calcium modulated potassium channel bk  (Alomone Labs)


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    Alomone Labs calcium modulated potassium channel bk
    Calcium Modulated Potassium Channel Bk, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 95/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/calcium modulated potassium channel bk/product/Alomone Labs
    Average 95 stars, based on 1 article reviews
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    Structured Review

    Santa Cruz Biotechnology anti bk ca channel rabbit
    Anti Bk Ca Channel Rabbit, supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Average 90 stars, based on 1 article reviews
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    NeuroMab mouse monoclonal anti bk ca channel
    Mouse Monoclonal Anti Bk Ca Channel, supplied by NeuroMab, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Structured Review

    NeuroMab anti bk channel mab l6 60 igg2a
    (A) A single immunoblot containing samples of crude rat brain membranes (RBM, 50 µg protein) and extracts of transfected COS-1 cells expressing individual target proteins, or from control cells transfected with an empty plasmid, probed with anti-PSD-95 <t>(IgG2a,</t> blue), anti-Kv1.2 (IgG2b, red) and anti-Kv2.1 (IgG1, green), and SCS 2°Abs. Multicolor panel is original immunoblot; single color panels are images of separated colors. Lane to left shows molecular weight standards in kDa. Note differential post-translational modification of target proteins in brain versus heterologous cells alters their relative electrophoretic mobility. B–E. Images show specific and non-overlapping labeling for (B) Kv4.2 (green), (C) QKI (red), (D) and BK channels (blue), and (E) merge of all three, in a rat brain section, showing the region containing the entire cerebellum. Inset in E shows boxed area of cerebellar cortex. Labels mark the molecular layer (ML), Purkinje cell layer (PCL), and granule cell layer (GCL). Scale bar on Panel E = 500 µm.
    Anti Bk Channel Mab L6 60 Igg2a, supplied by NeuroMab, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/anti bk channel mab l6 60 igg2a/product/NeuroMab
    Average 86 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    anti bk channel mab l6 60 igg2a - by Bioz Stars, 2024-07
    86/100 stars

    Images

    1) Product Images from "Benefits and Pitfalls of Secondary Antibodies: Why Choosing the Right Secondary Is of Primary Importance"

    Article Title: Benefits and Pitfalls of Secondary Antibodies: Why Choosing the Right Secondary Is of Primary Importance

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038313

    (A) A single immunoblot containing samples of crude rat brain membranes (RBM, 50 µg protein) and extracts of transfected COS-1 cells expressing individual target proteins, or from control cells transfected with an empty plasmid, probed with anti-PSD-95 (IgG2a, blue), anti-Kv1.2 (IgG2b, red) and anti-Kv2.1 (IgG1, green), and SCS 2°Abs. Multicolor panel is original immunoblot; single color panels are images of separated colors. Lane to left shows molecular weight standards in kDa. Note differential post-translational modification of target proteins in brain versus heterologous cells alters their relative electrophoretic mobility. B–E. Images show specific and non-overlapping labeling for (B) Kv4.2 (green), (C) QKI (red), (D) and BK channels (blue), and (E) merge of all three, in a rat brain section, showing the region containing the entire cerebellum. Inset in E shows boxed area of cerebellar cortex. Labels mark the molecular layer (ML), Purkinje cell layer (PCL), and granule cell layer (GCL). Scale bar on Panel E = 500 µm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: (A) A single immunoblot containing samples of crude rat brain membranes (RBM, 50 µg protein) and extracts of transfected COS-1 cells expressing individual target proteins, or from control cells transfected with an empty plasmid, probed with anti-PSD-95 (IgG2a, blue), anti-Kv1.2 (IgG2b, red) and anti-Kv2.1 (IgG1, green), and SCS 2°Abs. Multicolor panel is original immunoblot; single color panels are images of separated colors. Lane to left shows molecular weight standards in kDa. Note differential post-translational modification of target proteins in brain versus heterologous cells alters their relative electrophoretic mobility. B–E. Images show specific and non-overlapping labeling for (B) Kv4.2 (green), (C) QKI (red), (D) and BK channels (blue), and (E) merge of all three, in a rat brain section, showing the region containing the entire cerebellum. Inset in E shows boxed area of cerebellar cortex. Labels mark the molecular layer (ML), Purkinje cell layer (PCL), and granule cell layer (GCL). Scale bar on Panel E = 500 µm.

    Techniques Used: Western Blot, Transfection, Expressing, Plasmid Preparation, Molecular Weight, Modification, Labeling

    Rat brain sections were labeled with the same concentrations of a single mAb, and a rabbit anti-Kv2.1 pAb, followed by detection with SCS (left column) or HL (right column) 2°Abs, (red), and anti-rabbit IgG (green), each at 1 µg/ml. Top row: anti-Kv4.2 IgG1; middle row: anti-BK channel IgG2a; and bottom row: anti-Kv1.2 IgG2b. Each row was imaged at the same exposure times. Scale bar = 50 µm for panels in top two rows, and 25 µm for panels in bottom row.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Rat brain sections were labeled with the same concentrations of a single mAb, and a rabbit anti-Kv2.1 pAb, followed by detection with SCS (left column) or HL (right column) 2°Abs, (red), and anti-rabbit IgG (green), each at 1 µg/ml. Top row: anti-Kv4.2 IgG1; middle row: anti-BK channel IgG2a; and bottom row: anti-Kv1.2 IgG2b. Each row was imaged at the same exposure times. Scale bar = 50 µm for panels in top two rows, and 25 µm for panels in bottom row.

    Techniques Used: Labeling

    (A) A single immunoblot containing samples of crude rat brain membranes (RBM, 50 µg protein) and extracts of transfected COS-1 cells expressing individual target proteins, or from control cells transfected with an empty plasmid as labeled, probed with anti-PSD-95 (IgG2a), anti-Kv1.2 (IgG2b) and anti-Kv2.1 (IgG1) mAbs, and HL 2°Ab (green), and a cocktail (1∶1∶1) of SCS anti-IgG1, -IgG2a and -IgG2b 2°Abs (red). Multicolor panel is original immunoblot; single color panels are images of separated colors. Changes in tint reflect bias of HL for (more green) IgG2a>IgG2b>IgG1 (more red). Lane to left shows molecular weight standards in kDa. (B) FLISAs show that IgG subclass bias of HL is present at all concentrations of 1°Abs. Left panel: SCS 2°Abs (each at 1 µg/ml). Right panel: HL 2°Ab. Circles: L76/36 IgG2a; triangles; K14/16 IgG2b; squares: K14/39 IgG1. (C) IgG subclass bias is also present in immunofluorescence labeling of Kv1.2-expressing COS-1 cells. Cells were labeled with mAb as noted, and HL 2°Ab (red), and SCS 2°Abs (green) as detailed in . Changes in red∶green tint reflect bias of HL for (more red) IgG2a>IgG2b>IgG1 (more green). Scale bar = 100 µm. Panel to right is quantitation of immunocytochemistry results from three fields each of three independent samples.
    Figure Legend Snippet: (A) A single immunoblot containing samples of crude rat brain membranes (RBM, 50 µg protein) and extracts of transfected COS-1 cells expressing individual target proteins, or from control cells transfected with an empty plasmid as labeled, probed with anti-PSD-95 (IgG2a), anti-Kv1.2 (IgG2b) and anti-Kv2.1 (IgG1) mAbs, and HL 2°Ab (green), and a cocktail (1∶1∶1) of SCS anti-IgG1, -IgG2a and -IgG2b 2°Abs (red). Multicolor panel is original immunoblot; single color panels are images of separated colors. Changes in tint reflect bias of HL for (more green) IgG2a>IgG2b>IgG1 (more red). Lane to left shows molecular weight standards in kDa. (B) FLISAs show that IgG subclass bias of HL is present at all concentrations of 1°Abs. Left panel: SCS 2°Abs (each at 1 µg/ml). Right panel: HL 2°Ab. Circles: L76/36 IgG2a; triangles; K14/16 IgG2b; squares: K14/39 IgG1. (C) IgG subclass bias is also present in immunofluorescence labeling of Kv1.2-expressing COS-1 cells. Cells were labeled with mAb as noted, and HL 2°Ab (red), and SCS 2°Abs (green) as detailed in . Changes in red∶green tint reflect bias of HL for (more red) IgG2a>IgG2b>IgG1 (more green). Scale bar = 100 µm. Panel to right is quantitation of immunocytochemistry results from three fields each of three independent samples.

    Techniques Used: Western Blot, Transfection, Expressing, Plasmid Preparation, Labeling, Molecular Weight, Immunofluorescence, Quantitation Assay, Immunocytochemistry

    (A) FLISAs showing detection of different concentrations of IgG1 (K14/39, squares), IgG2a (L76/36, circles), and IgG2b (K14/16, triangles) mAbs as indicated by the values on the X-axes, with HL 2°Ab (top row), and respective SCS 2°Abs (middle row), at the concentrations indicated above the columns. Bottom row shows data from the graphs in the top row normalized to values for the IgG1 mAb. (B) HL bias is seen at all 2°Ab concentrations tested in transiently transfected COS-1 cells. Immunofluorescence labeling of Kv1.2-expressing COS-1 cells, probed with 5 µg/mL of IgG1 (K14/39, squares), IgG2a (L76/36, circles), and IgG2b (K14/16, triangles) mAbs and different amounts of HL 2°Ab (red), and the respective SCS 2°Abs (green), as indicated on the X-axis. The Y-axis is the red∶green (HL∶SCS) fluorescence ratio (in arbitrary units). (C) Immunoblots showing lack of crossreactivity in SCS 2°Ab detection of antigens loaded at great excess. Recombinant GST fusion proteins containing different amounts of Kv1.2 and PSD95 antigens, and GST alone, were size fractionated on a single SDS gel and transferred to an immunoblot. Amounts loaded of GST-PSD95 ranged from 4–972 ng, as indicated below lower left panel, and for GST-Kv1.2 and GST alone from 972–4 ng, as indicated below lower right panel. The immunoblot was simultaneously probed with anti-Kv1.2 K14/16 (IgG2b, red), anti-PSD95 K28/43 (IgG2a, blue) and anti-GST N100/13 (IgG1, green), and corresponding SCS 2°Abs. Lane to left of top left panel shows molecular weight standards in kDa. Image reveals a lack of crossreactivity between SCS 2°Abs and bound 1°Abs even under conditions of excess antigen.
    Figure Legend Snippet: (A) FLISAs showing detection of different concentrations of IgG1 (K14/39, squares), IgG2a (L76/36, circles), and IgG2b (K14/16, triangles) mAbs as indicated by the values on the X-axes, with HL 2°Ab (top row), and respective SCS 2°Abs (middle row), at the concentrations indicated above the columns. Bottom row shows data from the graphs in the top row normalized to values for the IgG1 mAb. (B) HL bias is seen at all 2°Ab concentrations tested in transiently transfected COS-1 cells. Immunofluorescence labeling of Kv1.2-expressing COS-1 cells, probed with 5 µg/mL of IgG1 (K14/39, squares), IgG2a (L76/36, circles), and IgG2b (K14/16, triangles) mAbs and different amounts of HL 2°Ab (red), and the respective SCS 2°Abs (green), as indicated on the X-axis. The Y-axis is the red∶green (HL∶SCS) fluorescence ratio (in arbitrary units). (C) Immunoblots showing lack of crossreactivity in SCS 2°Ab detection of antigens loaded at great excess. Recombinant GST fusion proteins containing different amounts of Kv1.2 and PSD95 antigens, and GST alone, were size fractionated on a single SDS gel and transferred to an immunoblot. Amounts loaded of GST-PSD95 ranged from 4–972 ng, as indicated below lower left panel, and for GST-Kv1.2 and GST alone from 972–4 ng, as indicated below lower right panel. The immunoblot was simultaneously probed with anti-Kv1.2 K14/16 (IgG2b, red), anti-PSD95 K28/43 (IgG2a, blue) and anti-GST N100/13 (IgG1, green), and corresponding SCS 2°Abs. Lane to left of top left panel shows molecular weight standards in kDa. Image reveals a lack of crossreactivity between SCS 2°Abs and bound 1°Abs even under conditions of excess antigen.

    Techniques Used: Transfection, Immunofluorescence, Labeling, Expressing, Fluorescence, Western Blot, Recombinant, SDS-Gel, Molecular Weight

    (A) Kv1.2-transfected COS-1 cells were labeled with 1°Ab as in , and HL 2°Ab and the respective SCS 2°Abs, and the ratios of fluorescence intensities from three fields each of three independent samples normalized to the HL/IgG1 ratio. Letters are supplier (L = Life Technologies, R = Rockland), numbers are Alex or DyLight fluorophore conjugates; high: highly adsorbed; fab: F(ab′) 2 fragment of HL ( e.g. , L488 SCS is Life Technologies Alexa 488 conjugated SCS). 4/09 and 7/11 refer to two lots of Life Technologies HL. (B) FLISAs showing detection bias of 2°Abs is present at all 2°Ab concentrations. Upper left: Life Technologies HL. Upper right: Life Technologies SCS. Lower left: Jackson ImmunoResearch HL. Lower right: Jackson ImmunoResearch HL (highly cross-adsorbed). (C) HRP conjugated HL secondaries show detection bias by immunoblot. Purified mAb IgG preparations were analyzed by reducing SDS-PAGE and coomassie blue staining (CB), or immunoblotting and detection with two different HRP-conjugated H+L 2°Abs and ECL. HL: Kirkegaard & Perry Laboratories. HL*: Antibodies Incorporated. Note subclass-specific differences in detection of heavy chain (HC) but not light chain (LC) bands in IgG preparations.
    Figure Legend Snippet: (A) Kv1.2-transfected COS-1 cells were labeled with 1°Ab as in , and HL 2°Ab and the respective SCS 2°Abs, and the ratios of fluorescence intensities from three fields each of three independent samples normalized to the HL/IgG1 ratio. Letters are supplier (L = Life Technologies, R = Rockland), numbers are Alex or DyLight fluorophore conjugates; high: highly adsorbed; fab: F(ab′) 2 fragment of HL ( e.g. , L488 SCS is Life Technologies Alexa 488 conjugated SCS). 4/09 and 7/11 refer to two lots of Life Technologies HL. (B) FLISAs showing detection bias of 2°Abs is present at all 2°Ab concentrations. Upper left: Life Technologies HL. Upper right: Life Technologies SCS. Lower left: Jackson ImmunoResearch HL. Lower right: Jackson ImmunoResearch HL (highly cross-adsorbed). (C) HRP conjugated HL secondaries show detection bias by immunoblot. Purified mAb IgG preparations were analyzed by reducing SDS-PAGE and coomassie blue staining (CB), or immunoblotting and detection with two different HRP-conjugated H+L 2°Abs and ECL. HL: Kirkegaard & Perry Laboratories. HL*: Antibodies Incorporated. Note subclass-specific differences in detection of heavy chain (HC) but not light chain (LC) bands in IgG preparations.

    Techniques Used: Transfection, Labeling, Fluorescence, Western Blot, Purification, SDS Page, Staining

    Sections of brains from WT and Kv2.1 knockout (KO) mice were labeled with an anti-Kv2.1 IgG1 mAb, or in vehicle alone (bottom row, no 1°Ab), followed by simultaneous detection with both HL (green) and IgG1-specific (red) 2°Abs. Columns represent samples with different [2°Ab] as in column header. All samples were imaged using identical exposure times. Note that the panels in the top row are the same as those in the WT row but showing the green channel only. Scale bar = 25 µm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Sections of brains from WT and Kv2.1 knockout (KO) mice were labeled with an anti-Kv2.1 IgG1 mAb, or in vehicle alone (bottom row, no 1°Ab), followed by simultaneous detection with both HL (green) and IgG1-specific (red) 2°Abs. Columns represent samples with different [2°Ab] as in column header. All samples were imaged using identical exposure times. Note that the panels in the top row are the same as those in the WT row but showing the green channel only. Scale bar = 25 µm.

    Techniques Used: Knock-Out, Labeling

    calcium modulated potassium channel bk  (Alomone Labs)


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    Alomone Labs calcium modulated potassium channel bk
    Calcium Modulated Potassium Channel Bk, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 95/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Average 95 stars, based on 1 article reviews
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    calcium modulated potassium channel bk - by Bioz Stars, 2024-07
    95/100 stars

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    bk ca channel β subunit 4  (Alomone Labs)


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    Alomone Labs bk ca channel β subunit 4
    A. Detection of mitoBK Ca channel regulatory β4 subunit mRNA in astrocytoma cells. The <t>BK</t> <t>Ca</t> subunit β4 mRNA was detected at a size of 405 bp. No products were obtained for the BK Ca subunits β1, β2 and β3. GAPDH served as a positive control and was detected at a size of 496 bp. The negative control without reverse transcriptase (−RT) and samples without cDNA (−A) had no signals. The results presented are representative of seven independent experiments. B. Immunoblot of astrocytoma mitochondria, astrocytoma cell homogenate and brain homogenate fractions labeled with the anti-BK Ca channel β4 subunit antibody. A control antigen (BK Ca β4+ peptide) was used as a positive control for the specificity of the antibody. An anti-cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV antibody (COX IV) was used as a mitochondrial marker (n = 3). C. Immuno-gold electron microscopy localization of the BK Ca channel β4 regulatory subunit in mitochondria of cultured human astrocytoma cells. The β4 subunit molecules were labeled using 10 nm colloidal-gold particles (arrows). D. High-power confocal image of cultured astrocytoma cells immunolabeled to detect OxPhos (red) and β4-GFP-transfected cells (green). The superimposition of the two signals revealed the mitochondrial localization of BK Ca β4 in human astrocytoma cells (yellow). The DNA-binding dye DAPI was used to stain the cell nuclei (blue). For details concerning the astrocytoma cells, see the .
    Bk Ca Channel β Subunit 4, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/bk ca channel β subunit 4/product/Alomone Labs
    Average 92 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    bk ca channel β subunit 4 - by Bioz Stars, 2024-07
    92/100 stars

    Images

    1) Product Images from "Putative Structural and Functional Coupling of the Mitochondrial BK Ca Channel to the Respiratory Chain"

    Article Title: Putative Structural and Functional Coupling of the Mitochondrial BK Ca Channel to the Respiratory Chain

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0068125

    A. Detection of mitoBK Ca channel regulatory β4 subunit mRNA in astrocytoma cells. The BK Ca subunit β4 mRNA was detected at a size of 405 bp. No products were obtained for the BK Ca subunits β1, β2 and β3. GAPDH served as a positive control and was detected at a size of 496 bp. The negative control without reverse transcriptase (−RT) and samples without cDNA (−A) had no signals. The results presented are representative of seven independent experiments. B. Immunoblot of astrocytoma mitochondria, astrocytoma cell homogenate and brain homogenate fractions labeled with the anti-BK Ca channel β4 subunit antibody. A control antigen (BK Ca β4+ peptide) was used as a positive control for the specificity of the antibody. An anti-cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV antibody (COX IV) was used as a mitochondrial marker (n = 3). C. Immuno-gold electron microscopy localization of the BK Ca channel β4 regulatory subunit in mitochondria of cultured human astrocytoma cells. The β4 subunit molecules were labeled using 10 nm colloidal-gold particles (arrows). D. High-power confocal image of cultured astrocytoma cells immunolabeled to detect OxPhos (red) and β4-GFP-transfected cells (green). The superimposition of the two signals revealed the mitochondrial localization of BK Ca β4 in human astrocytoma cells (yellow). The DNA-binding dye DAPI was used to stain the cell nuclei (blue). For details concerning the astrocytoma cells, see the .
    Figure Legend Snippet: A. Detection of mitoBK Ca channel regulatory β4 subunit mRNA in astrocytoma cells. The BK Ca subunit β4 mRNA was detected at a size of 405 bp. No products were obtained for the BK Ca subunits β1, β2 and β3. GAPDH served as a positive control and was detected at a size of 496 bp. The negative control without reverse transcriptase (−RT) and samples without cDNA (−A) had no signals. The results presented are representative of seven independent experiments. B. Immunoblot of astrocytoma mitochondria, astrocytoma cell homogenate and brain homogenate fractions labeled with the anti-BK Ca channel β4 subunit antibody. A control antigen (BK Ca β4+ peptide) was used as a positive control for the specificity of the antibody. An anti-cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV antibody (COX IV) was used as a mitochondrial marker (n = 3). C. Immuno-gold electron microscopy localization of the BK Ca channel β4 regulatory subunit in mitochondria of cultured human astrocytoma cells. The β4 subunit molecules were labeled using 10 nm colloidal-gold particles (arrows). D. High-power confocal image of cultured astrocytoma cells immunolabeled to detect OxPhos (red) and β4-GFP-transfected cells (green). The superimposition of the two signals revealed the mitochondrial localization of BK Ca β4 in human astrocytoma cells (yellow). The DNA-binding dye DAPI was used to stain the cell nuclei (blue). For details concerning the astrocytoma cells, see the .

    Techniques Used: Positive Control, Negative Control, Western Blot, Labeling, Marker, Electron Microscopy, Cell Culture, Immunolabeling, Transfection, Binding Assay, Staining

    Two-dimensional separation was performed as described in the , and the PVDF membrane was first immunoblotted for the BK Ca channel β4 subunit (below, Coomassie staining panel). Next, the PVDF membrane was immunoblotted for the subunits of individual respiratory chain complexes (below the BK Ca β4 panel). The BN-PAGE was calibrated based on the location of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes that were isolated from rat heart mitochondria (above the panel for the blue native PAGE of mitochondria from astrocytoma cells). In the native astrocytoma lysate, mitochondria BK Ca β4 co-localized with subunit I of cytochrome c oxidase. M, the monomeric form of cytochrome c oxidase; D, the dimeric form of cytochrome c oxidase; Sc 1 and Sc 2 , complexes with higher molecular weights containing cytochrome c oxidase. A typical immunoblot from three separate experiments is shown.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Two-dimensional separation was performed as described in the , and the PVDF membrane was first immunoblotted for the BK Ca channel β4 subunit (below, Coomassie staining panel). Next, the PVDF membrane was immunoblotted for the subunits of individual respiratory chain complexes (below the BK Ca β4 panel). The BN-PAGE was calibrated based on the location of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes that were isolated from rat heart mitochondria (above the panel for the blue native PAGE of mitochondria from astrocytoma cells). In the native astrocytoma lysate, mitochondria BK Ca β4 co-localized with subunit I of cytochrome c oxidase. M, the monomeric form of cytochrome c oxidase; D, the dimeric form of cytochrome c oxidase; Sc 1 and Sc 2 , complexes with higher molecular weights containing cytochrome c oxidase. A typical immunoblot from three separate experiments is shown.

    Techniques Used: Staining, Isolation, Blue Native PAGE, Western Blot

    rabbit polyclonal anti bk ca channel β subunit 4 antibody  (Alomone Labs)


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    Alomone Labs rabbit polyclonal anti bk ca channel β subunit 4 antibody
    A. Detection of mitoBK Ca channel regulatory β4 subunit mRNA in astrocytoma cells. The <t>BK</t> <t>Ca</t> subunit β4 mRNA was detected at a size of 405 bp. No products were obtained for the BK Ca subunits β1, β2 and β3. GAPDH served as a positive control and was detected at a size of 496 bp. The negative control without reverse transcriptase (−RT) and samples without cDNA (−A) had no signals. The results presented are representative of seven independent experiments. B. Immunoblot of astrocytoma mitochondria, astrocytoma cell homogenate and brain homogenate fractions labeled with the anti-BK Ca channel β4 subunit antibody. A control antigen (BK Ca β4+ peptide) was used as a positive control for the specificity of the antibody. An anti-cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV antibody (COX IV) was used as a mitochondrial marker (n = 3). C. Immuno-gold electron microscopy localization of the BK Ca channel β4 regulatory subunit in mitochondria of cultured human astrocytoma cells. The β4 subunit molecules were labeled using 10 nm colloidal-gold particles (arrows). D. High-power confocal image of cultured astrocytoma cells immunolabeled to detect OxPhos (red) and β4-GFP-transfected cells (green). The superimposition of the two signals revealed the mitochondrial localization of BK Ca β4 in human astrocytoma cells (yellow). The DNA-binding dye DAPI was used to stain the cell nuclei (blue). For details concerning the astrocytoma cells, see the .
    Rabbit Polyclonal Anti Bk Ca Channel β Subunit 4 Antibody, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/rabbit polyclonal anti bk ca channel β subunit 4 antibody/product/Alomone Labs
    Average 92 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    rabbit polyclonal anti bk ca channel β subunit 4 antibody - by Bioz Stars, 2024-07
    92/100 stars

    Images

    1) Product Images from "Putative Structural and Functional Coupling of the Mitochondrial BK Ca Channel to the Respiratory Chain"

    Article Title: Putative Structural and Functional Coupling of the Mitochondrial BK Ca Channel to the Respiratory Chain

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0068125

    A. Detection of mitoBK Ca channel regulatory β4 subunit mRNA in astrocytoma cells. The BK Ca subunit β4 mRNA was detected at a size of 405 bp. No products were obtained for the BK Ca subunits β1, β2 and β3. GAPDH served as a positive control and was detected at a size of 496 bp. The negative control without reverse transcriptase (−RT) and samples without cDNA (−A) had no signals. The results presented are representative of seven independent experiments. B. Immunoblot of astrocytoma mitochondria, astrocytoma cell homogenate and brain homogenate fractions labeled with the anti-BK Ca channel β4 subunit antibody. A control antigen (BK Ca β4+ peptide) was used as a positive control for the specificity of the antibody. An anti-cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV antibody (COX IV) was used as a mitochondrial marker (n = 3). C. Immuno-gold electron microscopy localization of the BK Ca channel β4 regulatory subunit in mitochondria of cultured human astrocytoma cells. The β4 subunit molecules were labeled using 10 nm colloidal-gold particles (arrows). D. High-power confocal image of cultured astrocytoma cells immunolabeled to detect OxPhos (red) and β4-GFP-transfected cells (green). The superimposition of the two signals revealed the mitochondrial localization of BK Ca β4 in human astrocytoma cells (yellow). The DNA-binding dye DAPI was used to stain the cell nuclei (blue). For details concerning the astrocytoma cells, see the .
    Figure Legend Snippet: A. Detection of mitoBK Ca channel regulatory β4 subunit mRNA in astrocytoma cells. The BK Ca subunit β4 mRNA was detected at a size of 405 bp. No products were obtained for the BK Ca subunits β1, β2 and β3. GAPDH served as a positive control and was detected at a size of 496 bp. The negative control without reverse transcriptase (−RT) and samples without cDNA (−A) had no signals. The results presented are representative of seven independent experiments. B. Immunoblot of astrocytoma mitochondria, astrocytoma cell homogenate and brain homogenate fractions labeled with the anti-BK Ca channel β4 subunit antibody. A control antigen (BK Ca β4+ peptide) was used as a positive control for the specificity of the antibody. An anti-cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV antibody (COX IV) was used as a mitochondrial marker (n = 3). C. Immuno-gold electron microscopy localization of the BK Ca channel β4 regulatory subunit in mitochondria of cultured human astrocytoma cells. The β4 subunit molecules were labeled using 10 nm colloidal-gold particles (arrows). D. High-power confocal image of cultured astrocytoma cells immunolabeled to detect OxPhos (red) and β4-GFP-transfected cells (green). The superimposition of the two signals revealed the mitochondrial localization of BK Ca β4 in human astrocytoma cells (yellow). The DNA-binding dye DAPI was used to stain the cell nuclei (blue). For details concerning the astrocytoma cells, see the .

    Techniques Used: Positive Control, Negative Control, Western Blot, Labeling, Marker, Electron Microscopy, Cell Culture, Immunolabeling, Transfection, Binding Assay, Staining

    Two-dimensional separation was performed as described in the , and the PVDF membrane was first immunoblotted for the BK Ca channel β4 subunit (below, Coomassie staining panel). Next, the PVDF membrane was immunoblotted for the subunits of individual respiratory chain complexes (below the BK Ca β4 panel). The BN-PAGE was calibrated based on the location of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes that were isolated from rat heart mitochondria (above the panel for the blue native PAGE of mitochondria from astrocytoma cells). In the native astrocytoma lysate, mitochondria BK Ca β4 co-localized with subunit I of cytochrome c oxidase. M, the monomeric form of cytochrome c oxidase; D, the dimeric form of cytochrome c oxidase; Sc 1 and Sc 2 , complexes with higher molecular weights containing cytochrome c oxidase. A typical immunoblot from three separate experiments is shown.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Two-dimensional separation was performed as described in the , and the PVDF membrane was first immunoblotted for the BK Ca channel β4 subunit (below, Coomassie staining panel). Next, the PVDF membrane was immunoblotted for the subunits of individual respiratory chain complexes (below the BK Ca β4 panel). The BN-PAGE was calibrated based on the location of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes that were isolated from rat heart mitochondria (above the panel for the blue native PAGE of mitochondria from astrocytoma cells). In the native astrocytoma lysate, mitochondria BK Ca β4 co-localized with subunit I of cytochrome c oxidase. M, the monomeric form of cytochrome c oxidase; D, the dimeric form of cytochrome c oxidase; Sc 1 and Sc 2 , complexes with higher molecular weights containing cytochrome c oxidase. A typical immunoblot from three separate experiments is shown.

    Techniques Used: Staining, Isolation, Blue Native PAGE, Western Blot


    Structured Review

    NeuroMab mouse igg1 anti bk channel
    Mouse Igg1 Anti Bk Channel, supplied by NeuroMab, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Atlas Antibodies mouse igg1 anti bk channel
    Mouse Igg1 Anti Bk Channel, supplied by Atlas Antibodies, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Millipore mouse igg1 anti bk channel
    Mouse Igg1 Anti Bk Channel, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Becton Dickinson mouse igg1 anti bk channel
    Mouse Igg1 Anti Bk Channel, supplied by Becton Dickinson, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Alomone Labs calcium modulated potassium channel bk
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    (A) A single immunoblot containing samples of crude rat brain membranes (RBM, 50 µg protein) and extracts of transfected COS-1 cells expressing individual target proteins, or from control cells transfected with an empty plasmid, probed with anti-PSD-95 <t>(IgG2a,</t> blue), anti-Kv1.2 (IgG2b, red) and anti-Kv2.1 (IgG1, green), and SCS 2°Abs. Multicolor panel is original immunoblot; single color panels are images of separated colors. Lane to left shows molecular weight standards in kDa. Note differential post-translational modification of target proteins in brain versus heterologous cells alters their relative electrophoretic mobility. B–E. Images show specific and non-overlapping labeling for (B) Kv4.2 (green), (C) QKI (red), (D) and BK channels (blue), and (E) merge of all three, in a rat brain section, showing the region containing the entire cerebellum. Inset in E shows boxed area of cerebellar cortex. Labels mark the molecular layer (ML), Purkinje cell layer (PCL), and granule cell layer (GCL). Scale bar on Panel E = 500 µm.
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    Alomone Labs bk ca channel β subunit 4
    A. Detection of mitoBK Ca channel regulatory β4 subunit mRNA in astrocytoma cells. The <t>BK</t> <t>Ca</t> subunit β4 mRNA was detected at a size of 405 bp. No products were obtained for the BK Ca subunits β1, β2 and β3. GAPDH served as a positive control and was detected at a size of 496 bp. The negative control without reverse transcriptase (−RT) and samples without cDNA (−A) had no signals. The results presented are representative of seven independent experiments. B. Immunoblot of astrocytoma mitochondria, astrocytoma cell homogenate and brain homogenate fractions labeled with the anti-BK Ca channel β4 subunit antibody. A control antigen (BK Ca β4+ peptide) was used as a positive control for the specificity of the antibody. An anti-cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV antibody (COX IV) was used as a mitochondrial marker (n = 3). C. Immuno-gold electron microscopy localization of the BK Ca channel β4 regulatory subunit in mitochondria of cultured human astrocytoma cells. The β4 subunit molecules were labeled using 10 nm colloidal-gold particles (arrows). D. High-power confocal image of cultured astrocytoma cells immunolabeled to detect OxPhos (red) and β4-GFP-transfected cells (green). The superimposition of the two signals revealed the mitochondrial localization of BK Ca β4 in human astrocytoma cells (yellow). The DNA-binding dye DAPI was used to stain the cell nuclei (blue). For details concerning the astrocytoma cells, see the .
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    A. Detection of mitoBK Ca channel regulatory β4 subunit mRNA in astrocytoma cells. The <t>BK</t> <t>Ca</t> subunit β4 mRNA was detected at a size of 405 bp. No products were obtained for the BK Ca subunits β1, β2 and β3. GAPDH served as a positive control and was detected at a size of 496 bp. The negative control without reverse transcriptase (−RT) and samples without cDNA (−A) had no signals. The results presented are representative of seven independent experiments. B. Immunoblot of astrocytoma mitochondria, astrocytoma cell homogenate and brain homogenate fractions labeled with the anti-BK Ca channel β4 subunit antibody. A control antigen (BK Ca β4+ peptide) was used as a positive control for the specificity of the antibody. An anti-cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV antibody (COX IV) was used as a mitochondrial marker (n = 3). C. Immuno-gold electron microscopy localization of the BK Ca channel β4 regulatory subunit in mitochondria of cultured human astrocytoma cells. The β4 subunit molecules were labeled using 10 nm colloidal-gold particles (arrows). D. High-power confocal image of cultured astrocytoma cells immunolabeled to detect OxPhos (red) and β4-GFP-transfected cells (green). The superimposition of the two signals revealed the mitochondrial localization of BK Ca β4 in human astrocytoma cells (yellow). The DNA-binding dye DAPI was used to stain the cell nuclei (blue). For details concerning the astrocytoma cells, see the .
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    NeuroMab mouse igg1 anti bk channel
    A. Detection of mitoBK Ca channel regulatory β4 subunit mRNA in astrocytoma cells. The <t>BK</t> <t>Ca</t> subunit β4 mRNA was detected at a size of 405 bp. No products were obtained for the BK Ca subunits β1, β2 and β3. GAPDH served as a positive control and was detected at a size of 496 bp. The negative control without reverse transcriptase (−RT) and samples without cDNA (−A) had no signals. The results presented are representative of seven independent experiments. B. Immunoblot of astrocytoma mitochondria, astrocytoma cell homogenate and brain homogenate fractions labeled with the anti-BK Ca channel β4 subunit antibody. A control antigen (BK Ca β4+ peptide) was used as a positive control for the specificity of the antibody. An anti-cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV antibody (COX IV) was used as a mitochondrial marker (n = 3). C. Immuno-gold electron microscopy localization of the BK Ca channel β4 regulatory subunit in mitochondria of cultured human astrocytoma cells. The β4 subunit molecules were labeled using 10 nm colloidal-gold particles (arrows). D. High-power confocal image of cultured astrocytoma cells immunolabeled to detect OxPhos (red) and β4-GFP-transfected cells (green). The superimposition of the two signals revealed the mitochondrial localization of BK Ca β4 in human astrocytoma cells (yellow). The DNA-binding dye DAPI was used to stain the cell nuclei (blue). For details concerning the astrocytoma cells, see the .
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    Atlas Antibodies mouse igg1 anti bk channel
    A. Detection of mitoBK Ca channel regulatory β4 subunit mRNA in astrocytoma cells. The <t>BK</t> <t>Ca</t> subunit β4 mRNA was detected at a size of 405 bp. No products were obtained for the BK Ca subunits β1, β2 and β3. GAPDH served as a positive control and was detected at a size of 496 bp. The negative control without reverse transcriptase (−RT) and samples without cDNA (−A) had no signals. The results presented are representative of seven independent experiments. B. Immunoblot of astrocytoma mitochondria, astrocytoma cell homogenate and brain homogenate fractions labeled with the anti-BK Ca channel β4 subunit antibody. A control antigen (BK Ca β4+ peptide) was used as a positive control for the specificity of the antibody. An anti-cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV antibody (COX IV) was used as a mitochondrial marker (n = 3). C. Immuno-gold electron microscopy localization of the BK Ca channel β4 regulatory subunit in mitochondria of cultured human astrocytoma cells. The β4 subunit molecules were labeled using 10 nm colloidal-gold particles (arrows). D. High-power confocal image of cultured astrocytoma cells immunolabeled to detect OxPhos (red) and β4-GFP-transfected cells (green). The superimposition of the two signals revealed the mitochondrial localization of BK Ca β4 in human astrocytoma cells (yellow). The DNA-binding dye DAPI was used to stain the cell nuclei (blue). For details concerning the astrocytoma cells, see the .
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    Millipore mouse igg1 anti bk channel
    A. Detection of mitoBK Ca channel regulatory β4 subunit mRNA in astrocytoma cells. The <t>BK</t> <t>Ca</t> subunit β4 mRNA was detected at a size of 405 bp. No products were obtained for the BK Ca subunits β1, β2 and β3. GAPDH served as a positive control and was detected at a size of 496 bp. The negative control without reverse transcriptase (−RT) and samples without cDNA (−A) had no signals. The results presented are representative of seven independent experiments. B. Immunoblot of astrocytoma mitochondria, astrocytoma cell homogenate and brain homogenate fractions labeled with the anti-BK Ca channel β4 subunit antibody. A control antigen (BK Ca β4+ peptide) was used as a positive control for the specificity of the antibody. An anti-cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV antibody (COX IV) was used as a mitochondrial marker (n = 3). C. Immuno-gold electron microscopy localization of the BK Ca channel β4 regulatory subunit in mitochondria of cultured human astrocytoma cells. The β4 subunit molecules were labeled using 10 nm colloidal-gold particles (arrows). D. High-power confocal image of cultured astrocytoma cells immunolabeled to detect OxPhos (red) and β4-GFP-transfected cells (green). The superimposition of the two signals revealed the mitochondrial localization of BK Ca β4 in human astrocytoma cells (yellow). The DNA-binding dye DAPI was used to stain the cell nuclei (blue). For details concerning the astrocytoma cells, see the .
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    A. Detection of mitoBK Ca channel regulatory β4 subunit mRNA in astrocytoma cells. The <t>BK</t> <t>Ca</t> subunit β4 mRNA was detected at a size of 405 bp. No products were obtained for the BK Ca subunits β1, β2 and β3. GAPDH served as a positive control and was detected at a size of 496 bp. The negative control without reverse transcriptase (−RT) and samples without cDNA (−A) had no signals. The results presented are representative of seven independent experiments. B. Immunoblot of astrocytoma mitochondria, astrocytoma cell homogenate and brain homogenate fractions labeled with the anti-BK Ca channel β4 subunit antibody. A control antigen (BK Ca β4+ peptide) was used as a positive control for the specificity of the antibody. An anti-cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV antibody (COX IV) was used as a mitochondrial marker (n = 3). C. Immuno-gold electron microscopy localization of the BK Ca channel β4 regulatory subunit in mitochondria of cultured human astrocytoma cells. The β4 subunit molecules were labeled using 10 nm colloidal-gold particles (arrows). D. High-power confocal image of cultured astrocytoma cells immunolabeled to detect OxPhos (red) and β4-GFP-transfected cells (green). The superimposition of the two signals revealed the mitochondrial localization of BK Ca β4 in human astrocytoma cells (yellow). The DNA-binding dye DAPI was used to stain the cell nuclei (blue). For details concerning the astrocytoma cells, see the .
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    Image Search Results


    (A) A single immunoblot containing samples of crude rat brain membranes (RBM, 50 µg protein) and extracts of transfected COS-1 cells expressing individual target proteins, or from control cells transfected with an empty plasmid, probed with anti-PSD-95 (IgG2a, blue), anti-Kv1.2 (IgG2b, red) and anti-Kv2.1 (IgG1, green), and SCS 2°Abs. Multicolor panel is original immunoblot; single color panels are images of separated colors. Lane to left shows molecular weight standards in kDa. Note differential post-translational modification of target proteins in brain versus heterologous cells alters their relative electrophoretic mobility. B–E. Images show specific and non-overlapping labeling for (B) Kv4.2 (green), (C) QKI (red), (D) and BK channels (blue), and (E) merge of all three, in a rat brain section, showing the region containing the entire cerebellum. Inset in E shows boxed area of cerebellar cortex. Labels mark the molecular layer (ML), Purkinje cell layer (PCL), and granule cell layer (GCL). Scale bar on Panel E = 500 µm.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Benefits and Pitfalls of Secondary Antibodies: Why Choosing the Right Secondary Is of Primary Importance

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038313

    Figure Lengend Snippet: (A) A single immunoblot containing samples of crude rat brain membranes (RBM, 50 µg protein) and extracts of transfected COS-1 cells expressing individual target proteins, or from control cells transfected with an empty plasmid, probed with anti-PSD-95 (IgG2a, blue), anti-Kv1.2 (IgG2b, red) and anti-Kv2.1 (IgG1, green), and SCS 2°Abs. Multicolor panel is original immunoblot; single color panels are images of separated colors. Lane to left shows molecular weight standards in kDa. Note differential post-translational modification of target proteins in brain versus heterologous cells alters their relative electrophoretic mobility. B–E. Images show specific and non-overlapping labeling for (B) Kv4.2 (green), (C) QKI (red), (D) and BK channels (blue), and (E) merge of all three, in a rat brain section, showing the region containing the entire cerebellum. Inset in E shows boxed area of cerebellar cortex. Labels mark the molecular layer (ML), Purkinje cell layer (PCL), and granule cell layer (GCL). Scale bar on Panel E = 500 µm.

    Article Snippet: The generation and validation of anti-PSD-95 mAb K28/43 (IgG2a) , anti-KChIP1 mAb K55/7 (IgG1) and anti-Kv4.2 mAb K57/1 (IgG1) , anti-Caspr/Paranodin mAb K65/35 (IgG1) , anti-Kv2.1 mAb K89/34 (IgG1) , anti-BK channel mAb L6/60 (IgG2a) were described previously. mAbs against QKI (N147/6, IgG2b), Ankyrin-G (N106/36, IgG2a) and GFAP (N206A/8, IgG1) were obtained from the UC Davis/NIH NeuroMab Facility, which also distributes K14/16, K28/43, K55/7, K57/1, K65/35, K89/34 and L6/60.

    Techniques: Western Blot, Transfection, Expressing, Plasmid Preparation, Molecular Weight, Modification, Labeling

    Rat brain sections were labeled with the same concentrations of a single mAb, and a rabbit anti-Kv2.1 pAb, followed by detection with SCS (left column) or HL (right column) 2°Abs, (red), and anti-rabbit IgG (green), each at 1 µg/ml. Top row: anti-Kv4.2 IgG1; middle row: anti-BK channel IgG2a; and bottom row: anti-Kv1.2 IgG2b. Each row was imaged at the same exposure times. Scale bar = 50 µm for panels in top two rows, and 25 µm for panels in bottom row.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Benefits and Pitfalls of Secondary Antibodies: Why Choosing the Right Secondary Is of Primary Importance

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038313

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Rat brain sections were labeled with the same concentrations of a single mAb, and a rabbit anti-Kv2.1 pAb, followed by detection with SCS (left column) or HL (right column) 2°Abs, (red), and anti-rabbit IgG (green), each at 1 µg/ml. Top row: anti-Kv4.2 IgG1; middle row: anti-BK channel IgG2a; and bottom row: anti-Kv1.2 IgG2b. Each row was imaged at the same exposure times. Scale bar = 50 µm for panels in top two rows, and 25 µm for panels in bottom row.

    Article Snippet: The generation and validation of anti-PSD-95 mAb K28/43 (IgG2a) , anti-KChIP1 mAb K55/7 (IgG1) and anti-Kv4.2 mAb K57/1 (IgG1) , anti-Caspr/Paranodin mAb K65/35 (IgG1) , anti-Kv2.1 mAb K89/34 (IgG1) , anti-BK channel mAb L6/60 (IgG2a) were described previously. mAbs against QKI (N147/6, IgG2b), Ankyrin-G (N106/36, IgG2a) and GFAP (N206A/8, IgG1) were obtained from the UC Davis/NIH NeuroMab Facility, which also distributes K14/16, K28/43, K55/7, K57/1, K65/35, K89/34 and L6/60.

    Techniques: Labeling

    (A) A single immunoblot containing samples of crude rat brain membranes (RBM, 50 µg protein) and extracts of transfected COS-1 cells expressing individual target proteins, or from control cells transfected with an empty plasmid as labeled, probed with anti-PSD-95 (IgG2a), anti-Kv1.2 (IgG2b) and anti-Kv2.1 (IgG1) mAbs, and HL 2°Ab (green), and a cocktail (1∶1∶1) of SCS anti-IgG1, -IgG2a and -IgG2b 2°Abs (red). Multicolor panel is original immunoblot; single color panels are images of separated colors. Changes in tint reflect bias of HL for (more green) IgG2a>IgG2b>IgG1 (more red). Lane to left shows molecular weight standards in kDa. (B) FLISAs show that IgG subclass bias of HL is present at all concentrations of 1°Abs. Left panel: SCS 2°Abs (each at 1 µg/ml). Right panel: HL 2°Ab. Circles: L76/36 IgG2a; triangles; K14/16 IgG2b; squares: K14/39 IgG1. (C) IgG subclass bias is also present in immunofluorescence labeling of Kv1.2-expressing COS-1 cells. Cells were labeled with mAb as noted, and HL 2°Ab (red), and SCS 2°Abs (green) as detailed in . Changes in red∶green tint reflect bias of HL for (more red) IgG2a>IgG2b>IgG1 (more green). Scale bar = 100 µm. Panel to right is quantitation of immunocytochemistry results from three fields each of three independent samples.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Benefits and Pitfalls of Secondary Antibodies: Why Choosing the Right Secondary Is of Primary Importance

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038313

    Figure Lengend Snippet: (A) A single immunoblot containing samples of crude rat brain membranes (RBM, 50 µg protein) and extracts of transfected COS-1 cells expressing individual target proteins, or from control cells transfected with an empty plasmid as labeled, probed with anti-PSD-95 (IgG2a), anti-Kv1.2 (IgG2b) and anti-Kv2.1 (IgG1) mAbs, and HL 2°Ab (green), and a cocktail (1∶1∶1) of SCS anti-IgG1, -IgG2a and -IgG2b 2°Abs (red). Multicolor panel is original immunoblot; single color panels are images of separated colors. Changes in tint reflect bias of HL for (more green) IgG2a>IgG2b>IgG1 (more red). Lane to left shows molecular weight standards in kDa. (B) FLISAs show that IgG subclass bias of HL is present at all concentrations of 1°Abs. Left panel: SCS 2°Abs (each at 1 µg/ml). Right panel: HL 2°Ab. Circles: L76/36 IgG2a; triangles; K14/16 IgG2b; squares: K14/39 IgG1. (C) IgG subclass bias is also present in immunofluorescence labeling of Kv1.2-expressing COS-1 cells. Cells were labeled with mAb as noted, and HL 2°Ab (red), and SCS 2°Abs (green) as detailed in . Changes in red∶green tint reflect bias of HL for (more red) IgG2a>IgG2b>IgG1 (more green). Scale bar = 100 µm. Panel to right is quantitation of immunocytochemistry results from three fields each of three independent samples.

    Article Snippet: The generation and validation of anti-PSD-95 mAb K28/43 (IgG2a) , anti-KChIP1 mAb K55/7 (IgG1) and anti-Kv4.2 mAb K57/1 (IgG1) , anti-Caspr/Paranodin mAb K65/35 (IgG1) , anti-Kv2.1 mAb K89/34 (IgG1) , anti-BK channel mAb L6/60 (IgG2a) were described previously. mAbs against QKI (N147/6, IgG2b), Ankyrin-G (N106/36, IgG2a) and GFAP (N206A/8, IgG1) were obtained from the UC Davis/NIH NeuroMab Facility, which also distributes K14/16, K28/43, K55/7, K57/1, K65/35, K89/34 and L6/60.

    Techniques: Western Blot, Transfection, Expressing, Plasmid Preparation, Labeling, Molecular Weight, Immunofluorescence, Quantitation Assay, Immunocytochemistry

    (A) FLISAs showing detection of different concentrations of IgG1 (K14/39, squares), IgG2a (L76/36, circles), and IgG2b (K14/16, triangles) mAbs as indicated by the values on the X-axes, with HL 2°Ab (top row), and respective SCS 2°Abs (middle row), at the concentrations indicated above the columns. Bottom row shows data from the graphs in the top row normalized to values for the IgG1 mAb. (B) HL bias is seen at all 2°Ab concentrations tested in transiently transfected COS-1 cells. Immunofluorescence labeling of Kv1.2-expressing COS-1 cells, probed with 5 µg/mL of IgG1 (K14/39, squares), IgG2a (L76/36, circles), and IgG2b (K14/16, triangles) mAbs and different amounts of HL 2°Ab (red), and the respective SCS 2°Abs (green), as indicated on the X-axis. The Y-axis is the red∶green (HL∶SCS) fluorescence ratio (in arbitrary units). (C) Immunoblots showing lack of crossreactivity in SCS 2°Ab detection of antigens loaded at great excess. Recombinant GST fusion proteins containing different amounts of Kv1.2 and PSD95 antigens, and GST alone, were size fractionated on a single SDS gel and transferred to an immunoblot. Amounts loaded of GST-PSD95 ranged from 4–972 ng, as indicated below lower left panel, and for GST-Kv1.2 and GST alone from 972–4 ng, as indicated below lower right panel. The immunoblot was simultaneously probed with anti-Kv1.2 K14/16 (IgG2b, red), anti-PSD95 K28/43 (IgG2a, blue) and anti-GST N100/13 (IgG1, green), and corresponding SCS 2°Abs. Lane to left of top left panel shows molecular weight standards in kDa. Image reveals a lack of crossreactivity between SCS 2°Abs and bound 1°Abs even under conditions of excess antigen.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Benefits and Pitfalls of Secondary Antibodies: Why Choosing the Right Secondary Is of Primary Importance

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038313

    Figure Lengend Snippet: (A) FLISAs showing detection of different concentrations of IgG1 (K14/39, squares), IgG2a (L76/36, circles), and IgG2b (K14/16, triangles) mAbs as indicated by the values on the X-axes, with HL 2°Ab (top row), and respective SCS 2°Abs (middle row), at the concentrations indicated above the columns. Bottom row shows data from the graphs in the top row normalized to values for the IgG1 mAb. (B) HL bias is seen at all 2°Ab concentrations tested in transiently transfected COS-1 cells. Immunofluorescence labeling of Kv1.2-expressing COS-1 cells, probed with 5 µg/mL of IgG1 (K14/39, squares), IgG2a (L76/36, circles), and IgG2b (K14/16, triangles) mAbs and different amounts of HL 2°Ab (red), and the respective SCS 2°Abs (green), as indicated on the X-axis. The Y-axis is the red∶green (HL∶SCS) fluorescence ratio (in arbitrary units). (C) Immunoblots showing lack of crossreactivity in SCS 2°Ab detection of antigens loaded at great excess. Recombinant GST fusion proteins containing different amounts of Kv1.2 and PSD95 antigens, and GST alone, were size fractionated on a single SDS gel and transferred to an immunoblot. Amounts loaded of GST-PSD95 ranged from 4–972 ng, as indicated below lower left panel, and for GST-Kv1.2 and GST alone from 972–4 ng, as indicated below lower right panel. The immunoblot was simultaneously probed with anti-Kv1.2 K14/16 (IgG2b, red), anti-PSD95 K28/43 (IgG2a, blue) and anti-GST N100/13 (IgG1, green), and corresponding SCS 2°Abs. Lane to left of top left panel shows molecular weight standards in kDa. Image reveals a lack of crossreactivity between SCS 2°Abs and bound 1°Abs even under conditions of excess antigen.

    Article Snippet: The generation and validation of anti-PSD-95 mAb K28/43 (IgG2a) , anti-KChIP1 mAb K55/7 (IgG1) and anti-Kv4.2 mAb K57/1 (IgG1) , anti-Caspr/Paranodin mAb K65/35 (IgG1) , anti-Kv2.1 mAb K89/34 (IgG1) , anti-BK channel mAb L6/60 (IgG2a) were described previously. mAbs against QKI (N147/6, IgG2b), Ankyrin-G (N106/36, IgG2a) and GFAP (N206A/8, IgG1) were obtained from the UC Davis/NIH NeuroMab Facility, which also distributes K14/16, K28/43, K55/7, K57/1, K65/35, K89/34 and L6/60.

    Techniques: Transfection, Immunofluorescence, Labeling, Expressing, Fluorescence, Western Blot, Recombinant, SDS-Gel, Molecular Weight

    (A) Kv1.2-transfected COS-1 cells were labeled with 1°Ab as in , and HL 2°Ab and the respective SCS 2°Abs, and the ratios of fluorescence intensities from three fields each of three independent samples normalized to the HL/IgG1 ratio. Letters are supplier (L = Life Technologies, R = Rockland), numbers are Alex or DyLight fluorophore conjugates; high: highly adsorbed; fab: F(ab′) 2 fragment of HL ( e.g. , L488 SCS is Life Technologies Alexa 488 conjugated SCS). 4/09 and 7/11 refer to two lots of Life Technologies HL. (B) FLISAs showing detection bias of 2°Abs is present at all 2°Ab concentrations. Upper left: Life Technologies HL. Upper right: Life Technologies SCS. Lower left: Jackson ImmunoResearch HL. Lower right: Jackson ImmunoResearch HL (highly cross-adsorbed). (C) HRP conjugated HL secondaries show detection bias by immunoblot. Purified mAb IgG preparations were analyzed by reducing SDS-PAGE and coomassie blue staining (CB), or immunoblotting and detection with two different HRP-conjugated H+L 2°Abs and ECL. HL: Kirkegaard & Perry Laboratories. HL*: Antibodies Incorporated. Note subclass-specific differences in detection of heavy chain (HC) but not light chain (LC) bands in IgG preparations.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Benefits and Pitfalls of Secondary Antibodies: Why Choosing the Right Secondary Is of Primary Importance

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038313

    Figure Lengend Snippet: (A) Kv1.2-transfected COS-1 cells were labeled with 1°Ab as in , and HL 2°Ab and the respective SCS 2°Abs, and the ratios of fluorescence intensities from three fields each of three independent samples normalized to the HL/IgG1 ratio. Letters are supplier (L = Life Technologies, R = Rockland), numbers are Alex or DyLight fluorophore conjugates; high: highly adsorbed; fab: F(ab′) 2 fragment of HL ( e.g. , L488 SCS is Life Technologies Alexa 488 conjugated SCS). 4/09 and 7/11 refer to two lots of Life Technologies HL. (B) FLISAs showing detection bias of 2°Abs is present at all 2°Ab concentrations. Upper left: Life Technologies HL. Upper right: Life Technologies SCS. Lower left: Jackson ImmunoResearch HL. Lower right: Jackson ImmunoResearch HL (highly cross-adsorbed). (C) HRP conjugated HL secondaries show detection bias by immunoblot. Purified mAb IgG preparations were analyzed by reducing SDS-PAGE and coomassie blue staining (CB), or immunoblotting and detection with two different HRP-conjugated H+L 2°Abs and ECL. HL: Kirkegaard & Perry Laboratories. HL*: Antibodies Incorporated. Note subclass-specific differences in detection of heavy chain (HC) but not light chain (LC) bands in IgG preparations.

    Article Snippet: The generation and validation of anti-PSD-95 mAb K28/43 (IgG2a) , anti-KChIP1 mAb K55/7 (IgG1) and anti-Kv4.2 mAb K57/1 (IgG1) , anti-Caspr/Paranodin mAb K65/35 (IgG1) , anti-Kv2.1 mAb K89/34 (IgG1) , anti-BK channel mAb L6/60 (IgG2a) were described previously. mAbs against QKI (N147/6, IgG2b), Ankyrin-G (N106/36, IgG2a) and GFAP (N206A/8, IgG1) were obtained from the UC Davis/NIH NeuroMab Facility, which also distributes K14/16, K28/43, K55/7, K57/1, K65/35, K89/34 and L6/60.

    Techniques: Transfection, Labeling, Fluorescence, Western Blot, Purification, SDS Page, Staining

    Sections of brains from WT and Kv2.1 knockout (KO) mice were labeled with an anti-Kv2.1 IgG1 mAb, or in vehicle alone (bottom row, no 1°Ab), followed by simultaneous detection with both HL (green) and IgG1-specific (red) 2°Abs. Columns represent samples with different [2°Ab] as in column header. All samples were imaged using identical exposure times. Note that the panels in the top row are the same as those in the WT row but showing the green channel only. Scale bar = 25 µm.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Benefits and Pitfalls of Secondary Antibodies: Why Choosing the Right Secondary Is of Primary Importance

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038313

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Sections of brains from WT and Kv2.1 knockout (KO) mice were labeled with an anti-Kv2.1 IgG1 mAb, or in vehicle alone (bottom row, no 1°Ab), followed by simultaneous detection with both HL (green) and IgG1-specific (red) 2°Abs. Columns represent samples with different [2°Ab] as in column header. All samples were imaged using identical exposure times. Note that the panels in the top row are the same as those in the WT row but showing the green channel only. Scale bar = 25 µm.

    Article Snippet: The generation and validation of anti-PSD-95 mAb K28/43 (IgG2a) , anti-KChIP1 mAb K55/7 (IgG1) and anti-Kv4.2 mAb K57/1 (IgG1) , anti-Caspr/Paranodin mAb K65/35 (IgG1) , anti-Kv2.1 mAb K89/34 (IgG1) , anti-BK channel mAb L6/60 (IgG2a) were described previously. mAbs against QKI (N147/6, IgG2b), Ankyrin-G (N106/36, IgG2a) and GFAP (N206A/8, IgG1) were obtained from the UC Davis/NIH NeuroMab Facility, which also distributes K14/16, K28/43, K55/7, K57/1, K65/35, K89/34 and L6/60.

    Techniques: Knock-Out, Labeling

    A. Detection of mitoBK Ca channel regulatory β4 subunit mRNA in astrocytoma cells. The BK Ca subunit β4 mRNA was detected at a size of 405 bp. No products were obtained for the BK Ca subunits β1, β2 and β3. GAPDH served as a positive control and was detected at a size of 496 bp. The negative control without reverse transcriptase (−RT) and samples without cDNA (−A) had no signals. The results presented are representative of seven independent experiments. B. Immunoblot of astrocytoma mitochondria, astrocytoma cell homogenate and brain homogenate fractions labeled with the anti-BK Ca channel β4 subunit antibody. A control antigen (BK Ca β4+ peptide) was used as a positive control for the specificity of the antibody. An anti-cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV antibody (COX IV) was used as a mitochondrial marker (n = 3). C. Immuno-gold electron microscopy localization of the BK Ca channel β4 regulatory subunit in mitochondria of cultured human astrocytoma cells. The β4 subunit molecules were labeled using 10 nm colloidal-gold particles (arrows). D. High-power confocal image of cultured astrocytoma cells immunolabeled to detect OxPhos (red) and β4-GFP-transfected cells (green). The superimposition of the two signals revealed the mitochondrial localization of BK Ca β4 in human astrocytoma cells (yellow). The DNA-binding dye DAPI was used to stain the cell nuclei (blue). For details concerning the astrocytoma cells, see the .

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Putative Structural and Functional Coupling of the Mitochondrial BK Ca Channel to the Respiratory Chain

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0068125

    Figure Lengend Snippet: A. Detection of mitoBK Ca channel regulatory β4 subunit mRNA in astrocytoma cells. The BK Ca subunit β4 mRNA was detected at a size of 405 bp. No products were obtained for the BK Ca subunits β1, β2 and β3. GAPDH served as a positive control and was detected at a size of 496 bp. The negative control without reverse transcriptase (−RT) and samples without cDNA (−A) had no signals. The results presented are representative of seven independent experiments. B. Immunoblot of astrocytoma mitochondria, astrocytoma cell homogenate and brain homogenate fractions labeled with the anti-BK Ca channel β4 subunit antibody. A control antigen (BK Ca β4+ peptide) was used as a positive control for the specificity of the antibody. An anti-cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV antibody (COX IV) was used as a mitochondrial marker (n = 3). C. Immuno-gold electron microscopy localization of the BK Ca channel β4 regulatory subunit in mitochondria of cultured human astrocytoma cells. The β4 subunit molecules were labeled using 10 nm colloidal-gold particles (arrows). D. High-power confocal image of cultured astrocytoma cells immunolabeled to detect OxPhos (red) and β4-GFP-transfected cells (green). The superimposition of the two signals revealed the mitochondrial localization of BK Ca β4 in human astrocytoma cells (yellow). The DNA-binding dye DAPI was used to stain the cell nuclei (blue). For details concerning the astrocytoma cells, see the .

    Article Snippet: The membranes were exposed to polyclonal antibodies that recognize BK Ca channel β subunit 4 (anti-β4, 1∶200, Alomone Labs) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV (COX IV, 1∶1000, Cell Signaling).

    Techniques: Positive Control, Negative Control, Western Blot, Labeling, Marker, Electron Microscopy, Cell Culture, Immunolabeling, Transfection, Binding Assay, Staining

    Two-dimensional separation was performed as described in the , and the PVDF membrane was first immunoblotted for the BK Ca channel β4 subunit (below, Coomassie staining panel). Next, the PVDF membrane was immunoblotted for the subunits of individual respiratory chain complexes (below the BK Ca β4 panel). The BN-PAGE was calibrated based on the location of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes that were isolated from rat heart mitochondria (above the panel for the blue native PAGE of mitochondria from astrocytoma cells). In the native astrocytoma lysate, mitochondria BK Ca β4 co-localized with subunit I of cytochrome c oxidase. M, the monomeric form of cytochrome c oxidase; D, the dimeric form of cytochrome c oxidase; Sc 1 and Sc 2 , complexes with higher molecular weights containing cytochrome c oxidase. A typical immunoblot from three separate experiments is shown.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Putative Structural and Functional Coupling of the Mitochondrial BK Ca Channel to the Respiratory Chain

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0068125

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Two-dimensional separation was performed as described in the , and the PVDF membrane was first immunoblotted for the BK Ca channel β4 subunit (below, Coomassie staining panel). Next, the PVDF membrane was immunoblotted for the subunits of individual respiratory chain complexes (below the BK Ca β4 panel). The BN-PAGE was calibrated based on the location of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes that were isolated from rat heart mitochondria (above the panel for the blue native PAGE of mitochondria from astrocytoma cells). In the native astrocytoma lysate, mitochondria BK Ca β4 co-localized with subunit I of cytochrome c oxidase. M, the monomeric form of cytochrome c oxidase; D, the dimeric form of cytochrome c oxidase; Sc 1 and Sc 2 , complexes with higher molecular weights containing cytochrome c oxidase. A typical immunoblot from three separate experiments is shown.

    Article Snippet: The membranes were exposed to polyclonal antibodies that recognize BK Ca channel β subunit 4 (anti-β4, 1∶200, Alomone Labs) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV (COX IV, 1∶1000, Cell Signaling).

    Techniques: Staining, Isolation, Blue Native PAGE, Western Blot

    A. Detection of mitoBK Ca channel regulatory β4 subunit mRNA in astrocytoma cells. The BK Ca subunit β4 mRNA was detected at a size of 405 bp. No products were obtained for the BK Ca subunits β1, β2 and β3. GAPDH served as a positive control and was detected at a size of 496 bp. The negative control without reverse transcriptase (−RT) and samples without cDNA (−A) had no signals. The results presented are representative of seven independent experiments. B. Immunoblot of astrocytoma mitochondria, astrocytoma cell homogenate and brain homogenate fractions labeled with the anti-BK Ca channel β4 subunit antibody. A control antigen (BK Ca β4+ peptide) was used as a positive control for the specificity of the antibody. An anti-cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV antibody (COX IV) was used as a mitochondrial marker (n = 3). C. Immuno-gold electron microscopy localization of the BK Ca channel β4 regulatory subunit in mitochondria of cultured human astrocytoma cells. The β4 subunit molecules were labeled using 10 nm colloidal-gold particles (arrows). D. High-power confocal image of cultured astrocytoma cells immunolabeled to detect OxPhos (red) and β4-GFP-transfected cells (green). The superimposition of the two signals revealed the mitochondrial localization of BK Ca β4 in human astrocytoma cells (yellow). The DNA-binding dye DAPI was used to stain the cell nuclei (blue). For details concerning the astrocytoma cells, see the .

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Putative Structural and Functional Coupling of the Mitochondrial BK Ca Channel to the Respiratory Chain

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0068125

    Figure Lengend Snippet: A. Detection of mitoBK Ca channel regulatory β4 subunit mRNA in astrocytoma cells. The BK Ca subunit β4 mRNA was detected at a size of 405 bp. No products were obtained for the BK Ca subunits β1, β2 and β3. GAPDH served as a positive control and was detected at a size of 496 bp. The negative control without reverse transcriptase (−RT) and samples without cDNA (−A) had no signals. The results presented are representative of seven independent experiments. B. Immunoblot of astrocytoma mitochondria, astrocytoma cell homogenate and brain homogenate fractions labeled with the anti-BK Ca channel β4 subunit antibody. A control antigen (BK Ca β4+ peptide) was used as a positive control for the specificity of the antibody. An anti-cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV antibody (COX IV) was used as a mitochondrial marker (n = 3). C. Immuno-gold electron microscopy localization of the BK Ca channel β4 regulatory subunit in mitochondria of cultured human astrocytoma cells. The β4 subunit molecules were labeled using 10 nm colloidal-gold particles (arrows). D. High-power confocal image of cultured astrocytoma cells immunolabeled to detect OxPhos (red) and β4-GFP-transfected cells (green). The superimposition of the two signals revealed the mitochondrial localization of BK Ca β4 in human astrocytoma cells (yellow). The DNA-binding dye DAPI was used to stain the cell nuclei (blue). For details concerning the astrocytoma cells, see the .

    Article Snippet: The immunoreactions consisted of sequential incubations with a rabbit polyclonal anti-BK Ca channel β subunit 4 antibody (anti-β4, 1∶20, Alomone Labs) followed by species-specific donkey secondary antibodies coupled to 10 nm gold particles (Electron Microscopy Sciences).

    Techniques: Positive Control, Negative Control, Western Blot, Labeling, Marker, Electron Microscopy, Cell Culture, Immunolabeling, Transfection, Binding Assay, Staining

    Two-dimensional separation was performed as described in the , and the PVDF membrane was first immunoblotted for the BK Ca channel β4 subunit (below, Coomassie staining panel). Next, the PVDF membrane was immunoblotted for the subunits of individual respiratory chain complexes (below the BK Ca β4 panel). The BN-PAGE was calibrated based on the location of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes that were isolated from rat heart mitochondria (above the panel for the blue native PAGE of mitochondria from astrocytoma cells). In the native astrocytoma lysate, mitochondria BK Ca β4 co-localized with subunit I of cytochrome c oxidase. M, the monomeric form of cytochrome c oxidase; D, the dimeric form of cytochrome c oxidase; Sc 1 and Sc 2 , complexes with higher molecular weights containing cytochrome c oxidase. A typical immunoblot from three separate experiments is shown.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Putative Structural and Functional Coupling of the Mitochondrial BK Ca Channel to the Respiratory Chain

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0068125

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Two-dimensional separation was performed as described in the , and the PVDF membrane was first immunoblotted for the BK Ca channel β4 subunit (below, Coomassie staining panel). Next, the PVDF membrane was immunoblotted for the subunits of individual respiratory chain complexes (below the BK Ca β4 panel). The BN-PAGE was calibrated based on the location of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes that were isolated from rat heart mitochondria (above the panel for the blue native PAGE of mitochondria from astrocytoma cells). In the native astrocytoma lysate, mitochondria BK Ca β4 co-localized with subunit I of cytochrome c oxidase. M, the monomeric form of cytochrome c oxidase; D, the dimeric form of cytochrome c oxidase; Sc 1 and Sc 2 , complexes with higher molecular weights containing cytochrome c oxidase. A typical immunoblot from three separate experiments is shown.

    Article Snippet: The immunoreactions consisted of sequential incubations with a rabbit polyclonal anti-BK Ca channel β subunit 4 antibody (anti-β4, 1∶20, Alomone Labs) followed by species-specific donkey secondary antibodies coupled to 10 nm gold particles (Electron Microscopy Sciences).

    Techniques: Staining, Isolation, Blue Native PAGE, Western Blot