aspergillus fumigatus  (ATCC)


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    Name:
    Aspergillus fumigatus
    Description:
    Applications Biomedical Research and Development MaterialEmerging infectious disease researchOpportunistic pathogen researchRespiratory research Species Aspergillus fumigatus
    Catalog Number:
    66566
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    Applications:
    Biomedical Research and Development MaterialEmerging infectious disease researchOpportunistic pathogen researchRespiratory research
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    Structured Review

    ATCC aspergillus fumigatus
    Confocal microscopic analysis of the lungs of untreated or treated immunocompromised WT mice. Four days after mice were intranasally infected with DsRed A. <t>fumigatus</t> conidia, fresh lung sections were isolated from untreated (A, C, and F), C12-DL6K6-treated
    Applications Biomedical Research and Development MaterialEmerging infectious disease researchOpportunistic pathogen researchRespiratory research Species Aspergillus fumigatus
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    Images

    1) Product Images from "Efficient Clearance of Aspergillus fumigatus in Murine Lungs by an Ultrashort Antimicrobial Lipopeptide, Palmitoyl-Lys-Ala-dAla-Lys ▿"

    Article Title: Efficient Clearance of Aspergillus fumigatus in Murine Lungs by an Ultrashort Antimicrobial Lipopeptide, Palmitoyl-Lys-Ala-dAla-Lys ▿

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.00526-08

    Confocal microscopic analysis of the lungs of untreated or treated immunocompromised WT mice. Four days after mice were intranasally infected with DsRed A. fumigatus conidia, fresh lung sections were isolated from untreated (A, C, and F), C12-DL6K6-treated
    Figure Legend Snippet: Confocal microscopic analysis of the lungs of untreated or treated immunocompromised WT mice. Four days after mice were intranasally infected with DsRed A. fumigatus conidia, fresh lung sections were isolated from untreated (A, C, and F), C12-DL6K6-treated

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Infection, Isolation

    Ex vivo confocal imaging of cross sections of fresh lung tissue from CX 3 CR1 GFP mice. (A) Lungs were injected with CMTMR to reveal tissue architecture. Mice were intranasally infected with 10 7 DsRed A. fumigatus conidia, and the course of infection was
    Figure Legend Snippet: Ex vivo confocal imaging of cross sections of fresh lung tissue from CX 3 CR1 GFP mice. (A) Lungs were injected with CMTMR to reveal tissue architecture. Mice were intranasally infected with 10 7 DsRed A. fumigatus conidia, and the course of infection was

    Techniques Used: Ex Vivo, Imaging, Mouse Assay, Injection, Infection

    Confocal microscopic analysis of the lungs of C16-KA A K-treated immunocompromised CX 3 CR1 GFP mice. Four days after mice were intranasally infected with DsRed A. fumigatus conidia, fresh lung sections were isolated. Residual conidia were detected within
    Figure Legend Snippet: Confocal microscopic analysis of the lungs of C16-KA A K-treated immunocompromised CX 3 CR1 GFP mice. Four days after mice were intranasally infected with DsRed A. fumigatus conidia, fresh lung sections were isolated. Residual conidia were detected within

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Infection, Isolation

    Survival of immunocompromised WT mice. In the first survival assay (A), mice were infected intranasally with DsRed A. fumigatus conidia and treated with vehicle control (♦) or with one dose of C16-KA A K at 4.5 mg/kg day after the infection (▴)
    Figure Legend Snippet: Survival of immunocompromised WT mice. In the first survival assay (A), mice were infected intranasally with DsRed A. fumigatus conidia and treated with vehicle control (♦) or with one dose of C16-KA A K at 4.5 mg/kg day after the infection (▴)

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Clonogenic Cell Survival Assay, Infection

    2) Product Images from "Molecular Detection and Species-Specific Identification of Medically Important Aspergillus Species by Real-Time PCR in Experimental Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis ▿"

    Article Title: Molecular Detection and Species-Specific Identification of Medically Important Aspergillus Species by Real-Time PCR in Experimental Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis ▿

    Journal: Journal of Clinical Microbiology

    doi: 10.1128/JCM.00570-11

    Real-time PCR linearity and dynamic range. Five to 5 × 10 7 copies of each assay's target region were introduced into real-time PCR wells and analyzed to determine crossing thresholds. The log copy number detected per reaction was plotted versus the crossing threshold for pan- Aspergillus (squares), A. fumigatus (triangles), and A. terreus (circles).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Real-time PCR linearity and dynamic range. Five to 5 × 10 7 copies of each assay's target region were introduced into real-time PCR wells and analyzed to determine crossing thresholds. The log copy number detected per reaction was plotted versus the crossing threshold for pan- Aspergillus (squares), A. fumigatus (triangles), and A. terreus (circles).

    Techniques Used: Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Limit of detection. A mixture of A. fumigatus and A. terreus germlings was introduced at low concentrations (7 to 50 germlings) into BAL fluid, followed by nucleic acid extraction. The eluates were tested by each of the Aspergillus PCR assays. The number of copies detected per reaction was plotted against the number of organisms per 0.5 ml BAL fluid for pan- Aspergillus (squares), A. fumigatus (triangles), and A. terreus (circles).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Limit of detection. A mixture of A. fumigatus and A. terreus germlings was introduced at low concentrations (7 to 50 germlings) into BAL fluid, followed by nucleic acid extraction. The eluates were tested by each of the Aspergillus PCR assays. The number of copies detected per reaction was plotted against the number of organisms per 0.5 ml BAL fluid for pan- Aspergillus (squares), A. fumigatus (triangles), and A. terreus (circles).

    Techniques Used: Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Detection of rDNA copies in BAL fluid, showing efficacy of amphotericin B (AmB) treatment in an experimental model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Copies/ml and CFU/ml of BAL fluid are shown for real-time PCR assays (pan- Aspergillus [black bars] and A. fumigatus or A. terreus species-specific [white bars] assays) and culture (gray bars), respectively. Utilizing the A. fumigatus and pan- Aspergillus assays, there was a statistically significant difference in numbers of copies/ml of BAL fluid between the untreated and treated groups for A. fumigatus ( P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Detection of rDNA copies in BAL fluid, showing efficacy of amphotericin B (AmB) treatment in an experimental model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Copies/ml and CFU/ml of BAL fluid are shown for real-time PCR assays (pan- Aspergillus [black bars] and A. fumigatus or A. terreus species-specific [white bars] assays) and culture (gray bars), respectively. Utilizing the A. fumigatus and pan- Aspergillus assays, there was a statistically significant difference in numbers of copies/ml of BAL fluid between the untreated and treated groups for A. fumigatus ( P

    Techniques Used: Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Detection of rDNA copies in tissue homogenates, showing efficacy of amphotericin B (AmB) treatment ( A. fumigatus ) and ravuconazole (Ravu) treatment ( A. terreus ) in an experimental model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Log copies per tissue sample and log CFU/g tissue are shown for real-time PCR assays (pan- Aspergillus [black bars] and A. fumigatus or A. terreus species-specific [white bars] assays) and culture (gray bars), respectively. Utilizing the two-tailed Mann-Whitney t test, there was a statistically significant difference in numbers of copies per tissue extraction between the untreated and treated groups for A. fumigatus ( P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Detection of rDNA copies in tissue homogenates, showing efficacy of amphotericin B (AmB) treatment ( A. fumigatus ) and ravuconazole (Ravu) treatment ( A. terreus ) in an experimental model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Log copies per tissue sample and log CFU/g tissue are shown for real-time PCR assays (pan- Aspergillus [black bars] and A. fumigatus or A. terreus species-specific [white bars] assays) and culture (gray bars), respectively. Utilizing the two-tailed Mann-Whitney t test, there was a statistically significant difference in numbers of copies per tissue extraction between the untreated and treated groups for A. fumigatus ( P

    Techniques Used: Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Two Tailed Test, MANN-WHITNEY

    3) Product Images from "Mapping the Impact of a Polar Aprotic Solvent on the Microstructure and Dynamic Phase Transition in Glycerol Monooleate/Oleic Acid Systems"

    Article Title: Mapping the Impact of a Polar Aprotic Solvent on the Microstructure and Dynamic Phase Transition in Glycerol Monooleate/Oleic Acid Systems

    Journal: Turkish Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences

    doi: 10.4274/tjps.galenos.2019.26096

    Zone of inhibition of gel samples obtained against Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans
    Figure Legend Snippet: Zone of inhibition of gel samples obtained against Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans

    Techniques Used: Inhibition

    4) Product Images from "Comparison of Six DNA Extraction Methods for Recovery of Fungal DNA as Assessed by Quantitative PCR"

    Article Title: Comparison of Six DNA Extraction Methods for Recovery of Fungal DNA as Assessed by Quantitative PCR

    Journal: Journal of Clinical Microbiology

    doi: 10.1128/JCM.43.10.5122-5128.2005

    Mean levels of Aspergillus DNA detected in BAL fluid spiked with A. fumigatus conidia and subjected to six DNA extraction methods. Fungal DNA levels were measured using quantitative PCR. Error bars indicate standard deviations for replicate extractions. The UCS and FDNA methods produced the highest levels of Aspergillus DNA from conidia.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Mean levels of Aspergillus DNA detected in BAL fluid spiked with A. fumigatus conidia and subjected to six DNA extraction methods. Fungal DNA levels were measured using quantitative PCR. Error bars indicate standard deviations for replicate extractions. The UCS and FDNA methods produced the highest levels of Aspergillus DNA from conidia.

    Techniques Used: DNA Extraction, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Produced

    5) Product Images from "Comparison of Six DNA Extraction Methods for Recovery of Fungal DNA as Assessed by Quantitative PCR"

    Article Title: Comparison of Six DNA Extraction Methods for Recovery of Fungal DNA as Assessed by Quantitative PCR

    Journal: Journal of Clinical Microbiology

    doi: 10.1128/JCM.43.10.5122-5128.2005

    Mean levels of Aspergillus DNA detected in BAL fluid spiked with A. fumigatus conidia and subjected to six DNA extraction methods. Fungal DNA levels were measured using quantitative PCR. Error bars indicate standard deviations for replicate extractions. The UCS and FDNA methods produced the highest levels of Aspergillus DNA from conidia.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Mean levels of Aspergillus DNA detected in BAL fluid spiked with A. fumigatus conidia and subjected to six DNA extraction methods. Fungal DNA levels were measured using quantitative PCR. Error bars indicate standard deviations for replicate extractions. The UCS and FDNA methods produced the highest levels of Aspergillus DNA from conidia.

    Techniques Used: DNA Extraction, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Produced

    6) Product Images from "Identification and Characterization of Key Charged Residues in the Cofilin Protein Involved in Azole Susceptibility, Apoptosis, and Virulence of Aspergillus fumigatus"

    Article Title: Identification and Characterization of Key Charged Residues in the Cofilin Protein Involved in Azole Susceptibility, Apoptosis, and Virulence of Aspergillus fumigatus

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.01659-17

    Effects of mutated cofilin on the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway in A. fumigatus . (A) The expression levels of cyp51A , cyp51B , and srbA in the indicated strains were determined by quantitative RT-PCR. (B) Schematic of the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway in A. fumigatus , including the targets for azole, statins, allylamines, and polyenes. (C) Susceptibility comparison of the indicated strains on GMM plates supplemented with simvastatin (SIM; 2.5 mg/liter) and terbinafine (TBF; 2.5 mg/liter). (D) The ergosterol content was analyzed by HPLC. The ergosterol concentration is expressed as the ergosterol content/fungal weight. Results represent the means from three independent replicates, and standard deviations are indicated with error bars. Statistical significance with reference to the WT was assessed by one-way analysis of variance with Bonferroni's multiple-comparison test. **, P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of mutated cofilin on the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway in A. fumigatus . (A) The expression levels of cyp51A , cyp51B , and srbA in the indicated strains were determined by quantitative RT-PCR. (B) Schematic of the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway in A. fumigatus , including the targets for azole, statins, allylamines, and polyenes. (C) Susceptibility comparison of the indicated strains on GMM plates supplemented with simvastatin (SIM; 2.5 mg/liter) and terbinafine (TBF; 2.5 mg/liter). (D) The ergosterol content was analyzed by HPLC. The ergosterol concentration is expressed as the ergosterol content/fungal weight. Results represent the means from three independent replicates, and standard deviations are indicated with error bars. Statistical significance with reference to the WT was assessed by one-way analysis of variance with Bonferroni's multiple-comparison test. **, P

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR, High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Concentration Assay

    7) Product Images from "Spacer-free BODIPY fluorogens in antimicrobial peptides for direct imaging of fungal infection in human tissue"

    Article Title: Spacer-free BODIPY fluorogens in antimicrobial peptides for direct imaging of fungal infection in human tissue

    Journal: Nature Communications

    doi: 10.1038/ncomms10940

    Fluorogenic peptides for live cell imaging of A.fumigatus in co-culture with human lung epithelial cells. ( a ) Chemical structures of non-labelled and fluorogenic linear peptides ( 4 - 7 ), highlighting the two conserved hydrophilic (grey) and hydrophobic (black) domains of Peptide Antifungal 26 (PAF26). ( b ) Activity of antimicrobial peptides in A. fumigatus , several bacterial strains and in human RBCs.[1] IC 50 (μM) values represented as means±s.e.m. from n =3, [2] cell viability upon 16 h incubation with 4 – 8 at their respective IC 50 concentrations ( n =3), [3] cell viability upon 1 h incubation with 4 – 8 at their respective IC 50 concentrations ( n =3). ( c ) Fluorogenic behaviour of 5 – 7 (10 μM) in phosphatidylcoline (PC):cholesterol (7:1) liposome suspensions in PBS ranging from 3.75 to 0.004 mg ml −1 of PC in two-fold serial dilutions ( λ exc. : 450 nm), and wash-free live cell images of A. fumigatus at 37 °C using fluorescence confocal microscopy after incubation with peptides 5 – 7 (5 μM). Scale bar, 20 μm. ( d ) Peptide 5 (5 μM, green) and Syto82 (2.5 μM, red counterstain for lung epithelial cells) were incubated in co-cultures of A. fumigatus and human lung A549 epithelial cells and imaged under a fluorescence confocal microscope at 37 °C without any washing steps. Fluorescence staining of 5 (A), Syto82 (B), merged (C) and plot profile analysis (D) of peptide 5 (green) and Syto82 (red) from image C. Scale bar, 10 μm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Fluorogenic peptides for live cell imaging of A.fumigatus in co-culture with human lung epithelial cells. ( a ) Chemical structures of non-labelled and fluorogenic linear peptides ( 4 - 7 ), highlighting the two conserved hydrophilic (grey) and hydrophobic (black) domains of Peptide Antifungal 26 (PAF26). ( b ) Activity of antimicrobial peptides in A. fumigatus , several bacterial strains and in human RBCs.[1] IC 50 (μM) values represented as means±s.e.m. from n =3, [2] cell viability upon 16 h incubation with 4 – 8 at their respective IC 50 concentrations ( n =3), [3] cell viability upon 1 h incubation with 4 – 8 at their respective IC 50 concentrations ( n =3). ( c ) Fluorogenic behaviour of 5 – 7 (10 μM) in phosphatidylcoline (PC):cholesterol (7:1) liposome suspensions in PBS ranging from 3.75 to 0.004 mg ml −1 of PC in two-fold serial dilutions ( λ exc. : 450 nm), and wash-free live cell images of A. fumigatus at 37 °C using fluorescence confocal microscopy after incubation with peptides 5 – 7 (5 μM). Scale bar, 20 μm. ( d ) Peptide 5 (5 μM, green) and Syto82 (2.5 μM, red counterstain for lung epithelial cells) were incubated in co-cultures of A. fumigatus and human lung A549 epithelial cells and imaged under a fluorescence confocal microscope at 37 °C without any washing steps. Fluorescence staining of 5 (A), Syto82 (B), merged (C) and plot profile analysis (D) of peptide 5 (green) and Syto82 (red) from image C. Scale bar, 10 μm.

    Techniques Used: Live Cell Imaging, Co-Culture Assay, Activity Assay, Incubation, Fluorescence, Confocal Microscopy, Microscopy, Staining

    The cyclic peptide 8 is a highly stable fluorogenic agent for high-resolution imaging of A. fumigatus . ( a ) Comparative chemical stability of mono-labelled BODIPY linear ( 5 ) and cyclic ( 8 ) PAF26 analogues in human bronchoalveolar lavage samples from patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. ( b ) Chemical structure of the cyclic BODIPY-labelled peptide 8 . ( c ) Kinetic analysis (from time-lapse imaging in d of the fluorescence signal of compound 8 (2 μM) in the cell membrane of A. fumigatus (arrow points at the addition time for compound 8 ). ( d ) Time-lapse high-resolution imaging of A. fumigatus upon incubation with a cell membrane counterstain (red) and compound 8 (2 μM, green) for 0 min ( i ), 1 min ( ii ), 3 min ( iii ) and 10 min ( iv ) (see Supplementary Movie 3 ). Scale bar, 2.5 μm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: The cyclic peptide 8 is a highly stable fluorogenic agent for high-resolution imaging of A. fumigatus . ( a ) Comparative chemical stability of mono-labelled BODIPY linear ( 5 ) and cyclic ( 8 ) PAF26 analogues in human bronchoalveolar lavage samples from patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. ( b ) Chemical structure of the cyclic BODIPY-labelled peptide 8 . ( c ) Kinetic analysis (from time-lapse imaging in d of the fluorescence signal of compound 8 (2 μM) in the cell membrane of A. fumigatus (arrow points at the addition time for compound 8 ). ( d ) Time-lapse high-resolution imaging of A. fumigatus upon incubation with a cell membrane counterstain (red) and compound 8 (2 μM, green) for 0 min ( i ), 1 min ( ii ), 3 min ( iii ) and 10 min ( iv ) (see Supplementary Movie 3 ). Scale bar, 2.5 μm.

    Techniques Used: Imaging, Fluorescence, Incubation

    Multi-photon fluorescence microscopy of ex vivo human pulmonary tissue after incubation with RFP-expressing A. fumigatus . ( a ) Multi-photon microscope images from peptide 8 (5 μM) (A), RFP-expressing A. fumigatus (B), second harmonic generation from collagen fibres (C) and merged (D) in ex vivo human lung tissue. Scale bar, 10 μm. ( b ) (A) Fluorescence lifetime image of 8 -stained A. fumigatus in ex vivo human lung tissue. White arrows point autofluorescent tissue structures and yellow arrows point 8 -stained fungal cells. (B) Corresponding fluorescence image of 8 -stained A. fumigatus (green) and collagen fibres (second harmonic generation, cyan) for the fluorescence lifetime image in A. Scale bar, 20 μm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Multi-photon fluorescence microscopy of ex vivo human pulmonary tissue after incubation with RFP-expressing A. fumigatus . ( a ) Multi-photon microscope images from peptide 8 (5 μM) (A), RFP-expressing A. fumigatus (B), second harmonic generation from collagen fibres (C) and merged (D) in ex vivo human lung tissue. Scale bar, 10 μm. ( b ) (A) Fluorescence lifetime image of 8 -stained A. fumigatus in ex vivo human lung tissue. White arrows point autofluorescent tissue structures and yellow arrows point 8 -stained fungal cells. (B) Corresponding fluorescence image of 8 -stained A. fumigatus (green) and collagen fibres (second harmonic generation, cyan) for the fluorescence lifetime image in A. Scale bar, 20 μm.

    Techniques Used: Fluorescence, Microscopy, Ex Vivo, Incubation, Expressing, Staining

    8) Product Images from "The Allergenicity of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia is influenced by growth temperature"

    Article Title: The Allergenicity of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia is influenced by growth temperature

    Journal: Fungal biology

    doi: 10.1016/j.funbio.2011.03.006

    Culturability of A. fumigatus spores grown under different conidiation temperatures (± standard error, n=3 experiments).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Culturability of A. fumigatus spores grown under different conidiation temperatures (± standard error, n=3 experiments).

    Techniques Used:

    Allergenicity per 10 7 spores of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia cultivated under different sporulation temperatures. Error bars represent standard error values over three independent experimental replicates. ( Inset ) Protein content per 10 7 spores in conidia
    Figure Legend Snippet: Allergenicity per 10 7 spores of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia cultivated under different sporulation temperatures. Error bars represent standard error values over three independent experimental replicates. ( Inset ) Protein content per 10 7 spores in conidia

    Techniques Used:

    9) Product Images from "Mapping the Impact of a Polar Aprotic Solvent on the Microstructure and Dynamic Phase Transition in Glycerol Monooleate/Oleic Acid Systems"

    Article Title: Mapping the Impact of a Polar Aprotic Solvent on the Microstructure and Dynamic Phase Transition in Glycerol Monooleate/Oleic Acid Systems

    Journal: Turkish Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences

    doi: 10.4274/tjps.galenos.2019.26096

    Zone of inhibition of gel samples obtained against Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans
    Figure Legend Snippet: Zone of inhibition of gel samples obtained against Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans

    Techniques Used: Inhibition

    10) Product Images from "The Allergenicity of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia is influenced by growth temperature"

    Article Title: The Allergenicity of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia is influenced by growth temperature

    Journal: Fungal biology

    doi: 10.1016/j.funbio.2011.03.006

    Culturability of A. fumigatus spores grown under different conidiation temperatures (± standard error, n=3 experiments).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Culturability of A. fumigatus spores grown under different conidiation temperatures (± standard error, n=3 experiments).

    Techniques Used:

    Allergenicity per 10 7 spores of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia cultivated under different sporulation temperatures. Error bars represent standard error values over three independent experimental replicates. ( Inset ) Protein content per 10 7 spores in conidia
    Figure Legend Snippet: Allergenicity per 10 7 spores of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia cultivated under different sporulation temperatures. Error bars represent standard error values over three independent experimental replicates. ( Inset ) Protein content per 10 7 spores in conidia

    Techniques Used:

    11) Product Images from "Identification and Characterization of Key Charged Residues in the Cofilin Protein Involved in Azole Susceptibility, Apoptosis, and Virulence of Aspergillus fumigatus"

    Article Title: Identification and Characterization of Key Charged Residues in the Cofilin Protein Involved in Azole Susceptibility, Apoptosis, and Virulence of Aspergillus fumigatus

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.01659-17

    Effects of mutated cofilin on the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway in A. fumigatus . (A) The expression levels of cyp51A , cyp51B , and srbA in the indicated strains were determined by quantitative RT-PCR. (B) Schematic of the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway in A. fumigatus , including the targets for azole, statins, allylamines, and polyenes. (C) Susceptibility comparison of the indicated strains on GMM plates supplemented with simvastatin (SIM; 2.5 mg/liter) and terbinafine (TBF; 2.5 mg/liter). (D) The ergosterol content was analyzed by HPLC. The ergosterol concentration is expressed as the ergosterol content/fungal weight. Results represent the means from three independent replicates, and standard deviations are indicated with error bars. Statistical significance with reference to the WT was assessed by one-way analysis of variance with Bonferroni's multiple-comparison test. **, P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of mutated cofilin on the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway in A. fumigatus . (A) The expression levels of cyp51A , cyp51B , and srbA in the indicated strains were determined by quantitative RT-PCR. (B) Schematic of the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway in A. fumigatus , including the targets for azole, statins, allylamines, and polyenes. (C) Susceptibility comparison of the indicated strains on GMM plates supplemented with simvastatin (SIM; 2.5 mg/liter) and terbinafine (TBF; 2.5 mg/liter). (D) The ergosterol content was analyzed by HPLC. The ergosterol concentration is expressed as the ergosterol content/fungal weight. Results represent the means from three independent replicates, and standard deviations are indicated with error bars. Statistical significance with reference to the WT was assessed by one-way analysis of variance with Bonferroni's multiple-comparison test. **, P

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR, High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Concentration Assay

    12) Product Images from "Identification and Characterization of Key Charged Residues in the Cofilin Protein Involved in Azole Susceptibility, Apoptosis, and Virulence of Aspergillus fumigatus"

    Article Title: Identification and Characterization of Key Charged Residues in the Cofilin Protein Involved in Azole Susceptibility, Apoptosis, and Virulence of Aspergillus fumigatus

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.01659-17

    Effects of mutated cofilin on the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway in A. fumigatus . (A) The expression levels of cyp51A , cyp51B , and srbA in the indicated strains were determined by quantitative RT-PCR. (B) Schematic of the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway in A. fumigatus , including the targets for azole, statins, allylamines, and polyenes. (C) Susceptibility comparison of the indicated strains on GMM plates supplemented with simvastatin (SIM; 2.5 mg/liter) and terbinafine (TBF; 2.5 mg/liter). (D) The ergosterol content was analyzed by HPLC. The ergosterol concentration is expressed as the ergosterol content/fungal weight. Results represent the means from three independent replicates, and standard deviations are indicated with error bars. Statistical significance with reference to the WT was assessed by one-way analysis of variance with Bonferroni's multiple-comparison test. **, P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of mutated cofilin on the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway in A. fumigatus . (A) The expression levels of cyp51A , cyp51B , and srbA in the indicated strains were determined by quantitative RT-PCR. (B) Schematic of the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway in A. fumigatus , including the targets for azole, statins, allylamines, and polyenes. (C) Susceptibility comparison of the indicated strains on GMM plates supplemented with simvastatin (SIM; 2.5 mg/liter) and terbinafine (TBF; 2.5 mg/liter). (D) The ergosterol content was analyzed by HPLC. The ergosterol concentration is expressed as the ergosterol content/fungal weight. Results represent the means from three independent replicates, and standard deviations are indicated with error bars. Statistical significance with reference to the WT was assessed by one-way analysis of variance with Bonferroni's multiple-comparison test. **, P

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR, High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Concentration Assay

    13) Product Images from "Ultrashort Peptide Bioconjugates Are Exclusively Antifungal Agents and Synergize with Cyclodextrin and Amphotericin B"

    Article Title: Ultrashort Peptide Bioconjugates Are Exclusively Antifungal Agents and Synergize with Cyclodextrin and Amphotericin B

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.00468-11

    Sytox green uptake assay. (a) S. aureus . (b) E. coli . (c) C. albicans . (d) A. fumigatus . ○, VitE-KkKK; ▵, VitE-KGGk; ♦, VitE-KAaK; □, C16-KGGk; ●, VitE-KkKK with CD; ▴, VitE-KGGk with CD; ■, C16-KGGk
    Figure Legend Snippet: Sytox green uptake assay. (a) S. aureus . (b) E. coli . (c) C. albicans . (d) A. fumigatus . ○, VitE-KkKK; ▵, VitE-KGGk; ♦, VitE-KAaK; □, C16-KGGk; ●, VitE-KkKK with CD; ▴, VitE-KGGk with CD; ■, C16-KGGk

    Techniques Used:

    Transmission electron microscopy revealed different interactions of peptide conjugates with different microorganisms. (a) A. fumigatus treated with VitE-KAaK (6 μM) compared to A. fumigatus in PBS. (b) S. aureus treated with VitE-KkKK (12.5 μM),
    Figure Legend Snippet: Transmission electron microscopy revealed different interactions of peptide conjugates with different microorganisms. (a) A. fumigatus treated with VitE-KAaK (6 μM) compared to A. fumigatus in PBS. (b) S. aureus treated with VitE-KkKK (12.5 μM),

    Techniques Used: Transmission Assay, Electron Microscopy

    14) Product Images from "Identification and Characterization of Key Charged Residues in the Cofilin Protein Involved in Azole Susceptibility, Apoptosis, and Virulence of Aspergillus fumigatus"

    Article Title: Identification and Characterization of Key Charged Residues in the Cofilin Protein Involved in Azole Susceptibility, Apoptosis, and Virulence of Aspergillus fumigatus

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.01659-17

    Effects of mutated cofilin on the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway in A. fumigatus . (A) The expression levels of cyp51A , cyp51B , and srbA in the indicated strains were determined by quantitative RT-PCR. (B) Schematic of the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway in A. fumigatus , including the targets for azole, statins, allylamines, and polyenes. (C) Susceptibility comparison of the indicated strains on GMM plates supplemented with simvastatin (SIM; 2.5 mg/liter) and terbinafine (TBF; 2.5 mg/liter). (D) The ergosterol content was analyzed by HPLC. The ergosterol concentration is expressed as the ergosterol content/fungal weight. Results represent the means from three independent replicates, and standard deviations are indicated with error bars. Statistical significance with reference to the WT was assessed by one-way analysis of variance with Bonferroni's multiple-comparison test. **, P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of mutated cofilin on the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway in A. fumigatus . (A) The expression levels of cyp51A , cyp51B , and srbA in the indicated strains were determined by quantitative RT-PCR. (B) Schematic of the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway in A. fumigatus , including the targets for azole, statins, allylamines, and polyenes. (C) Susceptibility comparison of the indicated strains on GMM plates supplemented with simvastatin (SIM; 2.5 mg/liter) and terbinafine (TBF; 2.5 mg/liter). (D) The ergosterol content was analyzed by HPLC. The ergosterol concentration is expressed as the ergosterol content/fungal weight. Results represent the means from three independent replicates, and standard deviations are indicated with error bars. Statistical significance with reference to the WT was assessed by one-way analysis of variance with Bonferroni's multiple-comparison test. **, P

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR, High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Concentration Assay

    15) Product Images from "The Allergenicity of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia is influenced by growth temperature"

    Article Title: The Allergenicity of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia is influenced by growth temperature

    Journal: Fungal biology

    doi: 10.1016/j.funbio.2011.03.006

    Culturability of A. fumigatus spores grown under different conidiation temperatures (± standard error, n=3 experiments).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Culturability of A. fumigatus spores grown under different conidiation temperatures (± standard error, n=3 experiments).

    Techniques Used:

    Allergenicity per 10 7 spores of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia cultivated under different sporulation temperatures. Error bars represent standard error values over three independent experimental replicates. ( Inset ) Protein content per 10 7 spores in conidia
    Figure Legend Snippet: Allergenicity per 10 7 spores of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia cultivated under different sporulation temperatures. Error bars represent standard error values over three independent experimental replicates. ( Inset ) Protein content per 10 7 spores in conidia

    Techniques Used:

    16) Product Images from "The Allergenicity of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia is influenced by growth temperature"

    Article Title: The Allergenicity of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia is influenced by growth temperature

    Journal: Fungal biology

    doi: 10.1016/j.funbio.2011.03.006

    Culturability of A. fumigatus spores grown under different conidiation temperatures (± standard error, n=3 experiments).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Culturability of A. fumigatus spores grown under different conidiation temperatures (± standard error, n=3 experiments).

    Techniques Used:

    Allergenicity per 10 7 spores of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia cultivated under different sporulation temperatures. Error bars represent standard error values over three independent experimental replicates. ( Inset ) Protein content per 10 7 spores in conidia
    Figure Legend Snippet: Allergenicity per 10 7 spores of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia cultivated under different sporulation temperatures. Error bars represent standard error values over three independent experimental replicates. ( Inset ) Protein content per 10 7 spores in conidia

    Techniques Used:

    17) Product Images from "The Allergenicity of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia is influenced by growth temperature"

    Article Title: The Allergenicity of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia is influenced by growth temperature

    Journal: Fungal biology

    doi: 10.1016/j.funbio.2011.03.006

    Culturability of A. fumigatus spores grown under different conidiation temperatures (± standard error, n=3 experiments).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Culturability of A. fumigatus spores grown under different conidiation temperatures (± standard error, n=3 experiments).

    Techniques Used:

    Allergenicity per 10 7 spores of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia cultivated under different sporulation temperatures. Error bars represent standard error values over three independent experimental replicates. ( Inset ) Protein content per 10 7 spores in conidia
    Figure Legend Snippet: Allergenicity per 10 7 spores of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia cultivated under different sporulation temperatures. Error bars represent standard error values over three independent experimental replicates. ( Inset ) Protein content per 10 7 spores in conidia

    Techniques Used:

    18) Product Images from "Pharmacodynamics of Posaconazole in Experimental Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis: Utility of Serum Galactomannan as a Dynamic Endpoint of Antifungal Efficacy"

    Article Title: Pharmacodynamics of Posaconazole in Experimental Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis: Utility of Serum Galactomannan as a Dynamic Endpoint of Antifungal Efficacy

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.01574-20

    Overview of the PK/PD study setup. Observed data and interventions are depicted against time. Dotted lines, start of posaconazole therapy in the treatment and prophylaxis groups (time the first dose was applied); dashed lines, time of inoculation with 1 × 10 8 conidia of A. fumigatus ; black connected dots, GMI values; gray connected dots, posaconazole plasma concentrations.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Overview of the PK/PD study setup. Observed data and interventions are depicted against time. Dotted lines, start of posaconazole therapy in the treatment and prophylaxis groups (time the first dose was applied); dashed lines, time of inoculation with 1 × 10 8 conidia of A. fumigatus ; black connected dots, GMI values; gray connected dots, posaconazole plasma concentrations.

    Techniques Used:

    19) Product Images from "Caspofungin Modulates Inflammatory Responses to Aspergillus fumigatus through Stage-Specific Effects on Fungal β-Glucan Exposure"

    Article Title: Caspofungin Modulates Inflammatory Responses to Aspergillus fumigatus through Stage-Specific Effects on Fungal β-Glucan Exposure

    Journal:

    doi: 10.1086/589304

    Caspofungin and decreases in inflammatory responses to germlings. A-C, Secretion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) or CXCL2 by 1.5 × 10 5 bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM ϕ s) incubated with Aspergillus fumigatus germlings for 6 h. A total
    Figure Legend Snippet: Caspofungin and decreases in inflammatory responses to germlings. A-C, Secretion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) or CXCL2 by 1.5 × 10 5 bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM ϕ s) incubated with Aspergillus fumigatus germlings for 6 h. A total

    Techniques Used: Derivative Assay, Incubation

    Caspofungin and enhancement of inflammatory responses to hyphae. A-D, Secretion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) or CXCL2 by 1.5 × 10 5 bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM ϕ s) incubated for 6 h with Aspergillus fumigatus hyphae. A total of
    Figure Legend Snippet: Caspofungin and enhancement of inflammatory responses to hyphae. A-D, Secretion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) or CXCL2 by 1.5 × 10 5 bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM ϕ s) incubated for 6 h with Aspergillus fumigatus hyphae. A total of

    Techniques Used: Derivative Assay, Incubation

    20) Product Images from "Optimization of Polyene-Azole Combination Therapy against Aspergillosis Using an In Vitro Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Model"

    Article Title: Optimization of Polyene-Azole Combination Therapy against Aspergillosis Using an In Vitro Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Model

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.05035-14

    In vitro pharmacodynamics of amphotericin B (top graphs) and voriconazole (bottom graphs) against the azole-susceptible A. fumigatus isolate AFM4215 (right graphs) and the azole-resistant A. fumigatus isolate AFM5235 (left graphs).
    Figure Legend Snippet: In vitro pharmacodynamics of amphotericin B (top graphs) and voriconazole (bottom graphs) against the azole-susceptible A. fumigatus isolate AFM4215 (right graphs) and the azole-resistant A. fumigatus isolate AFM5235 (left graphs).

    Techniques Used: In Vitro

    Synergistic (left graphs) and antagonistic (right graphs) interactions of amphotericin B-voriconazole combinations against the azole-susceptible A. fumigatus strain AFM4215 (bottom graphs) and the azole-resistant A. fumigatus strain AFM5235 (top graphs). The fC max and the Bliss interaction are shown for each combination regimen.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Synergistic (left graphs) and antagonistic (right graphs) interactions of amphotericin B-voriconazole combinations against the azole-susceptible A. fumigatus strain AFM4215 (bottom graphs) and the azole-resistant A. fumigatus strain AFM5235 (top graphs). The fC max and the Bliss interaction are shown for each combination regimen.

    Techniques Used:

    Response surface (A) and interaction surface based on Bliss independence analysis (B) for the combination of amphotericin B plus voriconazole against A. fumigatus AFM4215 in an in vitro PK-PD model simulating human serum concentration-time profiles. Arrows indicate clinically achievable drug exposures in serum for isolates with MICs of 0.25 to 4 mg/liter.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Response surface (A) and interaction surface based on Bliss independence analysis (B) for the combination of amphotericin B plus voriconazole against A. fumigatus AFM4215 in an in vitro PK-PD model simulating human serum concentration-time profiles. Arrows indicate clinically achievable drug exposures in serum for isolates with MICs of 0.25 to 4 mg/liter.

    Techniques Used: In Vitro, Concentration Assay

    Dose-dependent nature of Bliss antagonism based on galactomannan (GM) index-time curves for the in vitro PK-PD model and % viable conidia at 24 h in time-kill studies against the azole-susceptible A. fumigatus strain AFM4215. Monotherapy regimens suppressed galactomannan production and killed Aspergillus conidia more than combination regimens did.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Dose-dependent nature of Bliss antagonism based on galactomannan (GM) index-time curves for the in vitro PK-PD model and % viable conidia at 24 h in time-kill studies against the azole-susceptible A. fumigatus strain AFM4215. Monotherapy regimens suppressed galactomannan production and killed Aspergillus conidia more than combination regimens did.

    Techniques Used: In Vitro

    21) Product Images from "Microhemorrhage-associated tissue iron enhances the risk for Aspergillus fumigatus invasion in a mouse model of airway transplantation"

    Article Title: Microhemorrhage-associated tissue iron enhances the risk for Aspergillus fumigatus invasion in a mouse model of airway transplantation

    Journal: Science translational medicine

    doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aag2616

    Iron increases A. fumigatus metabolism and affects its growth direction in culture ( A ) Comparative A. fumigatus metabolism [2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2 H -tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide assay] in RPMI culture medium (control) or in the presence of hemoglobin (HgB) or iron dextran ( n = 32 wells) analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey’s post hoc test. ( B ) Growth area (in square millimeters) of A. fumigatus WT and Δ sreA , Δ hapX , and Δ sreA /Δ cccA mutants on iron-sufficient (Fe + ) and iron-deficient (Fe − ) agar plates ( n = 3) analyzed by Student’s t test. ( C ) Relative difference in growth area of A. fumigatus WT and mutant strains in wells containing iron dextran supplemented or unsupplemented RPMI culture medium ( n = 3) analyzed by Student’s t test. ( D ) Representative A. fumigatus cultures comparing hyphal growth morphology in WT and Δ sreA mutant exposed to iron dextran and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Growth morphology (yellow line) is shown relative to the iron dextran well (24 hours). The convex pattern denotes positive tropism for iron; the concave pattern denotes negative tropism. ( E ) Representative light microscopy image of WT A. fumigatus hyphal growth (18 hours). Magnification, ×5. Scale bar, 50 μm. The inset depicts hyphal tips with wide-angle ( > 45°) branching toward the iron dextran–containing well ( n = 3).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Iron increases A. fumigatus metabolism and affects its growth direction in culture ( A ) Comparative A. fumigatus metabolism [2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2 H -tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide assay] in RPMI culture medium (control) or in the presence of hemoglobin (HgB) or iron dextran ( n = 32 wells) analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey’s post hoc test. ( B ) Growth area (in square millimeters) of A. fumigatus WT and Δ sreA , Δ hapX , and Δ sreA /Δ cccA mutants on iron-sufficient (Fe + ) and iron-deficient (Fe − ) agar plates ( n = 3) analyzed by Student’s t test. ( C ) Relative difference in growth area of A. fumigatus WT and mutant strains in wells containing iron dextran supplemented or unsupplemented RPMI culture medium ( n = 3) analyzed by Student’s t test. ( D ) Representative A. fumigatus cultures comparing hyphal growth morphology in WT and Δ sreA mutant exposed to iron dextran and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Growth morphology (yellow line) is shown relative to the iron dextran well (24 hours). The convex pattern denotes positive tropism for iron; the concave pattern denotes negative tropism. ( E ) Representative light microscopy image of WT A. fumigatus hyphal growth (18 hours). Magnification, ×5. Scale bar, 50 μm. The inset depicts hyphal tips with wide-angle ( > 45°) branching toward the iron dextran–containing well ( n = 3).

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Light Microscopy

    Tissue iron promotes A. fumigatus invasion in the orthotopic tracheal transplant mouse model ( A ) A. fumigatus invasion in mouse tracheal allotransplants ( n = 4 to 9 per group) on days 6 to 12 posttransplant graded using a 0-to-4 histologic scale. Data are means ±SEM and analyzed by nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test. ( B ) Perl’s Prussian blue staining of the iron area (in square micrometers) in mouse tracheal allotransplants ( n = 4 to 9 per group) on days 6 to 12 posttransplant. Data are means ± SEM analyzed by nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test. ( C ) Invasion by A. fumigatus of day 8 allotransplants ( n = 8 to 9 per group) after treatment by intraperitoneal injections of PBS (control), DFO (deferoxamine), or DFX (deferasirox), analyzed by nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test. ( D ) Invasion by A. fumigatus of day 8 syntransplants ( n = 5 to 9 per group) from hemochromatosis knockout ( Hfe −/− ) donor mice and WT donor mice (control). ( E ) Invasion by A. fumigatus of day 8 allotransplants ( n = 5 to 9 per group) from Hfe −/− and WT donor mice, analyzed by nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test. ( F ) Invasion of day 12 allotransplants ( n = 5 to 6 per group) by A. fumigatus hapX , sreA , and sreA / cccA mutants or WT A. fumigatus , analyzed by nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Tissue iron promotes A. fumigatus invasion in the orthotopic tracheal transplant mouse model ( A ) A. fumigatus invasion in mouse tracheal allotransplants ( n = 4 to 9 per group) on days 6 to 12 posttransplant graded using a 0-to-4 histologic scale. Data are means ±SEM and analyzed by nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test. ( B ) Perl’s Prussian blue staining of the iron area (in square micrometers) in mouse tracheal allotransplants ( n = 4 to 9 per group) on days 6 to 12 posttransplant. Data are means ± SEM analyzed by nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test. ( C ) Invasion by A. fumigatus of day 8 allotransplants ( n = 8 to 9 per group) after treatment by intraperitoneal injections of PBS (control), DFO (deferoxamine), or DFX (deferasirox), analyzed by nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test. ( D ) Invasion by A. fumigatus of day 8 syntransplants ( n = 5 to 9 per group) from hemochromatosis knockout ( Hfe −/− ) donor mice and WT donor mice (control). ( E ) Invasion by A. fumigatus of day 8 allotransplants ( n = 5 to 9 per group) from Hfe −/− and WT donor mice, analyzed by nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test. ( F ) Invasion of day 12 allotransplants ( n = 5 to 6 per group) by A. fumigatus hapX , sreA , and sreA / cccA mutants or WT A. fumigatus , analyzed by nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test.

    Techniques Used: MANN-WHITNEY, Staining, Knock-Out, Mouse Assay

    Exogenous iron stimulates A. fumigatus invasion in syntransplants ( A ) Representative Grocott’s methenamine silver staining of mouse tracheal syntransplants treated with vehicle (control, left) or FeSO 4 topical solution reveals deep invasion by A. fumigatus (red arrows) in the FeSO 4 solution–treated graft. Magnification, ×20. Scale bar, 100 μm. ( B ) Invasion by A. fumigatus of day 8 syntransplants ( n = 6 to 11 per group) treated with topical FeSO 4 solution or vehicle control. Data are means ± SEM analyzed by nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test. ( C ) Representative Prussian blue staining of syntransplants ( n = 4 per group) treated with FeSO 4 topical solution (top) or vehicle control (bottom). Black arrowheads depict tissue iron deposits (blue). Magnification, ×20. Scale bar, 100 μm. ( D ) Doppler flowmetry perfusion studies comparing blood perfusion units between syntransplants ( n = 4 per group) treated with FeSO 4 solution or vehicle control, analyzed by Student’s t test. ( E ) Graft tissue oxygen tension ( P O 2 , mmHg) comparing vehicle control or FeSO 4 solution–treated syngrafts ( n = 4 per group). Analyzed by Student’s t test. TL, tracheal lumen; C, cartilage ring.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Exogenous iron stimulates A. fumigatus invasion in syntransplants ( A ) Representative Grocott’s methenamine silver staining of mouse tracheal syntransplants treated with vehicle (control, left) or FeSO 4 topical solution reveals deep invasion by A. fumigatus (red arrows) in the FeSO 4 solution–treated graft. Magnification, ×20. Scale bar, 100 μm. ( B ) Invasion by A. fumigatus of day 8 syntransplants ( n = 6 to 11 per group) treated with topical FeSO 4 solution or vehicle control. Data are means ± SEM analyzed by nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test. ( C ) Representative Prussian blue staining of syntransplants ( n = 4 per group) treated with FeSO 4 topical solution (top) or vehicle control (bottom). Black arrowheads depict tissue iron deposits (blue). Magnification, ×20. Scale bar, 100 μm. ( D ) Doppler flowmetry perfusion studies comparing blood perfusion units between syntransplants ( n = 4 per group) treated with FeSO 4 solution or vehicle control, analyzed by Student’s t test. ( E ) Graft tissue oxygen tension ( P O 2 , mmHg) comparing vehicle control or FeSO 4 solution–treated syngrafts ( n = 4 per group). Analyzed by Student’s t test. TL, tracheal lumen; C, cartilage ring.

    Techniques Used: Silver Staining, MANN-WHITNEY, Staining

    22) Product Images from "The Allergenicity of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia is influenced by growth temperature"

    Article Title: The Allergenicity of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia is influenced by growth temperature

    Journal: Fungal biology

    doi: 10.1016/j.funbio.2011.03.006

    Culturability of A. fumigatus spores grown under different conidiation temperatures (± standard error, n=3 experiments).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Culturability of A. fumigatus spores grown under different conidiation temperatures (± standard error, n=3 experiments).

    Techniques Used:

    Allergenicity per 10 7 spores of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia cultivated under different sporulation temperatures. Error bars represent standard error values over three independent experimental replicates. ( Inset ) Protein content per 10 7 spores in conidia
    Figure Legend Snippet: Allergenicity per 10 7 spores of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia cultivated under different sporulation temperatures. Error bars represent standard error values over three independent experimental replicates. ( Inset ) Protein content per 10 7 spores in conidia

    Techniques Used:

    23) Product Images from "A Chemically Modified Tetracycline (CMT-3) Is a New Antifungal Agent"

    Article Title: A Chemically Modified Tetracycline (CMT-3) Is a New Antifungal Agent

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.46.5.1447-1454.2002

    Time course test for the fungicidal activity of CMT-3 against A. fumigatus and C. albicans . The fungi were individually incubated with the drug (10 μg/ml) at 35°C for 0, 1, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h and then diluted 1:1,000; 100 μl of each fungal cell suspension was separately inoculated onto PDA plates and incubated at 35°C for 48 h. The colonies were counted, and the results of three parallel assays were combined to obtain the means and standard deviations.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Time course test for the fungicidal activity of CMT-3 against A. fumigatus and C. albicans . The fungi were individually incubated with the drug (10 μg/ml) at 35°C for 0, 1, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h and then diluted 1:1,000; 100 μl of each fungal cell suspension was separately inoculated onto PDA plates and incubated at 35°C for 48 h. The colonies were counted, and the results of three parallel assays were combined to obtain the means and standard deviations.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Incubation

    MICs of AMB, CMT-3, CMT-8, and doxycycline against A. fumigatus , determined by the PDA method. The four drugs were individually integrated into PDA, 10 μl of fungal suspension was inoculated onto the agar in each well, and incubation was done at 35°C for 48 h. Wells in the first lane (drug free) were used as negative controls, and MIC end points were determined when complete inhibition of fungal growth was observed visually. The MICs of AMB and CMT-3 were determined to be 2.00 μg/ml, and CMT-8 and doxycycline (Doxy) showed no antifungal activity.
    Figure Legend Snippet: MICs of AMB, CMT-3, CMT-8, and doxycycline against A. fumigatus , determined by the PDA method. The four drugs were individually integrated into PDA, 10 μl of fungal suspension was inoculated onto the agar in each well, and incubation was done at 35°C for 48 h. Wells in the first lane (drug free) were used as negative controls, and MIC end points were determined when complete inhibition of fungal growth was observed visually. The MICs of AMB and CMT-3 were determined to be 2.00 μg/ml, and CMT-8 and doxycycline (Doxy) showed no antifungal activity.

    Techniques Used: Incubation, Inhibition, Activity Assay

    24) Product Images from "Drosomycin-Like Defensin, a Human Homologue of Drosophila melanogaster Drosomycin with Antifungal Activity ▿"

    Article Title: Drosomycin-Like Defensin, a Human Homologue of Drosophila melanogaster Drosomycin with Antifungal Activity ▿

    Journal:

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.00155-07

    Modulation of cytokine production by DLD. PBMCs isolated from five healthy volunteers were stimulated with 1 × 10 7 heat-killed Aspergillus fumigatus conidia. The effects on TNF and IL-6 release by the following modulators were investigated: control
    Figure Legend Snippet: Modulation of cytokine production by DLD. PBMCs isolated from five healthy volunteers were stimulated with 1 × 10 7 heat-killed Aspergillus fumigatus conidia. The effects on TNF and IL-6 release by the following modulators were investigated: control

    Techniques Used: Isolation

    25) Product Images from "Microhemorrhage-associated tissue iron enhances the risk for Aspergillus fumigatus invasion in a mouse model of airway transplantation"

    Article Title: Microhemorrhage-associated tissue iron enhances the risk for Aspergillus fumigatus invasion in a mouse model of airway transplantation

    Journal: Science translational medicine

    doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aag2616

    Iron increases A. fumigatus metabolism and affects its growth direction in culture ( A ) Comparative A. fumigatus metabolism [2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2 H -tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide assay] in RPMI culture medium (control) or in the presence of hemoglobin (HgB) or iron dextran ( n = 32 wells) analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey’s post hoc test. ( B ) Growth area (in square millimeters) of A. fumigatus WT and Δ sreA , Δ hapX , and Δ sreA /Δ cccA mutants on iron-sufficient (Fe + ) and iron-deficient (Fe − ) agar plates ( n = 3) analyzed by Student’s t test. ( C ) Relative difference in growth area of A. fumigatus WT and mutant strains in wells containing iron dextran supplemented or unsupplemented RPMI culture medium ( n = 3) analyzed by Student’s t test. ( D ) Representative A. fumigatus cultures comparing hyphal growth morphology in WT and Δ sreA mutant exposed to iron dextran and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Growth morphology (yellow line) is shown relative to the iron dextran well (24 hours). The convex pattern denotes positive tropism for iron; the concave pattern denotes negative tropism. ( E ) Representative light microscopy image of WT A. fumigatus hyphal growth (18 hours). Magnification, ×5. Scale bar, 50 μm. The inset depicts hyphal tips with wide-angle ( > 45°) branching toward the iron dextran–containing well ( n = 3).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Iron increases A. fumigatus metabolism and affects its growth direction in culture ( A ) Comparative A. fumigatus metabolism [2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2 H -tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide assay] in RPMI culture medium (control) or in the presence of hemoglobin (HgB) or iron dextran ( n = 32 wells) analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey’s post hoc test. ( B ) Growth area (in square millimeters) of A. fumigatus WT and Δ sreA , Δ hapX , and Δ sreA /Δ cccA mutants on iron-sufficient (Fe + ) and iron-deficient (Fe − ) agar plates ( n = 3) analyzed by Student’s t test. ( C ) Relative difference in growth area of A. fumigatus WT and mutant strains in wells containing iron dextran supplemented or unsupplemented RPMI culture medium ( n = 3) analyzed by Student’s t test. ( D ) Representative A. fumigatus cultures comparing hyphal growth morphology in WT and Δ sreA mutant exposed to iron dextran and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Growth morphology (yellow line) is shown relative to the iron dextran well (24 hours). The convex pattern denotes positive tropism for iron; the concave pattern denotes negative tropism. ( E ) Representative light microscopy image of WT A. fumigatus hyphal growth (18 hours). Magnification, ×5. Scale bar, 50 μm. The inset depicts hyphal tips with wide-angle ( > 45°) branching toward the iron dextran–containing well ( n = 3).

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Light Microscopy

    Tissue iron promotes A. fumigatus invasion in the orthotopic tracheal transplant mouse model ( A ) A. fumigatus invasion in mouse tracheal allotransplants ( n = 4 to 9 per group) on days 6 to 12 posttransplant graded using a 0-to-4 histologic scale. Data are means ±SEM and analyzed by nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test. ( B ) Perl’s Prussian blue staining of the iron area (in square micrometers) in mouse tracheal allotransplants ( n = 4 to 9 per group) on days 6 to 12 posttransplant. Data are means ± SEM analyzed by nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test. ( C ) Invasion by A. fumigatus of day 8 allotransplants ( n = 8 to 9 per group) after treatment by intraperitoneal injections of PBS (control), DFO (deferoxamine), or DFX (deferasirox), analyzed by nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test. ( D ) Invasion by A. fumigatus of day 8 syntransplants ( n = 5 to 9 per group) from hemochromatosis knockout ( Hfe −/− ) donor mice and WT donor mice (control). ( E ) Invasion by A. fumigatus of day 8 allotransplants ( n = 5 to 9 per group) from Hfe −/− and WT donor mice, analyzed by nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test. ( F ) Invasion of day 12 allotransplants ( n = 5 to 6 per group) by A. fumigatus hapX , sreA , and sreA / cccA mutants or WT A. fumigatus , analyzed by nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Tissue iron promotes A. fumigatus invasion in the orthotopic tracheal transplant mouse model ( A ) A. fumigatus invasion in mouse tracheal allotransplants ( n = 4 to 9 per group) on days 6 to 12 posttransplant graded using a 0-to-4 histologic scale. Data are means ±SEM and analyzed by nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test. ( B ) Perl’s Prussian blue staining of the iron area (in square micrometers) in mouse tracheal allotransplants ( n = 4 to 9 per group) on days 6 to 12 posttransplant. Data are means ± SEM analyzed by nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test. ( C ) Invasion by A. fumigatus of day 8 allotransplants ( n = 8 to 9 per group) after treatment by intraperitoneal injections of PBS (control), DFO (deferoxamine), or DFX (deferasirox), analyzed by nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test. ( D ) Invasion by A. fumigatus of day 8 syntransplants ( n = 5 to 9 per group) from hemochromatosis knockout ( Hfe −/− ) donor mice and WT donor mice (control). ( E ) Invasion by A. fumigatus of day 8 allotransplants ( n = 5 to 9 per group) from Hfe −/− and WT donor mice, analyzed by nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test. ( F ) Invasion of day 12 allotransplants ( n = 5 to 6 per group) by A. fumigatus hapX , sreA , and sreA / cccA mutants or WT A. fumigatus , analyzed by nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test.

    Techniques Used: MANN-WHITNEY, Staining, Knock-Out, Mouse Assay

    Exogenous iron stimulates A. fumigatus invasion in syntransplants ( A ) Representative Grocott’s methenamine silver staining of mouse tracheal syntransplants treated with vehicle (control, left) or FeSO 4 topical solution reveals deep invasion by A. fumigatus (red arrows) in the FeSO 4 solution–treated graft. Magnification, ×20. Scale bar, 100 μm. ( B ) Invasion by A. fumigatus of day 8 syntransplants ( n = 6 to 11 per group) treated with topical FeSO 4 solution or vehicle control. Data are means ± SEM analyzed by nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test. ( C ) Representative Prussian blue staining of syntransplants ( n = 4 per group) treated with FeSO 4 topical solution (top) or vehicle control (bottom). Black arrowheads depict tissue iron deposits (blue). Magnification, ×20. Scale bar, 100 μm. ( D ) Doppler flowmetry perfusion studies comparing blood perfusion units between syntransplants ( n = 4 per group) treated with FeSO 4 solution or vehicle control, analyzed by Student’s t test. ( E ) Graft tissue oxygen tension ( P O 2 , mmHg) comparing vehicle control or FeSO 4 solution–treated syngrafts ( n = 4 per group). Analyzed by Student’s t test. TL, tracheal lumen; C, cartilage ring.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Exogenous iron stimulates A. fumigatus invasion in syntransplants ( A ) Representative Grocott’s methenamine silver staining of mouse tracheal syntransplants treated with vehicle (control, left) or FeSO 4 topical solution reveals deep invasion by A. fumigatus (red arrows) in the FeSO 4 solution–treated graft. Magnification, ×20. Scale bar, 100 μm. ( B ) Invasion by A. fumigatus of day 8 syntransplants ( n = 6 to 11 per group) treated with topical FeSO 4 solution or vehicle control. Data are means ± SEM analyzed by nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test. ( C ) Representative Prussian blue staining of syntransplants ( n = 4 per group) treated with FeSO 4 topical solution (top) or vehicle control (bottom). Black arrowheads depict tissue iron deposits (blue). Magnification, ×20. Scale bar, 100 μm. ( D ) Doppler flowmetry perfusion studies comparing blood perfusion units between syntransplants ( n = 4 per group) treated with FeSO 4 solution or vehicle control, analyzed by Student’s t test. ( E ) Graft tissue oxygen tension ( P O 2 , mmHg) comparing vehicle control or FeSO 4 solution–treated syngrafts ( n = 4 per group). Analyzed by Student’s t test. TL, tracheal lumen; C, cartilage ring.

    Techniques Used: Silver Staining, MANN-WHITNEY, Staining

    26) Product Images from "Ultrashort Peptide Bioconjugates Are Exclusively Antifungal Agents and Synergize with Cyclodextrin and Amphotericin B"

    Article Title: Ultrashort Peptide Bioconjugates Are Exclusively Antifungal Agents and Synergize with Cyclodextrin and Amphotericin B

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.00468-11

    Sytox green uptake assay. (a) S. aureus . (b) E. coli . (c) C. albicans . (d) A. fumigatus . ○, VitE-KkKK; ▵, VitE-KGGk; ♦, VitE-KAaK; □, C16-KGGk; ●, VitE-KkKK with CD; ▴, VitE-KGGk with CD; ■, C16-KGGk
    Figure Legend Snippet: Sytox green uptake assay. (a) S. aureus . (b) E. coli . (c) C. albicans . (d) A. fumigatus . ○, VitE-KkKK; ▵, VitE-KGGk; ♦, VitE-KAaK; □, C16-KGGk; ●, VitE-KkKK with CD; ▴, VitE-KGGk with CD; ■, C16-KGGk

    Techniques Used:

    Transmission electron microscopy revealed different interactions of peptide conjugates with different microorganisms. (a) A. fumigatus treated with VitE-KAaK (6 μM) compared to A. fumigatus in PBS. (b) S. aureus treated with VitE-KkKK (12.5 μM),
    Figure Legend Snippet: Transmission electron microscopy revealed different interactions of peptide conjugates with different microorganisms. (a) A. fumigatus treated with VitE-KAaK (6 μM) compared to A. fumigatus in PBS. (b) S. aureus treated with VitE-KkKK (12.5 μM),

    Techniques Used: Transmission Assay, Electron Microscopy

    27) Product Images from "The Aspergillus fumigatus Secretome Alters the Proteome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to Stimulate Bacterial Growth: Implications for Co-infection"

    Article Title: The Aspergillus fumigatus Secretome Alters the Proteome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to Stimulate Bacterial Growth: Implications for Co-infection

    Journal: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics : MCP

    doi: 10.1074/mcp.RA120.002059

    Growth of P. aeruginosa (CFU/ml) cultured in Czapek-Dox media for 48 h compared with growth of P. aeruginosa cultured in Czapek-Dox media supplemented with P. aeruginosa CuF, A. fumigatus CuF and Co-culture CuF. Changes in bacterial growth was greatest where P. aeruginosa was exposed to Co-culture CuF. ***: p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Growth of P. aeruginosa (CFU/ml) cultured in Czapek-Dox media for 48 h compared with growth of P. aeruginosa cultured in Czapek-Dox media supplemented with P. aeruginosa CuF, A. fumigatus CuF and Co-culture CuF. Changes in bacterial growth was greatest where P. aeruginosa was exposed to Co-culture CuF. ***: p

    Techniques Used: Cell Culture, Co-Culture Assay

    Volcano plots derived from pairwise comparisons between P. aeruginosa cultured in ( A ) A. fumigatus CuF and P. aeruginosa CuF, ( B ) Co-culture CuF and A. fumigatus CuF and C ) Co-culture CuF and P. aeruginosa CuF. The distribution of quantified proteins according to the p value (- log10 p value) and fold change (log 2 mean LFQ intensity difference) are shown. Proteins above the line are considered statistically significant ( p value
    Figure Legend Snippet: Volcano plots derived from pairwise comparisons between P. aeruginosa cultured in ( A ) A. fumigatus CuF and P. aeruginosa CuF, ( B ) Co-culture CuF and A. fumigatus CuF and C ) Co-culture CuF and P. aeruginosa CuF. The distribution of quantified proteins according to the p value (- log10 p value) and fold change (log 2 mean LFQ intensity difference) are shown. Proteins above the line are considered statistically significant ( p value

    Techniques Used: Derivative Assay, Cell Culture, Co-Culture Assay

    A , Principal component analysis (PCA) of P. aeruginosa exposed to Co-culture CuF (green) A. fumigatus CuF (orange) and P. aeruginosa CuF (blue). A clear distinction can be observed between each of the groups. B . Clusters based on protein-abundance profile similarities were resolved by hierarchical clustering of multi-sample comparisons between the three sample groups of P. aeruginosa . Nine clusters (A–I) were resolved comprising proteins that display similar expression profiles across treatments. Of these, six clusters (A, C, D, G–I) had statistically enriched Gene Ontology (GO) and KEGG terms associated with them ( supplemental Data set S3 ) and the main terms are summarized for each in C .
    Figure Legend Snippet: A , Principal component analysis (PCA) of P. aeruginosa exposed to Co-culture CuF (green) A. fumigatus CuF (orange) and P. aeruginosa CuF (blue). A clear distinction can be observed between each of the groups. B . Clusters based on protein-abundance profile similarities were resolved by hierarchical clustering of multi-sample comparisons between the three sample groups of P. aeruginosa . Nine clusters (A–I) were resolved comprising proteins that display similar expression profiles across treatments. Of these, six clusters (A, C, D, G–I) had statistically enriched Gene Ontology (GO) and KEGG terms associated with them ( supplemental Data set S3 ) and the main terms are summarized for each in C .

    Techniques Used: Co-Culture Assay, Expressing

    A , Protein hydrolysate analysis performed on A. fumigatus CuF produced at 48 h detected seven amino acids by RP-HPLC including aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, threonine, methionine, valine and leucine. B , P. aeruginosa (24-hour cultures) were exposed to un-supplemented Czapek-Dox or Czapek-Dox supplemented with the seven amino acids detected in the A. fumigatus CuF hyrolysates. P. aeruginosa growth (CFU/ml) increased by 1.6-fold when cultured in amino acid-supplemented Czapek-Dox for 24 h compared with that of bacteria exposed to un-supplemented (- amino acids) Czapek-Dox for 24 h, where growth increased by 1.17-fold.
    Figure Legend Snippet: A , Protein hydrolysate analysis performed on A. fumigatus CuF produced at 48 h detected seven amino acids by RP-HPLC including aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, threonine, methionine, valine and leucine. B , P. aeruginosa (24-hour cultures) were exposed to un-supplemented Czapek-Dox or Czapek-Dox supplemented with the seven amino acids detected in the A. fumigatus CuF hyrolysates. P. aeruginosa growth (CFU/ml) increased by 1.6-fold when cultured in amino acid-supplemented Czapek-Dox for 24 h compared with that of bacteria exposed to un-supplemented (- amino acids) Czapek-Dox for 24 h, where growth increased by 1.17-fold.

    Techniques Used: Produced, High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Cell Culture

    A , Changes in growth of a 24-hour P. aeruginosa culture incubated with sterile Czapek-Dox media (control) or 24-hour, 48-hour, 72-hour or 96-hour A. fumigatus wild-type CuF for 24 h. Maximum growth increase was observed in bacteria exposed to the 48-hour CuF and growth inhibition was observed in bacteria incubated with 96-hour CuF. B , Changes in growth of a 24-hour P. aeruginosa culture incubated in sterile Czapek-Dox media, or 24-hour, 48-hour, 72-hour or 96-hour A. fumigatus Δ giZ CuF for 24 h. Growth was not inhibited by the 96-hour Δ gliZ CuF.
    Figure Legend Snippet: A , Changes in growth of a 24-hour P. aeruginosa culture incubated with sterile Czapek-Dox media (control) or 24-hour, 48-hour, 72-hour or 96-hour A. fumigatus wild-type CuF for 24 h. Maximum growth increase was observed in bacteria exposed to the 48-hour CuF and growth inhibition was observed in bacteria incubated with 96-hour CuF. B , Changes in growth of a 24-hour P. aeruginosa culture incubated in sterile Czapek-Dox media, or 24-hour, 48-hour, 72-hour or 96-hour A. fumigatus Δ giZ CuF for 24 h. Growth was not inhibited by the 96-hour Δ gliZ CuF.

    Techniques Used: Incubation, Inhibition

    28) Product Images from "Optimization of Polyene-Azole Combination Therapy against Aspergillosis Using an In Vitro Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Model"

    Article Title: Optimization of Polyene-Azole Combination Therapy against Aspergillosis Using an In Vitro Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Model

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.05035-14

    In vitro pharmacodynamics of amphotericin B (top graphs) and voriconazole (bottom graphs) against the azole-susceptible A. fumigatus isolate AFM4215 (right graphs) and the azole-resistant A. fumigatus isolate AFM5235 (left graphs).
    Figure Legend Snippet: In vitro pharmacodynamics of amphotericin B (top graphs) and voriconazole (bottom graphs) against the azole-susceptible A. fumigatus isolate AFM4215 (right graphs) and the azole-resistant A. fumigatus isolate AFM5235 (left graphs).

    Techniques Used: In Vitro

    Synergistic (left graphs) and antagonistic (right graphs) interactions of amphotericin B-voriconazole combinations against the azole-susceptible A. fumigatus strain AFM4215 (bottom graphs) and the azole-resistant A. fumigatus strain AFM5235 (top graphs). The fC max and the Bliss interaction are shown for each combination regimen.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Synergistic (left graphs) and antagonistic (right graphs) interactions of amphotericin B-voriconazole combinations against the azole-susceptible A. fumigatus strain AFM4215 (bottom graphs) and the azole-resistant A. fumigatus strain AFM5235 (top graphs). The fC max and the Bliss interaction are shown for each combination regimen.

    Techniques Used:

    Response surface (A) and interaction surface based on Bliss independence analysis (B) for the combination of amphotericin B plus voriconazole against A. fumigatus AFM4215 in an in vitro PK-PD model simulating human serum concentration-time profiles. Arrows indicate clinically achievable drug exposures in serum for isolates with MICs of 0.25 to 4 mg/liter.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Response surface (A) and interaction surface based on Bliss independence analysis (B) for the combination of amphotericin B plus voriconazole against A. fumigatus AFM4215 in an in vitro PK-PD model simulating human serum concentration-time profiles. Arrows indicate clinically achievable drug exposures in serum for isolates with MICs of 0.25 to 4 mg/liter.

    Techniques Used: In Vitro, Concentration Assay

    Dose-dependent nature of Bliss antagonism based on galactomannan (GM) index-time curves for the in vitro PK-PD model and % viable conidia at 24 h in time-kill studies against the azole-susceptible A. fumigatus strain AFM4215. Monotherapy regimens suppressed galactomannan production and killed Aspergillus conidia more than combination regimens did.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Dose-dependent nature of Bliss antagonism based on galactomannan (GM) index-time curves for the in vitro PK-PD model and % viable conidia at 24 h in time-kill studies against the azole-susceptible A. fumigatus strain AFM4215. Monotherapy regimens suppressed galactomannan production and killed Aspergillus conidia more than combination regimens did.

    Techniques Used: In Vitro

    29) Product Images from "Antifungal siderophore conjugates for theranostic applications in invasive pulmonary aspergillosis using low molecular TAFC scaffolds"

    Article Title: Antifungal siderophore conjugates for theranostic applications in invasive pulmonary aspergillosis using low molecular TAFC scaffolds

    Journal: bioRxiv

    doi: 10.1101/2021.04.19.440472

    Growth promotion of A. fumigatus mutant strain Δ sidA /Δ ftrA after 48 h incubation at 37°C on iron depleted AMM with different concentrations of iron labelled conjugates. Hyphal growth can be distinguished from greenish (sporulation) and whitish (sterile) mycelia.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Growth promotion of A. fumigatus mutant strain Δ sidA /Δ ftrA after 48 h incubation at 37°C on iron depleted AMM with different concentrations of iron labelled conjugates. Hyphal growth can be distinguished from greenish (sporulation) and whitish (sterile) mycelia.

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Incubation

    Coronal PET/CT slices of immunocompromised Lewis-rats infected with A. fumigatus in the lung. Pictures are showing the lung section of infected (top row) and non-infected (bottom row, control) rats of each compound respectively. Animals were injected retro-orbitally and pictures made after 45 min with approx. 5-12 MBq injected dose. CT images were added to show the severity of the infected lung tissue.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Coronal PET/CT slices of immunocompromised Lewis-rats infected with A. fumigatus in the lung. Pictures are showing the lung section of infected (top row) and non-infected (bottom row, control) rats of each compound respectively. Animals were injected retro-orbitally and pictures made after 45 min with approx. 5-12 MBq injected dose. CT images were added to show the severity of the infected lung tissue.

    Techniques Used: Positron Emission Tomography, Infection, Injection

    30) Product Images from "Efficient Clearance of Aspergillus fumigatus in Murine Lungs by an Ultrashort Antimicrobial Lipopeptide, Palmitoyl-Lys-Ala-dAla-Lys ▿"

    Article Title: Efficient Clearance of Aspergillus fumigatus in Murine Lungs by an Ultrashort Antimicrobial Lipopeptide, Palmitoyl-Lys-Ala-dAla-Lys ▿

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.00526-08

    Confocal microscopic analysis of the lungs of untreated or treated immunocompromised WT mice. Four days after mice were intranasally infected with DsRed A. fumigatus conidia, fresh lung sections were isolated from untreated (A, C, and F), C12-DL6K6-treated
    Figure Legend Snippet: Confocal microscopic analysis of the lungs of untreated or treated immunocompromised WT mice. Four days after mice were intranasally infected with DsRed A. fumigatus conidia, fresh lung sections were isolated from untreated (A, C, and F), C12-DL6K6-treated

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Infection, Isolation

    Ex vivo confocal imaging of cross sections of fresh lung tissue from CX 3 CR1 GFP mice. (A) Lungs were injected with CMTMR to reveal tissue architecture. Mice were intranasally infected with 10 7 DsRed A. fumigatus conidia, and the course of infection was
    Figure Legend Snippet: Ex vivo confocal imaging of cross sections of fresh lung tissue from CX 3 CR1 GFP mice. (A) Lungs were injected with CMTMR to reveal tissue architecture. Mice were intranasally infected with 10 7 DsRed A. fumigatus conidia, and the course of infection was

    Techniques Used: Ex Vivo, Imaging, Mouse Assay, Injection, Infection

    Confocal microscopic analysis of the lungs of C16-KA A K-treated immunocompromised CX 3 CR1 GFP mice. Four days after mice were intranasally infected with DsRed A. fumigatus conidia, fresh lung sections were isolated. Residual conidia were detected within
    Figure Legend Snippet: Confocal microscopic analysis of the lungs of C16-KA A K-treated immunocompromised CX 3 CR1 GFP mice. Four days after mice were intranasally infected with DsRed A. fumigatus conidia, fresh lung sections were isolated. Residual conidia were detected within

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Infection, Isolation

    Survival of immunocompromised WT mice. In the first survival assay (A), mice were infected intranasally with DsRed A. fumigatus conidia and treated with vehicle control (♦) or with one dose of C16-KA A K at 4.5 mg/kg day after the infection (▴)
    Figure Legend Snippet: Survival of immunocompromised WT mice. In the first survival assay (A), mice were infected intranasally with DsRed A. fumigatus conidia and treated with vehicle control (♦) or with one dose of C16-KA A K at 4.5 mg/kg day after the infection (▴)

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Clonogenic Cell Survival Assay, Infection

    Related Articles

    Infection:

    Article Title: High Intracellular Concentrations of Posaconazole Do Not Impact on Functional Capacities of Human Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils and Monocyte-Derived Macrophages In Vitro
    Article Snippet: .. Afterwards, the generation of ROS was stimulated with Aspergillus fumigatus conidia (multiplicity of infection [MOI], 1:5), lyophilized Escherichia coli (positive control) (2.5 ng/ml), and medium (negative control). .. The luminescence was measured every 2 min for 6 h at 37°C using a microplate reader (Infinite M1000 Pro; Tecan, Switzerland).

    Positive Control:

    Article Title: High Intracellular Concentrations of Posaconazole Do Not Impact on Functional Capacities of Human Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils and Monocyte-Derived Macrophages In Vitro
    Article Snippet: .. Afterwards, the generation of ROS was stimulated with Aspergillus fumigatus conidia (multiplicity of infection [MOI], 1:5), lyophilized Escherichia coli (positive control) (2.5 ng/ml), and medium (negative control). .. The luminescence was measured every 2 min for 6 h at 37°C using a microplate reader (Infinite M1000 Pro; Tecan, Switzerland).

    Negative Control:

    Article Title: High Intracellular Concentrations of Posaconazole Do Not Impact on Functional Capacities of Human Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils and Monocyte-Derived Macrophages In Vitro
    Article Snippet: .. Afterwards, the generation of ROS was stimulated with Aspergillus fumigatus conidia (multiplicity of infection [MOI], 1:5), lyophilized Escherichia coli (positive control) (2.5 ng/ml), and medium (negative control). .. The luminescence was measured every 2 min for 6 h at 37°C using a microplate reader (Infinite M1000 Pro; Tecan, Switzerland).

    Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay:

    Article Title: Molecular Detection and Species-Specific Identification of Medically Important Aspergillus Species by Real-Time PCR in Experimental Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis ▿
    Article Snippet: .. Characterization and comparison of galactomannan enzyme immunoassay and quantitative real-time PCR assay for detection of Aspergillus fumigatus in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from experimental invasive pulmonary aspergillosis . ..

    Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction:

    Article Title: Molecular Detection and Species-Specific Identification of Medically Important Aspergillus Species by Real-Time PCR in Experimental Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis ▿
    Article Snippet: .. Characterization and comparison of galactomannan enzyme immunoassay and quantitative real-time PCR assay for detection of Aspergillus fumigatus in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from experimental invasive pulmonary aspergillosis . ..

    other:

    Article Title: Efficient Clearance of Aspergillus fumigatus in Murine Lungs by an Ultrashort Antimicrobial Lipopeptide, Palmitoyl-Lys-Ala-dAla-Lys ▿
    Article Snippet: Aspergillus fumigatus and aspergillosis.

    Article Title: Mapping the Impact of a Polar Aprotic Solvent on the Microstructure and Dynamic Phase Transition in Glycerol Monooleate/Oleic Acid Systems
    Article Snippet: Aspergillus fumigatus (NCIM 902) and Candida albicans (ATCC 18804) were procured from the National Chemical Laboratory, Pune.

    Article Title: An inhalation model of airway allergic response to inhalation of environmental Aspergillus fumigatus conidia in sensitized BALB/c mice
    Article Snippet: A single lyophilized A. fumigatus culture was reconstituted per ATCC recommendations, and 60-μl aliquots of the suspension were stored at 4°C until use.

    Sequencing:

    Article Title: Healthy Human T-Cell Responses to Aspergillus fumigatus Antigens
    Article Snippet: .. Sequence information at GenBank (accession number AF062651) was used to generate oligonucleotides to amplify by PCR the entire cDNA for Asp f16 from the A. fumigatus sequenced strain, Af293 and from the strain used by Banerjee, et al. (AF-102, ATCC 42202) in the original Asp f16 cloning . .. Four and five independent clones from Af293 and ATCC 42202, respectively, were sequenced and found to be identical to the Asp f9 sequence (GenBank accession number AJ223327; this is a partial clone), now annotated as the cell wall glucanase Crf1 by TIGR ( http://www.tigr.org/tdb/e2k1/afu1/afu1.shtml ; genome locus AFUA_1G16190).

    Polymerase Chain Reaction:

    Article Title: Healthy Human T-Cell Responses to Aspergillus fumigatus Antigens
    Article Snippet: .. Sequence information at GenBank (accession number AF062651) was used to generate oligonucleotides to amplify by PCR the entire cDNA for Asp f16 from the A. fumigatus sequenced strain, Af293 and from the strain used by Banerjee, et al. (AF-102, ATCC 42202) in the original Asp f16 cloning . .. Four and five independent clones from Af293 and ATCC 42202, respectively, were sequenced and found to be identical to the Asp f9 sequence (GenBank accession number AJ223327; this is a partial clone), now annotated as the cell wall glucanase Crf1 by TIGR ( http://www.tigr.org/tdb/e2k1/afu1/afu1.shtml ; genome locus AFUA_1G16190).

    Clone Assay:

    Article Title: Healthy Human T-Cell Responses to Aspergillus fumigatus Antigens
    Article Snippet: .. Sequence information at GenBank (accession number AF062651) was used to generate oligonucleotides to amplify by PCR the entire cDNA for Asp f16 from the A. fumigatus sequenced strain, Af293 and from the strain used by Banerjee, et al. (AF-102, ATCC 42202) in the original Asp f16 cloning . .. Four and five independent clones from Af293 and ATCC 42202, respectively, were sequenced and found to be identical to the Asp f9 sequence (GenBank accession number AJ223327; this is a partial clone), now annotated as the cell wall glucanase Crf1 by TIGR ( http://www.tigr.org/tdb/e2k1/afu1/afu1.shtml ; genome locus AFUA_1G16190).

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    ATCC a fumigatus culture
    Total IgE from serum and IL4 and IFNγ from whole lung homogenates after allergen challenge with airborne Aspergillus <t>fumigatus</t> conidia in BALB/c mice. Total serum IgE (A), lung IL4 (B), and lung IFNγ (C) levels were measured using commercially
    A Fumigatus Culture, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Total IgE from serum and IL4 and IFNγ from whole lung homogenates after allergen challenge with airborne Aspergillus fumigatus conidia in BALB/c mice. Total serum IgE (A), lung IL4 (B), and lung IFNγ (C) levels were measured using commercially

    Journal: Medical mycology : official publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology

    Article Title: An inhalation model of airway allergic response to inhalation of environmental Aspergillus fumigatus conidia in sensitized BALB/c mice

    doi: 10.3109/13693786.2010.485582

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Total IgE from serum and IL4 and IFNγ from whole lung homogenates after allergen challenge with airborne Aspergillus fumigatus conidia in BALB/c mice. Total serum IgE (A), lung IL4 (B), and lung IFNγ (C) levels were measured using commercially

    Article Snippet: A single lyophilized A. fumigatus culture was reconstituted per ATCC recommendations, and 60-μl aliquots of the suspension were stored at 4°C until use.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay

    Aspergillus fumigatus conidia are found in the distal airways of BALB/c mice after inhalation. GMS staining of lung sections from naïve BALB/c mice immediately after treatment with a 5min dose of airborne A. fumigatus spores. Spores (black) were

    Journal: Medical mycology : official publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology

    Article Title: An inhalation model of airway allergic response to inhalation of environmental Aspergillus fumigatus conidia in sensitized BALB/c mice

    doi: 10.3109/13693786.2010.485582

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Aspergillus fumigatus conidia are found in the distal airways of BALB/c mice after inhalation. GMS staining of lung sections from naïve BALB/c mice immediately after treatment with a 5min dose of airborne A. fumigatus spores. Spores (black) were

    Article Snippet: A single lyophilized A. fumigatus culture was reconstituted per ATCC recommendations, and 60-μl aliquots of the suspension were stored at 4°C until use.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Staining

    Airway epithelial changes and hyperresponsiveness in allergen sensitized BALB/c mice after inhalation allergen challenge with live Aspergillus fumigatus conidia. Goblet cell numbers were reported as the percent of total epithelial cells along segments

    Journal: Medical mycology : official publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology

    Article Title: An inhalation model of airway allergic response to inhalation of environmental Aspergillus fumigatus conidia in sensitized BALB/c mice

    doi: 10.3109/13693786.2010.485582

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Airway epithelial changes and hyperresponsiveness in allergen sensitized BALB/c mice after inhalation allergen challenge with live Aspergillus fumigatus conidia. Goblet cell numbers were reported as the percent of total epithelial cells along segments

    Article Snippet: A single lyophilized A. fumigatus culture was reconstituted per ATCC recommendations, and 60-μl aliquots of the suspension were stored at 4°C until use.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay

    The Aspergillus fumigatus inhalation model: sensitization with soluble antigens followed by allergen challenge with airborne conidia. (A) Naïve BALB/c mice (N) received neither sensitization nor allergen challenge. Mice were sensitized with immunizations

    Journal: Medical mycology : official publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology

    Article Title: An inhalation model of airway allergic response to inhalation of environmental Aspergillus fumigatus conidia in sensitized BALB/c mice

    doi: 10.3109/13693786.2010.485582

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The Aspergillus fumigatus inhalation model: sensitization with soluble antigens followed by allergen challenge with airborne conidia. (A) Naïve BALB/c mice (N) received neither sensitization nor allergen challenge. Mice were sensitized with immunizations

    Article Snippet: A single lyophilized A. fumigatus culture was reconstituted per ATCC recommendations, and 60-μl aliquots of the suspension were stored at 4°C until use.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay

    ROS production by neutrophils. Neutrophils were stimulated with conidia from different Aspergillus fumigatus strains (MOI, 1:5) in the presence of posaconazole (0, 0.2, 0.6, and 1.2 μg/ml) and incubated for 6 h at 37°C. ROS generation was detected by monitoring luminol chemiluminescence and expressed as a change in relative light units (RLU) compared to the negative control, i.e., neutrophils without (w/o) posaconazole (means ± SEM; n = 6).

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: High Intracellular Concentrations of Posaconazole Do Not Impact on Functional Capacities of Human Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils and Monocyte-Derived Macrophages In Vitro

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.02060-15

    Figure Lengend Snippet: ROS production by neutrophils. Neutrophils were stimulated with conidia from different Aspergillus fumigatus strains (MOI, 1:5) in the presence of posaconazole (0, 0.2, 0.6, and 1.2 μg/ml) and incubated for 6 h at 37°C. ROS generation was detected by monitoring luminol chemiluminescence and expressed as a change in relative light units (RLU) compared to the negative control, i.e., neutrophils without (w/o) posaconazole (means ± SEM; n = 6).

    Article Snippet: Afterwards, the generation of ROS was stimulated with Aspergillus fumigatus conidia (multiplicity of infection [MOI], 1:5), lyophilized Escherichia coli (positive control) (2.5 ng/ml), and medium (negative control).

    Techniques: Incubation, Negative Control

    Metabolic activity of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia. Human neutrophils were incubated (3 h, 37°C) with Aspergillus fumigatus conidia (MOI, 1:5) in the presence of posaconazole (0, 0.2, 0.6, and 1.2 μg/ml). Afterwards, the metabolic activity was assessed colorimetrically. Groups were compared using ANOVA, followed by a Bonferroni post hoc test. ***, P

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: High Intracellular Concentrations of Posaconazole Do Not Impact on Functional Capacities of Human Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils and Monocyte-Derived Macrophages In Vitro

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.02060-15

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Metabolic activity of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia. Human neutrophils were incubated (3 h, 37°C) with Aspergillus fumigatus conidia (MOI, 1:5) in the presence of posaconazole (0, 0.2, 0.6, and 1.2 μg/ml). Afterwards, the metabolic activity was assessed colorimetrically. Groups were compared using ANOVA, followed by a Bonferroni post hoc test. ***, P

    Article Snippet: Afterwards, the generation of ROS was stimulated with Aspergillus fumigatus conidia (multiplicity of infection [MOI], 1:5), lyophilized Escherichia coli (positive control) (2.5 ng/ml), and medium (negative control).

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Incubation

    ROS generation by human monocyte-derived macrophages (hMDM). The generation of ROS was stimulated by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and Aspergillus fumigatus conidia (MOI, 1:10) in the presence of posaconazole (0, 0.2, 0.6, and 1.2 μg/ml) at 37°C for 3 h (means ± SEM; n = 3).

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: High Intracellular Concentrations of Posaconazole Do Not Impact on Functional Capacities of Human Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils and Monocyte-Derived Macrophages In Vitro

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.02060-15

    Figure Lengend Snippet: ROS generation by human monocyte-derived macrophages (hMDM). The generation of ROS was stimulated by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and Aspergillus fumigatus conidia (MOI, 1:10) in the presence of posaconazole (0, 0.2, 0.6, and 1.2 μg/ml) at 37°C for 3 h (means ± SEM; n = 3).

    Article Snippet: Afterwards, the generation of ROS was stimulated with Aspergillus fumigatus conidia (multiplicity of infection [MOI], 1:5), lyophilized Escherichia coli (positive control) (2.5 ng/ml), and medium (negative control).

    Techniques: Derivative Assay

    Chemotactic activity of posaconazole-loaded neutrophils. The migration capacity of posaconazole-loaded neutrophils (0, 0.6, and 1.2 μg/ml) toward zymosan-activated serum (ZAS; 0.1 mg/ml), Aspergillus fumigatus -activated serum (AAS; 1:10), N-formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP; 1 × 10 −7 M), and Aspergillus fumigatus conidia (1.5 × 10 7 /ml) was measured using a modified 96-well Boyden chamber. The chemotactic index (means ± standard errors of the means [SEM]) was calculated in relation to the negative control, indicated by the dashed line ( n = 6).

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: High Intracellular Concentrations of Posaconazole Do Not Impact on Functional Capacities of Human Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils and Monocyte-Derived Macrophages In Vitro

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.02060-15

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Chemotactic activity of posaconazole-loaded neutrophils. The migration capacity of posaconazole-loaded neutrophils (0, 0.6, and 1.2 μg/ml) toward zymosan-activated serum (ZAS; 0.1 mg/ml), Aspergillus fumigatus -activated serum (AAS; 1:10), N-formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP; 1 × 10 −7 M), and Aspergillus fumigatus conidia (1.5 × 10 7 /ml) was measured using a modified 96-well Boyden chamber. The chemotactic index (means ± standard errors of the means [SEM]) was calculated in relation to the negative control, indicated by the dashed line ( n = 6).

    Article Snippet: Afterwards, the generation of ROS was stimulated with Aspergillus fumigatus conidia (multiplicity of infection [MOI], 1:5), lyophilized Escherichia coli (positive control) (2.5 ng/ml), and medium (negative control).

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Migration, Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, Modification, Negative Control

    (A) Percentage of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia killed by neutrophils determined by CFU counting after serial dilution plating. Human neutrophils were incubated (3 h, 37°C) with serum-opsonized Aspergillus fumigatus conidia (MOI, 1:4) in the presence of posaconazole (0, 0.2, 0.6, and 1.2 μg/ml) (means ± SEM; n = 5). (B) Percentage of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia killed by monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) determined by CFU counting after serial dilution plating. Human MDMs were infected (1 h, 37°C) with serum-opsonized, Aspergillus fumigatus conidia (MOI, 1:10), washed, and incubated (6 h, 37°C) in the presence of posaconazole (0, 0.2, 0.6, and 1.2 μg/ml) (means ± SEM; n = 10).

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: High Intracellular Concentrations of Posaconazole Do Not Impact on Functional Capacities of Human Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils and Monocyte-Derived Macrophages In Vitro

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.02060-15

    Figure Lengend Snippet: (A) Percentage of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia killed by neutrophils determined by CFU counting after serial dilution plating. Human neutrophils were incubated (3 h, 37°C) with serum-opsonized Aspergillus fumigatus conidia (MOI, 1:4) in the presence of posaconazole (0, 0.2, 0.6, and 1.2 μg/ml) (means ± SEM; n = 5). (B) Percentage of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia killed by monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) determined by CFU counting after serial dilution plating. Human MDMs were infected (1 h, 37°C) with serum-opsonized, Aspergillus fumigatus conidia (MOI, 1:10), washed, and incubated (6 h, 37°C) in the presence of posaconazole (0, 0.2, 0.6, and 1.2 μg/ml) (means ± SEM; n = 10).

    Article Snippet: Afterwards, the generation of ROS was stimulated with Aspergillus fumigatus conidia (multiplicity of infection [MOI], 1:5), lyophilized Escherichia coli (positive control) (2.5 ng/ml), and medium (negative control).

    Techniques: Serial Dilution, Incubation, Derivative Assay, Infection

    Confocal microscopic analysis of the lungs of untreated or treated immunocompromised WT mice. Four days after mice were intranasally infected with DsRed A. fumigatus conidia, fresh lung sections were isolated from untreated (A, C, and F), C12-DL6K6-treated

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: Efficient Clearance of Aspergillus fumigatus in Murine Lungs by an Ultrashort Antimicrobial Lipopeptide, Palmitoyl-Lys-Ala-dAla-Lys ▿

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.00526-08

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Confocal microscopic analysis of the lungs of untreated or treated immunocompromised WT mice. Four days after mice were intranasally infected with DsRed A. fumigatus conidia, fresh lung sections were isolated from untreated (A, C, and F), C12-DL6K6-treated

    Article Snippet: Aspergillus fumigatus and aspergillosis.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Infection, Isolation

    Ex vivo confocal imaging of cross sections of fresh lung tissue from CX 3 CR1 GFP mice. (A) Lungs were injected with CMTMR to reveal tissue architecture. Mice were intranasally infected with 10 7 DsRed A. fumigatus conidia, and the course of infection was

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: Efficient Clearance of Aspergillus fumigatus in Murine Lungs by an Ultrashort Antimicrobial Lipopeptide, Palmitoyl-Lys-Ala-dAla-Lys ▿

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.00526-08

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Ex vivo confocal imaging of cross sections of fresh lung tissue from CX 3 CR1 GFP mice. (A) Lungs were injected with CMTMR to reveal tissue architecture. Mice were intranasally infected with 10 7 DsRed A. fumigatus conidia, and the course of infection was

    Article Snippet: Aspergillus fumigatus and aspergillosis.

    Techniques: Ex Vivo, Imaging, Mouse Assay, Injection, Infection

    Confocal microscopic analysis of the lungs of C16-KA A K-treated immunocompromised CX 3 CR1 GFP mice. Four days after mice were intranasally infected with DsRed A. fumigatus conidia, fresh lung sections were isolated. Residual conidia were detected within

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: Efficient Clearance of Aspergillus fumigatus in Murine Lungs by an Ultrashort Antimicrobial Lipopeptide, Palmitoyl-Lys-Ala-dAla-Lys ▿

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.00526-08

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Confocal microscopic analysis of the lungs of C16-KA A K-treated immunocompromised CX 3 CR1 GFP mice. Four days after mice were intranasally infected with DsRed A. fumigatus conidia, fresh lung sections were isolated. Residual conidia were detected within

    Article Snippet: Aspergillus fumigatus and aspergillosis.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Infection, Isolation

    Survival of immunocompromised WT mice. In the first survival assay (A), mice were infected intranasally with DsRed A. fumigatus conidia and treated with vehicle control (♦) or with one dose of C16-KA A K at 4.5 mg/kg day after the infection (▴)

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: Efficient Clearance of Aspergillus fumigatus in Murine Lungs by an Ultrashort Antimicrobial Lipopeptide, Palmitoyl-Lys-Ala-dAla-Lys ▿

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.00526-08

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Survival of immunocompromised WT mice. In the first survival assay (A), mice were infected intranasally with DsRed A. fumigatus conidia and treated with vehicle control (♦) or with one dose of C16-KA A K at 4.5 mg/kg day after the infection (▴)

    Article Snippet: Aspergillus fumigatus and aspergillosis.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Clonogenic Cell Survival Assay, Infection

    Determination of the sensitivity of the two-step PCR assay with purified A. fumigatus DNA diluted in human DNA (50 ng). The signal derived from 10 fg of Aspergillus template DNA was clearly detectable by ethidium bromide staining of an agarose gel. As a positive control, only DNA extracted from A. fumigatus (10 pg) was used in a single PCR amplification of the 236-bp fragment with the second primer pair (lane +). A negative reagent control amplification without addition of DNA (lane −) as well as purified DNA from a human cell line (T47D) resulted in no bands. The 123-bp ladder (Gibco BRL) was used as molecular size marker (lane M).

    Journal: Journal of Clinical Microbiology

    Article Title: Specific Detection of Aspergillus Species in Blood and Bronchoalveolar Lavage Samples of Immunocompromised Patients by Two-Step PCR

    doi:

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Determination of the sensitivity of the two-step PCR assay with purified A. fumigatus DNA diluted in human DNA (50 ng). The signal derived from 10 fg of Aspergillus template DNA was clearly detectable by ethidium bromide staining of an agarose gel. As a positive control, only DNA extracted from A. fumigatus (10 pg) was used in a single PCR amplification of the 236-bp fragment with the second primer pair (lane +). A negative reagent control amplification without addition of DNA (lane −) as well as purified DNA from a human cell line (T47D) resulted in no bands. The 123-bp ladder (Gibco BRL) was used as molecular size marker (lane M).

    Article Snippet: The following fungal strains were used in the study: A. fumigatus DSM 819, A. fumigatus CS, Aspergillus flavus DSM 1959, Aspergillus terreus DSM 1958, Aspergillus niger DSM 63263, A. niger CS, Aspergillus versicolor DSM 1943, Aspergillus clavatus DSM 3410, Candida albicans DSM 1386, C. albicans ATCC 44808, Candida tropicalis DSM 1346, Candida tropicalis DSM 5991, Candida krusei DSM 70079, Candida glabrata DSM 70614, Candida parapsilosis DSM 70126, Emericella nidulans DSM 820, Penicillium chrysogenum DSM 844, Penicillium expansum DSM 1282, Penicillium funiculosum DSM 1944, Aureobasidium pullulans DSM 2404, Paecilomyces variotii DSM 1961, Rhizopus oryzae DSM 854, Fusarium proliferatum DSM 848, Botrytis cinerea DSM 877, Scopulariopsis brevicaulis DSM 1218, and Neurospora crassa DSM 1257.

    Techniques: Polymerase Chain Reaction, Purification, Derivative Assay, Staining, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis, Positive Control, Amplification, Marker