3ac  (Echelon Biosciences)


Bioz Verified Symbol Echelon Biosciences is a verified supplier
Bioz Manufacturer Symbol Echelon Biosciences manufactures this product  
  • Logo
  • About
  • News
  • Press Release
  • Team
  • Advisors
  • Partners
  • Contact
  • Bioz Stars
  • Bioz vStars
  • 94

    Structured Review

    Echelon Biosciences 3ac
    3ac, supplied by Echelon Biosciences, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/3ac/product/Echelon Biosciences
    Average 94 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    3ac - by Bioz Stars, 2024-03
    94/100 stars

    Images

    3 a aminocholestane  (Echelon Biosciences)


    Bioz Verified Symbol Echelon Biosciences is a verified supplier
    Bioz Manufacturer Symbol Echelon Biosciences manufactures this product  
  • Logo
  • About
  • News
  • Press Release
  • Team
  • Advisors
  • Partners
  • Contact
  • Bioz Stars
  • Bioz vStars
  • 92

    Structured Review

    Echelon Biosciences 3 a aminocholestane
    A–C A mass ELISA was used to detect specific PIP species after exposure to anti‐FcγRII/III (2.4G2) with or without <t>3‐a‐aminocholestane</t> (SHIP 1 inhibitor), SF1670 (PTEN inhibitor) and LY294002 (PI‐3K inhibitor). In M‐MOP cells (left panel) and primary microglia (right panel), PI(4,5)P 2 (A), PI(3,4)P 2 (B) and PIP 3 (C) were detected. All data show the mean ± SD of three independent experiments and were analysed by two‐way ANOVA (log‐transformed data were used in C) with Sidak’s multiple comparison tests performed. * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001 and **** P < 0.0001 (blue: P522 and red: R522).
    3 A Aminocholestane, supplied by Echelon Biosciences, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/3 a aminocholestane/product/Echelon Biosciences
    Average 92 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    3 a aminocholestane - by Bioz Stars, 2024-03
    92/100 stars

    Images

    1) Product Images from "PIP2 depletion and altered endocytosis caused by expression of Alzheimer's disease‐protective variant PLCγ2 R522"

    Article Title: PIP2 depletion and altered endocytosis caused by expression of Alzheimer's disease‐protective variant PLCγ2 R522

    Journal: The EMBO Journal

    doi: 10.15252/embj.2020105603

    A–C A mass ELISA was used to detect specific PIP species after exposure to anti‐FcγRII/III (2.4G2) with or without 3‐a‐aminocholestane (SHIP 1 inhibitor), SF1670 (PTEN inhibitor) and LY294002 (PI‐3K inhibitor). In M‐MOP cells (left panel) and primary microglia (right panel), PI(4,5)P 2 (A), PI(3,4)P 2 (B) and PIP 3 (C) were detected. All data show the mean ± SD of three independent experiments and were analysed by two‐way ANOVA (log‐transformed data were used in C) with Sidak’s multiple comparison tests performed. * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001 and **** P < 0.0001 (blue: P522 and red: R522).
    Figure Legend Snippet: A–C A mass ELISA was used to detect specific PIP species after exposure to anti‐FcγRII/III (2.4G2) with or without 3‐a‐aminocholestane (SHIP 1 inhibitor), SF1670 (PTEN inhibitor) and LY294002 (PI‐3K inhibitor). In M‐MOP cells (left panel) and primary microglia (right panel), PI(4,5)P 2 (A), PI(3,4)P 2 (B) and PIP 3 (C) were detected. All data show the mean ± SD of three independent experiments and were analysed by two‐way ANOVA (log‐transformed data were used in C) with Sidak’s multiple comparison tests performed. * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001 and **** P < 0.0001 (blue: P522 and red: R522).

    Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Transformation Assay

    3 α aminocholestane  (Echelon Biosciences)


    Bioz Verified Symbol Echelon Biosciences is a verified supplier
    Bioz Manufacturer Symbol Echelon Biosciences manufactures this product  
  • Logo
  • About
  • News
  • Press Release
  • Team
  • Advisors
  • Partners
  • Contact
  • Bioz Stars
  • Bioz vStars
  • 92

    Structured Review

    Echelon Biosciences 3 α aminocholestane
    HCMV engages <t>SHIP1</t> to induce monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation. ( A ) Human peripheral blood monocytes were pretreated for 1 h with a SHIP1 inhibitor <t>(3AC)</t> at 10 μM. Cells were mock- or HCMV-infected for 48 h, and the percent of cells positive for M1 (CD80 and CD86) and M2 (CD16 and CD163) macrophage markers was measured by flow cytometry. ( B ) Monocytes were pretreated for 1 h with 3AC at 10 μM, then mock- or HCMV-infected for 48 h. Viability was measured through PI and annexin V staining by flow cytometry. ( A , B ) Results are representative of 3–6 independent experiments using monocytes from different donors.
    3 α Aminocholestane, supplied by Echelon Biosciences, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/3 α aminocholestane/product/Echelon Biosciences
    Average 92 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    3 α aminocholestane - by Bioz Stars, 2024-03
    92/100 stars

    Images

    1) Product Images from "Human Cytomegalovirus Mediates Unique Monocyte-to-Macrophage Differentiation through the PI3K/SHIP1/Akt Signaling Network"

    Article Title: Human Cytomegalovirus Mediates Unique Monocyte-to-Macrophage Differentiation through the PI3K/SHIP1/Akt Signaling Network

    Journal: Viruses

    doi: 10.3390/v12060652

    HCMV engages SHIP1 to induce monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation. ( A ) Human peripheral blood monocytes were pretreated for 1 h with a SHIP1 inhibitor (3AC) at 10 μM. Cells were mock- or HCMV-infected for 48 h, and the percent of cells positive for M1 (CD80 and CD86) and M2 (CD16 and CD163) macrophage markers was measured by flow cytometry. ( B ) Monocytes were pretreated for 1 h with 3AC at 10 μM, then mock- or HCMV-infected for 48 h. Viability was measured through PI and annexin V staining by flow cytometry. ( A , B ) Results are representative of 3–6 independent experiments using monocytes from different donors.
    Figure Legend Snippet: HCMV engages SHIP1 to induce monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation. ( A ) Human peripheral blood monocytes were pretreated for 1 h with a SHIP1 inhibitor (3AC) at 10 μM. Cells were mock- or HCMV-infected for 48 h, and the percent of cells positive for M1 (CD80 and CD86) and M2 (CD16 and CD163) macrophage markers was measured by flow cytometry. ( B ) Monocytes were pretreated for 1 h with 3AC at 10 μM, then mock- or HCMV-infected for 48 h. Viability was measured through PI and annexin V staining by flow cytometry. ( A , B ) Results are representative of 3–6 independent experiments using monocytes from different donors.

    Techniques Used: Infection, Flow Cytometry, Staining

    3 a aminocholestane  (Echelon Biosciences)


    Bioz Verified Symbol Echelon Biosciences is a verified supplier
    Bioz Manufacturer Symbol Echelon Biosciences manufactures this product  
  • Logo
  • About
  • News
  • Press Release
  • Team
  • Advisors
  • Partners
  • Contact
  • Bioz Stars
  • Bioz vStars
  • 92

    Structured Review

    Echelon Biosciences 3 a aminocholestane
    A . Fura2 340/380 time traces from M-CSF-differentiated macrophages derived from conditionally-immortalised macrophage precursor cell lines (M-MØP) of Plcg2 P522 mice (P522, blue) and Plcg2 R522 mice (R522, red). One set of cell lines, generated from male mice, is shown. Cells were exposed to 5µg/ml anti-FcγRII/III along with <t>20µM</t> EGTA and 2µM Ionomycin as indicated. B . Fura2 340/380 time traces from primary microglia derived from the cortex of Plcg2 R522 mice (blue: P522) and Plcg2 R522 mice (red: R522) with or without pre-exposure for 2 hours with Edelfosine (10µM). Cells were exposed to 5µg/ml anti-FcγRII/III along with EGTA and 2µM Ionomycin. Data in A and B shows the mean±SD of 3 independent experiments analysed by two-way ANOVA with Sidak post-hoc tests. PLCG2 R522 hiPSC-derived microglia show increased cytosolic Ca 2+ influx in comparison to controls following activation of PLCγ2 using anti-CD32. Cytoplasmic Ca2+ increase following activation of PLCγ2 using anti-CD32 Representative Ca 2+ traces ( C ) and graphical summary ( D ). 3 independent PLCG2 R522 CRISPR-engineered clones were examined. Data shown is mean±SD of 4 independent experiments and were analysed by one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s multiple comparison test (** = p<0.01; *** = p<0.001; **** = p< 0.0001).
    3 A Aminocholestane, supplied by Echelon Biosciences, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/3 a aminocholestane/product/Echelon Biosciences
    Average 92 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    3 a aminocholestane - by Bioz Stars, 2024-03
    92/100 stars

    Images

    1) Product Images from "The Alzheimer’s disease protective P522R variant of PLCG2 , consistently enhances stimulus-dependent PLCγ2 activation, depleting substrate and altering cell function"

    Article Title: The Alzheimer’s disease protective P522R variant of PLCG2 , consistently enhances stimulus-dependent PLCγ2 activation, depleting substrate and altering cell function

    Journal: bioRxiv

    doi: 10.1101/2020.04.27.059600

    A . Fura2 340/380 time traces from M-CSF-differentiated macrophages derived from conditionally-immortalised macrophage precursor cell lines (M-MØP) of Plcg2 P522 mice (P522, blue) and Plcg2 R522 mice (R522, red). One set of cell lines, generated from male mice, is shown. Cells were exposed to 5µg/ml anti-FcγRII/III along with 20µM EGTA and 2µM Ionomycin as indicated. B . Fura2 340/380 time traces from primary microglia derived from the cortex of Plcg2 R522 mice (blue: P522) and Plcg2 R522 mice (red: R522) with or without pre-exposure for 2 hours with Edelfosine (10µM). Cells were exposed to 5µg/ml anti-FcγRII/III along with EGTA and 2µM Ionomycin. Data in A and B shows the mean±SD of 3 independent experiments analysed by two-way ANOVA with Sidak post-hoc tests. PLCG2 R522 hiPSC-derived microglia show increased cytosolic Ca 2+ influx in comparison to controls following activation of PLCγ2 using anti-CD32. Cytoplasmic Ca2+ increase following activation of PLCγ2 using anti-CD32 Representative Ca 2+ traces ( C ) and graphical summary ( D ). 3 independent PLCG2 R522 CRISPR-engineered clones were examined. Data shown is mean±SD of 4 independent experiments and were analysed by one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s multiple comparison test (** = p<0.01; *** = p<0.001; **** = p< 0.0001).
    Figure Legend Snippet: A . Fura2 340/380 time traces from M-CSF-differentiated macrophages derived from conditionally-immortalised macrophage precursor cell lines (M-MØP) of Plcg2 P522 mice (P522, blue) and Plcg2 R522 mice (R522, red). One set of cell lines, generated from male mice, is shown. Cells were exposed to 5µg/ml anti-FcγRII/III along with 20µM EGTA and 2µM Ionomycin as indicated. B . Fura2 340/380 time traces from primary microglia derived from the cortex of Plcg2 R522 mice (blue: P522) and Plcg2 R522 mice (red: R522) with or without pre-exposure for 2 hours with Edelfosine (10µM). Cells were exposed to 5µg/ml anti-FcγRII/III along with EGTA and 2µM Ionomycin. Data in A and B shows the mean±SD of 3 independent experiments analysed by two-way ANOVA with Sidak post-hoc tests. PLCG2 R522 hiPSC-derived microglia show increased cytosolic Ca 2+ influx in comparison to controls following activation of PLCγ2 using anti-CD32. Cytoplasmic Ca2+ increase following activation of PLCγ2 using anti-CD32 Representative Ca 2+ traces ( C ) and graphical summary ( D ). 3 independent PLCG2 R522 CRISPR-engineered clones were examined. Data shown is mean±SD of 4 independent experiments and were analysed by one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s multiple comparison test (** = p<0.01; *** = p<0.001; **** = p< 0.0001).

    Techniques Used: Derivative Assay, Generated, Activation Assay, CRISPR, Clone Assay

    A mass ELISA was used to detect specific PIP species after exposure to anti-FcγRII/III (2.4G2) with or without 3-a-aminocholestane (SHIP 1 inhibitor), SF1670 (PTEN inhibitor) and LY294002 (PI-3K inhibitor). In M-MOP cells (left panel) and primary microglia (right panel) PI(4,5)P 2 (A) , PI(3,4)P 2 (B) and PIP 3 (C) were detected. All data shows the mean±SD of 3 independent experiments were analysed by 2 way ANOVA (log-transformed data was used in C) with Sidak’s multiple comparison tests performed *=p<0.05, **=p<0.01, ***=p<0.001, ****=p<0.0001. (blue: P522; red: R522)
    Figure Legend Snippet: A mass ELISA was used to detect specific PIP species after exposure to anti-FcγRII/III (2.4G2) with or without 3-a-aminocholestane (SHIP 1 inhibitor), SF1670 (PTEN inhibitor) and LY294002 (PI-3K inhibitor). In M-MOP cells (left panel) and primary microglia (right panel) PI(4,5)P 2 (A) , PI(3,4)P 2 (B) and PIP 3 (C) were detected. All data shows the mean±SD of 3 independent experiments were analysed by 2 way ANOVA (log-transformed data was used in C) with Sidak’s multiple comparison tests performed *=p<0.05, **=p<0.01, ***=p<0.001, ****=p<0.0001. (blue: P522; red: R522)

    Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Transformation Assay

    3 a aminocholestane  (Echelon Biosciences)


    Bioz Verified Symbol Echelon Biosciences is a verified supplier
    Bioz Manufacturer Symbol Echelon Biosciences manufactures this product  
  • Logo
  • About
  • News
  • Press Release
  • Team
  • Advisors
  • Partners
  • Contact
  • Bioz Stars
  • Bioz vStars
  • 92

    Structured Review

    Echelon Biosciences 3 a aminocholestane
    3 A Aminocholestane, supplied by Echelon Biosciences, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/3 a aminocholestane/product/Echelon Biosciences
    Average 92 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    3 a aminocholestane - by Bioz Stars, 2024-03
    92/100 stars

    Images

    3 a aminocholestane  (Echelon Biosciences)


    Bioz Verified Symbol Echelon Biosciences is a verified supplier
    Bioz Manufacturer Symbol Echelon Biosciences manufactures this product  
  • Logo
  • About
  • News
  • Press Release
  • Team
  • Advisors
  • Partners
  • Contact
  • Bioz Stars
  • Bioz vStars
  • 92

    Structured Review

    Echelon Biosciences 3 a aminocholestane
    3 A Aminocholestane, supplied by Echelon Biosciences, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/3 a aminocholestane/product/Echelon Biosciences
    Average 92 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    3 a aminocholestane - by Bioz Stars, 2024-03
    92/100 stars

    Images

    3 a aminocholestane  (Echelon Biosciences)


    Bioz Verified Symbol Echelon Biosciences is a verified supplier
    Bioz Manufacturer Symbol Echelon Biosciences manufactures this product  
  • Logo
  • About
  • News
  • Press Release
  • Team
  • Advisors
  • Partners
  • Contact
  • Bioz Stars
  • Bioz vStars
  • 92

    Structured Review

    Echelon Biosciences 3 a aminocholestane
    3 A Aminocholestane, supplied by Echelon Biosciences, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/3 a aminocholestane/product/Echelon Biosciences
    Average 92 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    3 a aminocholestane - by Bioz Stars, 2024-03
    92/100 stars

    Images

    Similar Products

  • Logo
  • About
  • News
  • Press Release
  • Team
  • Advisors
  • Partners
  • Contact
  • Bioz Stars
  • Bioz vStars
  • 94
    Echelon Biosciences 3ac
    3ac, supplied by Echelon Biosciences, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/3ac/product/Echelon Biosciences
    Average 94 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    3ac - by Bioz Stars, 2024-03
    94/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    92
    Echelon Biosciences 3 a aminocholestane
    A–C A mass ELISA was used to detect specific PIP species after exposure to anti‐FcγRII/III (2.4G2) with or without <t>3‐a‐aminocholestane</t> (SHIP 1 inhibitor), SF1670 (PTEN inhibitor) and LY294002 (PI‐3K inhibitor). In M‐MOP cells (left panel) and primary microglia (right panel), PI(4,5)P 2 (A), PI(3,4)P 2 (B) and PIP 3 (C) were detected. All data show the mean ± SD of three independent experiments and were analysed by two‐way ANOVA (log‐transformed data were used in C) with Sidak’s multiple comparison tests performed. * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001 and **** P < 0.0001 (blue: P522 and red: R522).
    3 A Aminocholestane, supplied by Echelon Biosciences, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/3 a aminocholestane/product/Echelon Biosciences
    Average 92 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    3 a aminocholestane - by Bioz Stars, 2024-03
    92/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    92
    Echelon Biosciences 3 α aminocholestane
    HCMV engages <t>SHIP1</t> to induce monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation. ( A ) Human peripheral blood monocytes were pretreated for 1 h with a SHIP1 inhibitor <t>(3AC)</t> at 10 μM. Cells were mock- or HCMV-infected for 48 h, and the percent of cells positive for M1 (CD80 and CD86) and M2 (CD16 and CD163) macrophage markers was measured by flow cytometry. ( B ) Monocytes were pretreated for 1 h with 3AC at 10 μM, then mock- or HCMV-infected for 48 h. Viability was measured through PI and annexin V staining by flow cytometry. ( A , B ) Results are representative of 3–6 independent experiments using monocytes from different donors.
    3 α Aminocholestane, supplied by Echelon Biosciences, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/3 α aminocholestane/product/Echelon Biosciences
    Average 92 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    3 α aminocholestane - by Bioz Stars, 2024-03
    92/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    Image Search Results


    A–C A mass ELISA was used to detect specific PIP species after exposure to anti‐FcγRII/III (2.4G2) with or without 3‐a‐aminocholestane (SHIP 1 inhibitor), SF1670 (PTEN inhibitor) and LY294002 (PI‐3K inhibitor). In M‐MOP cells (left panel) and primary microglia (right panel), PI(4,5)P 2 (A), PI(3,4)P 2 (B) and PIP 3 (C) were detected. All data show the mean ± SD of three independent experiments and were analysed by two‐way ANOVA (log‐transformed data were used in C) with Sidak’s multiple comparison tests performed. * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001 and **** P < 0.0001 (blue: P522 and red: R522).

    Journal: The EMBO Journal

    Article Title: PIP2 depletion and altered endocytosis caused by expression of Alzheimer's disease‐protective variant PLCγ2 R522

    doi: 10.15252/embj.2020105603

    Figure Lengend Snippet: A–C A mass ELISA was used to detect specific PIP species after exposure to anti‐FcγRII/III (2.4G2) with or without 3‐a‐aminocholestane (SHIP 1 inhibitor), SF1670 (PTEN inhibitor) and LY294002 (PI‐3K inhibitor). In M‐MOP cells (left panel) and primary microglia (right panel), PI(4,5)P 2 (A), PI(3,4)P 2 (B) and PIP 3 (C) were detected. All data show the mean ± SD of three independent experiments and were analysed by two‐way ANOVA (log‐transformed data were used in C) with Sidak’s multiple comparison tests performed. * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001 and **** P < 0.0001 (blue: P522 and red: R522).

    Article Snippet: Designated wells were inhibited by pre‐exposure for 2 h with 3‐a‐aminocholestane (20 µM, B‐0341), LY294002 (10 µM, B‐0294) or SF1670 (5 µM, B‐0350) (Echelon Biosciences).

    Techniques: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Transformation Assay

    HCMV engages SHIP1 to induce monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation. ( A ) Human peripheral blood monocytes were pretreated for 1 h with a SHIP1 inhibitor (3AC) at 10 μM. Cells were mock- or HCMV-infected for 48 h, and the percent of cells positive for M1 (CD80 and CD86) and M2 (CD16 and CD163) macrophage markers was measured by flow cytometry. ( B ) Monocytes were pretreated for 1 h with 3AC at 10 μM, then mock- or HCMV-infected for 48 h. Viability was measured through PI and annexin V staining by flow cytometry. ( A , B ) Results are representative of 3–6 independent experiments using monocytes from different donors.

    Journal: Viruses

    Article Title: Human Cytomegalovirus Mediates Unique Monocyte-to-Macrophage Differentiation through the PI3K/SHIP1/Akt Signaling Network

    doi: 10.3390/v12060652

    Figure Lengend Snippet: HCMV engages SHIP1 to induce monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation. ( A ) Human peripheral blood monocytes were pretreated for 1 h with a SHIP1 inhibitor (3AC) at 10 μM. Cells were mock- or HCMV-infected for 48 h, and the percent of cells positive for M1 (CD80 and CD86) and M2 (CD16 and CD163) macrophage markers was measured by flow cytometry. ( B ) Monocytes were pretreated for 1 h with 3AC at 10 μM, then mock- or HCMV-infected for 48 h. Viability was measured through PI and annexin V staining by flow cytometry. ( A , B ) Results are representative of 3–6 independent experiments using monocytes from different donors.

    Article Snippet: For the inhibitor studies, the following reagents were used: MK-2206 2HCL (MK; an Akt inhibitor), BYL-719 (BYL; a p110α inhibitor), TGX-221 (TGX; a p110β inhibitor), and CAL-101 (CAL; a p110δ inhibitor) from Selleckchem (Houston, TX, USA), LY-294002 (LY; a pan-PI3K inhibitor) from Calbiochem (Billerica, MA, USA), 3-α-aminocholestane (3AC; a SHIP1 inhibitor) from Echelon Biosciences (Salt Lake City, UT, USA), z-DEVD-fmk (a caspase 3 inhibitor) from Santa Cruz Biotechnology (Santa Cruz, CA, USA), and z-VAD-fmk (a pan-caspase inhibitor) from Selleckchem (Houston, TX, USA).

    Techniques: Infection, Flow Cytometry, Staining