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Hitachi Ltd biofilm
Differential gene expression in f E. coli (L-1216/2010) with potential to form <t>biofilm</t> versus non-biofilm forming cells of E. coli (L-1339/2013) grown for 72 h. In a , in the volcano plots genes that are represented on the right side of the volcano-axis are up regulated and those that are on left side of the axis are down regulated. In b , cluster analysis of biofilm forming E. coli (L-1216/2010) with non-biofilm forming cells of E. coli (L-1339/2013). In c , heat map analysis shows that the biofilm cells (BF1–BF3) are less related to non-biofilm cells (N1–N3) of E. coli. Principal component analysis ( d )
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Images

1) Product Images from "Global gene expression in Escherichia coli, isolated from the diseased ocular surface of the human eye with a potential to form biofilm"

Article Title: Global gene expression in Escherichia coli, isolated from the diseased ocular surface of the human eye with a potential to form biofilm

Journal: Gut Pathogens

doi: 10.1186/s13099-017-0164-2

Differential gene expression in f E. coli (L-1216/2010) with potential to form biofilm versus non-biofilm forming cells of E. coli (L-1339/2013) grown for 72 h. In a , in the volcano plots genes that are represented on the right side of the volcano-axis are up regulated and those that are on left side of the axis are down regulated. In b , cluster analysis of biofilm forming E. coli (L-1216/2010) with non-biofilm forming cells of E. coli (L-1339/2013). In c , heat map analysis shows that the biofilm cells (BF1–BF3) are less related to non-biofilm cells (N1–N3) of E. coli. Principal component analysis ( d )
Figure Legend Snippet: Differential gene expression in f E. coli (L-1216/2010) with potential to form biofilm versus non-biofilm forming cells of E. coli (L-1339/2013) grown for 72 h. In a , in the volcano plots genes that are represented on the right side of the volcano-axis are up regulated and those that are on left side of the axis are down regulated. In b , cluster analysis of biofilm forming E. coli (L-1216/2010) with non-biofilm forming cells of E. coli (L-1339/2013). In c , heat map analysis shows that the biofilm cells (BF1–BF3) are less related to non-biofilm cells (N1–N3) of E. coli. Principal component analysis ( d )

Techniques Used: Expressing

Real-time PCR validation of the expression of genes in biofilm ( closed box ) and non-biofilm cells ( hatched box ) of E. coli (L-1216/2010) and E. coli (L-1339/2013) ( open box ) respectively. a Relative expression of up-regulated genes and b Relative expression of down-regulated gene
Figure Legend Snippet: Real-time PCR validation of the expression of genes in biofilm ( closed box ) and non-biofilm cells ( hatched box ) of E. coli (L-1216/2010) and E. coli (L-1339/2013) ( open box ) respectively. a Relative expression of up-regulated genes and b Relative expression of down-regulated gene

Techniques Used: Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Expressing

Biofilm forming potential in ocular E. coli L-1216/2010 as monitored by scanning electron microscopy after 24 ( a ), 48 ( b ) and 72 ( c ) h of biofilm growth and by confocal scanning laser microscopy after 24 ( d ), 48 ( e ) and 72 ( f ) h of biofilm growth. In d – f , the biofilm was stained with Syto9. The Z axis indicates the thickness of the biofilm which is 5.30, 8.10 and 15.01 μm after 24, 48 and 72 h of biofilm growth. g Represents the susceptibility of ocular E. coli L-1216/2010 in the biofilm phase, h represents the susceptibility of ocular E. coli L-1216/2010 in the planktonic phase and i represents the susceptibility of non-biofilm forming E. coli L-1339/2013 to different concentrations of antibiotics
Figure Legend Snippet: Biofilm forming potential in ocular E. coli L-1216/2010 as monitored by scanning electron microscopy after 24 ( a ), 48 ( b ) and 72 ( c ) h of biofilm growth and by confocal scanning laser microscopy after 24 ( d ), 48 ( e ) and 72 ( f ) h of biofilm growth. In d – f , the biofilm was stained with Syto9. The Z axis indicates the thickness of the biofilm which is 5.30, 8.10 and 15.01 μm after 24, 48 and 72 h of biofilm growth. g Represents the susceptibility of ocular E. coli L-1216/2010 in the biofilm phase, h represents the susceptibility of ocular E. coli L-1216/2010 in the planktonic phase and i represents the susceptibility of non-biofilm forming E. coli L-1339/2013 to different concentrations of antibiotics

Techniques Used: Electron Microscopy, Microscopy, Staining

2) Product Images from "Nanoparticle-Encapsulated Chlorhexidine against Oral Bacterial Biofilms"

Article Title: Nanoparticle-Encapsulated Chlorhexidine against Oral Bacterial Biofilms

Journal: PLoS ONE

doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0103234

The antibacterial effects of Nano-CHX treatment for 24 h on the mixed-species biofilms of S. sobrinus , F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis . Representative scanning electron microscopy images: B vs. A (blank nanoparticles); and confocal laser scanning microscopy images: D vs. C (blank nanoparticles).
Figure Legend Snippet: The antibacterial effects of Nano-CHX treatment for 24 h on the mixed-species biofilms of S. sobrinus , F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis . Representative scanning electron microscopy images: B vs. A (blank nanoparticles); and confocal laser scanning microscopy images: D vs. C (blank nanoparticles).

Techniques Used: Electron Microscopy, Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy

3) Product Images from "Characterization of the Vibrio cholerae Extracellular Matrix: A Top-Down Solid-State NMR Approach"

Article Title: Characterization of the Vibrio cholerae Extracellular Matrix: A Top-Down Solid-State NMR Approach

Journal: Biochimica et biophysica acta

doi: 10.1016/j.bbamem.2014.05.030

V. cholerae biofilm and extracted ECM
Figure Legend Snippet: V. cholerae biofilm and extracted ECM

Techniques Used:

4) Product Images from "The LuxS/AI-2 Quorum-Sensing System of Streptococcus pneumoniae Is Required to Cause Disease, and to Regulate Virulence- and Metabolism-Related Genes in a Rat Model of Middle Ear Infection"

Article Title: The LuxS/AI-2 Quorum-Sensing System of Streptococcus pneumoniae Is Required to Cause Disease, and to Regulate Virulence- and Metabolism-Related Genes in a Rat Model of Middle Ear Infection

Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2018.00138

KEGG pathway analysis of genes downregulated in Streptococcus pneumoniae D39Δ luxS biofilms compared with the D39 wild-type biofilms.
Figure Legend Snippet: KEGG pathway analysis of genes downregulated in Streptococcus pneumoniae D39Δ luxS biofilms compared with the D39 wild-type biofilms.

Techniques Used:

In vitro biofilm growth of Streptococcus pneumoniae D39 wild-type and D39Δ luxS strains at different time-points after inoculation (6, 12, 18, and 24 h). The error bars are the standard deviation from the mean. Statistical significance was calculated using the Student's t -test, * p
Figure Legend Snippet: In vitro biofilm growth of Streptococcus pneumoniae D39 wild-type and D39Δ luxS strains at different time-points after inoculation (6, 12, 18, and 24 h). The error bars are the standard deviation from the mean. Statistical significance was calculated using the Student's t -test, * p

Techniques Used: In Vitro, Standard Deviation

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of Streptococcus pneumoniae in vitro biofilms grown for 18 h. (A–C) are representative SEM images of the D39 wild-type strain. The wild-type strain biofilms were thick and organized with a significant depth. (D–F) are SEM images of the D39Δ luxS strain. The D39Δ luxS biofilms were thin and disorganized, and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) was absent.
Figure Legend Snippet: Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of Streptococcus pneumoniae in vitro biofilms grown for 18 h. (A–C) are representative SEM images of the D39 wild-type strain. The wild-type strain biofilms were thick and organized with a significant depth. (D–F) are SEM images of the D39Δ luxS strain. The D39Δ luxS biofilms were thin and disorganized, and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) was absent.

Techniques Used: Electron Microscopy, In Vitro

Confocal microscopy images of Streptococcus pneumoniae in vitro biofilms grown for 18 h. (A) Confocal microscopy image of the D39 wild-type strain biofilm. (B) Confocal microscopy image of the D39Δ luxS strain biofilm.
Figure Legend Snippet: Confocal microscopy images of Streptococcus pneumoniae in vitro biofilms grown for 18 h. (A) Confocal microscopy image of the D39 wild-type strain biofilm. (B) Confocal microscopy image of the D39Δ luxS strain biofilm.

Techniques Used: Confocal Microscopy, In Vitro

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of rat bullae inoculated with Streptococcus pneumoniae D39 wild-type and D39Δ luxS . (A–C) are representative SEM images of rat bullae inoculated with the D39 wild-type strain. In rats colonized with the wild-type strain, dense biofilm/cell debris was deposited on the cilia, and the cilia were coagulated and completely covered with biofilm debris. (D–F) are representative SEM images of rat bullae inoculated with the D39Δ luxS strain. In rat bulla colonized with the D39Δ luxS strain, less biofilm debris was visible, although the cilia were coagulated. (G–I) are representative SEM images of rat bullae inoculated with medium (vehicle control). The vehicle control rat bulla were clean.
Figure Legend Snippet: Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of rat bullae inoculated with Streptococcus pneumoniae D39 wild-type and D39Δ luxS . (A–C) are representative SEM images of rat bullae inoculated with the D39 wild-type strain. In rats colonized with the wild-type strain, dense biofilm/cell debris was deposited on the cilia, and the cilia were coagulated and completely covered with biofilm debris. (D–F) are representative SEM images of rat bullae inoculated with the D39Δ luxS strain. In rat bulla colonized with the D39Δ luxS strain, less biofilm debris was visible, although the cilia were coagulated. (G–I) are representative SEM images of rat bullae inoculated with medium (vehicle control). The vehicle control rat bulla were clean.

Techniques Used: Electron Microscopy

Streptococcus pneumoniae D39 wild-type and D39Δ luxS planktonic and biofilm growth. (A) Planktonic growth optical density at 600 nm. (B) Quantification of biomass of in vitro biofilms grown for 18 h, using a CV-microplate assay. (C) Colony-forming unit (CFU) counts of in vitro biofilms grown for 18 h. Error bars are the standard deviation from the mean. Statistical significance was calculated using the Student's t -test, * p
Figure Legend Snippet: Streptococcus pneumoniae D39 wild-type and D39Δ luxS planktonic and biofilm growth. (A) Planktonic growth optical density at 600 nm. (B) Quantification of biomass of in vitro biofilms grown for 18 h, using a CV-microplate assay. (C) Colony-forming unit (CFU) counts of in vitro biofilms grown for 18 h. Error bars are the standard deviation from the mean. Statistical significance was calculated using the Student's t -test, * p

Techniques Used: In Vitro, Standard Deviation

5) Product Images from "Isolation and Transcriptome Analysis of Phenol-Degrading Bacterium From Carbon–Sand Filters in a Full-Scale Drinking Water Treatment Plant"

Article Title: Isolation and Transcriptome Analysis of Phenol-Degrading Bacterium From Carbon–Sand Filters in a Full-Scale Drinking Water Treatment Plant

Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.02162

Growth of a Rhodococcus sp. CS-1 biofilm on polyhedron hollow polypropylene balls visualized by scanning electron microscopy.
Figure Legend Snippet: Growth of a Rhodococcus sp. CS-1 biofilm on polyhedron hollow polypropylene balls visualized by scanning electron microscopy.

Techniques Used: Electron Microscopy

Growth of a Rhodococcus sp. CS-1 biofilm on polyhedron hollow polypropylene balls visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Live bacteria are green and dead cells are visualized in red.
Figure Legend Snippet: Growth of a Rhodococcus sp. CS-1 biofilm on polyhedron hollow polypropylene balls visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Live bacteria are green and dead cells are visualized in red.

Techniques Used: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy

6) Product Images from "Effect of Potassium Chlorate on the Treatment of Domestic Sewage by Achieving Shortcut Nitrification in a Constructed Rapid Infiltration System"

Article Title: Effect of Potassium Chlorate on the Treatment of Domestic Sewage by Achieving Shortcut Nitrification in a Constructed Rapid Infiltration System

Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health

doi: 10.3390/ijerph15040670

Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of filling medium (sand) in the CRI columns after 70 days of operation. ( a ) blank filling medium; ( b – e ) filling medium (formed with biofilm) of Tests 1–4.
Figure Legend Snippet: Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of filling medium (sand) in the CRI columns after 70 days of operation. ( a ) blank filling medium; ( b – e ) filling medium (formed with biofilm) of Tests 1–4.

Techniques Used: Microscopy

7) Product Images from "Effects of Total Alkaloids of Sophora alopecuroides on Biofilm Formation in Staphylococcus epidermidis"

Article Title: Effects of Total Alkaloids of Sophora alopecuroides on Biofilm Formation in Staphylococcus epidermidis

Journal: BioMed Research International

doi: 10.1155/2016/4020715

Representative images of biofilms of S. epidermidis isolate 30 treated with different agents. The morphological structures of BFs of S. epidermidis isolate 30 treated with TSB control (a), 10 mg/mL of TASA (b), 500 mg/L of CIP (c), and 500 mg/L of ERY for 24 hours were examined by a fast silver staining method.
Figure Legend Snippet: Representative images of biofilms of S. epidermidis isolate 30 treated with different agents. The morphological structures of BFs of S. epidermidis isolate 30 treated with TSB control (a), 10 mg/mL of TASA (b), 500 mg/L of CIP (c), and 500 mg/L of ERY for 24 hours were examined by a fast silver staining method.

Techniques Used: Silver Staining

The effects of antimicrobial agents on the biofilm formation in S. epidermidis determined by a CLSM analysis. The S. epidermidis isolate 30 cells were treated with TSB control (a), 10 mg/mL of TASA (b), 500 mg/L of CIP (c), and 500 mg/L of ERY (d), and the morphological structure of biofilm was visualized under a CLSM.
Figure Legend Snippet: The effects of antimicrobial agents on the biofilm formation in S. epidermidis determined by a CLSM analysis. The S. epidermidis isolate 30 cells were treated with TSB control (a), 10 mg/mL of TASA (b), 500 mg/L of CIP (c), and 500 mg/L of ERY (d), and the morphological structure of biofilm was visualized under a CLSM.

Techniques Used: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy

A dose-dependent effect of antimicrobial agents on biofilm formation of S. epidermidis . The inhibitory rates of biofilm of S. epidermidis isolate 30 were determined by the SMIC using a crystal violet staining assay. (a) The inhibitory rate of biofilm formation by TASA; (b) the inhibitory rate of biofilm formation by CIP and ERY.
Figure Legend Snippet: A dose-dependent effect of antimicrobial agents on biofilm formation of S. epidermidis . The inhibitory rates of biofilm of S. epidermidis isolate 30 were determined by the SMIC using a crystal violet staining assay. (a) The inhibitory rate of biofilm formation by TASA; (b) the inhibitory rate of biofilm formation by CIP and ERY.

Techniques Used: Staining

8) Product Images from "Effect of Potassium Chlorate on the Treatment of Domestic Sewage by Achieving Shortcut Nitrification in a Constructed Rapid Infiltration System"

Article Title: Effect of Potassium Chlorate on the Treatment of Domestic Sewage by Achieving Shortcut Nitrification in a Constructed Rapid Infiltration System

Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health

doi: 10.3390/ijerph15040670

Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of filling medium (sand) in the CRI columns after 70 days of operation. ( a ) blank filling medium; ( b – e ) filling medium (formed with biofilm) of Tests 1–4.
Figure Legend Snippet: Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of filling medium (sand) in the CRI columns after 70 days of operation. ( a ) blank filling medium; ( b – e ) filling medium (formed with biofilm) of Tests 1–4.

Techniques Used: Microscopy

9) Product Images from "Acinetobacter sp. DW-1 immobilized on polyhedron hollow polypropylene balls and analysis of transcriptome and proteome of the bacterium during phenol biodegradation process"

Article Title: Acinetobacter sp. DW-1 immobilized on polyhedron hollow polypropylene balls and analysis of transcriptome and proteome of the bacterium during phenol biodegradation process

Journal: Scientific Reports

doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-04187-6

Growth of an Acinetobacter sp. DW-1 biofilm on polyhedron hollow polypropylene balls visualized by scanning electron microscopy ( A ) and confocal laser scanning microscopy ( B ).
Figure Legend Snippet: Growth of an Acinetobacter sp. DW-1 biofilm on polyhedron hollow polypropylene balls visualized by scanning electron microscopy ( A ) and confocal laser scanning microscopy ( B ).

Techniques Used: Electron Microscopy, Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy

10) Product Images from "The LuxS/AI-2 Quorum-Sensing System of Streptococcus pneumoniae Is Required to Cause Disease, and to Regulate Virulence- and Metabolism-Related Genes in a Rat Model of Middle Ear Infection"

Article Title: The LuxS/AI-2 Quorum-Sensing System of Streptococcus pneumoniae Is Required to Cause Disease, and to Regulate Virulence- and Metabolism-Related Genes in a Rat Model of Middle Ear Infection

Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2018.00138

In vitro biofilm growth of Streptococcus pneumoniae D39 wild-type and D39Δ luxS strains at different time-points after inoculation (6, 12, 18, and 24 h). The error bars are the standard deviation from the mean. Statistical significance was calculated using the Student's t -test, * p
Figure Legend Snippet: In vitro biofilm growth of Streptococcus pneumoniae D39 wild-type and D39Δ luxS strains at different time-points after inoculation (6, 12, 18, and 24 h). The error bars are the standard deviation from the mean. Statistical significance was calculated using the Student's t -test, * p

Techniques Used: In Vitro, Standard Deviation

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of Streptococcus pneumoniae in vitro biofilms grown for 18 h. (A–C) are representative SEM images of the D39 wild-type strain. The wild-type strain biofilms were thick and organized with a significant depth. (D–F) are SEM images of the D39Δ luxS strain. The D39Δ luxS biofilms were thin and disorganized, and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) was absent.
Figure Legend Snippet: Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of Streptococcus pneumoniae in vitro biofilms grown for 18 h. (A–C) are representative SEM images of the D39 wild-type strain. The wild-type strain biofilms were thick and organized with a significant depth. (D–F) are SEM images of the D39Δ luxS strain. The D39Δ luxS biofilms were thin and disorganized, and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) was absent.

Techniques Used: Electron Microscopy, In Vitro

Confocal microscopy images of Streptococcus pneumoniae in vitro biofilms grown for 18 h. (A) Confocal microscopy image of the D39 wild-type strain biofilm. (B) Confocal microscopy image of the D39Δ luxS strain biofilm.
Figure Legend Snippet: Confocal microscopy images of Streptococcus pneumoniae in vitro biofilms grown for 18 h. (A) Confocal microscopy image of the D39 wild-type strain biofilm. (B) Confocal microscopy image of the D39Δ luxS strain biofilm.

Techniques Used: Confocal Microscopy, In Vitro

Streptococcus pneumoniae D39 wild-type and D39Δ luxS planktonic and biofilm growth. (A) Planktonic growth optical density at 600 nm. (B) Quantification of biomass of in vitro biofilms grown for 18 h, using a CV-microplate assay. (C) Colony-forming unit (CFU) counts of in vitro biofilms grown for 18 h. Error bars are the standard deviation from the mean. Statistical significance was calculated using the Student's t -test, * p
Figure Legend Snippet: Streptococcus pneumoniae D39 wild-type and D39Δ luxS planktonic and biofilm growth. (A) Planktonic growth optical density at 600 nm. (B) Quantification of biomass of in vitro biofilms grown for 18 h, using a CV-microplate assay. (C) Colony-forming unit (CFU) counts of in vitro biofilms grown for 18 h. Error bars are the standard deviation from the mean. Statistical significance was calculated using the Student's t -test, * p

Techniques Used: In Vitro, Standard Deviation

11) Product Images from "Global gene expression in Escherichia coli, isolated from the diseased ocular surface of the human eye with a potential to form biofilm"

Article Title: Global gene expression in Escherichia coli, isolated from the diseased ocular surface of the human eye with a potential to form biofilm

Journal: Gut Pathogens

doi: 10.1186/s13099-017-0164-2

Differential gene expression in f E. coli (L-1216/2010) with potential to form biofilm versus non-biofilm forming cells of E. coli (L-1339/2013) grown for 72 h. In a , in the volcano plots genes that are represented on the right side of the volcano-axis are up regulated and those that are on left side of the axis are down regulated. In b , cluster analysis of biofilm forming E. coli (L-1216/2010) with non-biofilm forming cells of E. coli (L-1339/2013). In c , heat map analysis shows that the biofilm cells (BF1–BF3) are less related to non-biofilm cells (N1–N3) of E. coli. Principal component analysis ( d )
Figure Legend Snippet: Differential gene expression in f E. coli (L-1216/2010) with potential to form biofilm versus non-biofilm forming cells of E. coli (L-1339/2013) grown for 72 h. In a , in the volcano plots genes that are represented on the right side of the volcano-axis are up regulated and those that are on left side of the axis are down regulated. In b , cluster analysis of biofilm forming E. coli (L-1216/2010) with non-biofilm forming cells of E. coli (L-1339/2013). In c , heat map analysis shows that the biofilm cells (BF1–BF3) are less related to non-biofilm cells (N1–N3) of E. coli. Principal component analysis ( d )

Techniques Used: Expressing

Real-time PCR validation of the expression of genes in biofilm ( closed box ) and non-biofilm cells ( hatched box ) of E. coli (L-1216/2010) and E. coli (L-1339/2013) ( open box ) respectively. a Relative expression of up-regulated genes and b Relative expression of down-regulated gene
Figure Legend Snippet: Real-time PCR validation of the expression of genes in biofilm ( closed box ) and non-biofilm cells ( hatched box ) of E. coli (L-1216/2010) and E. coli (L-1339/2013) ( open box ) respectively. a Relative expression of up-regulated genes and b Relative expression of down-regulated gene

Techniques Used: Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Expressing

Biofilm forming potential in ocular E. coli L-1216/2010 as monitored by scanning electron microscopy after 24 ( a ), 48 ( b ) and 72 ( c ) h of biofilm growth and by confocal scanning laser microscopy after 24 ( d ), 48 ( e ) and 72 ( f ) h of biofilm growth. In d – f , the biofilm was stained with Syto9. The Z axis indicates the thickness of the biofilm which is 5.30, 8.10 and 15.01 μm after 24, 48 and 72 h of biofilm growth. g Represents the susceptibility of ocular E. coli L-1216/2010 in the biofilm phase, h represents the susceptibility of ocular E. coli L-1216/2010 in the planktonic phase and i represents the susceptibility of non-biofilm forming E. coli L-1339/2013 to different concentrations of antibiotics
Figure Legend Snippet: Biofilm forming potential in ocular E. coli L-1216/2010 as monitored by scanning electron microscopy after 24 ( a ), 48 ( b ) and 72 ( c ) h of biofilm growth and by confocal scanning laser microscopy after 24 ( d ), 48 ( e ) and 72 ( f ) h of biofilm growth. In d – f , the biofilm was stained with Syto9. The Z axis indicates the thickness of the biofilm which is 5.30, 8.10 and 15.01 μm after 24, 48 and 72 h of biofilm growth. g Represents the susceptibility of ocular E. coli L-1216/2010 in the biofilm phase, h represents the susceptibility of ocular E. coli L-1216/2010 in the planktonic phase and i represents the susceptibility of non-biofilm forming E. coli L-1339/2013 to different concentrations of antibiotics

Techniques Used: Electron Microscopy, Microscopy, Staining

12) Product Images from "A Novel Approach for Combating Klebsiella pneumoniae Biofilm Using Histidine Functionalized Silver Nanoparticles"

Article Title: A Novel Approach for Combating Klebsiella pneumoniae Biofilm Using Histidine Functionalized Silver Nanoparticles

Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.01104

Bacterial count [Log 10 (CFU/ml)] in K. pneumoniae biofilm grown for different days and treated with H-AgNPs. The experiment was performed in duplicate and repeated at least three times on different days. Bars represents standard deviation and ∗∗ denotes P -value ( P
Figure Legend Snippet: Bacterial count [Log 10 (CFU/ml)] in K. pneumoniae biofilm grown for different days and treated with H-AgNPs. The experiment was performed in duplicate and repeated at least three times on different days. Bars represents standard deviation and ∗∗ denotes P -value ( P

Techniques Used: Standard Deviation

The effect of H-AgNPs alone [fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC)], antibiotic alone (FIC), and H-AgNPs +antibiotic treatment (FIC value) on biofilm. The experiment was performed in duplicate and repeated at least three times on different days. Bars represent standard deviation, ∗ denotes ( P
Figure Legend Snippet: The effect of H-AgNPs alone [fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC)], antibiotic alone (FIC), and H-AgNPs +antibiotic treatment (FIC value) on biofilm. The experiment was performed in duplicate and repeated at least three times on different days. Bars represent standard deviation, ∗ denotes ( P

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay, Standard Deviation

Biofilm formation by K. pneumoniae in the wells of 96-well micro titer plate under static conditions as determined by viable count and crystal violet (OD 595 ). The experiment was performed in duplicate and repeated at least three times on different days. Error bars represent the mean ± of standard deviation.
Figure Legend Snippet: Biofilm formation by K. pneumoniae in the wells of 96-well micro titer plate under static conditions as determined by viable count and crystal violet (OD 595 ). The experiment was performed in duplicate and repeated at least three times on different days. Error bars represent the mean ± of standard deviation.

Techniques Used: Standard Deviation

FESEM images (A,B) H-AgNPs were seen interacting with cells of K. pneumoniae (×22k-30k magnification at 15 kV). (C–E) Different fields showing loss of biofilm integrity (× 4k magnification at 15 kV).
Figure Legend Snippet: FESEM images (A,B) H-AgNPs were seen interacting with cells of K. pneumoniae (×22k-30k magnification at 15 kV). (C–E) Different fields showing loss of biofilm integrity (× 4k magnification at 15 kV).

Techniques Used:

(A) EDS graph represents the count per second on x -axis and the kilo electron volt which it is generated is on y -axis. (B) Showing percentage of elements present in control biofilm.
Figure Legend Snippet: (A) EDS graph represents the count per second on x -axis and the kilo electron volt which it is generated is on y -axis. (B) Showing percentage of elements present in control biofilm.

Techniques Used: Generated

(A) EDS graph represents the count second on x -axis and the kilo electron volt on which it is generated is on y -axis. (B) Showing percentage of elements present in treated biofilm.
Figure Legend Snippet: (A) EDS graph represents the count second on x -axis and the kilo electron volt on which it is generated is on y -axis. (B) Showing percentage of elements present in treated biofilm.

Techniques Used: Generated

13) Product Images from "A Novel Approach for Combating Klebsiella pneumoniae Biofilm Using Histidine Functionalized Silver Nanoparticles"

Article Title: A Novel Approach for Combating Klebsiella pneumoniae Biofilm Using Histidine Functionalized Silver Nanoparticles

Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.01104

Bacterial count [Log 10 (CFU/ml)] in K. pneumoniae biofilm grown for different days and treated with H-AgNPs. The experiment was performed in duplicate and repeated at least three times on different days. Bars represents standard deviation and ∗∗ denotes P -value ( P
Figure Legend Snippet: Bacterial count [Log 10 (CFU/ml)] in K. pneumoniae biofilm grown for different days and treated with H-AgNPs. The experiment was performed in duplicate and repeated at least three times on different days. Bars represents standard deviation and ∗∗ denotes P -value ( P

Techniques Used: Standard Deviation

The effect of H-AgNPs alone [fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC)], antibiotic alone (FIC), and H-AgNPs +antibiotic treatment (FIC value) on biofilm. The experiment was performed in duplicate and repeated at least three times on different days. Bars represent standard deviation, ∗ denotes ( P
Figure Legend Snippet: The effect of H-AgNPs alone [fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC)], antibiotic alone (FIC), and H-AgNPs +antibiotic treatment (FIC value) on biofilm. The experiment was performed in duplicate and repeated at least three times on different days. Bars represent standard deviation, ∗ denotes ( P

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay, Standard Deviation

Biofilm formation by K. pneumoniae in the wells of 96-well micro titer plate under static conditions as determined by viable count and crystal violet (OD 595 ). The experiment was performed in duplicate and repeated at least three times on different days. Error bars represent the mean ± of standard deviation.
Figure Legend Snippet: Biofilm formation by K. pneumoniae in the wells of 96-well micro titer plate under static conditions as determined by viable count and crystal violet (OD 595 ). The experiment was performed in duplicate and repeated at least three times on different days. Error bars represent the mean ± of standard deviation.

Techniques Used: Standard Deviation

FESEM images (A,B) H-AgNPs were seen interacting with cells of K. pneumoniae (×22k-30k magnification at 15 kV). (C–E) Different fields showing loss of biofilm integrity (× 4k magnification at 15 kV).
Figure Legend Snippet: FESEM images (A,B) H-AgNPs were seen interacting with cells of K. pneumoniae (×22k-30k magnification at 15 kV). (C–E) Different fields showing loss of biofilm integrity (× 4k magnification at 15 kV).

Techniques Used:

(A) EDS graph represents the count per second on x -axis and the kilo electron volt which it is generated is on y -axis. (B) Showing percentage of elements present in control biofilm.
Figure Legend Snippet: (A) EDS graph represents the count per second on x -axis and the kilo electron volt which it is generated is on y -axis. (B) Showing percentage of elements present in control biofilm.

Techniques Used: Generated

(A) EDS graph represents the count second on x -axis and the kilo electron volt on which it is generated is on y -axis. (B) Showing percentage of elements present in treated biofilm.
Figure Legend Snippet: (A) EDS graph represents the count second on x -axis and the kilo electron volt on which it is generated is on y -axis. (B) Showing percentage of elements present in treated biofilm.

Techniques Used: Generated

14) Product Images from "Biofilm formation by designed co-cultures of Caldicellulosiruptor species as a means to improve hydrogen productivity"

Article Title: Biofilm formation by designed co-cultures of Caldicellulosiruptor species as a means to improve hydrogen productivity

Journal: Biotechnology for Biofuels

doi: 10.1186/s13068-015-0201-7

SEM image of a biofilm obtained from the pH probe from the co-culture (Case A).
Figure Legend Snippet: SEM image of a biofilm obtained from the pH probe from the co-culture (Case A).

Techniques Used: Co-Culture Assay

Fraction of C. saccharolyticus and C. owensensis in biofilm samples (Case A and H). C. owensensis (filled, blue) and C. saccharolyticus (horizontal lines, green), values on X-axis represent the source of the biofilm sample with respect to reactor system and the carrier.
Figure Legend Snippet: Fraction of C. saccharolyticus and C. owensensis in biofilm samples (Case A and H). C. owensensis (filled, blue) and C. saccharolyticus (horizontal lines, green), values on X-axis represent the source of the biofilm sample with respect to reactor system and the carrier.

Techniques Used:

15) Product Images from "Molecular Determinants of the Thickened Matrix in a Dual-Species Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis Biofilm"

Article Title: Molecular Determinants of the Thickened Matrix in a Dual-Species Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis Biofilm

Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

doi: 10.1128/AEM.01182-17

CLSM image analysis of mono- and dual-species PAO1/red and EF/ green biofilms. CLSM images and their relative fluorescent intensity measures along the heights of biofilms of PAO1/red (A), PAO1/red and EF/ green (B), and EF/ green (C). White dotted lines indicate the locations of sagittal sections for height representation of the biofilms. The relative fluorescence intensity (RFI) of 13 was considered the threshold for biofilm detection. The biofilms were incubated at 37°C for 48 h. The relative fluorescence intensities were measured using the ImageJ program.
Figure Legend Snippet: CLSM image analysis of mono- and dual-species PAO1/red and EF/ green biofilms. CLSM images and their relative fluorescent intensity measures along the heights of biofilms of PAO1/red (A), PAO1/red and EF/ green (B), and EF/ green (C). White dotted lines indicate the locations of sagittal sections for height representation of the biofilms. The relative fluorescence intensity (RFI) of 13 was considered the threshold for biofilm detection. The biofilms were incubated at 37°C for 48 h. The relative fluorescence intensities were measured using the ImageJ program.

Techniques Used: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, Fluorescence, Incubation

Extracellular DNA detection and DNase I treatment of mono- and dual-species P. aeruginosa and E. faecalis biofilms. The monospecies biofilms of E. faecalis (A), P. aeruginosa (B), and the dual-species biofilm of E. faecalis and P. aeruginosa (C) were stained for intracellular DNA (Syto60) and extracellular DNA (TOTO-1). Wavelengths of 652 nm and 514 nm were used for Syto60 and TOTO-1, respectively. (D) Crystal violet biofilm assay results when two different concentrations of DNase I (10 μg/ml and 100 μg/ml) were used to treat 32-h-old mature biofilms.
Figure Legend Snippet: Extracellular DNA detection and DNase I treatment of mono- and dual-species P. aeruginosa and E. faecalis biofilms. The monospecies biofilms of E. faecalis (A), P. aeruginosa (B), and the dual-species biofilm of E. faecalis and P. aeruginosa (C) were stained for intracellular DNA (Syto60) and extracellular DNA (TOTO-1). Wavelengths of 652 nm and 514 nm were used for Syto60 and TOTO-1, respectively. (D) Crystal violet biofilm assay results when two different concentrations of DNase I (10 μg/ml and 100 μg/ml) were used to treat 32-h-old mature biofilms.

Techniques Used: Staining, Biofilm Production Assay

Biofilms of Δ pelA/ red mutant, Δ psl/ red mutant, and/or EF/ green. The CLSM images of monospecies Δ pelA/ red mutant (A), Δ psl/ red mutant (B), Δ pelA Δ psl/ red mutant (C), the dual-species EF/ green and Δ pelA/ red mutant (D), Δ psl/ red mutant (E), and Δ pelA Δ psl/ red mutant (F). White dotted lines indicate the locations of sagittal sections for height representation of the biofilms.
Figure Legend Snippet: Biofilms of Δ pelA/ red mutant, Δ psl/ red mutant, and/or EF/ green. The CLSM images of monospecies Δ pelA/ red mutant (A), Δ psl/ red mutant (B), Δ pelA Δ psl/ red mutant (C), the dual-species EF/ green and Δ pelA/ red mutant (D), Δ psl/ red mutant (E), and Δ pelA Δ psl/ red mutant (F). White dotted lines indicate the locations of sagittal sections for height representation of the biofilms.

Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy

Alginate is not responsible for the elevated biofilm matrix thickness in the dual-species biofilms. The matrix thickness of biofilms was tested by flipping the biofilms upside down. Biofilms of PAO1 Δ alg mutant of its own (A) and with E. faecalis (B) were formed and tested. (C) Quantification of alginate production in PAO1 monospecies and PAO1 plus E. faecalis dual-species biofilms. *, P
Figure Legend Snippet: Alginate is not responsible for the elevated biofilm matrix thickness in the dual-species biofilms. The matrix thickness of biofilms was tested by flipping the biofilms upside down. Biofilms of PAO1 Δ alg mutant of its own (A) and with E. faecalis (B) were formed and tested. (C) Quantification of alginate production in PAO1 monospecies and PAO1 plus E. faecalis dual-species biofilms. *, P

Techniques Used: Mutagenesis

Polymicrobial biofilm tests of P. aeruginosa and E. faecalis . (A) Colony observation of cocultured P. aeruginosa and E. faecalis (red arrows). The growth experiment of P. aeruginosa (gray triangle) and E. faecalis (black square), grown individually (B) or together (C), in a shaking incubator at 37°C. The viable count assay was used to determine the CFU per milliliter. (D) The CV biofilm assay of the monospecies and the dual-species biofilms. *, P
Figure Legend Snippet: Polymicrobial biofilm tests of P. aeruginosa and E. faecalis . (A) Colony observation of cocultured P. aeruginosa and E. faecalis (red arrows). The growth experiment of P. aeruginosa (gray triangle) and E. faecalis (black square), grown individually (B) or together (C), in a shaking incubator at 37°C. The viable count assay was used to determine the CFU per milliliter. (D) The CV biofilm assay of the monospecies and the dual-species biofilms. *, P

Techniques Used: Biofilm Production Assay

Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of pslA and pelB expression. The qRT-PCR of PAO1 monospecies (the reference samples; PA) and PAO1 plus E. faecalis dual-species (the experimental samples; PAEF) biofilms for pslA (A and B) and pelB (C and D) genes. Gene expression was measured at the early (A and C) and mature (B and D) stages of the biofilm developments. RQ represents the relative quantitation value for genetic expression. **, P
Figure Legend Snippet: Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of pslA and pelB expression. The qRT-PCR of PAO1 monospecies (the reference samples; PA) and PAO1 plus E. faecalis dual-species (the experimental samples; PAEF) biofilms for pslA (A and B) and pelB (C and D) genes. Gene expression was measured at the early (A and C) and mature (B and D) stages of the biofilm developments. RQ represents the relative quantitation value for genetic expression. **, P

Techniques Used: Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR, Quantitation Assay

Role of Psl and Pel in the matrix thickening of the dual-species biofilms. The matrix thickness of biofilms was tested by flipping the biofilms upside down. PAO1 Δ pelA (A and D), Δ psl (B and E), and Δ pelA Δ psl mutants (C and F) were grown as monospecies biofilms (A to C) or together with EF (D to F) as dual-species biofilms.
Figure Legend Snippet: Role of Psl and Pel in the matrix thickening of the dual-species biofilms. The matrix thickness of biofilms was tested by flipping the biofilms upside down. PAO1 Δ pelA (A and D), Δ psl (B and E), and Δ pelA Δ psl mutants (C and F) were grown as monospecies biofilms (A to C) or together with EF (D to F) as dual-species biofilms.

Techniques Used:

16) Product Images from "Decreased Phototoxic Effects of TiO₂ Nanoparticles in Consortium of Bacterial Isolates from Domestic Waste Water"

Article Title: Decreased Phototoxic Effects of TiO₂ Nanoparticles in Consortium of Bacterial Isolates from Domestic Waste Water

Journal: PLoS ONE

doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0141301

Scanning electron microscopy of biofilm formation: (A) Biofilm formation of control consortium cells under dark condition (B) Interacted biofilm formation at 1 μg/ml TiO 2 -NPs under dark condition (C) Biofilm formation of control consortium under UVA condition (D) Micrograph representing the treated biofilm under UVA condition.
Figure Legend Snippet: Scanning electron microscopy of biofilm formation: (A) Biofilm formation of control consortium cells under dark condition (B) Interacted biofilm formation at 1 μg/ml TiO 2 -NPs under dark condition (C) Biofilm formation of control consortium under UVA condition (D) Micrograph representing the treated biofilm under UVA condition.

Techniques Used: Electron Microscopy

Biofilm aggregation: Assessment of biofilm formation under dark and UVA condition at 0.25, 0.5 and 1 μg/ml of TiO 2 NPs. ‘*’ represents significant difference of treated cells with respect to control (n = 3). The abbreviations are as follows–E.A., Exiguobacterium acetylicum ; P.N., Pseudomonas nitroreducens ; E.I., Exiguobacterium indicum ; B.D., Brevundimonas diminuta and B.F., Bacillus flexus .
Figure Legend Snippet: Biofilm aggregation: Assessment of biofilm formation under dark and UVA condition at 0.25, 0.5 and 1 μg/ml of TiO 2 NPs. ‘*’ represents significant difference of treated cells with respect to control (n = 3). The abbreviations are as follows–E.A., Exiguobacterium acetylicum ; P.N., Pseudomonas nitroreducens ; E.I., Exiguobacterium indicum ; B.D., Brevundimonas diminuta and B.F., Bacillus flexus .

Techniques Used:

Interaction of TiO 2 -NPs with consortium: Schematic representation of a cascade of interactions between bacterial cells and energy (hʋ) activated TiO 2 -NPs and its effects are shown. A result of NPs activation is ROS (shown as red cloud) which diffuses (red wavy lines) through the medium, EPS surface and biofilm. Intracellular ROS generation for cellular function is not considered and hence not shown. Different species (shown with different structure and color) of healthy bacterial cells (smooth surface) when acted upon by ROS, confronts damage and loses its integrity (shown as rough surface). Inside the EPS surface, the upper layer of cells block the diffusion of ROS to the inner core (separated with a wavy doubled line) and the stabilized biofilm effectively defends deleterious effects of ROS. The ROS rendered futile due to the action of SOD is shown as broken wavy red lines. Some of the SOD enzyme also gets denatured (patchy red-purple enzyme) while counteracting the ROS effects.
Figure Legend Snippet: Interaction of TiO 2 -NPs with consortium: Schematic representation of a cascade of interactions between bacterial cells and energy (hʋ) activated TiO 2 -NPs and its effects are shown. A result of NPs activation is ROS (shown as red cloud) which diffuses (red wavy lines) through the medium, EPS surface and biofilm. Intracellular ROS generation for cellular function is not considered and hence not shown. Different species (shown with different structure and color) of healthy bacterial cells (smooth surface) when acted upon by ROS, confronts damage and loses its integrity (shown as rough surface). Inside the EPS surface, the upper layer of cells block the diffusion of ROS to the inner core (separated with a wavy doubled line) and the stabilized biofilm effectively defends deleterious effects of ROS. The ROS rendered futile due to the action of SOD is shown as broken wavy red lines. Some of the SOD enzyme also gets denatured (patchy red-purple enzyme) while counteracting the ROS effects.

Techniques Used: Activation Assay, Cell Function Assay, Blocking Assay, Diffusion-based Assay

17) Product Images from "Molecular Determinants of the Thickened Matrix in a Dual-Species Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis Biofilm"

Article Title: Molecular Determinants of the Thickened Matrix in a Dual-Species Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis Biofilm

Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

doi: 10.1128/AEM.01182-17

CLSM image analysis of mono- and dual-species PAO1/red and EF/ green biofilms. CLSM images and their relative fluorescent intensity measures along the heights of biofilms of PAO1/red (A), PAO1/red and EF/ green (B), and EF/ green (C). White dotted lines indicate the locations of sagittal sections for height representation of the biofilms. The relative fluorescence intensity (RFI) of 13 was considered the threshold for biofilm detection. The biofilms were incubated at 37°C for 48 h. The relative fluorescence intensities were measured using the ImageJ program.
Figure Legend Snippet: CLSM image analysis of mono- and dual-species PAO1/red and EF/ green biofilms. CLSM images and their relative fluorescent intensity measures along the heights of biofilms of PAO1/red (A), PAO1/red and EF/ green (B), and EF/ green (C). White dotted lines indicate the locations of sagittal sections for height representation of the biofilms. The relative fluorescence intensity (RFI) of 13 was considered the threshold for biofilm detection. The biofilms were incubated at 37°C for 48 h. The relative fluorescence intensities were measured using the ImageJ program.

Techniques Used: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, Fluorescence, Incubation

Extracellular DNA detection and DNase I treatment of mono- and dual-species P. aeruginosa and E. faecalis biofilms. The monospecies biofilms of E. faecalis (A), P. aeruginosa (B), and the dual-species biofilm of E. faecalis and P. aeruginosa (C) were stained for intracellular DNA (Syto60) and extracellular DNA (TOTO-1). Wavelengths of 652 nm and 514 nm were used for Syto60 and TOTO-1, respectively. (D) Crystal violet biofilm assay results when two different concentrations of DNase I (10 μg/ml and 100 μg/ml) were used to treat 32-h-old mature biofilms.
Figure Legend Snippet: Extracellular DNA detection and DNase I treatment of mono- and dual-species P. aeruginosa and E. faecalis biofilms. The monospecies biofilms of E. faecalis (A), P. aeruginosa (B), and the dual-species biofilm of E. faecalis and P. aeruginosa (C) were stained for intracellular DNA (Syto60) and extracellular DNA (TOTO-1). Wavelengths of 652 nm and 514 nm were used for Syto60 and TOTO-1, respectively. (D) Crystal violet biofilm assay results when two different concentrations of DNase I (10 μg/ml and 100 μg/ml) were used to treat 32-h-old mature biofilms.

Techniques Used: Staining, Biofilm Production Assay

Biofilms of Δ pelA/ red mutant, Δ psl/ red mutant, and/or EF/ green. The CLSM images of monospecies Δ pelA/ red mutant (A), Δ psl/ red mutant (B), Δ pelA Δ psl/ red mutant (C), the dual-species EF/ green and Δ pelA/ red mutant (D), Δ psl/ red mutant (E), and Δ pelA Δ psl/ red mutant (F). White dotted lines indicate the locations of sagittal sections for height representation of the biofilms.
Figure Legend Snippet: Biofilms of Δ pelA/ red mutant, Δ psl/ red mutant, and/or EF/ green. The CLSM images of monospecies Δ pelA/ red mutant (A), Δ psl/ red mutant (B), Δ pelA Δ psl/ red mutant (C), the dual-species EF/ green and Δ pelA/ red mutant (D), Δ psl/ red mutant (E), and Δ pelA Δ psl/ red mutant (F). White dotted lines indicate the locations of sagittal sections for height representation of the biofilms.

Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy

Alginate is not responsible for the elevated biofilm matrix thickness in the dual-species biofilms. The matrix thickness of biofilms was tested by flipping the biofilms upside down. Biofilms of PAO1 Δ alg mutant of its own (A) and with E. faecalis (B) were formed and tested. (C) Quantification of alginate production in PAO1 monospecies and PAO1 plus E. faecalis dual-species biofilms. *, P
Figure Legend Snippet: Alginate is not responsible for the elevated biofilm matrix thickness in the dual-species biofilms. The matrix thickness of biofilms was tested by flipping the biofilms upside down. Biofilms of PAO1 Δ alg mutant of its own (A) and with E. faecalis (B) were formed and tested. (C) Quantification of alginate production in PAO1 monospecies and PAO1 plus E. faecalis dual-species biofilms. *, P

Techniques Used: Mutagenesis

Polymicrobial biofilm tests of P. aeruginosa and E. faecalis . (A) Colony observation of cocultured P. aeruginosa and E. faecalis (red arrows). The growth experiment of P. aeruginosa (gray triangle) and E. faecalis (black square), grown individually (B) or together (C), in a shaking incubator at 37°C. The viable count assay was used to determine the CFU per milliliter. (D) The CV biofilm assay of the monospecies and the dual-species biofilms. *, P
Figure Legend Snippet: Polymicrobial biofilm tests of P. aeruginosa and E. faecalis . (A) Colony observation of cocultured P. aeruginosa and E. faecalis (red arrows). The growth experiment of P. aeruginosa (gray triangle) and E. faecalis (black square), grown individually (B) or together (C), in a shaking incubator at 37°C. The viable count assay was used to determine the CFU per milliliter. (D) The CV biofilm assay of the monospecies and the dual-species biofilms. *, P

Techniques Used: Biofilm Production Assay

Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of pslA and pelB expression. The qRT-PCR of PAO1 monospecies (the reference samples; PA) and PAO1 plus E. faecalis dual-species (the experimental samples; PAEF) biofilms for pslA (A and B) and pelB (C and D) genes. Gene expression was measured at the early (A and C) and mature (B and D) stages of the biofilm developments. RQ represents the relative quantitation value for genetic expression. **, P
Figure Legend Snippet: Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of pslA and pelB expression. The qRT-PCR of PAO1 monospecies (the reference samples; PA) and PAO1 plus E. faecalis dual-species (the experimental samples; PAEF) biofilms for pslA (A and B) and pelB (C and D) genes. Gene expression was measured at the early (A and C) and mature (B and D) stages of the biofilm developments. RQ represents the relative quantitation value for genetic expression. **, P

Techniques Used: Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR, Quantitation Assay

Role of Psl and Pel in the matrix thickening of the dual-species biofilms. The matrix thickness of biofilms was tested by flipping the biofilms upside down. PAO1 Δ pelA (A and D), Δ psl (B and E), and Δ pelA Δ psl mutants (C and F) were grown as monospecies biofilms (A to C) or together with EF (D to F) as dual-species biofilms.
Figure Legend Snippet: Role of Psl and Pel in the matrix thickening of the dual-species biofilms. The matrix thickness of biofilms was tested by flipping the biofilms upside down. PAO1 Δ pelA (A and D), Δ psl (B and E), and Δ pelA Δ psl mutants (C and F) were grown as monospecies biofilms (A to C) or together with EF (D to F) as dual-species biofilms.

Techniques Used:

Related Articles

Electron Microscopy:

Article Title: Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy To Study Diffusion and Reaction of Bacteriophages inside Biofilms
Article Snippet: .. Ex situ high-magnification imaging of the biofilms was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) (S-4500; Hitachi, Tokyo, Japan) at the MIMA2 microscopy platform. .. To prevent biofilm dispersal, all chemical preparation of the samples was carried out directly in the flow cell used to grow the biofilms.

Article Title: Effect of S. Mutans and S. Sanguinis on Growth and Adhesion of P. Gingivalis and Their Ability to Adhere to Different Dental Materials
Article Snippet: .. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of biofilms The biofilms were fixed with 2.5% glutaraldehyde, dried at 37°C for 24 h, and then the biofilms were coated with gold and examined under a scanning electron microscope (Hitachi SU-70) in high-vacuum mode at 3 kV. .. The SEM images were analyzed using Image J software to measure the biofilm area (in pixels) [ , ].

Ex Situ:

Article Title: Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy To Study Diffusion and Reaction of Bacteriophages inside Biofilms
Article Snippet: .. Ex situ high-magnification imaging of the biofilms was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) (S-4500; Hitachi, Tokyo, Japan) at the MIMA2 microscopy platform. .. To prevent biofilm dispersal, all chemical preparation of the samples was carried out directly in the flow cell used to grow the biofilms.

Imaging:

Article Title: Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy To Study Diffusion and Reaction of Bacteriophages inside Biofilms
Article Snippet: .. Ex situ high-magnification imaging of the biofilms was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) (S-4500; Hitachi, Tokyo, Japan) at the MIMA2 microscopy platform. .. To prevent biofilm dispersal, all chemical preparation of the samples was carried out directly in the flow cell used to grow the biofilms.

Microscopy:

Article Title: Influence of Laboratory Culture Media on in vitro Growth, Adhesion, and Biofilm Formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus
Article Snippet: .. After overnight critical point drying in a desiccator, the biofilms were coated with gold and examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM; Hitachi SU 6600, Tokyo, Japan). ..

Article Title: Functional control of the Candida albicans cell wall by catalytic protein kinase A subunit Tpk1
Article Snippet: .. The biofilms were coated with gold using a Pelco SC-6 sputter coater, and were examined using a Hitachi 2460N Scanning Electron Microscope. .. Digital images were obtained using Quartz PCI Image management system software.

Article Title: Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy To Study Diffusion and Reaction of Bacteriophages inside Biofilms
Article Snippet: .. Ex situ high-magnification imaging of the biofilms was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) (S-4500; Hitachi, Tokyo, Japan) at the MIMA2 microscopy platform. .. To prevent biofilm dispersal, all chemical preparation of the samples was carried out directly in the flow cell used to grow the biofilms.

Article Title: Effect of S. Mutans and S. Sanguinis on Growth and Adhesion of P. Gingivalis and Their Ability to Adhere to Different Dental Materials
Article Snippet: .. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of biofilms The biofilms were fixed with 2.5% glutaraldehyde, dried at 37°C for 24 h, and then the biofilms were coated with gold and examined under a scanning electron microscope (Hitachi SU-70) in high-vacuum mode at 3 kV. .. The SEM images were analyzed using Image J software to measure the biofilm area (in pixels) [ , ].

Article Title: Characterization of the Vibrio cholerae Extracellular Matrix: A Top-Down Solid-State NMR Approach
Article Snippet: .. The fixed biofilm sample was dehydrated in a series of increasing concentrations of ethanol (50%, 70%, 95%, and 100%), inserted into a critical point dryer (CPD) to remove residual ethanol with carbon dioxide, and then coated with gold-palladium and visualized with a Hitachi S-3400N scanning electron microscope. .. Lyophilized ECM was resuspended in water to give a final concentration of 1 mg/mL.

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  • 93
    Hitachi Ltd biofilm matrix structure
    CLSM analyses of <t>biofilm</t> formation inhibitory effects of butenolide (BU). (a) E. coli ATCC 25922. (b) E. coli K-12. (c) E. coli O157:H7. (d) E. coli DH5α. (e) strain PAO1. (f) MRSA strain ATCC 43300. Series 1 and 2 were biofilms after 24 h incubation without BU treatment. Series 3 and 4 were biofilms after 24 h incubation treated with BU under MBICs (100 mg/L for E. coli K-12, ATCC 25922, and DH5α; 50 mg/L for E. coli O157:H7; 800 mg/L for PAO1; 200 mg/L for MRSA). Dyes of SYTO-9 and propidium iodide, wavelength of 488 and 561 nm, and ×20 magnification were used to observe. Scale bar is 50 μm
    Biofilm Matrix Structure, supplied by Hitachi Ltd, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    88
    Hitachi Ltd biofilm forming ability
    Knockout of slhA and hag decreases <t>biofilm</t> formation of P. alvei CCM 2051 T cells. (A) Evaluation of the ability of cells of P. alvei CCM 2051 T wild-type, Δ slh A, Δ hag , wild-type (pEXALV), Δ slh A (pEXALV) carrying the pEXALV vector, and the complemented strain P. alvei Δ slh A comp for biofilm formation using Crystal violet (CV) staining. Data represent mean values + SD of at least four independent experiments with each four replicates and were analyzed by the unpaired Student’s T Test. Asterisks indicate significant differences (*, P
    Biofilm Forming Ability, supplied by Hitachi Ltd, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 15 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Hitachi Ltd biofilm matrix
    Antibacterial effect of GML (A to C) and lauric acid (D to F) on the viability of S. aureus biofilms cultivated with or without streptomycin (A, D), ampicillin (B, E), or vancomycin (C, F), showing a synergistic effect (*, P ≤ 0.01 for comparison to the corresponding concentration of GML or lauric acid alone) of streptomycin with GML (A) or lauric acid (D) but no synergistic effect with ampicillin (B, E) or vancomycin (C, F). Each data point represents four to six biofilms. The lower detection limit was 1.7 log 10 CFU per <t>biofilm.</t>
    Biofilm Matrix, supplied by Hitachi Ltd, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 89/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    CLSM analyses of biofilm formation inhibitory effects of butenolide (BU). (a) E. coli ATCC 25922. (b) E. coli K-12. (c) E. coli O157:H7. (d) E. coli DH5α. (e) strain PAO1. (f) MRSA strain ATCC 43300. Series 1 and 2 were biofilms after 24 h incubation without BU treatment. Series 3 and 4 were biofilms after 24 h incubation treated with BU under MBICs (100 mg/L for E. coli K-12, ATCC 25922, and DH5α; 50 mg/L for E. coli O157:H7; 800 mg/L for PAO1; 200 mg/L for MRSA). Dyes of SYTO-9 and propidium iodide, wavelength of 488 and 561 nm, and ×20 magnification were used to observe. Scale bar is 50 μm

    Journal: Marine Biotechnology (New York, N.y.)

    Article Title: Butenolide, a Marine-Derived Broad-Spectrum Antibiofilm Agent Against Both Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Pathogenic Bacteria

    doi: 10.1007/s10126-018-9861-1

    Figure Lengend Snippet: CLSM analyses of biofilm formation inhibitory effects of butenolide (BU). (a) E. coli ATCC 25922. (b) E. coli K-12. (c) E. coli O157:H7. (d) E. coli DH5α. (e) strain PAO1. (f) MRSA strain ATCC 43300. Series 1 and 2 were biofilms after 24 h incubation without BU treatment. Series 3 and 4 were biofilms after 24 h incubation treated with BU under MBICs (100 mg/L for E. coli K-12, ATCC 25922, and DH5α; 50 mg/L for E. coli O157:H7; 800 mg/L for PAO1; 200 mg/L for MRSA). Dyes of SYTO-9 and propidium iodide, wavelength of 488 and 561 nm, and ×20 magnification were used to observe. Scale bar is 50 μm

    Article Snippet: The effects of BU on biofilm matrix structure were analyzed using a scanning electronic microscope (SEM, SU-70, HITACHI, Japan).

    Techniques: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, Incubation

    Two high hydrophilic analogs of butenolide (BU), BUO and BUOH, and their antibiofilm activity against E. coli K-12 and MRSA ATCC 43300 biofilms. Antibiofilm abilities of MBIC and MBEC (24 h pre-formed biofilm) were investigated. DMSO is referred as negative control, and BU of MBIC or MBEC (100 mg/L for E. coli K-12 and 200 mg/L for MRSA ATCC 43300) is referred as positive control. a Chemical structure of BUO with a carbonyl on the seven carbon in alkyl side-chain of BU. b Chemical structure of BUOH with a hydroxyl on the seven carbon in alkyl side-chain of BU. c , d MBIC and MBEC assay of both BUO and BUOH on E. coli K-12 biofilm inhibition and eradication. e , f MBIC and MBEC assay of both BUO and BUOH on MRSA ATCC 43300 biofilm inhibition and eradication. No antibiofilm activities of BUO and BUOH were observed

    Journal: Marine Biotechnology (New York, N.y.)

    Article Title: Butenolide, a Marine-Derived Broad-Spectrum Antibiofilm Agent Against Both Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Pathogenic Bacteria

    doi: 10.1007/s10126-018-9861-1

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Two high hydrophilic analogs of butenolide (BU), BUO and BUOH, and their antibiofilm activity against E. coli K-12 and MRSA ATCC 43300 biofilms. Antibiofilm abilities of MBIC and MBEC (24 h pre-formed biofilm) were investigated. DMSO is referred as negative control, and BU of MBIC or MBEC (100 mg/L for E. coli K-12 and 200 mg/L for MRSA ATCC 43300) is referred as positive control. a Chemical structure of BUO with a carbonyl on the seven carbon in alkyl side-chain of BU. b Chemical structure of BUOH with a hydroxyl on the seven carbon in alkyl side-chain of BU. c , d MBIC and MBEC assay of both BUO and BUOH on E. coli K-12 biofilm inhibition and eradication. e , f MBIC and MBEC assay of both BUO and BUOH on MRSA ATCC 43300 biofilm inhibition and eradication. No antibiofilm activities of BUO and BUOH were observed

    Article Snippet: The effects of BU on biofilm matrix structure were analyzed using a scanning electronic microscope (SEM, SU-70, HITACHI, Japan).

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Negative Control, Positive Control, Inhibition

    SEM analyses of the effects of butenolide (BU) on biofilm structure. (a) E. coli K-12. (b) strain PAO1. (c) MRSA strain ATCC 43300. Series 1 and 2 were biofilms after 24 h incubation without BU treatment, with ×2000 and ×5000 magnification, respectively. Series 3 and 4 were biofilms after 24 h incubation treated with BU under MBICs (100 mg/L for E. coli K-12; 800 mg/L for PAO1; 200 mg/L for MRSA), with ×2000 and ×5000 magnification, respectively. Complex and intact biofilm matrix were visible without BU treatment

    Journal: Marine Biotechnology (New York, N.y.)

    Article Title: Butenolide, a Marine-Derived Broad-Spectrum Antibiofilm Agent Against Both Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Pathogenic Bacteria

    doi: 10.1007/s10126-018-9861-1

    Figure Lengend Snippet: SEM analyses of the effects of butenolide (BU) on biofilm structure. (a) E. coli K-12. (b) strain PAO1. (c) MRSA strain ATCC 43300. Series 1 and 2 were biofilms after 24 h incubation without BU treatment, with ×2000 and ×5000 magnification, respectively. Series 3 and 4 were biofilms after 24 h incubation treated with BU under MBICs (100 mg/L for E. coli K-12; 800 mg/L for PAO1; 200 mg/L for MRSA), with ×2000 and ×5000 magnification, respectively. Complex and intact biofilm matrix were visible without BU treatment

    Article Snippet: The effects of BU on biofilm matrix structure were analyzed using a scanning electronic microscope (SEM, SU-70, HITACHI, Japan).

    Techniques: Incubation

    Bacterial viability in remained biofilm treated with butenolide (BU) was quantified by MTT assay. a Chemical structure of BU. b Bacteria were exposed to various concentrations of BU and incubated 24 h at 37 °C to detect its inhibitory efficiency of biofilm formation (MBIC assay). c After 24 h incubation at 37 °C to form mature biofilms, pre-formed biofilms were exposed to various concentrations of BU and incubated another 24 h at 37 °C, detecting its biofilm eradicating efficiency (MBEC assay). Asterisk represented significant ( p

    Journal: Marine Biotechnology (New York, N.y.)

    Article Title: Butenolide, a Marine-Derived Broad-Spectrum Antibiofilm Agent Against Both Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Pathogenic Bacteria

    doi: 10.1007/s10126-018-9861-1

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Bacterial viability in remained biofilm treated with butenolide (BU) was quantified by MTT assay. a Chemical structure of BU. b Bacteria were exposed to various concentrations of BU and incubated 24 h at 37 °C to detect its inhibitory efficiency of biofilm formation (MBIC assay). c After 24 h incubation at 37 °C to form mature biofilms, pre-formed biofilms were exposed to various concentrations of BU and incubated another 24 h at 37 °C, detecting its biofilm eradicating efficiency (MBEC assay). Asterisk represented significant ( p

    Article Snippet: The effects of BU on biofilm matrix structure were analyzed using a scanning electronic microscope (SEM, SU-70, HITACHI, Japan).

    Techniques: MTT Assay, Incubation

    Knockout of slhA and hag decreases biofilm formation of P. alvei CCM 2051 T cells. (A) Evaluation of the ability of cells of P. alvei CCM 2051 T wild-type, Δ slh A, Δ hag , wild-type (pEXALV), Δ slh A (pEXALV) carrying the pEXALV vector, and the complemented strain P. alvei Δ slh A comp for biofilm formation using Crystal violet (CV) staining. Data represent mean values + SD of at least four independent experiments with each four replicates and were analyzed by the unpaired Student’s T Test. Asterisks indicate significant differences (*, P

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: The S-Layer Homology Domain-Containing Protein SlhA from Paenibacillus alvei CCM 2051T Is Important for Swarming and Biofilm Formation

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076566

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Knockout of slhA and hag decreases biofilm formation of P. alvei CCM 2051 T cells. (A) Evaluation of the ability of cells of P. alvei CCM 2051 T wild-type, Δ slh A, Δ hag , wild-type (pEXALV), Δ slh A (pEXALV) carrying the pEXALV vector, and the complemented strain P. alvei Δ slh A comp for biofilm formation using Crystal violet (CV) staining. Data represent mean values + SD of at least four independent experiments with each four replicates and were analyzed by the unpaired Student’s T Test. Asterisks indicate significant differences (*, P

    Article Snippet: Biofilm forming ability was evaluated by measuring the absorbance at 590 nm (A590 ) of the solution using a Hitachi U-2001 spectrophotometer.

    Techniques: Knock-Out, Plasmid Preparation, Staining

    Differential gene expression in f E. coli (L-1216/2010) with potential to form biofilm versus non-biofilm forming cells of E. coli (L-1339/2013) grown for 72 h. In a , in the volcano plots genes that are represented on the right side of the volcano-axis are up regulated and those that are on left side of the axis are down regulated. In b , cluster analysis of biofilm forming E. coli (L-1216/2010) with non-biofilm forming cells of E. coli (L-1339/2013). In c , heat map analysis shows that the biofilm cells (BF1–BF3) are less related to non-biofilm cells (N1–N3) of E. coli. Principal component analysis ( d )

    Journal: Gut Pathogens

    Article Title: Global gene expression in Escherichia coli, isolated from the diseased ocular surface of the human eye with a potential to form biofilm

    doi: 10.1186/s13099-017-0164-2

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Differential gene expression in f E. coli (L-1216/2010) with potential to form biofilm versus non-biofilm forming cells of E. coli (L-1339/2013) grown for 72 h. In a , in the volcano plots genes that are represented on the right side of the volcano-axis are up regulated and those that are on left side of the axis are down regulated. In b , cluster analysis of biofilm forming E. coli (L-1216/2010) with non-biofilm forming cells of E. coli (L-1339/2013). In c , heat map analysis shows that the biofilm cells (BF1–BF3) are less related to non-biofilm cells (N1–N3) of E. coli. Principal component analysis ( d )

    Article Snippet: Finally, the biofilms were air dried at 37 ± 1 °C for 24 h. Prior to visualisation of the biofilm using a SEM (HITACHI-Model S-3400N, Japan) the biofilms were metalized by gold sputtering for 45 s in a High Vacuum Evaporator (SC7620 PALARON Sputter Coater).

    Techniques: Expressing

    Real-time PCR validation of the expression of genes in biofilm ( closed box ) and non-biofilm cells ( hatched box ) of E. coli (L-1216/2010) and E. coli (L-1339/2013) ( open box ) respectively. a Relative expression of up-regulated genes and b Relative expression of down-regulated gene

    Journal: Gut Pathogens

    Article Title: Global gene expression in Escherichia coli, isolated from the diseased ocular surface of the human eye with a potential to form biofilm

    doi: 10.1186/s13099-017-0164-2

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Real-time PCR validation of the expression of genes in biofilm ( closed box ) and non-biofilm cells ( hatched box ) of E. coli (L-1216/2010) and E. coli (L-1339/2013) ( open box ) respectively. a Relative expression of up-regulated genes and b Relative expression of down-regulated gene

    Article Snippet: Finally, the biofilms were air dried at 37 ± 1 °C for 24 h. Prior to visualisation of the biofilm using a SEM (HITACHI-Model S-3400N, Japan) the biofilms were metalized by gold sputtering for 45 s in a High Vacuum Evaporator (SC7620 PALARON Sputter Coater).

    Techniques: Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Expressing

    Biofilm forming potential in ocular E. coli L-1216/2010 as monitored by scanning electron microscopy after 24 ( a ), 48 ( b ) and 72 ( c ) h of biofilm growth and by confocal scanning laser microscopy after 24 ( d ), 48 ( e ) and 72 ( f ) h of biofilm growth. In d – f , the biofilm was stained with Syto9. The Z axis indicates the thickness of the biofilm which is 5.30, 8.10 and 15.01 μm after 24, 48 and 72 h of biofilm growth. g Represents the susceptibility of ocular E. coli L-1216/2010 in the biofilm phase, h represents the susceptibility of ocular E. coli L-1216/2010 in the planktonic phase and i represents the susceptibility of non-biofilm forming E. coli L-1339/2013 to different concentrations of antibiotics

    Journal: Gut Pathogens

    Article Title: Global gene expression in Escherichia coli, isolated from the diseased ocular surface of the human eye with a potential to form biofilm

    doi: 10.1186/s13099-017-0164-2

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Biofilm forming potential in ocular E. coli L-1216/2010 as monitored by scanning electron microscopy after 24 ( a ), 48 ( b ) and 72 ( c ) h of biofilm growth and by confocal scanning laser microscopy after 24 ( d ), 48 ( e ) and 72 ( f ) h of biofilm growth. In d – f , the biofilm was stained with Syto9. The Z axis indicates the thickness of the biofilm which is 5.30, 8.10 and 15.01 μm after 24, 48 and 72 h of biofilm growth. g Represents the susceptibility of ocular E. coli L-1216/2010 in the biofilm phase, h represents the susceptibility of ocular E. coli L-1216/2010 in the planktonic phase and i represents the susceptibility of non-biofilm forming E. coli L-1339/2013 to different concentrations of antibiotics

    Article Snippet: Finally, the biofilms were air dried at 37 ± 1 °C for 24 h. Prior to visualisation of the biofilm using a SEM (HITACHI-Model S-3400N, Japan) the biofilms were metalized by gold sputtering for 45 s in a High Vacuum Evaporator (SC7620 PALARON Sputter Coater).

    Techniques: Electron Microscopy, Microscopy, Staining

    Antibacterial effect of GML (A to C) and lauric acid (D to F) on the viability of S. aureus biofilms cultivated with or without streptomycin (A, D), ampicillin (B, E), or vancomycin (C, F), showing a synergistic effect (*, P ≤ 0.01 for comparison to the corresponding concentration of GML or lauric acid alone) of streptomycin with GML (A) or lauric acid (D) but no synergistic effect with ampicillin (B, E) or vancomycin (C, F). Each data point represents four to six biofilms. The lower detection limit was 1.7 log 10 CFU per biofilm.

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: Antibacterial Synergy of Glycerol Monolaurate and Aminoglycosides in Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.03672-14

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Antibacterial effect of GML (A to C) and lauric acid (D to F) on the viability of S. aureus biofilms cultivated with or without streptomycin (A, D), ampicillin (B, E), or vancomycin (C, F), showing a synergistic effect (*, P ≤ 0.01 for comparison to the corresponding concentration of GML or lauric acid alone) of streptomycin with GML (A) or lauric acid (D) but no synergistic effect with ampicillin (B, E) or vancomycin (C, F). Each data point represents four to six biofilms. The lower detection limit was 1.7 log 10 CFU per biofilm.

    Article Snippet: To help preserve the biofilm matrix, samples were fixed in a solution that included the anionic dye alcian blue and then processed and viewed with a Hitachi S-4700 field emission scanning electron microscope operated at 2 to 3 kV ( ).

    Techniques: Concentration Assay

    (A to D) Antibacterial effect of GML (A, B) and lauric acid (C, D) on the viability of S. aureus biofilms cultivated with or without 20 μg/ml (A, C) or 1 μg/ml GEN (B, D). Compared to 0 mM GML or lauric acid, both GML and lauric acid decreased (#, P

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: Antibacterial Synergy of Glycerol Monolaurate and Aminoglycosides in Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.03672-14

    Figure Lengend Snippet: (A to D) Antibacterial effect of GML (A, B) and lauric acid (C, D) on the viability of S. aureus biofilms cultivated with or without 20 μg/ml (A, C) or 1 μg/ml GEN (B, D). Compared to 0 mM GML or lauric acid, both GML and lauric acid decreased (#, P

    Article Snippet: To help preserve the biofilm matrix, samples were fixed in a solution that included the anionic dye alcian blue and then processed and viewed with a Hitachi S-4700 field emission scanning electron microscope operated at 2 to 3 kV ( ).

    Techniques:

    SEM images of S. aureus biofilms cultivated on silicone coupons for 1 day plus 16 h in growth medium alone (A, B) or for 1 day in growth medium followed by 16 h in medium supplemented with 0.35 mM GML (C, D). (A) Low magnification of a control biofilm without GML containing areas of staphylococcal cells covered by relatively homogenous and smooth matrix material; (B) higher magnification of the area highlighted in panel A; (C, D) more irregular and porous appearance of the matrix associated with GML-treated biofilms. Scale bars, 10 μm (A) and 2 μm (B, C, D).

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: Antibacterial Synergy of Glycerol Monolaurate and Aminoglycosides in Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.03672-14

    Figure Lengend Snippet: SEM images of S. aureus biofilms cultivated on silicone coupons for 1 day plus 16 h in growth medium alone (A, B) or for 1 day in growth medium followed by 16 h in medium supplemented with 0.35 mM GML (C, D). (A) Low magnification of a control biofilm without GML containing areas of staphylococcal cells covered by relatively homogenous and smooth matrix material; (B) higher magnification of the area highlighted in panel A; (C, D) more irregular and porous appearance of the matrix associated with GML-treated biofilms. Scale bars, 10 μm (A) and 2 μm (B, C, D).

    Article Snippet: To help preserve the biofilm matrix, samples were fixed in a solution that included the anionic dye alcian blue and then processed and viewed with a Hitachi S-4700 field emission scanning electron microscope operated at 2 to 3 kV ( ).

    Techniques: