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    Name:
    Adenosine 5 Triphosphate disodium salt
    Description:
    Adenosine 5 Triphosphate disodium salt is a p2 purinergic P2X and P2Y agonist that increases Ca2 activated K channel activity It has been found to induce a release of prostoglandin D2 and histamine from rat peritoneal mast cells in a dose dependent manner
    Catalog Number:
    SC-202040
    Price:
    None
    Category:
    Chemicals Protein Interacting Inhibitors Activators Substrates Protein Activators P2X Activators Adenosine 5 Triphosphate disodium salt
    Applications:
    Adenosine 5′-Triphosphate, disodium salt is a p2 purinergicagonist
    Purity:
    ≥98%
    Molecular Weight:
    551.14
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    Structured Review

    Santa Cruz Biotechnology atp
    Graphical summary of results. Upon agonist-induced platelet activation, <t>ATP</t> and <t>ADP</t> are released. These are converted to AMP by platelet CD39 activity. AMP is converted to adenosine by MSC-expressed CD73 and to a low extent by alkaline phosphatase. Adenosine signals vial A2AR and other P1 receptors to raise cAMP levels and to induce VASP phosphorylation. This reduces further platelet activation. Used inhibitors indicated in red. ADA adenosine deaminase, ADP adenosine diphosphate, ALP alkaline phosphatase, AMP adenosine monophosphate, ATP adenosine triphosphate, TRAP thrombin receptor activator for peptide, VASP vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein
    Adenosine 5 Triphosphate disodium salt is a p2 purinergic P2X and P2Y agonist that increases Ca2 activated K channel activity It has been found to induce a release of prostoglandin D2 and histamine from rat peritoneal mast cells in a dose dependent manner
    https://www.bioz.com/result/atp/product/Santa Cruz Biotechnology
    Average 86 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    atp - by Bioz Stars, 2021-09
    86/100 stars

    Images

    1) Product Images from "Human mesenchymal stromal cells inhibit platelet activation and aggregation involving CD73-converted adenosine"

    Article Title: Human mesenchymal stromal cells inhibit platelet activation and aggregation involving CD73-converted adenosine

    Journal: Stem Cell Research & Therapy

    doi: 10.1186/s13287-018-0936-8

    Graphical summary of results. Upon agonist-induced platelet activation, ATP and ADP are released. These are converted to AMP by platelet CD39 activity. AMP is converted to adenosine by MSC-expressed CD73 and to a low extent by alkaline phosphatase. Adenosine signals vial A2AR and other P1 receptors to raise cAMP levels and to induce VASP phosphorylation. This reduces further platelet activation. Used inhibitors indicated in red. ADA adenosine deaminase, ADP adenosine diphosphate, ALP alkaline phosphatase, AMP adenosine monophosphate, ATP adenosine triphosphate, TRAP thrombin receptor activator for peptide, VASP vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein
    Figure Legend Snippet: Graphical summary of results. Upon agonist-induced platelet activation, ATP and ADP are released. These are converted to AMP by platelet CD39 activity. AMP is converted to adenosine by MSC-expressed CD73 and to a low extent by alkaline phosphatase. Adenosine signals vial A2AR and other P1 receptors to raise cAMP levels and to induce VASP phosphorylation. This reduces further platelet activation. Used inhibitors indicated in red. ADA adenosine deaminase, ADP adenosine diphosphate, ALP alkaline phosphatase, AMP adenosine monophosphate, ATP adenosine triphosphate, TRAP thrombin receptor activator for peptide, VASP vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay, Activity Assay, ALP Assay

    2) Product Images from "Noncanonical TGF-β signaling leads to FBXO3-mediated degradation of ΔNp63α promoting breast cancer metastasis and poor clinical prognosis"

    Article Title: Noncanonical TGF-β signaling leads to FBXO3-mediated degradation of ΔNp63α promoting breast cancer metastasis and poor clinical prognosis

    Journal: PLoS Biology

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.3001113

    FBXO3 binds to and facilitates ΔNp63α protein Lys 48–linked polyubiquitination chains. (A) MCF-10A cells stably expressing either HA-FBXO3 or Flag-ΔNp63α were treated with 10 μM MG132 for 8 h prior to IP followed by western blotting. (B) MCF-10A cells were treated with 10 μM MG132 for 8 h and then subjected to IP with FBXO3 antibody or normal rabbit IgG, followed by western blot analyses. (C, D) A schematic representation of FBXO3 deletion mutants used in this study (C). MCF-10A cells stably expressing either WT HA-FBXO3 or a HA-FBXO3 deletion mutant were treated with 10 μM MG132 for 8 h and then subjected to IP and western blot analyses (D). (E, F) A schematic representation of deletion mutants of ΔNp63α SAM domain used in this study (E). MCF-10A cells stably expressing HA-FBXO3 and either a WT Flag-ΔNp63α or a Flag-ΔNp63α mutant were treated with 10 μM MG132 for 8 h, prior to IP and western blot analyses (F). (G) HEK-293T cells were co-transfected with a combination of expressing plasmids encoding HA-ubiquitin, Flag-ΔNp63α, shFBXO3-1, or shFBXO3-2, as indicated, for 48 h. Cells were then treated with 10 μM MG132 for 10 h, followed by IP and western blot analyses. (H) HEK-293T cells co-transfected with Flag-ΔNp63α and HA-FBXO3 in the presence of either WT His-ubiquitin, His-ubiquitin K48 (Lys 48 only), or His-ubiquitin K63 (Lys 63 only) expressing plasmids for 48 h. Cells were treated with 10 μM MG132 for 10 h prior to IP and western blot analyses. (I) In vitro ubiquitination assay. HEK-293T cells were co-transfected with Flag-ΔNp63α and either HA-FBXO3 or FBXO3 ΔF-box expressing plasmids for 48 h and then treated with MG132 for 4 h. The immunoprecipitated HA-FBXO3 or FBXO3 ΔF-box proteins on beads were added to in vitro ubiquitin reaction cocktails consisting of recombinant E1, E2s (UbcH5a and UbcH7), and ATP in the presence or absence of ubiquitin (Ub) together with aldehyde ubiquitin. Reaction mixtures were subjected to immunoblotting. IgG, immunoglobulin G; IP, immunoprecipitation; WT, wild-type.
    Figure Legend Snippet: FBXO3 binds to and facilitates ΔNp63α protein Lys 48–linked polyubiquitination chains. (A) MCF-10A cells stably expressing either HA-FBXO3 or Flag-ΔNp63α were treated with 10 μM MG132 for 8 h prior to IP followed by western blotting. (B) MCF-10A cells were treated with 10 μM MG132 for 8 h and then subjected to IP with FBXO3 antibody or normal rabbit IgG, followed by western blot analyses. (C, D) A schematic representation of FBXO3 deletion mutants used in this study (C). MCF-10A cells stably expressing either WT HA-FBXO3 or a HA-FBXO3 deletion mutant were treated with 10 μM MG132 for 8 h and then subjected to IP and western blot analyses (D). (E, F) A schematic representation of deletion mutants of ΔNp63α SAM domain used in this study (E). MCF-10A cells stably expressing HA-FBXO3 and either a WT Flag-ΔNp63α or a Flag-ΔNp63α mutant were treated with 10 μM MG132 for 8 h, prior to IP and western blot analyses (F). (G) HEK-293T cells were co-transfected with a combination of expressing plasmids encoding HA-ubiquitin, Flag-ΔNp63α, shFBXO3-1, or shFBXO3-2, as indicated, for 48 h. Cells were then treated with 10 μM MG132 for 10 h, followed by IP and western blot analyses. (H) HEK-293T cells co-transfected with Flag-ΔNp63α and HA-FBXO3 in the presence of either WT His-ubiquitin, His-ubiquitin K48 (Lys 48 only), or His-ubiquitin K63 (Lys 63 only) expressing plasmids for 48 h. Cells were treated with 10 μM MG132 for 10 h prior to IP and western blot analyses. (I) In vitro ubiquitination assay. HEK-293T cells were co-transfected with Flag-ΔNp63α and either HA-FBXO3 or FBXO3 ΔF-box expressing plasmids for 48 h and then treated with MG132 for 4 h. The immunoprecipitated HA-FBXO3 or FBXO3 ΔF-box proteins on beads were added to in vitro ubiquitin reaction cocktails consisting of recombinant E1, E2s (UbcH5a and UbcH7), and ATP in the presence or absence of ubiquitin (Ub) together with aldehyde ubiquitin. Reaction mixtures were subjected to immunoblotting. IgG, immunoglobulin G; IP, immunoprecipitation; WT, wild-type.

    Techniques Used: Stable Transfection, Expressing, Western Blot, Mutagenesis, Transfection, In Vitro, Ubiquitin Assay, Immunoprecipitation, Recombinant

    3) Product Images from "Human mesenchymal stromal cells inhibit platelet activation and aggregation involving CD73-converted adenosine"

    Article Title: Human mesenchymal stromal cells inhibit platelet activation and aggregation involving CD73-converted adenosine

    Journal: Stem Cell Research & Therapy

    doi: 10.1186/s13287-018-0936-8

    Graphical summary of results. Upon agonist-induced platelet activation, ATP and ADP are released. These are converted to AMP by platelet CD39 activity. AMP is converted to adenosine by MSC-expressed CD73 and to a low extent by alkaline phosphatase. Adenosine signals vial A2AR and other P1 receptors to raise cAMP levels and to induce VASP phosphorylation. This reduces further platelet activation. Used inhibitors indicated in red. ADA adenosine deaminase, ADP adenosine diphosphate, ALP alkaline phosphatase, AMP adenosine monophosphate, ATP adenosine triphosphate, TRAP thrombin receptor activator for peptide, VASP vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein
    Figure Legend Snippet: Graphical summary of results. Upon agonist-induced platelet activation, ATP and ADP are released. These are converted to AMP by platelet CD39 activity. AMP is converted to adenosine by MSC-expressed CD73 and to a low extent by alkaline phosphatase. Adenosine signals vial A2AR and other P1 receptors to raise cAMP levels and to induce VASP phosphorylation. This reduces further platelet activation. Used inhibitors indicated in red. ADA adenosine deaminase, ADP adenosine diphosphate, ALP alkaline phosphatase, AMP adenosine monophosphate, ATP adenosine triphosphate, TRAP thrombin receptor activator for peptide, VASP vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay, Activity Assay, ALP Assay

    4) Product Images from "Ginsenoside Rg1 alleviates acute liver injury through the induction of autophagy and suppressing NF-κB/NLRP3 inflammasome signaling pathway"

    Article Title: Ginsenoside Rg1 alleviates acute liver injury through the induction of autophagy and suppressing NF-κB/NLRP3 inflammasome signaling pathway

    Journal: International Journal of Medical Sciences

    doi: 10.7150/ijms.50919

    The roles of autophagy and NLRP3 inflammasome in mice with CCl 4 -induced acute liver injury. (A) Serum AST, ALT, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 were measured in control group, RPA group and 3-MA group 24 h after the CCl 4 injection. (B) Serum AST, ALT, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 were measured in control group, MCC950 group and ATP group 24 h after the CCl 4 injection (n=3). *P
    Figure Legend Snippet: The roles of autophagy and NLRP3 inflammasome in mice with CCl 4 -induced acute liver injury. (A) Serum AST, ALT, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 were measured in control group, RPA group and 3-MA group 24 h after the CCl 4 injection. (B) Serum AST, ALT, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 were measured in control group, MCC950 group and ATP group 24 h after the CCl 4 injection (n=3). *P

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, AST Assay, Recombinase Polymerase Amplification, Injection

    5) Product Images from "Human mesenchymal stromal cells inhibit platelet activation and aggregation involving CD73-converted adenosine"

    Article Title: Human mesenchymal stromal cells inhibit platelet activation and aggregation involving CD73-converted adenosine

    Journal: Stem Cell Research & Therapy

    doi: 10.1186/s13287-018-0936-8

    Graphical summary of results. Upon agonist-induced platelet activation, ATP and ADP are released. These are converted to AMP by platelet CD39 activity. AMP is converted to adenosine by MSC-expressed CD73 and to a low extent by alkaline phosphatase. Adenosine signals vial A2AR and other P1 receptors to raise cAMP levels and to induce VASP phosphorylation. This reduces further platelet activation. Used inhibitors indicated in red. ADA adenosine deaminase, ADP adenosine diphosphate, ALP alkaline phosphatase, AMP adenosine monophosphate, ATP adenosine triphosphate, TRAP thrombin receptor activator for peptide, VASP vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein
    Figure Legend Snippet: Graphical summary of results. Upon agonist-induced platelet activation, ATP and ADP are released. These are converted to AMP by platelet CD39 activity. AMP is converted to adenosine by MSC-expressed CD73 and to a low extent by alkaline phosphatase. Adenosine signals vial A2AR and other P1 receptors to raise cAMP levels and to induce VASP phosphorylation. This reduces further platelet activation. Used inhibitors indicated in red. ADA adenosine deaminase, ADP adenosine diphosphate, ALP alkaline phosphatase, AMP adenosine monophosphate, ATP adenosine triphosphate, TRAP thrombin receptor activator for peptide, VASP vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay, Activity Assay, ALP Assay

    6) Product Images from "Human mesenchymal stromal cells inhibit platelet activation and aggregation involving CD73-converted adenosine"

    Article Title: Human mesenchymal stromal cells inhibit platelet activation and aggregation involving CD73-converted adenosine

    Journal: Stem Cell Research & Therapy

    doi: 10.1186/s13287-018-0936-8

    Graphical summary of results. Upon agonist-induced platelet activation, ATP and ADP are released. These are converted to AMP by platelet CD39 activity. AMP is converted to adenosine by MSC-expressed CD73 and to a low extent by alkaline phosphatase. Adenosine signals vial A2AR and other P1 receptors to raise cAMP levels and to induce VASP phosphorylation. This reduces further platelet activation. Used inhibitors indicated in red. ADA adenosine deaminase, ADP adenosine diphosphate, ALP alkaline phosphatase, AMP adenosine monophosphate, ATP adenosine triphosphate, TRAP thrombin receptor activator for peptide, VASP vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein
    Figure Legend Snippet: Graphical summary of results. Upon agonist-induced platelet activation, ATP and ADP are released. These are converted to AMP by platelet CD39 activity. AMP is converted to adenosine by MSC-expressed CD73 and to a low extent by alkaline phosphatase. Adenosine signals vial A2AR and other P1 receptors to raise cAMP levels and to induce VASP phosphorylation. This reduces further platelet activation. Used inhibitors indicated in red. ADA adenosine deaminase, ADP adenosine diphosphate, ALP alkaline phosphatase, AMP adenosine monophosphate, ATP adenosine triphosphate, TRAP thrombin receptor activator for peptide, VASP vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay, Activity Assay, ALP Assay

    Related Articles

    Incubation:

    Article Title: Human mesenchymal stromal cells inhibit platelet activation and aggregation involving CD73-converted adenosine
    Article Snippet: .. Briefly, cells were seeded at 10,000 cells/cm2 in 24-well plates and then incubated for 24 h. ATP, ADP and AMP (1 mM; Santa Cruz) were then added in phosphate-free buffer and incubated for either 1 h (ATP and ADP) or 30 min (AMP). ..

    Article Title: Enzymatic degradation of RNA causes widespread protein aggregation in cell and tissue lysates
    Article Snippet: .. Briefly, 5 μl of renatured proteins were mixed in a white 96-well plate (Santa Cruz Biotechnology) with ATP (100 uM final concentration) and 0.1 μl RNase A/T1 mixture or vehicle (50% Glycerol in 20 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.5), all diluted in 1X PBS, 5 mM MgCl2, 2 mM DTT, in a total volume of 15 μl and incubated at room temperature for 1.5 hour. ..

    Article Title: Transcriptome Analysis Identifies Plasmodiophora brassicae Secondary Infection Effector Candidates
    Article Snippet: .. Kinase activity assayFor the in vitro kinase assay, recombinant SSPbP22 (20 pmol) was incubated at 28 °C for 30 min in a final volume of 20 μl containing 0.5 mg/ml myelin basic protein (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA) and 20 μM ATP. ..

    Concentration Assay:

    Article Title: CDKL3 promotes osteosarcoma progression by activating Akt/PKB
    Article Snippet: .. At the condition of adding ATP (from Santa Cruz Biotech, final concentration in reaction: 0.2 mM) or distilled water, the reactions were performed at 30° for 30 min. Then, the reactions were stopped immediately by adding 3× SDS-containing Laemmli buffer at due time. ..

    Article Title: Enzymatic degradation of RNA causes widespread protein aggregation in cell and tissue lysates
    Article Snippet: .. Briefly, 5 μl of renatured proteins were mixed in a white 96-well plate (Santa Cruz Biotechnology) with ATP (100 uM final concentration) and 0.1 μl RNase A/T1 mixture or vehicle (50% Glycerol in 20 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.5), all diluted in 1X PBS, 5 mM MgCl2, 2 mM DTT, in a total volume of 15 μl and incubated at room temperature for 1.5 hour. ..

    Activity Assay:

    Article Title: Transcriptome Analysis Identifies Plasmodiophora brassicae Secondary Infection Effector Candidates
    Article Snippet: .. Kinase activity assayFor the in vitro kinase assay, recombinant SSPbP22 (20 pmol) was incubated at 28 °C for 30 min in a final volume of 20 μl containing 0.5 mg/ml myelin basic protein (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA) and 20 μM ATP. ..

    In Vitro:

    Article Title: Transcriptome Analysis Identifies Plasmodiophora brassicae Secondary Infection Effector Candidates
    Article Snippet: .. Kinase activity assayFor the in vitro kinase assay, recombinant SSPbP22 (20 pmol) was incubated at 28 °C for 30 min in a final volume of 20 μl containing 0.5 mg/ml myelin basic protein (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA) and 20 μM ATP. ..

    Kinase Assay:

    Article Title: Transcriptome Analysis Identifies Plasmodiophora brassicae Secondary Infection Effector Candidates
    Article Snippet: .. Kinase activity assayFor the in vitro kinase assay, recombinant SSPbP22 (20 pmol) was incubated at 28 °C for 30 min in a final volume of 20 μl containing 0.5 mg/ml myelin basic protein (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA) and 20 μM ATP. ..

    Recombinant:

    Article Title: Transcriptome Analysis Identifies Plasmodiophora brassicae Secondary Infection Effector Candidates
    Article Snippet: .. Kinase activity assayFor the in vitro kinase assay, recombinant SSPbP22 (20 pmol) was incubated at 28 °C for 30 min in a final volume of 20 μl containing 0.5 mg/ml myelin basic protein (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA) and 20 μM ATP. ..

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  • 86
    Santa Cruz Biotechnology p atp synthase
    Effect of short‐ and long‐duration endurance training on metabolism and mitochondrial complex protein expression in hypertrophied skeletal muscle. Total AMPK (A), phospho‐AMPK (B), total <t>ATP</t> <t>synthase</t> (C), phospho‐ATP synthase (D), PGC‐1α (E), cytochrome c (F), VEGF (G) and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) (H) in the plantaris muscle. Values represent mean + standard error ( n = 7–8 per group). * P
    P Atp Synthase, supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/p atp synthase/product/Santa Cruz Biotechnology
    Average 86 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    p atp synthase - by Bioz Stars, 2021-09
    86/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    93
    Santa Cruz Biotechnology human atp synthase
    HT improves mitochondrial function in PMA-stimulated endothelial cells. HUVEC were pretreated with HT (1–30 μ mol/L) for 1 h and then stimulated with PMA (10 nmol/L) for further 16 h. After treatments, MMP was assayed by using JC-1 staining and evaluated by using a fluorescence plate reader (a). Mitochondrial oligomycin-sensitive <t>ATP</t> synthesis was measured in endothelial cells incubated in the absence (−) or in the presence of HT (1–30 μ mol/L) (b). The expression of β subunit of ATP <t>synthase</t> was evaluated at protein (c) and mRNA levels (d) by Western blotting or quantitative RT-PCR, respectively. ATP5 β protein expression was normalized to β -actin, and ATP5 β mRNA amount was normalized to Gapdh mRNA. Data are representative of four independent experiments (mean ± SD), each consisting of four replicates for each condition, and expressed as percentage of PMA-stimulated endothelial cells. ∗ p
    Human Atp Synthase, supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/human atp synthase/product/Santa Cruz Biotechnology
    Average 93 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    human atp synthase - by Bioz Stars, 2021-09
    93/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    86
    Santa Cruz Biotechnology atp
    Graphical summary of results. Upon agonist-induced platelet activation, <t>ATP</t> and <t>ADP</t> are released. These are converted to AMP by platelet CD39 activity. AMP is converted to adenosine by MSC-expressed CD73 and to a low extent by alkaline phosphatase. Adenosine signals vial A2AR and other P1 receptors to raise cAMP levels and to induce VASP phosphorylation. This reduces further platelet activation. Used inhibitors indicated in red. ADA adenosine deaminase, ADP adenosine diphosphate, ALP alkaline phosphatase, AMP adenosine monophosphate, ATP adenosine triphosphate, TRAP thrombin receptor activator for peptide, VASP vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein
    Atp, supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/atp/product/Santa Cruz Biotechnology
    Average 86 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    atp - by Bioz Stars, 2021-09
    86/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    86
    Santa Cruz Biotechnology atp synthase
    Changes in GAPDH (a), PDH (b), ACADM (c), ACC (d), subunit IV of cytochrome c oxidase (COX IV) (e), and <t>ATP</t> <t>synthase</t> (f) protein levels in rat retroperitoneal depot of white fat tissue after different time periods of cold exposure. Protein content is expressed relative to the control maintained at ro om temperature, which was standardized as 100%. The results of the representative example from three observations are shown. Data were quantified as described in Section 2 . The values represent the mean ± S.E.M. *Compared to control, * P
    Atp Synthase, supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/atp synthase/product/Santa Cruz Biotechnology
    Average 86 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    atp synthase - by Bioz Stars, 2021-09
    86/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    Image Search Results


    Effect of short‐ and long‐duration endurance training on metabolism and mitochondrial complex protein expression in hypertrophied skeletal muscle. Total AMPK (A), phospho‐AMPK (B), total ATP synthase (C), phospho‐ATP synthase (D), PGC‐1α (E), cytochrome c (F), VEGF (G) and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) (H) in the plantaris muscle. Values represent mean + standard error ( n = 7–8 per group). * P

    Journal: FEBS Open Bio

    Article Title: Effect of endurance exercise duration on muscle hypertrophy induced by functional overload

    doi: 10.1002/2211-5463.13028

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of short‐ and long‐duration endurance training on metabolism and mitochondrial complex protein expression in hypertrophied skeletal muscle. Total AMPK (A), phospho‐AMPK (B), total ATP synthase (C), phospho‐ATP synthase (D), PGC‐1α (E), cytochrome c (F), VEGF (G) and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) (H) in the plantaris muscle. Values represent mean + standard error ( n = 7–8 per group). * P

    Article Snippet: Primary antibodies for western blotting The following primary antibodies were used for western blotting: protein kinase B (Akt) (9272; Cell Signaling Technology, Danvers, MA, USA), p‐Akt (#4060S; Cell Signaling Technology), p70S6K (#9202; Cell Signaling Technology), p‐p70S6K (#9205; Cell Signaling Technology), S6 ribosomal protein S6 (S6) (#2217; Cell Signaling Technology), p‐S6 (#4858S; Cell Signaling Technology), 4E‐binding protein 1 (4E‐BP1) (#9452; Cell Signaling Technology), p‐4E‐BP1 (#9459; Cell Signaling Technology), glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) (#12456; Cell Signaling Technology), p‐GSK3β (#5558; Cell Signaling Technology), ERK1/2 (#4695; Cell Signaling Technology), p‐ERK1/2 (#4370; Cell Signaling Technology), p38 (#9212; Cell Signaling Technology), p‐p38 (#9211; Cell Signaling Technology), AMPK (#2532; Cell Signaling Technology), p‐AMPK (#2531; Cell Signaling Technology), ATP synthase (sc‐517267; Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA, USA), p‐ATP synthase (sc‐374647; Santa Cruz Biotechnology), PGC‐1α (516557; Millipore, Burlington, MA, USA) and cytochrome c (556433; BD Biosciences, San Jose, CA, USA), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) (sc‐507; Santa Cruz Biotechnology), oxidative phosphorylation (ab110413; Abcam, Cambridge, UK), glyceraldehyde‐3‐phosphate dehydrogenase (ab8245; Abcam), Forkhead box‐containing protein O1 (FoxO1) (2880S; Cell Signaling Technology), p‐FoxO1 (9461; Cell Signaling Technology), microtubule‐associated protein 1 light chain 3 (MAP1LC3; LC‐3) (#4108; Cell Signaling Technology), p62 (SQSTM1) (PM045; MBL), Muscle RING‐Finger Protein (MuRF1) (sc‐32920; Santa Cruz Biotechnology), Muscle Atrophy F‐box (MAFbx) (sc‐33782; Santa Cruz Biotechnology), 4‐hydroxy‐2‐nonenal (4‐HNE) (ab48506; Abcam) and ubiquitin (sc‐166553; Santa Cruz).

    Techniques: Expressing, Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography

    HT improves mitochondrial function in PMA-stimulated endothelial cells. HUVEC were pretreated with HT (1–30 μ mol/L) for 1 h and then stimulated with PMA (10 nmol/L) for further 16 h. After treatments, MMP was assayed by using JC-1 staining and evaluated by using a fluorescence plate reader (a). Mitochondrial oligomycin-sensitive ATP synthesis was measured in endothelial cells incubated in the absence (−) or in the presence of HT (1–30 μ mol/L) (b). The expression of β subunit of ATP synthase was evaluated at protein (c) and mRNA levels (d) by Western blotting or quantitative RT-PCR, respectively. ATP5 β protein expression was normalized to β -actin, and ATP5 β mRNA amount was normalized to Gapdh mRNA. Data are representative of four independent experiments (mean ± SD), each consisting of four replicates for each condition, and expressed as percentage of PMA-stimulated endothelial cells. ∗ p

    Journal: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity

    Article Title: Hydroxytyrosol Ameliorates Endothelial Function under Inflammatory Conditions by Preventing Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    doi: 10.1155/2018/9086947

    Figure Lengend Snippet: HT improves mitochondrial function in PMA-stimulated endothelial cells. HUVEC were pretreated with HT (1–30 μ mol/L) for 1 h and then stimulated with PMA (10 nmol/L) for further 16 h. After treatments, MMP was assayed by using JC-1 staining and evaluated by using a fluorescence plate reader (a). Mitochondrial oligomycin-sensitive ATP synthesis was measured in endothelial cells incubated in the absence (−) or in the presence of HT (1–30 μ mol/L) (b). The expression of β subunit of ATP synthase was evaluated at protein (c) and mRNA levels (d) by Western blotting or quantitative RT-PCR, respectively. ATP5 β protein expression was normalized to β -actin, and ATP5 β mRNA amount was normalized to Gapdh mRNA. Data are representative of four independent experiments (mean ± SD), each consisting of four replicates for each condition, and expressed as percentage of PMA-stimulated endothelial cells. ∗ p

    Article Snippet: Primary antibodies against β subunit of human ATP synthase (ATP5β ), PGC-1α , and NRF-1 and peroxidase-conjugated secondary antibody were purchased from Santa Cruz Biotechnology.

    Techniques: Staining, Fluorescence, Incubation, Expressing, Western Blot, Quantitative RT-PCR

    Graphical summary of results. Upon agonist-induced platelet activation, ATP and ADP are released. These are converted to AMP by platelet CD39 activity. AMP is converted to adenosine by MSC-expressed CD73 and to a low extent by alkaline phosphatase. Adenosine signals vial A2AR and other P1 receptors to raise cAMP levels and to induce VASP phosphorylation. This reduces further platelet activation. Used inhibitors indicated in red. ADA adenosine deaminase, ADP adenosine diphosphate, ALP alkaline phosphatase, AMP adenosine monophosphate, ATP adenosine triphosphate, TRAP thrombin receptor activator for peptide, VASP vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein

    Journal: Stem Cell Research & Therapy

    Article Title: Human mesenchymal stromal cells inhibit platelet activation and aggregation involving CD73-converted adenosine

    doi: 10.1186/s13287-018-0936-8

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Graphical summary of results. Upon agonist-induced platelet activation, ATP and ADP are released. These are converted to AMP by platelet CD39 activity. AMP is converted to adenosine by MSC-expressed CD73 and to a low extent by alkaline phosphatase. Adenosine signals vial A2AR and other P1 receptors to raise cAMP levels and to induce VASP phosphorylation. This reduces further platelet activation. Used inhibitors indicated in red. ADA adenosine deaminase, ADP adenosine diphosphate, ALP alkaline phosphatase, AMP adenosine monophosphate, ATP adenosine triphosphate, TRAP thrombin receptor activator for peptide, VASP vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein

    Article Snippet: Briefly, cells were seeded at 10,000 cells/cm2 in 24-well plates and then incubated for 24 h. ATP, ADP and AMP (1 mM; Santa Cruz) were then added in phosphate-free buffer and incubated for either 1 h (ATP and ADP) or 30 min (AMP).

    Techniques: Activation Assay, Activity Assay, ALP Assay

    Changes in GAPDH (a), PDH (b), ACADM (c), ACC (d), subunit IV of cytochrome c oxidase (COX IV) (e), and ATP synthase (f) protein levels in rat retroperitoneal depot of white fat tissue after different time periods of cold exposure. Protein content is expressed relative to the control maintained at ro om temperature, which was standardized as 100%. The results of the representative example from three observations are shown. Data were quantified as described in Section 2 . The values represent the mean ± S.E.M. *Compared to control, * P

    Journal: Journal of Obesity

    Article Title: Endocrine and Metabolic Signaling in Retroperitoneal White Adipose Tissue Remodeling during Cold Acclimation

    doi: 10.1155/2013/937572

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Changes in GAPDH (a), PDH (b), ACADM (c), ACC (d), subunit IV of cytochrome c oxidase (COX IV) (e), and ATP synthase (f) protein levels in rat retroperitoneal depot of white fat tissue after different time periods of cold exposure. Protein content is expressed relative to the control maintained at ro om temperature, which was standardized as 100%. The results of the representative example from three observations are shown. Data were quantified as described in Section 2 . The values represent the mean ± S.E.M. *Compared to control, * P

    Article Snippet: Goat anti-mouse secondary antibody (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, CA, USA) was used for detection of resistin, GAPDH, cytochrome c oxidase, ATP synthase, and β actin, while goat anti-rabbit secondary antibody (Santa Cruz Biotechnology) was used for detection of adiponectin, phospho-AMPKα , HIF-1α , PDH, ACADM, and ACC, respectively.

    Techniques: