Structured Review

Santa Cruz Biotechnology anti proliferating cell nuclear antigen pcna
Western blot analysis of the cell cycle signaling proteins. The lungs of mice fed a low Pi diet (0.1% Pi) or a normal (0.5% Pi) diet for 4 weeks. (A) The expressions of p53, p21 and p27 protein in lung. (B) The expressions of <t>cyclin</t> D3, cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen <t>(PCNA)</t> protein in lung. (C, D) The bands-of-interests were further analyzed by using a densitometer. (E) Immunohistochemical measurement of PCNA in the lung. The dark brown color indicates the PCNA expression (scale bar = 100 µm). (F) Comparison of the PCNA labeling index in the lungs. p values ( * p
Anti Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen Pcna, supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 19 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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1) Product Images from "Low dietary inorganic phosphate affects the lung growth of developing mice"

Article Title: Low dietary inorganic phosphate affects the lung growth of developing mice

Journal: Journal of Veterinary Science

doi: 10.4142/jvs.2009.10.2.105

Western blot analysis of the cell cycle signaling proteins. The lungs of mice fed a low Pi diet (0.1% Pi) or a normal (0.5% Pi) diet for 4 weeks. (A) The expressions of p53, p21 and p27 protein in lung. (B) The expressions of cyclin D3, cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein in lung. (C, D) The bands-of-interests were further analyzed by using a densitometer. (E) Immunohistochemical measurement of PCNA in the lung. The dark brown color indicates the PCNA expression (scale bar = 100 µm). (F) Comparison of the PCNA labeling index in the lungs. p values ( * p
Figure Legend Snippet: Western blot analysis of the cell cycle signaling proteins. The lungs of mice fed a low Pi diet (0.1% Pi) or a normal (0.5% Pi) diet for 4 weeks. (A) The expressions of p53, p21 and p27 protein in lung. (B) The expressions of cyclin D3, cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein in lung. (C, D) The bands-of-interests were further analyzed by using a densitometer. (E) Immunohistochemical measurement of PCNA in the lung. The dark brown color indicates the PCNA expression (scale bar = 100 µm). (F) Comparison of the PCNA labeling index in the lungs. p values ( * p

Techniques Used: Western Blot, Mouse Assay, Immunohistochemistry, Expressing, Labeling

2) Product Images from "Activation of Hepatic Stellate Cells During Liver Carcinogenesis Requires Fibrinogen/Integrin αvβ5 in Zebrafish"

Article Title: Activation of Hepatic Stellate Cells During Liver Carcinogenesis Requires Fibrinogen/Integrin αvβ5 in Zebrafish

Journal: Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)

doi: 10.1016/j.neo.2018.02.002

Effects of manipulation of integrin αvβ5 activity on tumorigenesis. 3-dpi kras+ and WT larvae were treated cilengitide or ADP together with dox for 4 days. Liver size were measured and liver sections were stained for cell proliferation and apoptosis. More than 20 fish were analyzed in each group. (A) Gross morphology of larvae after 4 days of treatment (left lateral view). The WT livers were outlined. (B) Quantification of liver size. (C) IF staining of PCNA on liver sections. (D) Quantification of PCNA-positive cells in the liver. (E) IF staining of Caspase 3 on liver sections. (F) Quantification of Caspase 3-positive cells in the liver. Livers are marked by dash lines. Int indicates intestine. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of manipulation of integrin αvβ5 activity on tumorigenesis. 3-dpi kras+ and WT larvae were treated cilengitide or ADP together with dox for 4 days. Liver size were measured and liver sections were stained for cell proliferation and apoptosis. More than 20 fish were analyzed in each group. (A) Gross morphology of larvae after 4 days of treatment (left lateral view). The WT livers were outlined. (B) Quantification of liver size. (C) IF staining of PCNA on liver sections. (D) Quantification of PCNA-positive cells in the liver. (E) IF staining of Caspase 3 on liver sections. (F) Quantification of Caspase 3-positive cells in the liver. Livers are marked by dash lines. Int indicates intestine. * P

Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Staining, Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization

Characterization of kras V12 -induced hepatocarcinogenesis in zebrafish larvae. 3-dpi kras+ or WT larvae were treated with 20 μg/ml for 4 days. More than 20 larvae were analyzed in each group. (A) Gross morphology of kras+ or WT larvae after 4 days induction (left lateral view). kras V12 expressing liver is marked by GFP expression and WT liver is outlined. Quantification of 2D liver size was shown in the right panel. (B-E) IF staining of PCNA (B), Caspase 3 (C), Collagen I (D) or Laminin (E) on liver sections of kras+ and WT larvae as indicated. Livers are marked by dash lines. Int indicates intestine. Quantifications of staining signals based on percentages of liver area are shown in the right panels. (F) IF co-staining of GFAP (red) and a-Sma (blue) on liver sections of kras+ and WT larvae as indicated. Quantifications of total HSC density based on Gfap+ cells and ratio of activated HSCs based on a-SMA staining in liver sections are presented on the right. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Characterization of kras V12 -induced hepatocarcinogenesis in zebrafish larvae. 3-dpi kras+ or WT larvae were treated with 20 μg/ml for 4 days. More than 20 larvae were analyzed in each group. (A) Gross morphology of kras+ or WT larvae after 4 days induction (left lateral view). kras V12 expressing liver is marked by GFP expression and WT liver is outlined. Quantification of 2D liver size was shown in the right panel. (B-E) IF staining of PCNA (B), Caspase 3 (C), Collagen I (D) or Laminin (E) on liver sections of kras+ and WT larvae as indicated. Livers are marked by dash lines. Int indicates intestine. Quantifications of staining signals based on percentages of liver area are shown in the right panels. (F) IF co-staining of GFAP (red) and a-Sma (blue) on liver sections of kras+ and WT larvae as indicated. Quantifications of total HSC density based on Gfap+ cells and ratio of activated HSCs based on a-SMA staining in liver sections are presented on the right. * P

Techniques Used: Expressing, Staining

3) Product Images from "Damaged DNA Binding Protein 2 Plays a Role in Breast Cancer Cell Growth"

Article Title: Damaged DNA Binding Protein 2 Plays a Role in Breast Cancer Cell Growth

Journal: PLoS ONE

doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0002002

Analysis of PCNA expression in DDB2-deficient MCF-7 cells. Parent cells (Wt), control siRNA-transfected MCF-7 cells and the two DDB2 siRNA-transfected cell clones (DDB2 siRNA cl.2 and cl.3) were synchronized by serum starvation for 48h, and induced to re-enter the cell cycle by the addition of serum for 3, 12 or 18h. PCNA protein levels were analysed in the total protein (50 µg) extracted from different cells by Western blotting, using specific polyclonal antibodies. Membranes were then probed with specific polyclonal antibodies against tubulin or stained with Coomassie blue as the protein loading control for Western blot analysis.
Figure Legend Snippet: Analysis of PCNA expression in DDB2-deficient MCF-7 cells. Parent cells (Wt), control siRNA-transfected MCF-7 cells and the two DDB2 siRNA-transfected cell clones (DDB2 siRNA cl.2 and cl.3) were synchronized by serum starvation for 48h, and induced to re-enter the cell cycle by the addition of serum for 3, 12 or 18h. PCNA protein levels were analysed in the total protein (50 µg) extracted from different cells by Western blotting, using specific polyclonal antibodies. Membranes were then probed with specific polyclonal antibodies against tubulin or stained with Coomassie blue as the protein loading control for Western blot analysis.

Techniques Used: Expressing, Transfection, Clone Assay, Western Blot, Staining

DDB2 knockdown affects the growth and colony formation of MCF-7 cells. (A) Generation of MCF-7 cell clones stably expressing DDB2 siRNA. Total RNA was extracted from parental MCF-7 cells (Wt) and from cells stably transfected with either the DDB2-siRNA vector (clones cl.2 and cl.3) or the scrambled siRNA vector (control siRNA), then subjected to RT-PCR analysis. The relative levels of DDB1, DDB2, DHFR, cyclin E and PCNA mRNAs were normalized to those of β-actin mRNA. DDB1 and DDB2 protein levels were analysed in the total protein (50 µg) extracted from MCF-7 cell clones stably expressing DDB2 siRNA and from control cells, by Western blotting using polyclonal anti-DDB1 and anti-DDB2 antibodies. Coomassie blue membrane staining was used as the protein loading control for Western blot analysis. (B) Parent cells (Wt), control siRNA-transfected MCF-7 cells and the two DDB2 siRNA-transfected cell clones (DDB2 siRNA cl.2 and cl.3) were plated in 24-well dishes (1×10 4 per well) in complete medium and cell numbers were counted for 4 days. Means are shown for three experiments. Cell population doubling time was calculated from the cell growth curve during the exponential growth phase. (C) Wt cells, control siRNA and DDB2 siRNA transfected cells were seeded (500 cells) in 100-mm dishes and grown for 12 days. Colonies with more than 50 cells were counted and data from three independent experiments were expressed as the % of colony formation = (colonies formed/cells seeded)×100%. Statistically significant differences from the parental (Wt) cell value are indicated as * P
Figure Legend Snippet: DDB2 knockdown affects the growth and colony formation of MCF-7 cells. (A) Generation of MCF-7 cell clones stably expressing DDB2 siRNA. Total RNA was extracted from parental MCF-7 cells (Wt) and from cells stably transfected with either the DDB2-siRNA vector (clones cl.2 and cl.3) or the scrambled siRNA vector (control siRNA), then subjected to RT-PCR analysis. The relative levels of DDB1, DDB2, DHFR, cyclin E and PCNA mRNAs were normalized to those of β-actin mRNA. DDB1 and DDB2 protein levels were analysed in the total protein (50 µg) extracted from MCF-7 cell clones stably expressing DDB2 siRNA and from control cells, by Western blotting using polyclonal anti-DDB1 and anti-DDB2 antibodies. Coomassie blue membrane staining was used as the protein loading control for Western blot analysis. (B) Parent cells (Wt), control siRNA-transfected MCF-7 cells and the two DDB2 siRNA-transfected cell clones (DDB2 siRNA cl.2 and cl.3) were plated in 24-well dishes (1×10 4 per well) in complete medium and cell numbers were counted for 4 days. Means are shown for three experiments. Cell population doubling time was calculated from the cell growth curve during the exponential growth phase. (C) Wt cells, control siRNA and DDB2 siRNA transfected cells were seeded (500 cells) in 100-mm dishes and grown for 12 days. Colonies with more than 50 cells were counted and data from three independent experiments were expressed as the % of colony formation = (colonies formed/cells seeded)×100%. Statistically significant differences from the parental (Wt) cell value are indicated as * P

Techniques Used: Clone Assay, Stable Transfection, Expressing, Transfection, Plasmid Preparation, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Western Blot, Staining

4) Product Images from "Activation of Hepatic Stellate Cells During Liver Carcinogenesis Requires Fibrinogen/Integrin αvβ5 in Zebrafish"

Article Title: Activation of Hepatic Stellate Cells During Liver Carcinogenesis Requires Fibrinogen/Integrin αvβ5 in Zebrafish

Journal: Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)

doi: 10.1016/j.neo.2018.02.002

Effects of manipulation of integrin αvβ5 activity on tumorigenesis. 3-dpi kras+ and WT larvae were treated cilengitide or ADP together with dox for 4 days. Liver size were measured and liver sections were stained for cell proliferation and apoptosis. More than 20 fish were analyzed in each group. (A) Gross morphology of larvae after 4 days of treatment (left lateral view). The WT livers were outlined. (B) Quantification of liver size. (C) IF staining of PCNA on liver sections. (D) Quantification of PCNA-positive cells in the liver. (E) IF staining of Caspase 3 on liver sections. (F) Quantification of Caspase 3-positive cells in the liver. Livers are marked by dash lines. Int indicates intestine. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of manipulation of integrin αvβ5 activity on tumorigenesis. 3-dpi kras+ and WT larvae were treated cilengitide or ADP together with dox for 4 days. Liver size were measured and liver sections were stained for cell proliferation and apoptosis. More than 20 fish were analyzed in each group. (A) Gross morphology of larvae after 4 days of treatment (left lateral view). The WT livers were outlined. (B) Quantification of liver size. (C) IF staining of PCNA on liver sections. (D) Quantification of PCNA-positive cells in the liver. (E) IF staining of Caspase 3 on liver sections. (F) Quantification of Caspase 3-positive cells in the liver. Livers are marked by dash lines. Int indicates intestine. * P

Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Staining, Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization

Characterization of kras V12 -induced hepatocarcinogenesis in zebrafish larvae. 3-dpi kras+ or WT larvae were treated with 20 μg/ml for 4 days. More than 20 larvae were analyzed in each group. (A) Gross morphology of kras+ or WT larvae after 4 days induction (left lateral view). kras V12 expressing liver is marked by GFP expression and WT liver is outlined. Quantification of 2D liver size was shown in the right panel. (B-E) IF staining of PCNA (B), Caspase 3 (C), Collagen I (D) or Laminin (E) on liver sections of kras+ and WT larvae as indicated. Livers are marked by dash lines. Int indicates intestine. Quantifications of staining signals based on percentages of liver area are shown in the right panels. (F) IF co-staining of GFAP (red) and a-Sma (blue) on liver sections of kras+ and WT larvae as indicated. Quantifications of total HSC density based on Gfap+ cells and ratio of activated HSCs based on a-SMA staining in liver sections are presented on the right. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Characterization of kras V12 -induced hepatocarcinogenesis in zebrafish larvae. 3-dpi kras+ or WT larvae were treated with 20 μg/ml for 4 days. More than 20 larvae were analyzed in each group. (A) Gross morphology of kras+ or WT larvae after 4 days induction (left lateral view). kras V12 expressing liver is marked by GFP expression and WT liver is outlined. Quantification of 2D liver size was shown in the right panel. (B-E) IF staining of PCNA (B), Caspase 3 (C), Collagen I (D) or Laminin (E) on liver sections of kras+ and WT larvae as indicated. Livers are marked by dash lines. Int indicates intestine. Quantifications of staining signals based on percentages of liver area are shown in the right panels. (F) IF co-staining of GFAP (red) and a-Sma (blue) on liver sections of kras+ and WT larvae as indicated. Quantifications of total HSC density based on Gfap+ cells and ratio of activated HSCs based on a-SMA staining in liver sections are presented on the right. * P

Techniques Used: Expressing, Staining

5) Product Images from "Nutrient Sensing, Nutrition, and Metabolism: Hepatic ZIP8 deficiency is associated with disrupted selenium homeostasis, liver pathology, and tumor formation"

Article Title: Nutrient Sensing, Nutrition, and Metabolism: Hepatic ZIP8 deficiency is associated with disrupted selenium homeostasis, liver pathology, and tumor formation

Journal: American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology

doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.00165.2018

Liver pathology showing significant nodular tumors in Slc39a8(+/neo) mice. A : wild-type (WT) mouse ( far left column ) was 20 mo of age; Slc39a8(+/neo) mice ( three right columns ) were 13, 18 and 21 mo of age, respectively. Macroscopic livers ( top row ) and microscopic hematoxylin-eosin (H E) staining ( bottom two rows ) is shown. Nodular tumors are visualized in parts or in the entire liver of Slc39a8(+/neo) mice. Out of 22 hypomorph mice, 10 were identified with similar nodular tumors. Scale bars: 500 μm ( middle row ); 100 μm ( bottom row ). B : hepatic Slc39a8 mRNA expression in WT ( n = 6) and Slc39a8(+/neo) mice ages 13–21 mo ( n = 7). C : typical immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining for α-fetoprotein (AFP) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in WT and Slc39a8(+/neo) mice (20 mo of age) ( top ). Bottom : quantitative PCR analysis of Afp in WT and in nontumor portion and tumor of Slc39a8(+/neo) ( n = 3 for each of the three histograms). All data represent means ± SE, with 1.0 designated for WT mean expression. * P ≤ 0.05 by Student’s t -test. T, tumor.
Figure Legend Snippet: Liver pathology showing significant nodular tumors in Slc39a8(+/neo) mice. A : wild-type (WT) mouse ( far left column ) was 20 mo of age; Slc39a8(+/neo) mice ( three right columns ) were 13, 18 and 21 mo of age, respectively. Macroscopic livers ( top row ) and microscopic hematoxylin-eosin (H E) staining ( bottom two rows ) is shown. Nodular tumors are visualized in parts or in the entire liver of Slc39a8(+/neo) mice. Out of 22 hypomorph mice, 10 were identified with similar nodular tumors. Scale bars: 500 μm ( middle row ); 100 μm ( bottom row ). B : hepatic Slc39a8 mRNA expression in WT ( n = 6) and Slc39a8(+/neo) mice ages 13–21 mo ( n = 7). C : typical immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining for α-fetoprotein (AFP) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in WT and Slc39a8(+/neo) mice (20 mo of age) ( top ). Bottom : quantitative PCR analysis of Afp in WT and in nontumor portion and tumor of Slc39a8(+/neo) ( n = 3 for each of the three histograms). All data represent means ± SE, with 1.0 designated for WT mean expression. * P ≤ 0.05 by Student’s t -test. T, tumor.

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Staining, Expressing, Immunohistochemistry, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction

Hepatic inflammation, DNA damage, oxidative stress, and proliferation in Ad-shZip8 vs. Ad-control mice. A : representative immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining for F4/80 and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in Ad-shZip8 vs. Ad-control liver. B : relative mean expression of the proinflammatory cytokines Tnf , Il1β , and Il6 mRNA in Ad-shZip8 ( n = 4 samples) vs. Ad-control ( n = 4 samples) liver. C : relative amounts of IHC staining for γH2AX, 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and cleaved caspase 3 protein in Ad-shZip8 vs. Ad-control liver. D : expression of SOD1, SOD2, glutathione peroxidase (GPX)1 and GPX2 in Ad-shZip8 vs. Ad-control liver, as determined by Western blot and normalized with α-tubulin. E : IHC staining for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), Cyclin D1, and cleaved Ki67 proteins in Ad-shZip8 vs. Ad-control liver ( left ). Expression of Cyclin D1 and PCNA in Ad-shZip8 and Ad-control liver, as detected by Western blot and normalized with α-tubulin. Arrowheads represent IHC-positive staining. Scale bar: 50 μm. Bar graphs represent means ± SE, with mean expression in controls set to 1.0. * P ≤ 0.05 by Student’s t -test.
Figure Legend Snippet: Hepatic inflammation, DNA damage, oxidative stress, and proliferation in Ad-shZip8 vs. Ad-control mice. A : representative immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining for F4/80 and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in Ad-shZip8 vs. Ad-control liver. B : relative mean expression of the proinflammatory cytokines Tnf , Il1β , and Il6 mRNA in Ad-shZip8 ( n = 4 samples) vs. Ad-control ( n = 4 samples) liver. C : relative amounts of IHC staining for γH2AX, 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and cleaved caspase 3 protein in Ad-shZip8 vs. Ad-control liver. D : expression of SOD1, SOD2, glutathione peroxidase (GPX)1 and GPX2 in Ad-shZip8 vs. Ad-control liver, as determined by Western blot and normalized with α-tubulin. E : IHC staining for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), Cyclin D1, and cleaved Ki67 proteins in Ad-shZip8 vs. Ad-control liver ( left ). Expression of Cyclin D1 and PCNA in Ad-shZip8 and Ad-control liver, as detected by Western blot and normalized with α-tubulin. Arrowheads represent IHC-positive staining. Scale bar: 50 μm. Bar graphs represent means ± SE, with mean expression in controls set to 1.0. * P ≤ 0.05 by Student’s t -test.

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Immunohistochemistry, Staining, Expressing, Western Blot

6) Product Images from "Dicer Deficiency Reveals MicroRNAs Predicted to Control Gene Expression in the Developing Adrenal Cortex"

Article Title: Dicer Deficiency Reveals MicroRNAs Predicted to Control Gene Expression in the Developing Adrenal Cortex

Journal: Molecular Endocrinology

doi: 10.1210/me.2012-1331

Assessment of proliferation in adrenals from Sf1 - Cre / Dicer lox/lox mice. Immunofluorescent staining of adrenals from Dicer -KO (cre + KO) embryos and cre − littermate controls (WT) at E14.5, E16.5, and E18.5. A, PCNA alone. B, Sf1 (green) and PCNA
Figure Legend Snippet: Assessment of proliferation in adrenals from Sf1 - Cre / Dicer lox/lox mice. Immunofluorescent staining of adrenals from Dicer -KO (cre + KO) embryos and cre − littermate controls (WT) at E14.5, E16.5, and E18.5. A, PCNA alone. B, Sf1 (green) and PCNA

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Staining

7) Product Images from "Suppressive Effect of Orthovanadate on Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation and Liver Fibrosis in Rats"

Article Title: Suppressive Effect of Orthovanadate on Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation and Liver Fibrosis in Rats

Journal:

doi: 10.2353/ajpath.2009.080261

Suppressed expression of α-SMA, PCNA, and type I collagen mRNA in cultured HSCs in the presence of OV. A: Western blot analysis of expression of PCNA, α-SMA, desmin, and vimentin in freshly isolated HSCs (0 day) and cultured HSCs (cultured
Figure Legend Snippet: Suppressed expression of α-SMA, PCNA, and type I collagen mRNA in cultured HSCs in the presence of OV. A: Western blot analysis of expression of PCNA, α-SMA, desmin, and vimentin in freshly isolated HSCs (0 day) and cultured HSCs (cultured

Techniques Used: Expressing, Cell Culture, Western Blot, Isolation

8) Product Images from "Isolation of Novel Sesquiterpeniods and Anti-neuroinflammatory Metabolites from Nardostachys jatamansi"

Article Title: Isolation of Novel Sesquiterpeniods and Anti-neuroinflammatory Metabolites from Nardostachys jatamansi

Journal: Molecules : A Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry

doi: 10.3390/molecules23092367

The effects of compounds ( A ) 3 , ( B ) 4 , and ( C ) 8 on LPS-induced NF-κB (p65/p50) expression in nuclear in BV2 microglial cells. (A–C) The cells were pretreated for 3 h with the indicated concentrations of compounds 3 , 4 , and 8, and then stimulated for 1 h with LPS (1.0 μg/mL). The data are presented as the means ± SD of three experiments. The band intensity was quantified by densitometry and normalized to the intensity of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) band; lower panel, summarized bar graphs show band intensity presented as ratio of targeting protein over PCNA. The significance of the comparison against the LPS-treated group is indicated as follows: * p
Figure Legend Snippet: The effects of compounds ( A ) 3 , ( B ) 4 , and ( C ) 8 on LPS-induced NF-κB (p65/p50) expression in nuclear in BV2 microglial cells. (A–C) The cells were pretreated for 3 h with the indicated concentrations of compounds 3 , 4 , and 8, and then stimulated for 1 h with LPS (1.0 μg/mL). The data are presented as the means ± SD of three experiments. The band intensity was quantified by densitometry and normalized to the intensity of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) band; lower panel, summarized bar graphs show band intensity presented as ratio of targeting protein over PCNA. The significance of the comparison against the LPS-treated group is indicated as follows: * p

Techniques Used: Expressing

9) Product Images from "Serotonin Activated Hepatic Stellate Cells Contribute to Sex Disparity in Hepatocellular Carcinoma"

Article Title: Serotonin Activated Hepatic Stellate Cells Contribute to Sex Disparity in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Journal: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology

doi: 10.1016/j.jcmgh.2017.01.002

Effects of serotonin level and HSC activation on kras V12 -induced carcinogenesis. Three-month-old adult zebrafish were treated with dox with or without serotonin, BW23C86, PCPA, and SB204741 for 7 days. ( A ) Gross morphology and H E staining of liver sections. ( B ) Quantification of tumor size as a percentage of total abdominal area. ( C ) Quantification of tumor histology observed in the H E-stained liver sections of these zebrafish is shown on the right (n > 8 in each group). ( D and E ) IF staining and quantification of ( D ) PCNA+ and ( E ) caspase 3+ cells in liver sections of these zebrafish (n > 8). * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of serotonin level and HSC activation on kras V12 -induced carcinogenesis. Three-month-old adult zebrafish were treated with dox with or without serotonin, BW23C86, PCPA, and SB204741 for 7 days. ( A ) Gross morphology and H E staining of liver sections. ( B ) Quantification of tumor size as a percentage of total abdominal area. ( C ) Quantification of tumor histology observed in the H E-stained liver sections of these zebrafish is shown on the right (n > 8 in each group). ( D and E ) IF staining and quantification of ( D ) PCNA+ and ( E ) caspase 3+ cells in liver sections of these zebrafish (n > 8). * P

Techniques Used: Activation Assay, Staining

Tgfb1 promotes serotonin synthesis and kras V12 -induced carcinogenesis. Three-month-old adult zebrafish were treated for 7 days with 30 μg/mL dox with or without 2 μmol/L serotonin, BW23C86, PCPA, and SB204741. ( A ) IF staining of serotonin in liver section of these zebrafish. These slides also were co-stained for hepatocytes (HNF4a) and nuclei (4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole [DAPI]). Right : Quantification of serotonin-positive liver cells as percentages of hepatocytes (n = 10). Three-month-old Male kras V12 -expressing zebrafish were treated with dox with or without SB204741 and SB431542, respectively. ( B ) Gross morphology and H E staining of liver sections of these zebrafish. Quantification of tumor histology observed in the H E-stained liver sections of these zebrafish (n > 8 in each group). ( C–H ) IF staining and quantification of ( C ) PCNA+, ( D ) caspase 3+, ( E ) P-Erk+, ( F ) P-Smad2, ( G ) P-Tph+, and ( H ) serotonin+ cells in liver sections (n > 8 in each group). * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Tgfb1 promotes serotonin synthesis and kras V12 -induced carcinogenesis. Three-month-old adult zebrafish were treated for 7 days with 30 μg/mL dox with or without 2 μmol/L serotonin, BW23C86, PCPA, and SB204741. ( A ) IF staining of serotonin in liver section of these zebrafish. These slides also were co-stained for hepatocytes (HNF4a) and nuclei (4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole [DAPI]). Right : Quantification of serotonin-positive liver cells as percentages of hepatocytes (n = 10). Three-month-old Male kras V12 -expressing zebrafish were treated with dox with or without SB204741 and SB431542, respectively. ( B ) Gross morphology and H E staining of liver sections of these zebrafish. Quantification of tumor histology observed in the H E-stained liver sections of these zebrafish (n > 8 in each group). ( C–H ) IF staining and quantification of ( C ) PCNA+, ( D ) caspase 3+, ( E ) P-Erk+, ( F ) P-Smad2, ( G ) P-Tph+, and ( H ) serotonin+ cells in liver sections (n > 8 in each group). * P

Techniques Used: Staining, Expressing

Sex disparity in kras V12 -induced HCC progression. Three-month-old adult zebrafish were treated with 30 μg/mL dox for 7 days and examined by various assays as described in the text. ( A ) Gross morphology and histology of kras+ and WT (control) male and female zebrafish after dox exposure. Male kras V12 -expressing liver (green for green fluorescent protein expression) were enlarged significantly as compared with female kras V12 -expressing liver and also with WT male and female livers ( dotted line enclosed ). Bottom left : H E staining of the liver sections of dox-treated kras+ and WT (control) male and female zebrafish. Right : Quantification of tumor histology observed in the H E-stained liver sections of dox-treated kras+ male and female zebrafish is shown (n = 10 each group). ( B–D ) IF staining of ( B ) PCNA, ( C ) caspase 3, and ( D ) collagen I in liver sections of dox-treated kras+ and WT male and female zebrafish. Quantifications of stained cells are shown on the right (n > 8 in each group). ( E ) Picrosirius Red staining of the liver sections of dox-treated kras+ and WT male and female zebrafish. Quantification of fibrotic liver tissue area in Picrosirius Red–stained liver sections is shown on the right (n > 10 in each group). ( F ) Gomori’s trichrome staining of the liver sections of dox-treated kras+ and WT male and female zebrafish. Quantification of fibrotic liver tissue area in Gomori’s trichrome–stained liver sections is shown on the right (n > 8 in each group). * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Sex disparity in kras V12 -induced HCC progression. Three-month-old adult zebrafish were treated with 30 μg/mL dox for 7 days and examined by various assays as described in the text. ( A ) Gross morphology and histology of kras+ and WT (control) male and female zebrafish after dox exposure. Male kras V12 -expressing liver (green for green fluorescent protein expression) were enlarged significantly as compared with female kras V12 -expressing liver and also with WT male and female livers ( dotted line enclosed ). Bottom left : H E staining of the liver sections of dox-treated kras+ and WT (control) male and female zebrafish. Right : Quantification of tumor histology observed in the H E-stained liver sections of dox-treated kras+ male and female zebrafish is shown (n = 10 each group). ( B–D ) IF staining of ( B ) PCNA, ( C ) caspase 3, and ( D ) collagen I in liver sections of dox-treated kras+ and WT male and female zebrafish. Quantifications of stained cells are shown on the right (n > 8 in each group). ( E ) Picrosirius Red staining of the liver sections of dox-treated kras+ and WT male and female zebrafish. Quantification of fibrotic liver tissue area in Picrosirius Red–stained liver sections is shown on the right (n > 10 in each group). ( F ) Gomori’s trichrome staining of the liver sections of dox-treated kras+ and WT male and female zebrafish. Quantification of fibrotic liver tissue area in Gomori’s trichrome–stained liver sections is shown on the right (n > 8 in each group). * P

Techniques Used: Expressing, Staining

10) Product Images from "Isolation of Novel Sesquiterpeniods and Anti-neuroinflammatory Metabolites from Nardostachys jatamansi"

Article Title: Isolation of Novel Sesquiterpeniods and Anti-neuroinflammatory Metabolites from Nardostachys jatamansi

Journal: Molecules : A Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry

doi: 10.3390/molecules23092367

The effects of compounds ( A ) 3 , ( B ) 4 , and ( C ) 8 on LPS-induced NF-κB (p65/p50) expression in nuclear in BV2 microglial cells. (A–C) The cells were pretreated for 3 h with the indicated concentrations of compounds 3 , 4 , and 8, and then stimulated for 1 h with LPS (1.0 μg/mL). The data are presented as the means ± SD of three experiments. The band intensity was quantified by densitometry and normalized to the intensity of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) band; lower panel, summarized bar graphs show band intensity presented as ratio of targeting protein over PCNA. The significance of the comparison against the LPS-treated group is indicated as follows: * p
Figure Legend Snippet: The effects of compounds ( A ) 3 , ( B ) 4 , and ( C ) 8 on LPS-induced NF-κB (p65/p50) expression in nuclear in BV2 microglial cells. (A–C) The cells were pretreated for 3 h with the indicated concentrations of compounds 3 , 4 , and 8, and then stimulated for 1 h with LPS (1.0 μg/mL). The data are presented as the means ± SD of three experiments. The band intensity was quantified by densitometry and normalized to the intensity of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) band; lower panel, summarized bar graphs show band intensity presented as ratio of targeting protein over PCNA. The significance of the comparison against the LPS-treated group is indicated as follows: * p

Techniques Used: Expressing

11) Product Images from "Steppogenin Isolated from Cudrania tricuspidata Shows Antineuroinflammatory Effects via NF-κB and MAPK Pathways in LPS-Stimulated BV2 and Primary Rat Microglial Cells"

Article Title: Steppogenin Isolated from Cudrania tricuspidata Shows Antineuroinflammatory Effects via NF-κB and MAPK Pathways in LPS-Stimulated BV2 and Primary Rat Microglial Cells

Journal: Molecules : A Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry

doi: 10.3390/molecules22122130

The effects of steppogenin ( 1 ) on IκB-α phosphorylation and degradation ( A ) NF-κB activation ( B , C ), NF-κB DNA binding activity ( D ), and NF-κB localization ( E ) in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. ( A – E ) The cells were pretreated for 3 h with the indicated concentrations of 1 and then stimulated for 1 h with LPS (1 μg/mL). The data are presented as the mean ± SD of three experiments. The band intensity was quantified by densitometry and normalized to the intensity of the β-actin or proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) band; the normalized values are presented below each band. ** p
Figure Legend Snippet: The effects of steppogenin ( 1 ) on IκB-α phosphorylation and degradation ( A ) NF-κB activation ( B , C ), NF-κB DNA binding activity ( D ), and NF-κB localization ( E ) in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. ( A – E ) The cells were pretreated for 3 h with the indicated concentrations of 1 and then stimulated for 1 h with LPS (1 μg/mL). The data are presented as the mean ± SD of three experiments. The band intensity was quantified by densitometry and normalized to the intensity of the β-actin or proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) band; the normalized values are presented below each band. ** p

Techniques Used: Activation Assay, Binding Assay, Activity Assay

The effects of steppogenin ( 1 ) on IκB-α phosphorylation and degradation ( A ), NF-κB activation ( B , C ), and NF-κB localization ( D ) in LPS-stimulated primary rat microglial cells. ( A – D ) The cells were pretreated for 3 h with the indicated concentrations of 1 and then stimulated for 1 h with LPS (1 μg/mL). Total proteins were prepared and the western blot analysis was performed using specific IκB-α, p-IκB-α p65, and p50 antibodies. A commercially available NF-κB ELISA (Active Motif) was used to test the nuclear extracts and determine the degree of NF-κB binding. The data are presented as the mean ± SD of three experiments. The band intensities were quantified by densitometry and normalized to the intensity of β-actin or PCNA; the normalized values are presented below each band.
Figure Legend Snippet: The effects of steppogenin ( 1 ) on IκB-α phosphorylation and degradation ( A ), NF-κB activation ( B , C ), and NF-κB localization ( D ) in LPS-stimulated primary rat microglial cells. ( A – D ) The cells were pretreated for 3 h with the indicated concentrations of 1 and then stimulated for 1 h with LPS (1 μg/mL). Total proteins were prepared and the western blot analysis was performed using specific IκB-α, p-IκB-α p65, and p50 antibodies. A commercially available NF-κB ELISA (Active Motif) was used to test the nuclear extracts and determine the degree of NF-κB binding. The data are presented as the mean ± SD of three experiments. The band intensities were quantified by densitometry and normalized to the intensity of β-actin or PCNA; the normalized values are presented below each band.

Techniques Used: Activation Assay, Western Blot, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Binding Assay

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Article Snippet: .. Sections were then incubated overnight at 4°C with anti-Sf1 (1:1000, custom antibody), anti-tyrosine hydroxylase (1:300; Millipore, Billerica, Massachusetts), anti-proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) (1:500; Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, California), anti-CD3 (1:250; Abcam, Cambridge, Massachusetts), anti-CD68 (1:200; Abcam), or anti-CD20 (1:100; Santa Cruz). .. The following morning, slides were washed and incubated with Dylight 488-conjugated goat antirabbit or Dylight 549-conjugated goat antimouse (1:1000; Jackson ImmunoResearch Laboratories, West Grove, Pennsylvania) in the dark at room temperature for 1 hour.

Binding Assay:

Article Title: Low dietary inorganic phosphate affects the lung growth of developing mice
Article Snippet: .. Anti-phospho-Akt (Thr308), anti-eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), anti-phospho-4E-BP1, anti-cyclin D3, anti-cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4), anti-proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), anti-p53, anti-p27, anti-p21 and anti-FGF-2, anti-α-tubulin antibodies were purchased from Santa Cruz Biotechnology (USA). .. The antibody against mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) was obtained from Cell Signaling (USA).

Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization:

Article Title: Damaged DNA Binding Protein 2 Plays a Role in Breast Cancer Cell Growth
Article Snippet: .. After blocking with 0.1% fish gelatin/0.8% bovine serum albumin/0.002% Tween-80, the cells were then exposed to the primary polyclonal antibodies anti-DDB1, anti-DDB2 and anti-proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) (Santa Cruz Biotechnology), diluted at 1∶100, for 30 min at 37°C. .. After two washes in PBS, the cells were incubated with FITC-conjugated bovine anti-rabbit immunoglobulins, diluted at 1∶100 (Santa Cruz Biotechnology), in PBS for 20 min at 37°C.

Blocking Assay:

Article Title: Damaged DNA Binding Protein 2 Plays a Role in Breast Cancer Cell Growth
Article Snippet: .. After blocking with 0.1% fish gelatin/0.8% bovine serum albumin/0.002% Tween-80, the cells were then exposed to the primary polyclonal antibodies anti-DDB1, anti-DDB2 and anti-proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) (Santa Cruz Biotechnology), diluted at 1∶100, for 30 min at 37°C. .. After two washes in PBS, the cells were incubated with FITC-conjugated bovine anti-rabbit immunoglobulins, diluted at 1∶100 (Santa Cruz Biotechnology), in PBS for 20 min at 37°C.

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    Santa Cruz Biotechnology anti pcna
    The effects of cudratricusxanthone A ( 1 ) on IκB-α phosphorylation and degradation ( A ); NF-κB translocation ( B , C ); NF-κB localization as determined by immunofluorescence analysis ( D ); and NF-κB DNA binding activity ( E ) in BV2 microglia. Cells were pretreated for 3 h with the indicated concentrations of cudratricusxanthone A ( 1 ), and stimulated for 1 h with LPS (1 μg/mL). The LPS treatment was performed in the presence of compound. Western blot analyses of IκB-α and p -IκB-α in the cytoplasm ( A ) and NF-κB in the cytoplasm ( B ) and nucleus ( C ) and immunofluorescence analyses ( E ) were carried out as described in the Experimental Section. The band intensity was quantified by densitometry and normalized to <t>β-actin</t> and <t>PCNA,</t> and the values are presented at the bottom of the each band. Relative data represent the means ± SDs of three experiments. * p
    Anti Pcna, supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 283 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Santa Cruz Biotechnology rabbit anti pcna
    Effects of CYP-treatment on AR, <t>Erα,</t> and <t>Pcna</t> in mLTC-1cells. (A) The mRNA levels of AR , ERα , and Pcna in mLTC-1 cells. (B) The protein levels of AR, Erα, and Pcna in mLTC-1 cells. (C) Quantitative analysis of scanning densitometry of protein levels from (B). The mRNA and protein levels of AR were downregulated after CYP treatment, which is consistent with the T levels. In contrast, the ERα mRNA and protein levels were upregulated. The Pcna mRNA and protein levels suggest that CYP treatment may promote the proliferation of Leydig cells. The data represent the mean ± SEM. * P
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    The effects of cudratricusxanthone A ( 1 ) on IκB-α phosphorylation and degradation ( A ); NF-κB translocation ( B , C ); NF-κB localization as determined by immunofluorescence analysis ( D ); and NF-κB DNA binding activity ( E ) in BV2 microglia. Cells were pretreated for 3 h with the indicated concentrations of cudratricusxanthone A ( 1 ), and stimulated for 1 h with LPS (1 μg/mL). The LPS treatment was performed in the presence of compound. Western blot analyses of IκB-α and p -IκB-α in the cytoplasm ( A ) and NF-κB in the cytoplasm ( B ) and nucleus ( C ) and immunofluorescence analyses ( E ) were carried out as described in the Experimental Section. The band intensity was quantified by densitometry and normalized to β-actin and PCNA, and the values are presented at the bottom of the each band. Relative data represent the means ± SDs of three experiments. * p

    Journal: Molecules

    Article Title: A Prenylated Xanthone, Cudratricusxanthone A, Isolated from Cudrania tricuspidata Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neuroinflammation through Inhibition of NF-κB and p38 MAPK Pathways in BV2 Microglia

    doi: 10.3390/molecules21091240

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The effects of cudratricusxanthone A ( 1 ) on IκB-α phosphorylation and degradation ( A ); NF-κB translocation ( B , C ); NF-κB localization as determined by immunofluorescence analysis ( D ); and NF-κB DNA binding activity ( E ) in BV2 microglia. Cells were pretreated for 3 h with the indicated concentrations of cudratricusxanthone A ( 1 ), and stimulated for 1 h with LPS (1 μg/mL). The LPS treatment was performed in the presence of compound. Western blot analyses of IκB-α and p -IκB-α in the cytoplasm ( A ) and NF-κB in the cytoplasm ( B ) and nucleus ( C ) and immunofluorescence analyses ( E ) were carried out as described in the Experimental Section. The band intensity was quantified by densitometry and normalized to β-actin and PCNA, and the values are presented at the bottom of the each band. Relative data represent the means ± SDs of three experiments. * p

    Article Snippet: Primary antibodies, including mouse/goat/rabbit anti-COX-2, anti-iNOS, anti-β-actin, anti-IкB-α, anti-phospho-IкB-α, anti-p50, anti-p65, and anti-PCNA, and secondary antibodies were purchased from Santa Cruz Biotechnology (Heidelberg, Germany).

    Techniques: Translocation Assay, Immunofluorescence, Binding Assay, Activity Assay, Western Blot

    Co-immunoprecipitation of XRCC1 and PCNA. ( A ) Anti-PCNA antibody pulls down XRCC1. Whole cell extracts prepared from human 293T cells were subject to immunoprecipitation with anti-PCNA antibody as described in Materials and Methods. The precipitated proteins (IP) were fractionated by SDS–PAGE and probed with either anti-XRCC1 or anti-PCNA antibodies (as indicated) using standard immunoblotting techniques. XRCC1, purified recombinant XRCC1; PCNA, purified recombinant PCNA; beads, agarose bead control, without PCNA antibody; WCE, whole cell extract (∼30 µg); IP, immunoprecipitant. ( B ) Anti-GFP antibody pulls down XRCC1–EYFP and PCNA. Cell extracts were prepared from HeLa cells stably expressing either XRCC1–EYFP or EYFP alone (EYFP-C1) and immunoprecipitations were performed with anti-GFP as described in Materials and Methods. The precipitated proteins (IP) were analyzed as above with the indicated antibodies. Input was 20% of the starting material from the XRCC1–EYFP extracts. Note that GFP alone is not shown, as it migrated at a much lower molecular weight than the XRCC1–EYFP fusion protein.

    Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

    Article Title: XRCC1 co-localizes and physically interacts with PCNA

    doi: 10.1093/nar/gkh556

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Co-immunoprecipitation of XRCC1 and PCNA. ( A ) Anti-PCNA antibody pulls down XRCC1. Whole cell extracts prepared from human 293T cells were subject to immunoprecipitation with anti-PCNA antibody as described in Materials and Methods. The precipitated proteins (IP) were fractionated by SDS–PAGE and probed with either anti-XRCC1 or anti-PCNA antibodies (as indicated) using standard immunoblotting techniques. XRCC1, purified recombinant XRCC1; PCNA, purified recombinant PCNA; beads, agarose bead control, without PCNA antibody; WCE, whole cell extract (∼30 µg); IP, immunoprecipitant. ( B ) Anti-GFP antibody pulls down XRCC1–EYFP and PCNA. Cell extracts were prepared from HeLa cells stably expressing either XRCC1–EYFP or EYFP alone (EYFP-C1) and immunoprecipitations were performed with anti-GFP as described in Materials and Methods. The precipitated proteins (IP) were analyzed as above with the indicated antibodies. Input was 20% of the starting material from the XRCC1–EYFP extracts. Note that GFP alone is not shown, as it migrated at a much lower molecular weight than the XRCC1–EYFP fusion protein.

    Article Snippet: As shown in Figure A, anti-PCNA antibody pulled down both PCNA and XRCC1 (see lane IP).

    Techniques: Immunoprecipitation, SDS Page, Purification, Recombinant, Stable Transfection, Expressing, Molecular Weight

    XRCC1 physically interacts with PCNA in vitro . Purified recombinant XRCC1 protein (+ lanes) was examined for physical association with purified recombinant POLβ, APE1, FEN1 or PCNA (as indicated) using the in vitro protein interaction assay described in Materials and Methods. Non-specific interactions of the four recombinant proteins with the affinity matrix were examined in the absence of XRCC1 (– lanes). Matrix bound proteins were analyzed by SDS–PAGE and silver staining (representative gel shown). I indicates the initial input for the POLβ, APE1, FEN1 and PCNA proteins. The asterisk denotes the location of the PCNA protein and the arrow indicates the position of the HIS- and S-tagged recombinant XRCC1 protein. Molecular weight protein standards are shown (in kDa) to the right.

    Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

    Article Title: XRCC1 co-localizes and physically interacts with PCNA

    doi: 10.1093/nar/gkh556

    Figure Lengend Snippet: XRCC1 physically interacts with PCNA in vitro . Purified recombinant XRCC1 protein (+ lanes) was examined for physical association with purified recombinant POLβ, APE1, FEN1 or PCNA (as indicated) using the in vitro protein interaction assay described in Materials and Methods. Non-specific interactions of the four recombinant proteins with the affinity matrix were examined in the absence of XRCC1 (– lanes). Matrix bound proteins were analyzed by SDS–PAGE and silver staining (representative gel shown). I indicates the initial input for the POLβ, APE1, FEN1 and PCNA proteins. The asterisk denotes the location of the PCNA protein and the arrow indicates the position of the HIS- and S-tagged recombinant XRCC1 protein. Molecular weight protein standards are shown (in kDa) to the right.

    Article Snippet: As shown in Figure A, anti-PCNA antibody pulled down both PCNA and XRCC1 (see lane IP).

    Techniques: In Vitro, Purification, Recombinant, Protein Interaction Assay, SDS Page, Silver Staining, Molecular Weight

    ( A ) Schematic of XRCC1 interacting regions and protein partners. Thus far, at least eight proteins (see text for details), including PCNA described in this work, have been found to directly interact with XRCC1. The regions that are responsible for these interactions, excluding PNK, have been assigned (see diagram). Note that TDP1 has not been shown to directly associate with XRCC1. ( B ). Also shown is lagging strand ligation.

    Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

    Article Title: XRCC1 co-localizes and physically interacts with PCNA

    doi: 10.1093/nar/gkh556

    Figure Lengend Snippet: ( A ) Schematic of XRCC1 interacting regions and protein partners. Thus far, at least eight proteins (see text for details), including PCNA described in this work, have been found to directly interact with XRCC1. The regions that are responsible for these interactions, excluding PNK, have been assigned (see diagram). Note that TDP1 has not been shown to directly associate with XRCC1. ( B ). Also shown is lagging strand ligation.

    Article Snippet: As shown in Figure A, anti-PCNA antibody pulled down both PCNA and XRCC1 (see lane IP).

    Techniques: Ligation

    Hepatocyte-specific inactivation of RelA/p65 results in accelerated cell cycle progression without altering liver mass regeneration after 2/3 PH. ( A–E ) 2/3 PH was performed in Rela F/F AlbCre and Rela F/F control animals. ( A ) DNA synthesis was assessed by hepatocyte BrdU labelling at the indicated time points and quantified as described in Methods (representative×200 anti-BrdU stained liver sections are shown in the left panel, n = 4−8 animals per time point and group were counted for quantification, right panel). ( B ) Accelerated cell cycle progression in Rela F/F AlbCre mice as determined by mRNA levels of Cyclin D1 24 h post PH (upper panel) and WB analysis of cell-cycle associated proteins (PCNA, Cyclin A, Cyclin D1). Lysates were controlled for effective deletion of WT-RelA/p65 and β-actin served as loading control. Two representative lysates from each time point post PH are shown. ( C ) Loss of hepatocyte RelA/p65 leads to enhanced phosphorylation of STAT3 and JNK during the first hours after PH as assessed by immunoblot analysis (upper panels). ( D ) Liver IL-6 mRNA induction as determined by RT-PCR (upper graph) and IL-6 serum levels (ELISA, lower graph) were not different between groups. ( E ) Liver mass regeneration (%) determined as described in Methods did not differ between the groups. Data from BrdU-labelling, cytokine analysis, RT-PCR, and analysis of liver mass regeneration are presented as the average ± SEM for 3–6 animals per time point per group. *, p≤0.05 for mutant vs. control mice.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: The NF-?B Subunit RelA/p65 Is Dispensable for Successful Liver Regeneration after Partial Hepatectomy in Mice

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0046469

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Hepatocyte-specific inactivation of RelA/p65 results in accelerated cell cycle progression without altering liver mass regeneration after 2/3 PH. ( A–E ) 2/3 PH was performed in Rela F/F AlbCre and Rela F/F control animals. ( A ) DNA synthesis was assessed by hepatocyte BrdU labelling at the indicated time points and quantified as described in Methods (representative×200 anti-BrdU stained liver sections are shown in the left panel, n = 4−8 animals per time point and group were counted for quantification, right panel). ( B ) Accelerated cell cycle progression in Rela F/F AlbCre mice as determined by mRNA levels of Cyclin D1 24 h post PH (upper panel) and WB analysis of cell-cycle associated proteins (PCNA, Cyclin A, Cyclin D1). Lysates were controlled for effective deletion of WT-RelA/p65 and β-actin served as loading control. Two representative lysates from each time point post PH are shown. ( C ) Loss of hepatocyte RelA/p65 leads to enhanced phosphorylation of STAT3 and JNK during the first hours after PH as assessed by immunoblot analysis (upper panels). ( D ) Liver IL-6 mRNA induction as determined by RT-PCR (upper graph) and IL-6 serum levels (ELISA, lower graph) were not different between groups. ( E ) Liver mass regeneration (%) determined as described in Methods did not differ between the groups. Data from BrdU-labelling, cytokine analysis, RT-PCR, and analysis of liver mass regeneration are presented as the average ± SEM for 3–6 animals per time point per group. *, p≤0.05 for mutant vs. control mice.

    Article Snippet: Antibodies used were: rabbit anti-p65, anti-PCNA, anti-β-actin, anti-Cyclin A, anti-Cyclin D1 (all Santa Cruz), anti-JNK, anti-phospho-JNK, anti-STAT, anti-phospho-STAT (all Cell Signaling).

    Techniques: DNA Synthesis, Staining, Mouse Assay, Western Blot, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Mutagenesis

    Effects of CYP-treatment on AR, Erα, and Pcna in mLTC-1cells. (A) The mRNA levels of AR , ERα , and Pcna in mLTC-1 cells. (B) The protein levels of AR, Erα, and Pcna in mLTC-1 cells. (C) Quantitative analysis of scanning densitometry of protein levels from (B). The mRNA and protein levels of AR were downregulated after CYP treatment, which is consistent with the T levels. In contrast, the ERα mRNA and protein levels were upregulated. The Pcna mRNA and protein levels suggest that CYP treatment may promote the proliferation of Leydig cells. The data represent the mean ± SEM. * P

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Maternal Cypermethrin Exposure during the Perinatal Period Impairs Testicular Development in C57BL Male Offspring

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0096781

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of CYP-treatment on AR, Erα, and Pcna in mLTC-1cells. (A) The mRNA levels of AR , ERα , and Pcna in mLTC-1 cells. (B) The protein levels of AR, Erα, and Pcna in mLTC-1 cells. (C) Quantitative analysis of scanning densitometry of protein levels from (B). The mRNA and protein levels of AR were downregulated after CYP treatment, which is consistent with the T levels. In contrast, the ERα mRNA and protein levels were upregulated. The Pcna mRNA and protein levels suggest that CYP treatment may promote the proliferation of Leydig cells. The data represent the mean ± SEM. * P

    Article Snippet: The membrane was incubated with mouse anti-β-Actin, rabbit anti-Star, goat anti-3β-HSD, rabbit anti-CYP17A1, goat anti-17β-HSD3, rabbit anti-Pcna, rabbit anti-AR, and rabbit anti-ERα (further information on the primary antibodies are shown in , purchased from Santa Cruz, USA).

    Techniques:

    3β-HSD, Pcna immunohistochemistry and TUNEL assay of testes. Slides of (A, B, C) control and (D, E, F) CYP-treated offspring at PD21.5, PD45.5, and PD90.5, respectively, were immunolocalized with antibody for 3β-HSD. Slides of (G, H, I) control and (J, K, L) CYP-treated offspring at PD21.5, PD45.5, and PD90.5, respectively, were immunolocalized with antibody for Pcna. Slides of (M, N, O) control and (P, Q, R) CYP-treated offspring at PD21.5, PD45.5, and PD90.5, respectively were stained using the TUNEL method. All of the images were taken at 400× magnification. Scale bars, 40 µm. (S) Quantification of 3β-HSD-positive Leydig cells in 5–20 related slides of A–F. (T) Quantification of Pcna-positive germ cells in 5–20 related slides of G–L. (U) Quantification of apoptotic germ cells in 5–20 related slides of M–R. The data represent the mean ± SEM. * P

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Maternal Cypermethrin Exposure during the Perinatal Period Impairs Testicular Development in C57BL Male Offspring

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0096781

    Figure Lengend Snippet: 3β-HSD, Pcna immunohistochemistry and TUNEL assay of testes. Slides of (A, B, C) control and (D, E, F) CYP-treated offspring at PD21.5, PD45.5, and PD90.5, respectively, were immunolocalized with antibody for 3β-HSD. Slides of (G, H, I) control and (J, K, L) CYP-treated offspring at PD21.5, PD45.5, and PD90.5, respectively, were immunolocalized with antibody for Pcna. Slides of (M, N, O) control and (P, Q, R) CYP-treated offspring at PD21.5, PD45.5, and PD90.5, respectively were stained using the TUNEL method. All of the images were taken at 400× magnification. Scale bars, 40 µm. (S) Quantification of 3β-HSD-positive Leydig cells in 5–20 related slides of A–F. (T) Quantification of Pcna-positive germ cells in 5–20 related slides of G–L. (U) Quantification of apoptotic germ cells in 5–20 related slides of M–R. The data represent the mean ± SEM. * P

    Article Snippet: The membrane was incubated with mouse anti-β-Actin, rabbit anti-Star, goat anti-3β-HSD, rabbit anti-CYP17A1, goat anti-17β-HSD3, rabbit anti-Pcna, rabbit anti-AR, and rabbit anti-ERα (further information on the primary antibodies are shown in , purchased from Santa Cruz, USA).

    Techniques: Immunohistochemistry, TUNEL Assay, Staining

    Effects of maternal CYP-exposure on the AR, ERα, Pcna, and E2/T levels of offspring. (A) The mRNA level of AR was not affected at PD21.5. The ERα level was upregulated significantly in the 12 mg/kg/day-exposure group, and there was an increasing trend in the other exposure group. Pcna expression was not altered. (B) AR expression was downregulated significantly in the exposure groups, and ERα and Pcna were upregulated, which may explain the hyperplasia of interstitial cells. (C) AR and Pcna were downregulated significantly, and ERα was upregulated, as observed at PD21.5 and PD45.5. (D) Serum T and E 2 levels and the E 2 /T ratio at the three time points. The T level was lower, and the E 2 level was higher in the CYP exposure groups at PD45.5 and PD90.5. The data represent the mean ± SEM. * P

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Maternal Cypermethrin Exposure during the Perinatal Period Impairs Testicular Development in C57BL Male Offspring

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0096781

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of maternal CYP-exposure on the AR, ERα, Pcna, and E2/T levels of offspring. (A) The mRNA level of AR was not affected at PD21.5. The ERα level was upregulated significantly in the 12 mg/kg/day-exposure group, and there was an increasing trend in the other exposure group. Pcna expression was not altered. (B) AR expression was downregulated significantly in the exposure groups, and ERα and Pcna were upregulated, which may explain the hyperplasia of interstitial cells. (C) AR and Pcna were downregulated significantly, and ERα was upregulated, as observed at PD21.5 and PD45.5. (D) Serum T and E 2 levels and the E 2 /T ratio at the three time points. The T level was lower, and the E 2 level was higher in the CYP exposure groups at PD45.5 and PD90.5. The data represent the mean ± SEM. * P

    Article Snippet: The membrane was incubated with mouse anti-β-Actin, rabbit anti-Star, goat anti-3β-HSD, rabbit anti-CYP17A1, goat anti-17β-HSD3, rabbit anti-Pcna, rabbit anti-AR, and rabbit anti-ERα (further information on the primary antibodies are shown in , purchased from Santa Cruz, USA).

    Techniques: Expressing