physical association of CurQDs with the biofilm matrix in the different layers as seen in Figures 7B’–E’ .

Techniques Used:

Confocal sections of biofilm of S. aureus (ATCC 29213) (A–D) and E. coli (ATCC 25922) (E–H’) incubated with increasing concentration of CurQDs for 72 h, representing the corresponding dynamics of bacterial association and biofilm matrix formation in the presence of drug (Resolution 40X).
Figure Legend Snippet: Confocal sections of biofilm of S. aureus (ATCC 29213) (A–D) and E. coli (ATCC 25922) (E–H’) incubated with increasing concentration of CurQDs for 72 h, representing the corresponding dynamics of bacterial association and biofilm matrix formation in the presence of drug (Resolution 40X).

Techniques Used: Incubation, Concentration Assay

(A) Confocal sections of biofilms of S. epidermidis (ATCC35984), (B,C) confocal sections of biofilms of S. aureus (ATCC 29213) (T1) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) (T2) stained with DAPI, treated with 0.125 μg/ml concentration of curcumin. (A’–C’) Post treatment magnified view of (A–C) . Note the diffusion and disintegration of the superficial biofilm at concentration 0.125 μg/ml.
Figure Legend Snippet: (A) Confocal sections of biofilms of S. epidermidis (ATCC35984), (B,C) confocal sections of biofilms of S. aureus (ATCC 29213) (T1) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) (T2) stained with DAPI, treated with 0.125 μg/ml concentration of curcumin. (A’–C’) Post treatment magnified view of (A–C) . Note the diffusion and disintegration of the superficial biofilm at concentration 0.125 μg/ml.

Techniques Used: Staining, Concentration Assay, Diffusion-based Assay

Confocal sections of bacterial culture of S. aureus (ATCC 29213), treated with 0.0156, 0.0312, 0.0625, and 0.125 μg/ml concentration (present in lanes 4–1, respectively) of CurQDs for 24 h. Cultures have been stained with DAPI (red), and green is the auto-fluorescent CurQDs. (A–A”’) Merged view of biofilm matrix treated with 0.0156–0.125 μg/ml CurQDs respectively. (B–B”’) DAPI stained confocal sections of biofilm matrix treated with 0.0156–0.125 μg/ml CurQDs respectively. (C–C”’) Confocal localization view of CurQDs in increasing concentration (0.0156–0.125 μg/ml). (D–D”’) Differential interference contrast microscopic contours of biofilm matrix after exposure to with 0.0156–0.125 μg/ml CurQDs respectively.
Figure Legend Snippet: Confocal sections of bacterial culture of S. aureus (ATCC 29213), treated with 0.0156, 0.0312, 0.0625, and 0.125 μg/ml concentration (present in lanes 4–1, respectively) of CurQDs for 24 h. Cultures have been stained with DAPI (red), and green is the auto-fluorescent CurQDs. (A–A”’) Merged view of biofilm matrix treated with 0.0156–0.125 μg/ml CurQDs respectively. (B–B”’) DAPI stained confocal sections of biofilm matrix treated with 0.0156–0.125 μg/ml CurQDs respectively. (C–C”’) Confocal localization view of CurQDs in increasing concentration (0.0156–0.125 μg/ml). (D–D”’) Differential interference contrast microscopic contours of biofilm matrix after exposure to with 0.0156–0.125 μg/ml CurQDs respectively.

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay, Staining

(A–C) Confocal sections of biofilm of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213) after incubation of 72 h. (A’–C’) Twice magnified view of (A–C) , (A) is merged view of DAPI staining and differential interference contrast (DIC) imaging, while (B,C) are DAPI stained and DIC images, respectively.
Figure Legend Snippet: (A–C) Confocal sections of biofilm of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213) after incubation of 72 h. (A’–C’) Twice magnified view of (A–C) , (A) is merged view of DAPI staining and differential interference contrast (DIC) imaging, while (B,C) are DAPI stained and DIC images, respectively.

Techniques Used: Incubation, Staining, Imaging

Confocal sections of Biofilm layer of S. aureus (ATCC 29213) incubated with 0.125 μg/ml concentration of CurQDs (1–4). (A–E) Depicts the different layers of the corresponding bacterial biofilm. (A’–E’) is the magnified view of the same. Note the stable association of the drug molecule with the bacterium, which suggests its affinity for the organism. Strong co-localization of the DAPI (red) with the drug (green) supports this affinity.
Figure Legend Snippet: Confocal sections of Biofilm layer of S. aureus (ATCC 29213) incubated with 0.125 μg/ml concentration of CurQDs (1–4). (A–E) Depicts the different layers of the corresponding bacterial biofilm. (A’–E’) is the magnified view of the same. Note the stable association of the drug molecule with the bacterium, which suggests its affinity for the organism. Strong co-localization of the DAPI (red) with the drug (green) supports this affinity.

Techniques Used: Incubation, Concentration Assay

4) Product Images from "Swarming motility and biofilm formation of Paenibacillus larvae, the etiological agent of American Foulbrood of honey bees (Apis mellifera)"

Article Title: Swarming motility and biofilm formation of Paenibacillus larvae, the etiological agent of American Foulbrood of honey bees (Apis mellifera)

Journal: Scientific Reports

doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-27193-8

Planktonic cells of P. larvae ERIC I (ATCC9545) and P. larvae ERIC II (DSM25430). Bacterial suspensions of P. larvae ERIC I (ATCC9545; A ) and P. larvae ERIC II (DSM25430; B ) in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth were incubated under constant agitation to prevent biofilm formation. Cultures of planktonic cells were stained with Congo red ( A , B ) while BHI medium stained with Congo red ( C ) or without staining ( D ) served as negative controls. Representative pictures are shown.
Figure Legend Snippet: Planktonic cells of P. larvae ERIC I (ATCC9545) and P. larvae ERIC II (DSM25430). Bacterial suspensions of P. larvae ERIC I (ATCC9545; A ) and P. larvae ERIC II (DSM25430; B ) in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth were incubated under constant agitation to prevent biofilm formation. Cultures of planktonic cells were stained with Congo red ( A , B ) while BHI medium stained with Congo red ( C ) or without staining ( D ) served as negative controls. Representative pictures are shown.

Techniques Used: Incubation, Staining

Involvement of paenilarvin in biofilm formation of P. larvae ERIC II. Wild-type P. larvae ERIC II (DSM25430 wt; A , C ) and a corresponding inactivation mutant for the paenilarvin gene cluster (DSM25430 Δ itu ; B , D ) were tested in biofilm assays. Bacterial suspensions in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth were incubated without agitation in six-well-plates at 37 °C for five ( A , B ) and six ( C , D ) days. For both strains, three biological replicates were performed both for obtaining pictures under unstained conditions ( A , B ) and after Congo red staining ( C , D ). Representative pictures are shown. ( E ) Biofilm formation was quantified via determining the amount of Conge red dye retained in the biofilms upon centrifugation. Data represent mean values ± SD of three independent experiments. The difference between the wild-type and corresponding inactivation mutant was not significant (p = 0.9889, Student’s t-test).
Figure Legend Snippet: Involvement of paenilarvin in biofilm formation of P. larvae ERIC II. Wild-type P. larvae ERIC II (DSM25430 wt; A , C ) and a corresponding inactivation mutant for the paenilarvin gene cluster (DSM25430 Δ itu ; B , D ) were tested in biofilm assays. Bacterial suspensions in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth were incubated without agitation in six-well-plates at 37 °C for five ( A , B ) and six ( C , D ) days. For both strains, three biological replicates were performed both for obtaining pictures under unstained conditions ( A , B ) and after Congo red staining ( C , D ). Representative pictures are shown. ( E ) Biofilm formation was quantified via determining the amount of Conge red dye retained in the biofilms upon centrifugation. Data represent mean values ± SD of three independent experiments. The difference between the wild-type and corresponding inactivation mutant was not significant (p = 0.9889, Student’s t-test).

Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Incubation, Staining, Centrifugation

Biofilm formation of P. larvae ERIC I (ATCC9545) and P. larvae ERIC II (DSM25430) cultivated in static liquid. Bacterial suspensions of P. larvae ERIC I (ATCC9545; A , D , G ) and P. larvae ERIC II (DSM25430; B , E , H ) in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth were incubated without agitation in six-well-plates at 37 °C for five ( A , B ) and six ( D , E ) days, or in 96-well-plates for six days ( G , H ). For each P. larvae genotype, three biological replicates were performed both for obtaining pictures under unstained conditions ( A , B ), after Congo red staining of the extracellular matrix ( D , E ), and Crystal violet staining of the bacterial cells adherent to the well walls ( G , H ). Negative controls for each assay are shown in ( C , F , and I ). Representative pictures are shown.
Figure Legend Snippet: Biofilm formation of P. larvae ERIC I (ATCC9545) and P. larvae ERIC II (DSM25430) cultivated in static liquid. Bacterial suspensions of P. larvae ERIC I (ATCC9545; A , D , G ) and P. larvae ERIC II (DSM25430; B , E , H ) in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth were incubated without agitation in six-well-plates at 37 °C for five ( A , B ) and six ( D , E ) days, or in 96-well-plates for six days ( G , H ). For each P. larvae genotype, three biological replicates were performed both for obtaining pictures under unstained conditions ( A , B ), after Congo red staining of the extracellular matrix ( D , E ), and Crystal violet staining of the bacterial cells adherent to the well walls ( G , H ). Negative controls for each assay are shown in ( C , F , and I ). Representative pictures are shown.

Techniques Used: Incubation, Staining

Fluorescence microscopy of P. larvae floating biofilms. Bacterial suspensions of P. larvae ERIC I (ATCC9545; A , C ) and P. larvae ERIC II (DSM25430; B , D ) in Sf-900 II SFM medium supplemented with 30 µg/ml thioflavin S were incubated without agitation in 96-well-plates at 37 °C for six days. The thioflavin S-stained extracellular matrix in the floating biofilms was visualized using fluorescence microscopy; Z-stack processing was performed to obtain three-dimensional images of the wells containing the biofilms ( A , B ) and the region within the wells where the biofilms were located ( C , D ). Bars represent 20 µm.
Figure Legend Snippet: Fluorescence microscopy of P. larvae floating biofilms. Bacterial suspensions of P. larvae ERIC I (ATCC9545; A , C ) and P. larvae ERIC II (DSM25430; B , D ) in Sf-900 II SFM medium supplemented with 30 µg/ml thioflavin S were incubated without agitation in 96-well-plates at 37 °C for six days. The thioflavin S-stained extracellular matrix in the floating biofilms was visualized using fluorescence microscopy; Z-stack processing was performed to obtain three-dimensional images of the wells containing the biofilms ( A , B ) and the region within the wells where the biofilms were located ( C , D ). Bars represent 20 µm.

Techniques Used: Fluorescence, Microscopy, Incubation, Staining

5) Product Images from "Evaluation of Antimicrobial Effects of Different Concentrations of Triple Antibiotic Paste on Mature Biofilm of Enterococcus faecalis"

Article Title: Evaluation of Antimicrobial Effects of Different Concentrations of Triple Antibiotic Paste on Mature Biofilm of Enterococcus faecalis

Journal: Journal of Dental Research, Dental Clinics, Dental Prospects

doi: 10.15171/joddd.2015.027

Formation of Biofilm
Figure Legend Snippet: Formation of Biofilm

Techniques Used:

6) Product Images from "The Bead Assay for Biofilms: A Quick, Easy and Robust Method for Testing Disinfectants"

Article Title: The Bead Assay for Biofilms: A Quick, Easy and Robust Method for Testing Disinfectants

Journal: PLoS ONE

doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0157663

Microscopic characterization. (a) SEM image: overview on a glass bead after 24 h cultivation with P . aeruginosa . (b) The bead surface is evenly covered with biofilm. (c) The bacteria are densely arranged in a monolayer. (d) Overview on a glass bead after the biofilm had been removed by sonication. (e, f) The bead surface is virtually empty, except for some residual debris. (g) CLSM image: The sugar-matrix of the P . aeruginosa biofilm was stained with Concanavalin A (assigned color: magenta), and the bacteria with Syto60 (assigned color: green). (h) LIVE/DEAD ® staining of the biofilm on a glass bead. (i) LIVE/DEAD ® staining after the biofilm had been removed from the bead by sonication.
Figure Legend Snippet: Microscopic characterization. (a) SEM image: overview on a glass bead after 24 h cultivation with P . aeruginosa . (b) The bead surface is evenly covered with biofilm. (c) The bacteria are densely arranged in a monolayer. (d) Overview on a glass bead after the biofilm had been removed by sonication. (e, f) The bead surface is virtually empty, except for some residual debris. (g) CLSM image: The sugar-matrix of the P . aeruginosa biofilm was stained with Concanavalin A (assigned color: magenta), and the bacteria with Syto60 (assigned color: green). (h) LIVE/DEAD ® staining of the biofilm on a glass bead. (i) LIVE/DEAD ® staining after the biofilm had been removed from the bead by sonication.

Techniques Used: Sonication, Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, Staining

Testing for repeatability. CFU counts of three independent experiments with untreated biofilm on glass beads. (The horizontal lines through the data points represent mean and standard deviation).
Figure Legend Snippet: Testing for repeatability. CFU counts of three independent experiments with untreated biofilm on glass beads. (The horizontal lines through the data points represent mean and standard deviation).

Techniques Used: Standard Deviation

Disinfectant efficacy testing on biofilm. (a) CFU counts after 30 min isopropanol treatment of P . aeruginosa biofilm. (b) CFU counts after 10 min peracetic acid treatment of P . aeruginosa biofilm. (c) CFU counts after 30 min glutaraldehyde treatment of P . aeruginosa biofilm. (The horizontal lines through the data points represent mean and standard deviation).
Figure Legend Snippet: Disinfectant efficacy testing on biofilm. (a) CFU counts after 30 min isopropanol treatment of P . aeruginosa biofilm. (b) CFU counts after 10 min peracetic acid treatment of P . aeruginosa biofilm. (c) CFU counts after 30 min glutaraldehyde treatment of P . aeruginosa biofilm. (The horizontal lines through the data points represent mean and standard deviation).

Techniques Used: Standard Deviation

Reduction of planktonic bacteria and biofilm in comparison. (a) CFU counts after 30 min glutaraldehyde treatment of planktonic bacteria of P . aeruginosa . (b) Reduction after 30 min glutaraldehyde treatment of P . aeruginosa biofilm and planktonic bacteria ( O : biofilm (mean of three independent experiments); Δ : planktonic (mean of three independent experiments); dashed line: 5log 10 reduction goal).
Figure Legend Snippet: Reduction of planktonic bacteria and biofilm in comparison. (a) CFU counts after 30 min glutaraldehyde treatment of planktonic bacteria of P . aeruginosa . (b) Reduction after 30 min glutaraldehyde treatment of P . aeruginosa biofilm and planktonic bacteria ( O : biofilm (mean of three independent experiments); Δ : planktonic (mean of three independent experiments); dashed line: 5log 10 reduction goal).

Techniques Used:

7) Product Images from "Curcumin Quantum Dots Mediated Degradation of Bacterial Biofilms"

Article Title: Curcumin Quantum Dots Mediated Degradation of Bacterial Biofilms

Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.01517

Co-localization maps revealing the strong physical association of CurQDs with the biofilm matrix in the different layers as seen in Figures 7B’–E’ .
Figure Legend Snippet: Co-localization maps revealing the strong physical association of CurQDs with the biofilm matrix in the different layers as seen in Figures 7B’–E’ .

Techniques Used:

Confocal sections of biofilm of S. aureus (ATCC 29213) (A–D) and E. coli (ATCC 25922) (E–H’) incubated with increasing concentration of CurQDs for 72 h, representing the corresponding dynamics of bacterial association and biofilm matrix formation in the presence of drug (Resolution 40X).
Figure Legend Snippet: Confocal sections of biofilm of S. aureus (ATCC 29213) (A–D) and E. coli (ATCC 25922) (E–H’) incubated with increasing concentration of CurQDs for 72 h, representing the corresponding dynamics of bacterial association and biofilm matrix formation in the presence of drug (Resolution 40X).

Techniques Used: Incubation, Concentration Assay

(A) Confocal sections of biofilms of S. epidermidis (ATCC35984), (B,C) confocal sections of biofilms of S. aureus (ATCC 29213) (T1) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) (T2) stained with DAPI, treated with 0.125 μg/ml concentration of curcumin. (A’–C’) Post treatment magnified view of (A–C) . Note the diffusion and disintegration of the superficial biofilm at concentration 0.125 μg/ml.
Figure Legend Snippet: (A) Confocal sections of biofilms of S. epidermidis (ATCC35984), (B,C) confocal sections of biofilms of S. aureus (ATCC 29213) (T1) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) (T2) stained with DAPI, treated with 0.125 μg/ml concentration of curcumin. (A’–C’) Post treatment magnified view of (A–C) . Note the diffusion and disintegration of the superficial biofilm at concentration 0.125 μg/ml.

Techniques Used: Staining, Concentration Assay, Diffusion-based Assay

Confocal sections of bacterial culture of S. aureus (ATCC 29213), treated with 0.0156, 0.0312, 0.0625, and 0.125 μg/ml concentration (present in lanes 4–1, respectively) of CurQDs for 24 h. Cultures have been stained with DAPI (red), and green is the auto-fluorescent CurQDs. (A–A”’) Merged view of biofilm matrix treated with 0.0156–0.125 μg/ml CurQDs respectively. (B–B”’) DAPI stained confocal sections of biofilm matrix treated with 0.0156–0.125 μg/ml CurQDs respectively. (C–C”’) Confocal localization view of CurQDs in increasing concentration (0.0156–0.125 μg/ml). (D–D”’) Differential interference contrast microscopic contours of biofilm matrix after exposure to with 0.0156–0.125 μg/ml CurQDs respectively.
Figure Legend Snippet: Confocal sections of bacterial culture of S. aureus (ATCC 29213), treated with 0.0156, 0.0312, 0.0625, and 0.125 μg/ml concentration (present in lanes 4–1, respectively) of CurQDs for 24 h. Cultures have been stained with DAPI (red), and green is the auto-fluorescent CurQDs. (A–A”’) Merged view of biofilm matrix treated with 0.0156–0.125 μg/ml CurQDs respectively. (B–B”’) DAPI stained confocal sections of biofilm matrix treated with 0.0156–0.125 μg/ml CurQDs respectively. (C–C”’) Confocal localization view of CurQDs in increasing concentration (0.0156–0.125 μg/ml). (D–D”’) Differential interference contrast microscopic contours of biofilm matrix after exposure to with 0.0156–0.125 μg/ml CurQDs respectively.

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay, Staining

(A–C) Confocal sections of biofilm of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213) after incubation of 72 h. (A’–C’) Twice magnified view of (A–C) , (A) is merged view of DAPI staining and differential interference contrast (DIC) imaging, while (B,C) are DAPI stained and DIC images, respectively.
Figure Legend Snippet: (A–C) Confocal sections of biofilm of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213) after incubation of 72 h. (A’–C’) Twice magnified view of (A–C) , (A) is merged view of DAPI staining and differential interference contrast (DIC) imaging, while (B,C) are DAPI stained and DIC images, respectively.

Techniques Used: Incubation, Staining, Imaging

Confocal sections of Biofilm layer of S. aureus (ATCC 29213) incubated with 0.125 μg/ml concentration of CurQDs (1–4). (A–E) Depicts the different layers of the corresponding bacterial biofilm. (A’–E’) is the magnified view of the same. Note the stable association of the drug molecule with the bacterium, which suggests its affinity for the organism. Strong co-localization of the DAPI (red) with the drug (green) supports this affinity.
Figure Legend Snippet: Confocal sections of Biofilm layer of S. aureus (ATCC 29213) incubated with 0.125 μg/ml concentration of CurQDs (1–4). (A–E) Depicts the different layers of the corresponding bacterial biofilm. (A’–E’) is the magnified view of the same. Note the stable association of the drug molecule with the bacterium, which suggests its affinity for the organism. Strong co-localization of the DAPI (red) with the drug (green) supports this affinity.

Techniques Used: Incubation, Concentration Assay

8) Product Images from "Characterization of Rhamnolipids Produced by an Arctic Marine Bacterium from the Pseudomonas fluorescence Group"

Article Title: Characterization of Rhamnolipids Produced by an Arctic Marine Bacterium from the Pseudomonas fluorescence Group

Journal: Marine Drugs

doi: 10.3390/md16050163

Biofilm formation inhibition assay performed on S. epidermidis . Values are mean of three replicates, ± standard error.
Figure Legend Snippet: Biofilm formation inhibition assay performed on S. epidermidis . Values are mean of three replicates, ± standard error.

Techniques Used: Inhibition

9) Product Images from "New Insights into the Lifestyle of the Cold-Loving SM1 Euryarchaeon: Natural Growth as a Monospecies Biofilm in the Subsurface"

Article Title: New Insights into the Lifestyle of the Cold-Loving SM1 Euryarchaeon: Natural Growth as a Monospecies Biofilm in the Subsurface

Journal:

doi: 10.1128/AEM.72.1.192-199.2006

Confocal laser scanning micrograph of a layer of the SM1 biofilm. The FISH-stained SM1 cells (ARCHmix) show a constant and regular three-dimensional arrangement. Each cell has a distance of about 4 μm to its neighbors. The circles have a diameter
Figure Legend Snippet: Confocal laser scanning micrograph of a layer of the SM1 biofilm. The FISH-stained SM1 cells (ARCHmix) show a constant and regular three-dimensional arrangement. Each cell has a distance of about 4 μm to its neighbors. The circles have a diameter

Techniques Used: Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization, Staining

(A) Biofilm trapping system (scheme) within the drilling hole of the Islinger Mühlbach spring. Horizontal arrows point to plastic rings covered with polyethylene nets. The other arrows indicate the water flow. Bar, 10 cm. (B) Small, slime-like
Figure Legend Snippet: (A) Biofilm trapping system (scheme) within the drilling hole of the Islinger Mühlbach spring. Horizontal arrows point to plastic rings covered with polyethylene nets. The other arrows indicate the water flow. Bar, 10 cm. (B) Small, slime-like

Techniques Used: Flow Cytometry

(A) Water collector. The funnel with attached tube was used to plug the drill hole, collect the emerging water, and estimate the flow rate of the springwater. Bar, 10 cm. (B) Biofilm trapping system. Frames covered with polyethylene nets (arrow A) were
Figure Legend Snippet: (A) Water collector. The funnel with attached tube was used to plug the drill hole, collect the emerging water, and estimate the flow rate of the springwater. Bar, 10 cm. (B) Biofilm trapping system. Frames covered with polyethylene nets (arrow A) were

Techniques Used: Flow Cytometry

Electron micrographs of SM1 cells from a negatively stained biofilm. (A) Single SM1 cell with hami and an electron-dense corona surrounding the cell (arrow). (B) Entangled web of SM1 hami within the biofilm.
Figure Legend Snippet: Electron micrographs of SM1 cells from a negatively stained biofilm. (A) Single SM1 cell with hami and an electron-dense corona surrounding the cell (arrow). (B) Entangled web of SM1 hami within the biofilm.

Techniques Used: Staining

Electron micrograph of negatively stained SM1 hami within the biofilm.
Figure Legend Snippet: Electron micrograph of negatively stained SM1 hami within the biofilm.

Techniques Used: Staining

10) Product Images from "Differential Effect of Newly Isolated Phages Belonging to PB1-Like, phiKZ-Like and LUZ24-Like Viruses against Multi-Drug Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa under Varying Growth Conditions"

Article Title: Differential Effect of Newly Isolated Phages Belonging to PB1-Like, phiKZ-Like and LUZ24-Like Viruses against Multi-Drug Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa under Varying Growth Conditions

Journal: Viruses

doi: 10.3390/v9110315

Reduction of 24 h-old biofilms of multi-drug resistant P. aeruginosa strains (MDR-PA1-5) by phages SL1, SL2, and SL4 and a cocktail with all three phages (phage incubation for 3 h, MOI 100): ( A ) Crystal violet assay; and ( B ) ATP-dependent luminescence assay. Each experiment was performed in triplicate and the means ± standard errors are indicated. Statistical significance of biofilm reduction was assessed by performing Student’s t -test. Note that the effect of the cocktail was only evaluated with the method in ( B ). p -Values: *** p
Figure Legend Snippet: Reduction of 24 h-old biofilms of multi-drug resistant P. aeruginosa strains (MDR-PA1-5) by phages SL1, SL2, and SL4 and a cocktail with all three phages (phage incubation for 3 h, MOI 100): ( A ) Crystal violet assay; and ( B ) ATP-dependent luminescence assay. Each experiment was performed in triplicate and the means ± standard errors are indicated. Statistical significance of biofilm reduction was assessed by performing Student’s t -test. Note that the effect of the cocktail was only evaluated with the method in ( B ). p -Values: *** p

Techniques Used: Incubation, Crystal Violet Assay, Luminescence Assay

11) Product Images from "Dissemination of CTX-M-Producing Escherichia coli in Freshwater Fishes From a French Watershed (Burgundy)"

Article Title: Dissemination of CTX-M-Producing Escherichia coli in Freshwater Fishes From a French Watershed (Burgundy)

Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.03239

Distributionof ST (%) encountered in the eight WWTP effluents discharging into the Ouche river and their occurrence in environmental samples: water, biofilm, and fish guts.
Figure Legend Snippet: Distributionof ST (%) encountered in the eight WWTP effluents discharging into the Ouche river and their occurrence in environmental samples: water, biofilm, and fish guts.

Techniques Used: Environmental Sampling, Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization

Phylogenetic minimum spanning tree (MS tree) based on MLST sequences of seven housekeeping genes from environmental and WWTP effluents strains. ST numbers from environmental strains are followed by isolate number (see Table 4 ) and water, biofilm, and fish isolates are highlighted in blue, brown, and yellow, respectively. Only ST number is given for WWTP effluents isolates.
Figure Legend Snippet: Phylogenetic minimum spanning tree (MS tree) based on MLST sequences of seven housekeeping genes from environmental and WWTP effluents strains. ST numbers from environmental strains are followed by isolate number (see Table 4 ) and water, biofilm, and fish isolates are highlighted in blue, brown, and yellow, respectively. Only ST number is given for WWTP effluents isolates.

Techniques Used: Mass Spectrometry, Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization

12) Product Images from "Swarming motility and biofilm formation of Paenibacillus larvae, the etiological agent of American Foulbrood of honey bees (Apis mellifera)"

Article Title: Swarming motility and biofilm formation of Paenibacillus larvae, the etiological agent of American Foulbrood of honey bees (Apis mellifera)

Journal: Scientific Reports

doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-27193-8

Planktonic cells of P. larvae ERIC I (ATCC9545) and P. larvae ERIC II (DSM25430). Bacterial suspensions of P. larvae ERIC I (ATCC9545; A ) and P. larvae ERIC II (DSM25430; B ) in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth were incubated under constant agitation to prevent biofilm formation. Cultures of planktonic cells were stained with Congo red ( A , B ) while BHI medium stained with Congo red ( C ) or without staining ( D ) served as negative controls. Representative pictures are shown.
Figure Legend Snippet: Planktonic cells of P. larvae ERIC I (ATCC9545) and P. larvae ERIC II (DSM25430). Bacterial suspensions of P. larvae ERIC I (ATCC9545; A ) and P. larvae ERIC II (DSM25430; B ) in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth were incubated under constant agitation to prevent biofilm formation. Cultures of planktonic cells were stained with Congo red ( A , B ) while BHI medium stained with Congo red ( C ) or without staining ( D ) served as negative controls. Representative pictures are shown.

Techniques Used: Incubation, Staining

Involvement of paenilarvin in biofilm formation of P. larvae ERIC II. Wild-type P. larvae ERIC II (DSM25430 wt; A , C ) and a corresponding inactivation mutant for the paenilarvin gene cluster (DSM25430 Δ itu ; B , D ) were tested in biofilm assays. Bacterial suspensions in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth were incubated without agitation in six-well-plates at 37 °C for five ( A , B ) and six ( C , D ) days. For both strains, three biological replicates were performed both for obtaining pictures under unstained conditions ( A , B ) and after Congo red staining ( C , D ). Representative pictures are shown. ( E ) Biofilm formation was quantified via determining the amount of Conge red dye retained in the biofilms upon centrifugation. Data represent mean values ± SD of three independent experiments. The difference between the wild-type and corresponding inactivation mutant was not significant (p = 0.9889, Student’s t-test).
Figure Legend Snippet: Involvement of paenilarvin in biofilm formation of P. larvae ERIC II. Wild-type P. larvae ERIC II (DSM25430 wt; A , C ) and a corresponding inactivation mutant for the paenilarvin gene cluster (DSM25430 Δ itu ; B , D ) were tested in biofilm assays. Bacterial suspensions in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth were incubated without agitation in six-well-plates at 37 °C for five ( A , B ) and six ( C , D ) days. For both strains, three biological replicates were performed both for obtaining pictures under unstained conditions ( A , B ) and after Congo red staining ( C , D ). Representative pictures are shown. ( E ) Biofilm formation was quantified via determining the amount of Conge red dye retained in the biofilms upon centrifugation. Data represent mean values ± SD of three independent experiments. The difference between the wild-type and corresponding inactivation mutant was not significant (p = 0.9889, Student’s t-test).

Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Incubation, Staining, Centrifugation

Biofilm formation of P. larvae ERIC I (ATCC9545) and P. larvae ERIC II (DSM25430) cultivated in static liquid. Bacterial suspensions of P. larvae ERIC I (ATCC9545; A , D , G ) and P. larvae ERIC II (DSM25430; B , E , H ) in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth were incubated without agitation in six-well-plates at 37 °C for five ( A , B ) and six ( D , E ) days, or in 96-well-plates for six days ( G , H ). For each P. larvae genotype, three biological replicates were performed both for obtaining pictures under unstained conditions ( A , B ), after Congo red staining of the extracellular matrix ( D , E ), and Crystal violet staining of the bacterial cells adherent to the well walls ( G , H ). Negative controls for each assay are shown in ( C , F , and I ). Representative pictures are shown.
Figure Legend Snippet: Biofilm formation of P. larvae ERIC I (ATCC9545) and P. larvae ERIC II (DSM25430) cultivated in static liquid. Bacterial suspensions of P. larvae ERIC I (ATCC9545; A , D , G ) and P. larvae ERIC II (DSM25430; B , E , H ) in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth were incubated without agitation in six-well-plates at 37 °C for five ( A , B ) and six ( D , E ) days, or in 96-well-plates for six days ( G , H ). For each P. larvae genotype, three biological replicates were performed both for obtaining pictures under unstained conditions ( A , B ), after Congo red staining of the extracellular matrix ( D , E ), and Crystal violet staining of the bacterial cells adherent to the well walls ( G , H ). Negative controls for each assay are shown in ( C , F , and I ). Representative pictures are shown.

Techniques Used: Incubation, Staining

Fluorescence microscopy of P. larvae floating biofilms. Bacterial suspensions of P. larvae ERIC I (ATCC9545; A , C ) and P. larvae ERIC II (DSM25430; B , D ) in Sf-900 II SFM medium supplemented with 30 µg/ml thioflavin S were incubated without agitation in 96-well-plates at 37 °C for six days. The thioflavin S-stained extracellular matrix in the floating biofilms was visualized using fluorescence microscopy; Z-stack processing was performed to obtain three-dimensional images of the wells containing the biofilms ( A , B ) and the region within the wells where the biofilms were located ( C , D ). Bars represent 20 µm.
Figure Legend Snippet: Fluorescence microscopy of P. larvae floating biofilms. Bacterial suspensions of P. larvae ERIC I (ATCC9545; A , C ) and P. larvae ERIC II (DSM25430; B , D ) in Sf-900 II SFM medium supplemented with 30 µg/ml thioflavin S were incubated without agitation in 96-well-plates at 37 °C for six days. The thioflavin S-stained extracellular matrix in the floating biofilms was visualized using fluorescence microscopy; Z-stack processing was performed to obtain three-dimensional images of the wells containing the biofilms ( A , B ) and the region within the wells where the biofilms were located ( C , D ). Bars represent 20 µm.

Techniques Used: Fluorescence, Microscopy, Incubation, Staining

13) Product Images from "Elastin increases biofilm and extracellular matrix production of Aspergillus fumigatus"

Article Title: Elastin increases biofilm and extracellular matrix production of Aspergillus fumigatus

Journal: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology

doi: 10.1016/j.bjm.2017.10.004

Influence of elastin on the growth of A. fumigatus biofilm. The graphics represent the mean values with SDs of the biofilm production of both isolates of A. fumigatus measured by absorbance with 0.5% crystal violet (A) and (B) the dry weight. A significant increase in the presence of 10 mg/mL of elastin (gray bars) compared to RPMI alone (black bars) was observed for all time periods (** p
Figure Legend Snippet: Influence of elastin on the growth of A. fumigatus biofilm. The graphics represent the mean values with SDs of the biofilm production of both isolates of A. fumigatus measured by absorbance with 0.5% crystal violet (A) and (B) the dry weight. A significant increase in the presence of 10 mg/mL of elastin (gray bars) compared to RPMI alone (black bars) was observed for all time periods (** p

Techniques Used:

Decreased hydrophobicity of A. fumigatus biofilm. A. fumigatus URM5992 (environmental origin) biofilm after 48 h at 37 °C. (A and B) Biofilm Grown in RPMI without elastin under light microscopy and stained with latex beads, respectively. (C and D) biofilm grown in RPMI with elastin – 10 mg/mL under light microscopy and stained with latex beads, respectively. Scale bar, 50 μm.
Figure Legend Snippet: Decreased hydrophobicity of A. fumigatus biofilm. A. fumigatus URM5992 (environmental origin) biofilm after 48 h at 37 °C. (A and B) Biofilm Grown in RPMI without elastin under light microscopy and stained with latex beads, respectively. (C and D) biofilm grown in RPMI with elastin – 10 mg/mL under light microscopy and stained with latex beads, respectively. Scale bar, 50 μm.

Techniques Used: Light Microscopy, Staining

Influence of elastin on extracellular matrix (ECM) of A. fumigatus biofilm. The means and SDs show that the amount of ECM produced in the presence of elastin (gray bars) was significantly greater ( p = 0.0042), than that produced in RPMI alone (black bars). The difference between isolates of clinical (URM6573) and environmental (URM5992) origin was highly significant ( p
Figure Legend Snippet: Influence of elastin on extracellular matrix (ECM) of A. fumigatus biofilm. The means and SDs show that the amount of ECM produced in the presence of elastin (gray bars) was significantly greater ( p = 0.0042), than that produced in RPMI alone (black bars). The difference between isolates of clinical (URM6573) and environmental (URM5992) origin was highly significant ( p

Techniques Used: Produced

Enhanced production extracellular matrix (ECM) of A. fumigatus biofilm. Photomicrographs taken by scanning electron microscopy analysis of A. fumigatus URM6575 biofilm in RPMI (A) and RPMI with elastin (B) show increased production of ECM in the presence of elastin (yellow arrow). Magnification of 2000×. A. fumigatus URM6575 biofilm grown in RPMI supplemented with 10 mg/mL of elastin (C) under light microscopy and stained with concanavalin A-Alexa Fluor 488 ® (D) show greater amounts of ECM at the ends of the hyphae (white arrow). Scale bar, 50 μm.
Figure Legend Snippet: Enhanced production extracellular matrix (ECM) of A. fumigatus biofilm. Photomicrographs taken by scanning electron microscopy analysis of A. fumigatus URM6575 biofilm in RPMI (A) and RPMI with elastin (B) show increased production of ECM in the presence of elastin (yellow arrow). Magnification of 2000×. A. fumigatus URM6575 biofilm grown in RPMI supplemented with 10 mg/mL of elastin (C) under light microscopy and stained with concanavalin A-Alexa Fluor 488 ® (D) show greater amounts of ECM at the ends of the hyphae (white arrow). Scale bar, 50 μm.

Techniques Used: Electron Microscopy, Light Microscopy, Staining

Influence of elastin on the hydrophobicity of A. fumigatus biofilm. The hydrophobicity in the presence of elastin (gray bars) was significantly lower ( p = 0.005) than that in RPMI alone (black bars). The difference between the clinical (URM6573) and environmental (URM5992) isolates was highly significant ( p
Figure Legend Snippet: Influence of elastin on the hydrophobicity of A. fumigatus biofilm. The hydrophobicity in the presence of elastin (gray bars) was significantly lower ( p = 0.005) than that in RPMI alone (black bars). The difference between the clinical (URM6573) and environmental (URM5992) isolates was highly significant ( p

Techniques Used:

Related Articles

Staining:

Article Title: Biofilm Formation and β-Lactamase Production in Burn Isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Article Snippet: .. Biofilms were stained with 0.1% safranin (Merck, Germany) solution in water for 15 minutes and the plates were washed in distilled water and dried at room temperature. .. The optical density (OD) of the biofilms was measured at 492 nm using an ELISA reader (Stat Fax 2100, Awareness Tech Inc., USA).

Article Title: Swarming motility and biofilm formation of Paenibacillus larvae, the etiological agent of American Foulbrood of honey bees (Apis mellifera)
Article Snippet: .. For better visualizing the biofilm, Congo red (CR; Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany), a direct dye for staining amyloid fibres and extrapolysaccharides in biofilms – was used. ..

Incubation:

Article Title: Evaluation of Antimicrobial Effects of Different Concentrations of Triple Antibiotic Paste on Mature Biofilm of Enterococcus faecalis
Article Snippet: .. Formation of Biofilm After autoclaving the samples at 121°C and under a pressure of 15 psi for 20 minutes, the samples were incubated in BHI (brain-heart infusion broth) (Merck, Darmstadt, Germany) at 37°C for 24 hours to confirm their sterility. .. Then each sample was placed within a sterile microtube containing 2 mL of standard suspension of E. faecalis (ATCC 29212).

Article Title: Curcumin Quantum Dots Mediated Degradation of Bacterial Biofilms
Article Snippet: .. After incubation, biofilm was quantitated by crystal violet (CV) assay (Merck, Germany) as described earlier ( ). ..

Article Title: Characterization of Rhamnolipids Produced by an Arctic Marine Bacterium from the Pseudomonas fluorescence Group
Article Snippet: .. The biofilm was fixed at 65 °C for 1 h before 70 µL 0.1% crystal violet (115940, Merck Millipore) was added to the wells for 10 min of incubation. ..

other:

Article Title: Elastin increases biofilm and extracellular matrix production of Aspergillus fumigatus
Article Snippet: Quantification of the biofilm biomass (dry weight) After the predetermined time, the biofilm was removed by scraping and filtered through paper filters (Miracloth/22 μm, Merck, Germany), which were then dried to a constant weight.

Sterility:

Article Title: Evaluation of Antimicrobial Effects of Different Concentrations of Triple Antibiotic Paste on Mature Biofilm of Enterococcus faecalis
Article Snippet: .. Formation of Biofilm After autoclaving the samples at 121°C and under a pressure of 15 psi for 20 minutes, the samples were incubated in BHI (brain-heart infusion broth) (Merck, Darmstadt, Germany) at 37°C for 24 hours to confirm their sterility. .. Then each sample was placed within a sterile microtube containing 2 mL of standard suspension of E. faecalis (ATCC 29212).

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  • 92
    Merck KGaA biofilm cells
    (A) Colony of P. multocida <t>biofilm</t> morphotype showing the radiating strands from centre to periphery (40 X magnification). This colony resembles the sectored colony type of the organism growing in vivo or that of very virulent strains and was found exclusive to biofilm colonies. (B) Harvested biofilm of P. multocida showing very dense and discernible capsule as a white halo around the cells following Maneval Staining.
    Biofilm Cells, supplied by Merck KGaA, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 4 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    94
    Merck KGaA biofilms
    Scanning electron micrographs of 24 <t>h-biofilm</t> of S. epidermidis 1457 after exposure to farnesol, NAC, and the combination of both for 24 h. (a) Positive control; (b) 300 µM farnesol; (c) NAC 1 × MIC; (d) NAC 10 × MIC; (e) Farnesol 300 µM + NAC 1 × MIC; (f) Farnesol 300 µM + NAC 10 × MIC. Magnification × 40 000.
    Biofilms, supplied by Merck KGaA, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 15 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/biofilms/product/Merck KGaA
    Average 94 stars, based on 15 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
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    (A) Colony of P. multocida biofilm morphotype showing the radiating strands from centre to periphery (40 X magnification). This colony resembles the sectored colony type of the organism growing in vivo or that of very virulent strains and was found exclusive to biofilm colonies. (B) Harvested biofilm of P. multocida showing very dense and discernible capsule as a white halo around the cells following Maneval Staining.

    Journal: Iranian Journal of Microbiology

    Article Title: Biofilm formation of Pasteurella multocida on bentonite clay

    doi:

    Figure Lengend Snippet: (A) Colony of P. multocida biofilm morphotype showing the radiating strands from centre to periphery (40 X magnification). This colony resembles the sectored colony type of the organism growing in vivo or that of very virulent strains and was found exclusive to biofilm colonies. (B) Harvested biofilm of P. multocida showing very dense and discernible capsule as a white halo around the cells following Maneval Staining.

    Article Snippet: Characterization of crude capsular extract (CCE) The total carbohydrate content of crude capsular extract of planktonic and biofilm cells was measured by phenol sulphuric acid method using glucose, mannose, ribose and galactose (Merck, India) as standard sugars ( ).

    Techniques: In Vivo, Staining

    (A) Coccobacillary P. multocida organisms with thick dense capsule and appearing as chains attached to bentonite clay (white arrows), Maneval Staining, (100 X). (B) Late biofilm culture revealing organisms that formed a thick mesh work (between the arrows) on bentonite clay (100 X), plausibly due to the formation of exopolysaccharide. Bacteria resist the penetration of stain at this stage.

    Journal: Iranian Journal of Microbiology

    Article Title: Biofilm formation of Pasteurella multocida on bentonite clay

    doi:

    Figure Lengend Snippet: (A) Coccobacillary P. multocida organisms with thick dense capsule and appearing as chains attached to bentonite clay (white arrows), Maneval Staining, (100 X). (B) Late biofilm culture revealing organisms that formed a thick mesh work (between the arrows) on bentonite clay (100 X), plausibly due to the formation of exopolysaccharide. Bacteria resist the penetration of stain at this stage.

    Article Snippet: Characterization of crude capsular extract (CCE) The total carbohydrate content of crude capsular extract of planktonic and biofilm cells was measured by phenol sulphuric acid method using glucose, mannose, ribose and galactose (Merck, India) as standard sugars ( ).

    Techniques: Staining

    Effect of temperature on biofilm formation of E. coli and P. fluorescens . The elastic (G0) and viscous (G00) is plotted against the time of E. coli (A) and P. fluorescens (B) with changing temperature from 25°–30°C.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: In-Situ Quantification of the Interfacial Rheological Response of Bacterial Biofilms to Environmental Stimuli

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078524

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of temperature on biofilm formation of E. coli and P. fluorescens . The elastic (G0) and viscous (G00) is plotted against the time of E. coli (A) and P. fluorescens (B) with changing temperature from 25°–30°C.

    Article Snippet: Biofilm growth of B. subtilis in LB Using interfacial rheological measurements, we were also able to detect subtle changes in biofilm formation caused by single, excreted gene products, such as surfactin.

    Techniques:

    Overview on the experimental techniques used to measure the biofilm elasticity. A: Schematic overview over subphase controlled interfacial rheological setup used for the bacterial biofilm elasticity measurements. B: Schematic representation on the pendant drop tensiometer with an biofilm.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: In-Situ Quantification of the Interfacial Rheological Response of Bacterial Biofilms to Environmental Stimuli

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078524

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Overview on the experimental techniques used to measure the biofilm elasticity. A: Schematic overview over subphase controlled interfacial rheological setup used for the bacterial biofilm elasticity measurements. B: Schematic representation on the pendant drop tensiometer with an biofilm.

    Article Snippet: Biofilm growth of B. subtilis in LB Using interfacial rheological measurements, we were also able to detect subtle changes in biofilm formation caused by single, excreted gene products, such as surfactin.

    Techniques:

    Effect of surfactin production on biofilm formation of B. subtilis . A: The elasticity (G0) of B. subtilis and B. subtilis surfactin mutant is plotted against the time. B: The surface tension versus time is plotted of B. subtilis and B. subtilis surfactin mutant. C: Images of the pendant drop experiment of B. subtilis and B. subtilis before and after biofilm growth (C) (t > 45 h).

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: In-Situ Quantification of the Interfacial Rheological Response of Bacterial Biofilms to Environmental Stimuli

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078524

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of surfactin production on biofilm formation of B. subtilis . A: The elasticity (G0) of B. subtilis and B. subtilis surfactin mutant is plotted against the time. B: The surface tension versus time is plotted of B. subtilis and B. subtilis surfactin mutant. C: Images of the pendant drop experiment of B. subtilis and B. subtilis before and after biofilm growth (C) (t > 45 h).

    Article Snippet: Biofilm growth of B. subtilis in LB Using interfacial rheological measurements, we were also able to detect subtle changes in biofilm formation caused by single, excreted gene products, such as surfactin.

    Techniques: Mutagenesis

    Biofilm formation at the water-air interface. Macroscopic (top) and microscopic images (bottom) of biofilms formed at the water-air interface after 72 h of P. fluorescens (A), E. coli (B) and B. subtilis (C).

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: In-Situ Quantification of the Interfacial Rheological Response of Bacterial Biofilms to Environmental Stimuli

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078524

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Biofilm formation at the water-air interface. Macroscopic (top) and microscopic images (bottom) of biofilms formed at the water-air interface after 72 h of P. fluorescens (A), E. coli (B) and B. subtilis (C).

    Article Snippet: Biofilm growth of B. subtilis in LB Using interfacial rheological measurements, we were also able to detect subtle changes in biofilm formation caused by single, excreted gene products, such as surfactin.

    Techniques:

    Effect of Tween 20 on biofilm elasticity after biofilm formation. The elasticity (G0) is plotted against the time and concentration of Tween 20 of P. fluorescens (A) and B. flsubtilis (B).

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: In-Situ Quantification of the Interfacial Rheological Response of Bacterial Biofilms to Environmental Stimuli

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078524

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of Tween 20 on biofilm elasticity after biofilm formation. The elasticity (G0) is plotted against the time and concentration of Tween 20 of P. fluorescens (A) and B. flsubtilis (B).

    Article Snippet: Biofilm growth of B. subtilis in LB Using interfacial rheological measurements, we were also able to detect subtle changes in biofilm formation caused by single, excreted gene products, such as surfactin.

    Techniques: Concentration Assay

    Transient biofilm elasticity of E. coli and P. uorescens . The elastic (G0) and viscous (G00) as a function of time for E. coli (A) and P. fluorescens (B).

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: In-Situ Quantification of the Interfacial Rheological Response of Bacterial Biofilms to Environmental Stimuli

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078524

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Transient biofilm elasticity of E. coli and P. uorescens . The elastic (G0) and viscous (G00) as a function of time for E. coli (A) and P. fluorescens (B).

    Article Snippet: Biofilm growth of B. subtilis in LB Using interfacial rheological measurements, we were also able to detect subtle changes in biofilm formation caused by single, excreted gene products, such as surfactin.

    Techniques:

    Effect of varying pH on biofilm elasticity after biofilm formation. The elasticity (G0) is plotted against the time of E. coli (A), P. fluorescens (B) and B. subtilis (C) before and after pH change. After the dotted line, the pH was controlled by the addition of 1 M HCl.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: In-Situ Quantification of the Interfacial Rheological Response of Bacterial Biofilms to Environmental Stimuli

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078524

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of varying pH on biofilm elasticity after biofilm formation. The elasticity (G0) is plotted against the time of E. coli (A), P. fluorescens (B) and B. subtilis (C) before and after pH change. After the dotted line, the pH was controlled by the addition of 1 M HCl.

    Article Snippet: Biofilm growth of B. subtilis in LB Using interfacial rheological measurements, we were also able to detect subtle changes in biofilm formation caused by single, excreted gene products, such as surfactin.

    Techniques:

    Scanning electron micrographs of 24 h-biofilm of S. epidermidis 1457 after exposure to farnesol, NAC, and the combination of both for 24 h. (a) Positive control; (b) 300 µM farnesol; (c) NAC 1 × MIC; (d) NAC 10 × MIC; (e) Farnesol 300 µM + NAC 1 × MIC; (f) Farnesol 300 µM + NAC 10 × MIC. Magnification × 40 000.

    Journal: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology

    Article Title: Farnesol in combination with N-acetylcysteine against Staphylococcus epidermidis planktonic and biofilm cells

    doi: 10.1590/S1517-838220120001000026

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Scanning electron micrographs of 24 h-biofilm of S. epidermidis 1457 after exposure to farnesol, NAC, and the combination of both for 24 h. (a) Positive control; (b) 300 µM farnesol; (c) NAC 1 × MIC; (d) NAC 10 × MIC; (e) Farnesol 300 µM + NAC 1 × MIC; (f) Farnesol 300 µM + NAC 10 × MIC. Magnification × 40 000.

    Article Snippet: Biofilm assays Biofilm formation and treatment: Biofilms were formed in 96 well tissue culture plates containing 200 μL of S. epidermidis cell suspension (1 × 106 cells mL−1 ) (1457 and 9142 strains) in TSB supplemented with 0.25% glucose (Merck, Darmstadt, Germany) per well to promote biofilm formation.

    Techniques: Positive Control

    Effect of farnesol and/or NAC on biofilm cells of S. epidermidis 1457 (a) and 9142 (b), after 24 hours of contact with farnesol (300 μM), NAC (4 mg mL −1 and 40 mg mL −1 ) and farnesol-NAC. Error bars represent standard deviation. Legend: 1- Positive control; 2- NAC 1 × MIC; 3- NAC 10 × MIC; 4- Farnesol 300 µM; 5- Farnesol 300 µM + NAC 1 × MIC; 6- Farnesol 300 µM + NAC 10 × MIC.

    Journal: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology

    Article Title: Farnesol in combination with N-acetylcysteine against Staphylococcus epidermidis planktonic and biofilm cells

    doi: 10.1590/S1517-838220120001000026

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of farnesol and/or NAC on biofilm cells of S. epidermidis 1457 (a) and 9142 (b), after 24 hours of contact with farnesol (300 μM), NAC (4 mg mL −1 and 40 mg mL −1 ) and farnesol-NAC. Error bars represent standard deviation. Legend: 1- Positive control; 2- NAC 1 × MIC; 3- NAC 10 × MIC; 4- Farnesol 300 µM; 5- Farnesol 300 µM + NAC 1 × MIC; 6- Farnesol 300 µM + NAC 10 × MIC.

    Article Snippet: Biofilm assays Biofilm formation and treatment: Biofilms were formed in 96 well tissue culture plates containing 200 μL of S. epidermidis cell suspension (1 × 106 cells mL−1 ) (1457 and 9142 strains) in TSB supplemented with 0.25% glucose (Merck, Darmstadt, Germany) per well to promote biofilm formation.

    Techniques: Standard Deviation, Positive Control