angiogenic inducer 61 cyr61  (R&D Systems)


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    R&D Systems angiogenic inducer 61 cyr61
    Angiogenic Inducer 61 Cyr61, supplied by R&D Systems, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/angiogenic inducer 61 cyr61/product/R&D Systems
    Average 94 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    angiogenic inducer 61 cyr61 - by Bioz Stars, 2024-07
    94/100 stars

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    angiogenic inducer 61 cyr61  (Bioss)


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    Bioss angiogenic inducer 61 cyr61
    JTE-013 alleviated fibrosis by inhibiting the expression of RHOA, YAP, and related pathway proteins in lung tissues. ( A ): Protein–protein-interaction network constructed using the String database; ( B ): Co-expression of proteins retrieved from databases; ( C ): Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the expression of RHOA, YAP, CTGF, and <t>CYR61</t> and their OD quantitative analysis chart (scale bar = 50 μm). ( D ): Immunofluorescence staining was used to detect the expression of RHOA and their quantitative analysis chart (scale bar = 200 μm). ( E ): Immunofluorescence staining was used to detect the colocalization of YAP and α-SMA. ( F ): Western blot was used to detect the expression of RHOA, TAZ, CTGF, CYR61, and the phosphorylation of Lats1 and YAP. Their relative levels were analyzed and compared. (** p < 0.01 vs. control group, ## p < 0.01 vs. BLM group, && p < 0.01 vs. BLM + JTE-013 group). Original Western blot available in .
    Angiogenic Inducer 61 Cyr61, supplied by Bioss, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/angiogenic inducer 61 cyr61/product/Bioss
    Average 93 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    angiogenic inducer 61 cyr61 - by Bioz Stars, 2024-07
    93/100 stars

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    1) Product Images from "JTE-013 Alleviates Pulmonary Fibrosis by Affecting the RhoA/YAP Pathway and Mitochondrial Fusion/Fission"

    Article Title: JTE-013 Alleviates Pulmonary Fibrosis by Affecting the RhoA/YAP Pathway and Mitochondrial Fusion/Fission

    Journal: Pharmaceuticals

    doi: 10.3390/ph16101444

    JTE-013 alleviated fibrosis by inhibiting the expression of RHOA, YAP, and related pathway proteins in lung tissues. ( A ): Protein–protein-interaction network constructed using the String database; ( B ): Co-expression of proteins retrieved from databases; ( C ): Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the expression of RHOA, YAP, CTGF, and CYR61 and their OD quantitative analysis chart (scale bar = 50 μm). ( D ): Immunofluorescence staining was used to detect the expression of RHOA and their quantitative analysis chart (scale bar = 200 μm). ( E ): Immunofluorescence staining was used to detect the colocalization of YAP and α-SMA. ( F ): Western blot was used to detect the expression of RHOA, TAZ, CTGF, CYR61, and the phosphorylation of Lats1 and YAP. Their relative levels were analyzed and compared. (** p < 0.01 vs. control group, ## p < 0.01 vs. BLM group, && p < 0.01 vs. BLM + JTE-013 group). Original Western blot available in .
    Figure Legend Snippet: JTE-013 alleviated fibrosis by inhibiting the expression of RHOA, YAP, and related pathway proteins in lung tissues. ( A ): Protein–protein-interaction network constructed using the String database; ( B ): Co-expression of proteins retrieved from databases; ( C ): Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the expression of RHOA, YAP, CTGF, and CYR61 and their OD quantitative analysis chart (scale bar = 50 μm). ( D ): Immunofluorescence staining was used to detect the expression of RHOA and their quantitative analysis chart (scale bar = 200 μm). ( E ): Immunofluorescence staining was used to detect the colocalization of YAP and α-SMA. ( F ): Western blot was used to detect the expression of RHOA, TAZ, CTGF, CYR61, and the phosphorylation of Lats1 and YAP. Their relative levels were analyzed and compared. (** p < 0.01 vs. control group, ## p < 0.01 vs. BLM group, && p < 0.01 vs. BLM + JTE-013 group). Original Western blot available in .

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Construct, Immunohistochemistry, Staining, Immunofluorescence, Western Blot

    JTE-013 inhibited the expression of the RHOA/YAP pathway proteins and fibrosis marker proteins in alveolar epithelial MLE-12 cells. ( A ): MTT assay was used to detect the viability of MLE-12 cells treated with S1P * p < 0.05 vs. 0 μmol/L, ** p < 0.01 vs. 0 μmol/L). ( B – D ): Immunofluorescence staining was used to detect the expression of RHOA ( B ), CTGF ( C ), and YAP ( D ) (scale bar = 100 μm). ( E ): Immunofluorescence staining was used to detect the colocalization of YAP and Drp1 (scale bar = 20 μm). ( F ): Western blot was used to detect the expression of RHOA, TAZ, CTGF, CYR61, and the phosphorylation of Lats1 and YAP. ( G ): The expressions of α-SMA, COL1A1, and MMP-9 were detected by Western blot. (** p < 0.01 vs. control group, ## p < 0.01 vs. S1P group, && p < 0.01 vs. S1P + JTE-013 group). Original Western blot available in .
    Figure Legend Snippet: JTE-013 inhibited the expression of the RHOA/YAP pathway proteins and fibrosis marker proteins in alveolar epithelial MLE-12 cells. ( A ): MTT assay was used to detect the viability of MLE-12 cells treated with S1P * p < 0.05 vs. 0 μmol/L, ** p < 0.01 vs. 0 μmol/L). ( B – D ): Immunofluorescence staining was used to detect the expression of RHOA ( B ), CTGF ( C ), and YAP ( D ) (scale bar = 100 μm). ( E ): Immunofluorescence staining was used to detect the colocalization of YAP and Drp1 (scale bar = 20 μm). ( F ): Western blot was used to detect the expression of RHOA, TAZ, CTGF, CYR61, and the phosphorylation of Lats1 and YAP. ( G ): The expressions of α-SMA, COL1A1, and MMP-9 were detected by Western blot. (** p < 0.01 vs. control group, ## p < 0.01 vs. S1P group, && p < 0.01 vs. S1P + JTE-013 group). Original Western blot available in .

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Marker, MTT Assay, Immunofluorescence, Staining, Western Blot

    Schematic representation of the role of JTE-013 in pulmonary fibrosis. JTE-013 or S1PR2 knockdown inhibited the binding of S1P and S1PR2 to regulate the RHOA/YAP pathway. This further affected the downstream CTGF/CYR61 expression and mitochondrial dynamics, promoted mitochondrial fusion and the phenotypic transition of MFN, inhibited mitochondrial fission, down-regulated the phosphorylation level of Fis1 and Drp1, and reduced the production of mitochondrial ROS and ROS, thereby alleviating pulmonary fibrosis.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Schematic representation of the role of JTE-013 in pulmonary fibrosis. JTE-013 or S1PR2 knockdown inhibited the binding of S1P and S1PR2 to regulate the RHOA/YAP pathway. This further affected the downstream CTGF/CYR61 expression and mitochondrial dynamics, promoted mitochondrial fusion and the phenotypic transition of MFN, inhibited mitochondrial fission, down-regulated the phosphorylation level of Fis1 and Drp1, and reduced the production of mitochondrial ROS and ROS, thereby alleviating pulmonary fibrosis.

    Techniques Used: Binding Assay, Expressing

    angiogenic inducer 61 cyr61  (R&D Systems)


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    R&D Systems angiogenic inducer 61 cyr61
    Re-colorized image of the detection wells for increasing protein concentrations for PEDF, CA-125, IL-8, CD-14, and <t>Cyr61.</t>
    Angiogenic Inducer 61 Cyr61, supplied by R&D Systems, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/angiogenic inducer 61 cyr61/product/R&D Systems
    Average 86 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    angiogenic inducer 61 cyr61 - by Bioz Stars, 2024-07
    86/100 stars

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    1) Product Images from "Design and Fabrication of a 3D-Printed Microfluidic Immunoarray for Ultrasensitive Multiplexed Protein Detection"

    Article Title: Design and Fabrication of a 3D-Printed Microfluidic Immunoarray for Ultrasensitive Multiplexed Protein Detection

    Journal: Micromachines

    doi: 10.3390/mi14122187

    Re-colorized image of the detection wells for increasing protein concentrations for PEDF, CA-125, IL-8, CD-14, and Cyr61.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Re-colorized image of the detection wells for increasing protein concentrations for PEDF, CA-125, IL-8, CD-14, and Cyr61.

    Techniques Used:

    Plots for Ab 2 and Ab 1 optimization of ( a , b ) PEDF, ( c , d ) CA-125, ( e , f ) IL-8, ( g , h ) CD-14, and ( i , j ) Cyr61 and plots for ( k ) incubation time and ( l ) flow-rate optimizations, with inset data showing analyte concentrations. The orange-colored boxes are located at optimum concentrations where signal increase per unit concentration is largest.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Plots for Ab 2 and Ab 1 optimization of ( a , b ) PEDF, ( c , d ) CA-125, ( e , f ) IL-8, ( g , h ) CD-14, and ( i , j ) Cyr61 and plots for ( k ) incubation time and ( l ) flow-rate optimizations, with inset data showing analyte concentrations. The orange-colored boxes are located at optimum concentrations where signal increase per unit concentration is largest.

    Techniques Used: Incubation, Concentration Assay

    Summary of protein biomarkers targeting various cancers with sensitivity and selectivity higher than 70% and AUC close to 1, identified as good biomarker choices to be included in the multiplexed protein assay for the development of a global cancer blood test. ( 1 non-small cell lung cancer, 2 small cell lung cancer).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Summary of protein biomarkers targeting various cancers with sensitivity and selectivity higher than 70% and AUC close to 1, identified as good biomarker choices to be included in the multiplexed protein assay for the development of a global cancer blood test. ( 1 non-small cell lung cancer, 2 small cell lung cancer).

    Techniques Used: Biomarker Assay

    Optimum Ab 1 and Ab 2 concentrations for each biomarker.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Optimum Ab 1 and Ab 2 concentrations for each biomarker.

    Techniques Used: Biomarker Assay

    Calibration plots (n = 3) for ( a ) PEDF, ( b ) CA-125, ( c ) IL-8, ( d ) CD-14, and ( e ) Cyr61.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Calibration plots (n = 3) for ( a ) PEDF, ( b ) CA-125, ( c ) IL-8, ( d ) CD-14, and ( e ) Cyr61.

    Techniques Used:

    Spike-recovery data for each biomarker.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Spike-recovery data for each biomarker.

    Techniques Used: Biomarker Assay, Concentration Assay

    Comparison of the linear range of the calibration plots with the normal and cancer patient levels of each biomarker.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Comparison of the linear range of the calibration plots with the normal and cancer patient levels of each biomarker.

    Techniques Used: Comparison, Biomarker Assay

    angiogenic inducer 61 cyr61  (R&D Systems)


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    R&D Systems angiogenic inducer 61 cyr61
    Angiogenic Inducer 61 Cyr61, supplied by R&D Systems, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/angiogenic inducer 61 cyr61/product/R&D Systems
    Average 94 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    angiogenic inducer 61 cyr61 - by Bioz Stars, 2024-07
    94/100 stars

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    angiogenic inducer 61 cyr61  (Bioss)


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    Bioss angiogenic inducer 61 cyr61
    JTE-013 alleviated fibrosis by inhibiting the expression of RHOA, YAP, and related pathway proteins in lung tissues. ( A ): Protein–protein-interaction network constructed using the String database; ( B ): Co-expression of proteins retrieved from databases; ( C ): Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the expression of RHOA, YAP, CTGF, and <t>CYR61</t> and their OD quantitative analysis chart (scale bar = 50 μm). ( D ): Immunofluorescence staining was used to detect the expression of RHOA and their quantitative analysis chart (scale bar = 200 μm). ( E ): Immunofluorescence staining was used to detect the colocalization of YAP and α-SMA. ( F ): Western blot was used to detect the expression of RHOA, TAZ, CTGF, CYR61, and the phosphorylation of Lats1 and YAP. Their relative levels were analyzed and compared. (** p < 0.01 vs. control group, ## p < 0.01 vs. BLM group, && p < 0.01 vs. BLM + JTE-013 group). Original Western blot available in .
    Angiogenic Inducer 61 Cyr61, supplied by Bioss, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/angiogenic inducer 61 cyr61/product/Bioss
    Average 93 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    angiogenic inducer 61 cyr61 - by Bioz Stars, 2024-07
    93/100 stars

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    1) Product Images from "JTE-013 Alleviates Pulmonary Fibrosis by Affecting the RhoA/YAP Pathway and Mitochondrial Fusion/Fission"

    Article Title: JTE-013 Alleviates Pulmonary Fibrosis by Affecting the RhoA/YAP Pathway and Mitochondrial Fusion/Fission

    Journal: Pharmaceuticals

    doi: 10.3390/ph16101444

    JTE-013 alleviated fibrosis by inhibiting the expression of RHOA, YAP, and related pathway proteins in lung tissues. ( A ): Protein–protein-interaction network constructed using the String database; ( B ): Co-expression of proteins retrieved from databases; ( C ): Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the expression of RHOA, YAP, CTGF, and CYR61 and their OD quantitative analysis chart (scale bar = 50 μm). ( D ): Immunofluorescence staining was used to detect the expression of RHOA and their quantitative analysis chart (scale bar = 200 μm). ( E ): Immunofluorescence staining was used to detect the colocalization of YAP and α-SMA. ( F ): Western blot was used to detect the expression of RHOA, TAZ, CTGF, CYR61, and the phosphorylation of Lats1 and YAP. Their relative levels were analyzed and compared. (** p < 0.01 vs. control group, ## p < 0.01 vs. BLM group, && p < 0.01 vs. BLM + JTE-013 group). Original Western blot available in .
    Figure Legend Snippet: JTE-013 alleviated fibrosis by inhibiting the expression of RHOA, YAP, and related pathway proteins in lung tissues. ( A ): Protein–protein-interaction network constructed using the String database; ( B ): Co-expression of proteins retrieved from databases; ( C ): Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the expression of RHOA, YAP, CTGF, and CYR61 and their OD quantitative analysis chart (scale bar = 50 μm). ( D ): Immunofluorescence staining was used to detect the expression of RHOA and their quantitative analysis chart (scale bar = 200 μm). ( E ): Immunofluorescence staining was used to detect the colocalization of YAP and α-SMA. ( F ): Western blot was used to detect the expression of RHOA, TAZ, CTGF, CYR61, and the phosphorylation of Lats1 and YAP. Their relative levels were analyzed and compared. (** p < 0.01 vs. control group, ## p < 0.01 vs. BLM group, && p < 0.01 vs. BLM + JTE-013 group). Original Western blot available in .

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Construct, Immunohistochemistry, Staining, Immunofluorescence, Western Blot

    JTE-013 inhibited the expression of the RHOA/YAP pathway proteins and fibrosis marker proteins in alveolar epithelial MLE-12 cells. ( A ): MTT assay was used to detect the viability of MLE-12 cells treated with S1P * p < 0.05 vs. 0 μmol/L, ** p < 0.01 vs. 0 μmol/L). ( B – D ): Immunofluorescence staining was used to detect the expression of RHOA ( B ), CTGF ( C ), and YAP ( D ) (scale bar = 100 μm). ( E ): Immunofluorescence staining was used to detect the colocalization of YAP and Drp1 (scale bar = 20 μm). ( F ): Western blot was used to detect the expression of RHOA, TAZ, CTGF, CYR61, and the phosphorylation of Lats1 and YAP. ( G ): The expressions of α-SMA, COL1A1, and MMP-9 were detected by Western blot. (** p < 0.01 vs. control group, ## p < 0.01 vs. S1P group, && p < 0.01 vs. S1P + JTE-013 group). Original Western blot available in .
    Figure Legend Snippet: JTE-013 inhibited the expression of the RHOA/YAP pathway proteins and fibrosis marker proteins in alveolar epithelial MLE-12 cells. ( A ): MTT assay was used to detect the viability of MLE-12 cells treated with S1P * p < 0.05 vs. 0 μmol/L, ** p < 0.01 vs. 0 μmol/L). ( B – D ): Immunofluorescence staining was used to detect the expression of RHOA ( B ), CTGF ( C ), and YAP ( D ) (scale bar = 100 μm). ( E ): Immunofluorescence staining was used to detect the colocalization of YAP and Drp1 (scale bar = 20 μm). ( F ): Western blot was used to detect the expression of RHOA, TAZ, CTGF, CYR61, and the phosphorylation of Lats1 and YAP. ( G ): The expressions of α-SMA, COL1A1, and MMP-9 were detected by Western blot. (** p < 0.01 vs. control group, ## p < 0.01 vs. S1P group, && p < 0.01 vs. S1P + JTE-013 group). Original Western blot available in .

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Marker, MTT Assay, Immunofluorescence, Staining, Western Blot

    Schematic representation of the role of JTE-013 in pulmonary fibrosis. JTE-013 or S1PR2 knockdown inhibited the binding of S1P and S1PR2 to regulate the RHOA/YAP pathway. This further affected the downstream CTGF/CYR61 expression and mitochondrial dynamics, promoted mitochondrial fusion and the phenotypic transition of MFN, inhibited mitochondrial fission, down-regulated the phosphorylation level of Fis1 and Drp1, and reduced the production of mitochondrial ROS and ROS, thereby alleviating pulmonary fibrosis.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Schematic representation of the role of JTE-013 in pulmonary fibrosis. JTE-013 or S1PR2 knockdown inhibited the binding of S1P and S1PR2 to regulate the RHOA/YAP pathway. This further affected the downstream CTGF/CYR61 expression and mitochondrial dynamics, promoted mitochondrial fusion and the phenotypic transition of MFN, inhibited mitochondrial fission, down-regulated the phosphorylation level of Fis1 and Drp1, and reduced the production of mitochondrial ROS and ROS, thereby alleviating pulmonary fibrosis.

    Techniques Used: Binding Assay, Expressing

    angiogenic inducer 61 cyr61  (Bioss)


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    Bioss angiogenic inducer 61 cyr61
    Angiogenic Inducer 61 Cyr61, supplied by Bioss, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/angiogenic inducer 61 cyr61/product/Bioss
    Average 93 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    angiogenic inducer 61 cyr61 - by Bioz Stars, 2024-07
    93/100 stars

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    angiogenic inducer 61 cyr61 elisa kit  (Cusabio)


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    Cusabio angiogenic inducer 61 cyr61 elisa kit
    RNA-seq on placentas from mice exposed to NaAsO 2 . (A–G) All pregnant mice except controls were exposed to NaAsO 2 ( 15 mg / L ) by drinking water throughout pregnancy. All pregnant mice were sacrificed on GD 18. (A) Volcano plot of differentially expressed genes in mouse placentas. A total of 743 genes (red triangle) were up-regulated, and 1,889 genes (green dot) were down-regulated by at least 1.5-fold with a significance level ( p < 0.05 ). (B) KEGG pathway analysis. (C) Top 100 genes were screened based on the p -value ranking of all differential genes and then we screened 40 candidate genes among them, with the average FPKM > 10 of all samples as the filter condition. RNA-seq of mouse placentae from three dams were analyzed per group. (D) Validation of trophoblasts development-related differentially expressed genes by real-time RT-PCR ( n = 6 mice/group). (E) Fold differences in differentially expressed genes between RNA-seq and real-time RT-PCR. (F) Placental <t>CYR61</t> was detected by immunoblotting ( n = 3 mice/group, repeated three times). (G) Representative pictures of CYR61-positive cells in labyrinth zone and junctional zone. Scale bars, 20 μ m ( n = 6 mice/group). (H–J) HTR-8/SVneo cells were exposed to NaAsO 2 ( 2 μ M ). (H) Cyr61 mRNA was measured by real-time RT-PCR ( n = 6 samples/group). (I) <t>CYR61</t> <t>protein</t> was detected by immunoblotting ( n = 3 samples/group, repeated three times). (J) CYR61-positive cells were stained with by immunofluorescence ( n = 3 samples/group). All data are expressed as mean ± SEM . The numeric data are shown in Table S8. RNA-seq data are reported in an Excel sheet and uploaded to the National Center for Biotechnology Information (GSE222092). Unpaired two-tailed Student’s t -test was used for D–F, H, I. * p < 0.05 , ** p < 0.01 . Note: As, arsenic; As-H, 15 mg / L NaAsO 2 ; Ceacam 3/13, carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 3/13; CTRL, control; CYR61, cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61; FPKM, fragments per kilobase per million; Not DEG, not differential gene expression; RNA-seq, RNA sequencing; RT-PCR, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction; SEM, standard error of the mean; Sparcl1, SPARC-like protein 1; TGF- β 2 , transforming growth factor β 2 ; μ M , μ mol / L .
    Angiogenic Inducer 61 Cyr61 Elisa Kit, supplied by Cusabio, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/angiogenic inducer 61 cyr61 elisa kit/product/Cusabio
    Average 86 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    angiogenic inducer 61 cyr61 elisa kit - by Bioz Stars, 2024-07
    86/100 stars

    Images

    1) Product Images from "Effects of Gestational Arsenic Exposures on Placental and Fetal Development in Mice: The Role of Cyr61 m 6 A"

    Article Title: Effects of Gestational Arsenic Exposures on Placental and Fetal Development in Mice: The Role of Cyr61 m 6 A

    Journal: Environmental Health Perspectives

    doi: 10.1289/EHP12207

    RNA-seq on placentas from mice exposed to NaAsO 2 . (A–G) All pregnant mice except controls were exposed to NaAsO 2 ( 15 mg / L ) by drinking water throughout pregnancy. All pregnant mice were sacrificed on GD 18. (A) Volcano plot of differentially expressed genes in mouse placentas. A total of 743 genes (red triangle) were up-regulated, and 1,889 genes (green dot) were down-regulated by at least 1.5-fold with a significance level ( p < 0.05 ). (B) KEGG pathway analysis. (C) Top 100 genes were screened based on the p -value ranking of all differential genes and then we screened 40 candidate genes among them, with the average FPKM > 10 of all samples as the filter condition. RNA-seq of mouse placentae from three dams were analyzed per group. (D) Validation of trophoblasts development-related differentially expressed genes by real-time RT-PCR ( n = 6 mice/group). (E) Fold differences in differentially expressed genes between RNA-seq and real-time RT-PCR. (F) Placental CYR61 was detected by immunoblotting ( n = 3 mice/group, repeated three times). (G) Representative pictures of CYR61-positive cells in labyrinth zone and junctional zone. Scale bars, 20 μ m ( n = 6 mice/group). (H–J) HTR-8/SVneo cells were exposed to NaAsO 2 ( 2 μ M ). (H) Cyr61 mRNA was measured by real-time RT-PCR ( n = 6 samples/group). (I) CYR61 protein was detected by immunoblotting ( n = 3 samples/group, repeated three times). (J) CYR61-positive cells were stained with by immunofluorescence ( n = 3 samples/group). All data are expressed as mean ± SEM . The numeric data are shown in Table S8. RNA-seq data are reported in an Excel sheet and uploaded to the National Center for Biotechnology Information (GSE222092). Unpaired two-tailed Student’s t -test was used for D–F, H, I. * p < 0.05 , ** p < 0.01 . Note: As, arsenic; As-H, 15 mg / L NaAsO 2 ; Ceacam 3/13, carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 3/13; CTRL, control; CYR61, cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61; FPKM, fragments per kilobase per million; Not DEG, not differential gene expression; RNA-seq, RNA sequencing; RT-PCR, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction; SEM, standard error of the mean; Sparcl1, SPARC-like protein 1; TGF- β 2 , transforming growth factor β 2 ; μ M , μ mol / L .
    Figure Legend Snippet: RNA-seq on placentas from mice exposed to NaAsO 2 . (A–G) All pregnant mice except controls were exposed to NaAsO 2 ( 15 mg / L ) by drinking water throughout pregnancy. All pregnant mice were sacrificed on GD 18. (A) Volcano plot of differentially expressed genes in mouse placentas. A total of 743 genes (red triangle) were up-regulated, and 1,889 genes (green dot) were down-regulated by at least 1.5-fold with a significance level ( p < 0.05 ). (B) KEGG pathway analysis. (C) Top 100 genes were screened based on the p -value ranking of all differential genes and then we screened 40 candidate genes among them, with the average FPKM > 10 of all samples as the filter condition. RNA-seq of mouse placentae from three dams were analyzed per group. (D) Validation of trophoblasts development-related differentially expressed genes by real-time RT-PCR ( n = 6 mice/group). (E) Fold differences in differentially expressed genes between RNA-seq and real-time RT-PCR. (F) Placental CYR61 was detected by immunoblotting ( n = 3 mice/group, repeated three times). (G) Representative pictures of CYR61-positive cells in labyrinth zone and junctional zone. Scale bars, 20 μ m ( n = 6 mice/group). (H–J) HTR-8/SVneo cells were exposed to NaAsO 2 ( 2 μ M ). (H) Cyr61 mRNA was measured by real-time RT-PCR ( n = 6 samples/group). (I) CYR61 protein was detected by immunoblotting ( n = 3 samples/group, repeated three times). (J) CYR61-positive cells were stained with by immunofluorescence ( n = 3 samples/group). All data are expressed as mean ± SEM . The numeric data are shown in Table S8. RNA-seq data are reported in an Excel sheet and uploaded to the National Center for Biotechnology Information (GSE222092). Unpaired two-tailed Student’s t -test was used for D–F, H, I. * p < 0.05 , ** p < 0.01 . Note: As, arsenic; As-H, 15 mg / L NaAsO 2 ; Ceacam 3/13, carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 3/13; CTRL, control; CYR61, cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61; FPKM, fragments per kilobase per million; Not DEG, not differential gene expression; RNA-seq, RNA sequencing; RT-PCR, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction; SEM, standard error of the mean; Sparcl1, SPARC-like protein 1; TGF- β 2 , transforming growth factor β 2 ; μ M , μ mol / L .

    Techniques Used: RNA Sequencing Assay, Quantitative RT-PCR, Western Blot, Staining, Immunofluorescence, Two Tailed Test, Expressing, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction

    The role of CYR61 in induced inhibition of migration and invasion in As-exposed human placental trophoblasts. HTR-8/SVneo cells were exposed to NaAsO 2 ( 2 μ M ). (A–D) HTR-8/SVneo cells were transfected with CYR61 overexpression plasmid and then exposed to NaAsO 2 ( 2 μ M ). (A) The efficiency of CYR61 overexpression was determined by real-time RT-PCR ( n = 6 samples/group). (B) Vimentin, N-cadherin, and MMP2 proteins were measured by immunoblotting ( n = 2 samples/group, repeated three times), and β -actin was used as a loading control. (C) Cell migration was determined by transwell migration assay ( n = 3 samples/group, repeated two times). (D) Cell invasion was measured by transwell invasion assay ( n = 3 samples/group, repeated 2 times). (E–H) HTR-8/SVneo cells were transfected with CYR61 knockdown plasmid and then exposed to NaAsO 2 ( 2 μ M ). (E) The efficiency of CYR61 knockdown was determined by real-time RT-PCR ( n = 6 samples/group). (F) Vimentin, N-cadherin, and MMP2 proteins were measured by immunoblotting ( n = 2 samples/group, repeated three times); β -actin was used as a loading control. (G) Cell migration was determined by transwell migration assay ( n = 3 samples/group, repeated two times). (H) Cell invasion was measured by transwell invasion assay ( n = 3 samples/group, repeated 2 times). Scale bars, 200 μ m . All data were expressed as mean ± SEM . The numeric data are shown in Table S8. Unpaired two-tailed Student’s t -test was used for A and E. When ANOVA showed p < 0.05 , the Student-Neuman-Keuls (SNK) multiple comparisons tests were used for B–D and F–H. * p < 0.05 , ** p < 0.01 . Note: ANOVA, analysis of variance; As, arsenic; CTRL, control; CYR61, cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61; CYR61 OE, CYR61 overexpression; shCYR61, CYR61 shRNA; RT-PCR, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction; SEM, standard error of the mean; μ M , μ mol / L .
    Figure Legend Snippet: The role of CYR61 in induced inhibition of migration and invasion in As-exposed human placental trophoblasts. HTR-8/SVneo cells were exposed to NaAsO 2 ( 2 μ M ). (A–D) HTR-8/SVneo cells were transfected with CYR61 overexpression plasmid and then exposed to NaAsO 2 ( 2 μ M ). (A) The efficiency of CYR61 overexpression was determined by real-time RT-PCR ( n = 6 samples/group). (B) Vimentin, N-cadherin, and MMP2 proteins were measured by immunoblotting ( n = 2 samples/group, repeated three times), and β -actin was used as a loading control. (C) Cell migration was determined by transwell migration assay ( n = 3 samples/group, repeated two times). (D) Cell invasion was measured by transwell invasion assay ( n = 3 samples/group, repeated 2 times). (E–H) HTR-8/SVneo cells were transfected with CYR61 knockdown plasmid and then exposed to NaAsO 2 ( 2 μ M ). (E) The efficiency of CYR61 knockdown was determined by real-time RT-PCR ( n = 6 samples/group). (F) Vimentin, N-cadherin, and MMP2 proteins were measured by immunoblotting ( n = 2 samples/group, repeated three times); β -actin was used as a loading control. (G) Cell migration was determined by transwell migration assay ( n = 3 samples/group, repeated two times). (H) Cell invasion was measured by transwell invasion assay ( n = 3 samples/group, repeated 2 times). Scale bars, 200 μ m . All data were expressed as mean ± SEM . The numeric data are shown in Table S8. Unpaired two-tailed Student’s t -test was used for A and E. When ANOVA showed p < 0.05 , the Student-Neuman-Keuls (SNK) multiple comparisons tests were used for B–D and F–H. * p < 0.05 , ** p < 0.01 . Note: ANOVA, analysis of variance; As, arsenic; CTRL, control; CYR61, cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61; CYR61 OE, CYR61 overexpression; shCYR61, CYR61 shRNA; RT-PCR, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction; SEM, standard error of the mean; μ M , μ mol / L .

    Techniques Used: Inhibition, Migration, Transfection, Over Expression, Plasmid Preparation, Quantitative RT-PCR, Western Blot, Transwell Migration Assay, Transwell Invasion Assay, Two Tailed Test, shRNA, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Effect of m 6 A modification on Cyr61 mRNA stability and CYR61 protein in As-exposed human placental trophoblasts. HTR-8/SVneo cells were exposed to NaAsO 2 ( 2 μ M ). (A) HTR8/SVneo cells were treated with actinomycin D ( 5 μ g / mL ), followed by detection of Cyr61 mRNA at indicated times ( n = 3 samples/group, repeated two times). (B) The m 6 A content was measured by EpiQuik m 6 A methylation quantification kit ( n = 5 samples/group, repeated two times). (C) Schematic representation of the position of m 6 A motifs with CYR61 transcript. (D) The m 6 A -modified Cyr61 levels were measured by MeRIP-qPCR ( n = 3 samples/group). (E) Schematic representation of the interaction between Cyr61 mRNA and IGF2BP1/2/3 proteins. (F) The interaction between Cyr61 mRNA and IGF2BP2 proteins was detected by RIP-qPCR ( n = 3 samples/group). (G) The expression of m 6 A methyltransferases and demethylases was measured by real-time RT-PCR ( n = 6 samples/group). (H) The m 6 A methylase activity was measured by Epigenase m 6 A methylase activity/inhibition assay kit ( n = 6 samples/group). (I) A schematic model of the reversible m 6 A methylation. SAM is not only a methyl donor for m 6 A methylation but also a cofactor for catalytic domain of Mettl3. (J) Intracellular SAM content was measured by LC-MS/MS ( n = 6 samples/group). All data were expressed as mean ± SEM . The numeric data are shown in Table S8. Unpaired two-tailed Student’s t -test was used for A, B, D, F, G, H, and J. * p < 0.05 , ** p < 0.01 . Note: ActD, actinomycin D; Alkbh5, a-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase alkB homolog 5; ANOVA, analysis of variance; As, arsenic; CTRL, control; CYR61, cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61; FTO, fat-mass obesity-associated protein; IGF2BP1/2/3, insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein one-half/3; LC-MS/MS, liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry; m 6 A , N 6 -methyladenosine ; MeRIP-qPCR, methylated RNA immunoprecipitation–qPCR; Mettl3/14, methyltransferase-like 3/14; Rbm15/15b, RNA-binding motif protein 15/15b; RIP-qPCR, RNA-binding protein immunoprecipitation–qPCR; RT-PCR, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction; SAH, s-adenosyl-l-homocysteine; SAM, s-adenosylmethionine; SEM, standard error of the mean; μ M , μ mol / L ; WTAP, wilms tumor 1-associating protein.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of m 6 A modification on Cyr61 mRNA stability and CYR61 protein in As-exposed human placental trophoblasts. HTR-8/SVneo cells were exposed to NaAsO 2 ( 2 μ M ). (A) HTR8/SVneo cells were treated with actinomycin D ( 5 μ g / mL ), followed by detection of Cyr61 mRNA at indicated times ( n = 3 samples/group, repeated two times). (B) The m 6 A content was measured by EpiQuik m 6 A methylation quantification kit ( n = 5 samples/group, repeated two times). (C) Schematic representation of the position of m 6 A motifs with CYR61 transcript. (D) The m 6 A -modified Cyr61 levels were measured by MeRIP-qPCR ( n = 3 samples/group). (E) Schematic representation of the interaction between Cyr61 mRNA and IGF2BP1/2/3 proteins. (F) The interaction between Cyr61 mRNA and IGF2BP2 proteins was detected by RIP-qPCR ( n = 3 samples/group). (G) The expression of m 6 A methyltransferases and demethylases was measured by real-time RT-PCR ( n = 6 samples/group). (H) The m 6 A methylase activity was measured by Epigenase m 6 A methylase activity/inhibition assay kit ( n = 6 samples/group). (I) A schematic model of the reversible m 6 A methylation. SAM is not only a methyl donor for m 6 A methylation but also a cofactor for catalytic domain of Mettl3. (J) Intracellular SAM content was measured by LC-MS/MS ( n = 6 samples/group). All data were expressed as mean ± SEM . The numeric data are shown in Table S8. Unpaired two-tailed Student’s t -test was used for A, B, D, F, G, H, and J. * p < 0.05 , ** p < 0.01 . Note: ActD, actinomycin D; Alkbh5, a-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase alkB homolog 5; ANOVA, analysis of variance; As, arsenic; CTRL, control; CYR61, cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61; FTO, fat-mass obesity-associated protein; IGF2BP1/2/3, insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein one-half/3; LC-MS/MS, liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry; m 6 A , N 6 -methyladenosine ; MeRIP-qPCR, methylated RNA immunoprecipitation–qPCR; Mettl3/14, methyltransferase-like 3/14; Rbm15/15b, RNA-binding motif protein 15/15b; RIP-qPCR, RNA-binding protein immunoprecipitation–qPCR; RT-PCR, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction; SAH, s-adenosyl-l-homocysteine; SAM, s-adenosylmethionine; SEM, standard error of the mean; μ M , μ mol / L ; WTAP, wilms tumor 1-associating protein.

    Techniques Used: Modification, Methylation, Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR, Activity Assay, Inhibition, Liquid Chromatography with Mass Spectroscopy, Two Tailed Test, Binding Assay, Liquid Chromatography, Mass Spectrometry, Immunoprecipitation, RNA Binding Assay, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Wilms Tumor Assay

    Effect of As3MT knockdown on Cyr61 m 6 A modification in As-exposed human placental trophoblasts. HTR8/SVneo cells were exposed to 2 μ M NaAsO 2 in presence or absence of As3MT-shRNA (A) The efficiency of As3MT knockdown was determined by real-time RT-PCR ( n = 6 samples/group). (B) Intracellular SAM content was measured by LC-MS/MS ( n = 6 samples/group). (C) The m 6 A methylase activity was measured by Epigenase m 6 A methylase activity/inhibition assay kit ( n = 6 samples/group). (D and E) HTR8/SVneo cells were treated with actinomycin D ( 5 μ g / mL ), followed by detection of Cyr61 mRNA at indicated times ( n = 3 samples/group, repeated two times). (F) CYR61, Vimentin, N-cadherin, and MMP2 proteins were measured by immunoblotting ( n = 3 samples/group). (G) Cell migration was determined by transwell migration assay ( n = 3 samples/group, repeated two times). (H) Cell invasion was measured by transwell invasion assay ( n = 3 samples/group, repeated two times). Scale bars, 200 μ m . All data were expressed as mean ± SEM . The numeric data are shown in Table S8. When ANOVA showed p < 0.05 , the Student-Neuman-Keuls (SNK) multiple comparisons tests were used for A–H. Asterisks indicate comparison with the control group. Hashtags indicate comparison with the As group. * p and # p < 0.05 , ** p and ## p < 0.01 . Note: ActD, actinomycin D; ANOVA, analysis of variance; As, arsenic; As3MT, arsenite methyltransferase; CTRL, control; CYR61, cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61; LC-MS/MS, liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry; MMP2, matrix metalloproteinases 2; RT-PCR, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction; SAM, s-adenosylmethionine; shAs3MT 1#, As3MT shRNA 1#; shAs3MT 2#, As3MT shRNA 2#; SEM, standard error of the mean; μ M , μ mol / L .
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of As3MT knockdown on Cyr61 m 6 A modification in As-exposed human placental trophoblasts. HTR8/SVneo cells were exposed to 2 μ M NaAsO 2 in presence or absence of As3MT-shRNA (A) The efficiency of As3MT knockdown was determined by real-time RT-PCR ( n = 6 samples/group). (B) Intracellular SAM content was measured by LC-MS/MS ( n = 6 samples/group). (C) The m 6 A methylase activity was measured by Epigenase m 6 A methylase activity/inhibition assay kit ( n = 6 samples/group). (D and E) HTR8/SVneo cells were treated with actinomycin D ( 5 μ g / mL ), followed by detection of Cyr61 mRNA at indicated times ( n = 3 samples/group, repeated two times). (F) CYR61, Vimentin, N-cadherin, and MMP2 proteins were measured by immunoblotting ( n = 3 samples/group). (G) Cell migration was determined by transwell migration assay ( n = 3 samples/group, repeated two times). (H) Cell invasion was measured by transwell invasion assay ( n = 3 samples/group, repeated two times). Scale bars, 200 μ m . All data were expressed as mean ± SEM . The numeric data are shown in Table S8. When ANOVA showed p < 0.05 , the Student-Neuman-Keuls (SNK) multiple comparisons tests were used for A–H. Asterisks indicate comparison with the control group. Hashtags indicate comparison with the As group. * p and # p < 0.05 , ** p and ## p < 0.01 . Note: ActD, actinomycin D; ANOVA, analysis of variance; As, arsenic; As3MT, arsenite methyltransferase; CTRL, control; CYR61, cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61; LC-MS/MS, liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry; MMP2, matrix metalloproteinases 2; RT-PCR, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction; SAM, s-adenosylmethionine; shAs3MT 1#, As3MT shRNA 1#; shAs3MT 2#, As3MT shRNA 2#; SEM, standard error of the mean; μ M , μ mol / L .

    Techniques Used: Modification, shRNA, Quantitative RT-PCR, Liquid Chromatography with Mass Spectroscopy, Activity Assay, Inhibition, Western Blot, Migration, Transwell Migration Assay, Transwell Invasion Assay, Comparison, Liquid Chromatography, Mass Spectrometry, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Effect of SAM supplementation on induced inhibition of Cyr61 m 6 A modification in As-exposed human placental trophoblasts. HTR8/SVneo cells were incubated with NaAsO 2 ( 2 μ M ) in presence or absence of SAM ( 10 μ M ). (A) Intracellular SAM content was measured by LC-MS/MS ( n = 6 samples/group). (B) The m 6 A methylase activity was measured by Epigenase m 6 A methylase activity/inhibition assay kit ( n = 6 samples/group). (C) HTR8/SVneo cells were treated with actinomycin D ( 5 μ g / mL ), followed by detection of Cyr61 mRNA at indicated times ( n = 3 samples/group, repeated two times). (D and E) CYR61, Vimentin, N-cadherin, and MMP2 proteins were determined by immunoblotting ( n = 3 samples/group, repeated three times). (F) Cell migration was determined by transwell migration assay ( n = 3 samples/group, repeated two times). (G) Cell invasion was measured by transwell invasion assay ( n = 6 samples/group, repeated two times). Scale bars, 200 μ m . All data were expressed as mean ± SEM . The numeric data are shown in Table S8. When ANOVA showed p < 0.05 , the Student-Neuman-Keuls (SNK) multiple comparisons tests were used for A–G. Asterisks indicate comparison with the control group. Hashtags indicate comparison with the As group. * p and # p < 0.05 , ** p and ## p < 0.01 . Note: ANOVA, analysis of variance; As, arsenic; ActD, actinomycin D; CTRL, control; CYR61, cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61; MMP2, matrix metalloproteinases 2; RT-PCR, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction; SAM, s-adenosylmethionine; SEM, standard error of the mean; μ M , μ mol / L .
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of SAM supplementation on induced inhibition of Cyr61 m 6 A modification in As-exposed human placental trophoblasts. HTR8/SVneo cells were incubated with NaAsO 2 ( 2 μ M ) in presence or absence of SAM ( 10 μ M ). (A) Intracellular SAM content was measured by LC-MS/MS ( n = 6 samples/group). (B) The m 6 A methylase activity was measured by Epigenase m 6 A methylase activity/inhibition assay kit ( n = 6 samples/group). (C) HTR8/SVneo cells were treated with actinomycin D ( 5 μ g / mL ), followed by detection of Cyr61 mRNA at indicated times ( n = 3 samples/group, repeated two times). (D and E) CYR61, Vimentin, N-cadherin, and MMP2 proteins were determined by immunoblotting ( n = 3 samples/group, repeated three times). (F) Cell migration was determined by transwell migration assay ( n = 3 samples/group, repeated two times). (G) Cell invasion was measured by transwell invasion assay ( n = 6 samples/group, repeated two times). Scale bars, 200 μ m . All data were expressed as mean ± SEM . The numeric data are shown in Table S8. When ANOVA showed p < 0.05 , the Student-Neuman-Keuls (SNK) multiple comparisons tests were used for A–G. Asterisks indicate comparison with the control group. Hashtags indicate comparison with the As group. * p and # p < 0.05 , ** p and ## p < 0.01 . Note: ANOVA, analysis of variance; As, arsenic; ActD, actinomycin D; CTRL, control; CYR61, cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61; MMP2, matrix metalloproteinases 2; RT-PCR, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction; SAM, s-adenosylmethionine; SEM, standard error of the mean; μ M , μ mol / L .

    Techniques Used: Inhibition, Modification, Incubation, Liquid Chromatography with Mass Spectroscopy, Activity Assay, Western Blot, Migration, Transwell Migration Assay, Transwell Invasion Assay, Comparison, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Effect of FA supplementation on placental development and fetal growth restriction in As-exposed mice. Pregnant mice were divided into four groups: CTRL, FA, As, and As + FA groups. In the As and As + FA groups, pregnant mice drank ultrapure water containing NaAsO 2 ( 15 mg / L ) throughout pregnancy. In FA and As + FA groups, pregnant mice were administered FA ( 150 μ g / kg ) by gavage daily throughout pregnancy. All pregnant mice were sacrificed on GD18. (A) Fetal weight ( n = 8 dams/group, 12–15 fetuses per dam). (B) Crown–rump length ( n = 8 dams/group, 12–15 fetuses per dam). (C) Placental weight ( n = 8 dams/group, 12–15 fetuses per dam). (D) Placental diameter ( n = 8 dams/group, 12–15 fetuses per dam). (E) Placental cross-section was stained with H&E. Scale bars, 500 μ m (left); 200 μ m (right) ( n = 6 mice/group). (F) The percentage of labyrinth zone area in the entire placenta area ( n = 6 mice/group). (G) The ratio of cross-sectional thickness of labyrinth zone to junctional zone ( n = 6 mice/group). (H) Placental SAM content was determined by LC-MS/MS ( n = 6 mice/group). (I) The m 6 A methylase activity was measured by Epigenase m 6 A methylase activity/inhibition assay kit ( n = 6 mice/group). (J) Placental CYR61 and MMP2 were measured by immunoblotting ( n = 3 mice/group, repeated two times). All data were expressed as mean ± SEM . The numeric data are shown in Table S8. When ANOVA showed p < 0.05 , the Student-Neuman-Keuls (SNK) multiple comparisons tests were used for A–D and F–J. * p < 0.05 , ** p < 0.01 . Note: ANOVA, analysis of variance; As, arsenic; CTRL, control; CYR61, cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61; FA, folic acid; H&E, hematoxylin and eosin; JZ, junctional zone; LC-MS/MS, liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry; LZ, labyrinth zone; MMP2, matrix metalloproteinases 2; SAM, s-adenosylmethionine; SEM, standard error of the mean.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of FA supplementation on placental development and fetal growth restriction in As-exposed mice. Pregnant mice were divided into four groups: CTRL, FA, As, and As + FA groups. In the As and As + FA groups, pregnant mice drank ultrapure water containing NaAsO 2 ( 15 mg / L ) throughout pregnancy. In FA and As + FA groups, pregnant mice were administered FA ( 150 μ g / kg ) by gavage daily throughout pregnancy. All pregnant mice were sacrificed on GD18. (A) Fetal weight ( n = 8 dams/group, 12–15 fetuses per dam). (B) Crown–rump length ( n = 8 dams/group, 12–15 fetuses per dam). (C) Placental weight ( n = 8 dams/group, 12–15 fetuses per dam). (D) Placental diameter ( n = 8 dams/group, 12–15 fetuses per dam). (E) Placental cross-section was stained with H&E. Scale bars, 500 μ m (left); 200 μ m (right) ( n = 6 mice/group). (F) The percentage of labyrinth zone area in the entire placenta area ( n = 6 mice/group). (G) The ratio of cross-sectional thickness of labyrinth zone to junctional zone ( n = 6 mice/group). (H) Placental SAM content was determined by LC-MS/MS ( n = 6 mice/group). (I) The m 6 A methylase activity was measured by Epigenase m 6 A methylase activity/inhibition assay kit ( n = 6 mice/group). (J) Placental CYR61 and MMP2 were measured by immunoblotting ( n = 3 mice/group, repeated two times). All data were expressed as mean ± SEM . The numeric data are shown in Table S8. When ANOVA showed p < 0.05 , the Student-Neuman-Keuls (SNK) multiple comparisons tests were used for A–D and F–J. * p < 0.05 , ** p < 0.01 . Note: ANOVA, analysis of variance; As, arsenic; CTRL, control; CYR61, cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61; FA, folic acid; H&E, hematoxylin and eosin; JZ, junctional zone; LC-MS/MS, liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry; LZ, labyrinth zone; MMP2, matrix metalloproteinases 2; SAM, s-adenosylmethionine; SEM, standard error of the mean.

    Techniques Used: Staining, Liquid Chromatography with Mass Spectroscopy, Activity Assay, Inhibition, Western Blot, Liquid Chromatography, Mass Spectrometry

    Based on a case–control study: association among maternal urinary As concentration, plasma CYR61 content, and fetal growth restriction. (A) Maternal urinary As concentration in AGA and SGA infants was determined by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry ( n = 45 human sample/group). (B) Maternal plasma CYR61 content in AGA and SGA infants was measured by ELISA ( n = 45 human sample/group). (C) The correlation between maternal urinary As concentration and plasma CYR61 content in AGA infants ( n = 45 human sample). (D) The correlation between maternal urinary As concentration and plasma CYR61 content in SGA infants ( n = 45 human sample). (E) Placental CYR61-positive cells in SGA infants and AGA infants were stained by immunohistochemistry ( n = 18 human sample/group). Representative histology images were showed. Blue arrows indicate CYR61-positive cells. Scale bars, 20 μ m . (F) Placental vimentin, MMP2, and MMP9 were detected by immunoblotting ( n = 18 human sample/group). The data in A and B are expressed as mean ± SD . The data in A–D are represented by dots indicating individual values. The data in E and F are expressed as mean ± SEM . The numeric data are shown in Table S8. Two-tailed Student’s t -test was used for A, B, E, and F. The Spearman correlation was used for C and D. * p < 0.05 , ** p < 0.01 . Note: AGA, appropriate for gestational age; As, arsenic; CYR61, cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61; ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; SD, standard deviation; SEM, standard error of the mean; SGA, small for gestational age.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Based on a case–control study: association among maternal urinary As concentration, plasma CYR61 content, and fetal growth restriction. (A) Maternal urinary As concentration in AGA and SGA infants was determined by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry ( n = 45 human sample/group). (B) Maternal plasma CYR61 content in AGA and SGA infants was measured by ELISA ( n = 45 human sample/group). (C) The correlation between maternal urinary As concentration and plasma CYR61 content in AGA infants ( n = 45 human sample). (D) The correlation between maternal urinary As concentration and plasma CYR61 content in SGA infants ( n = 45 human sample). (E) Placental CYR61-positive cells in SGA infants and AGA infants were stained by immunohistochemistry ( n = 18 human sample/group). Representative histology images were showed. Blue arrows indicate CYR61-positive cells. Scale bars, 20 μ m . (F) Placental vimentin, MMP2, and MMP9 were detected by immunoblotting ( n = 18 human sample/group). The data in A and B are expressed as mean ± SD . The data in A–D are represented by dots indicating individual values. The data in E and F are expressed as mean ± SEM . The numeric data are shown in Table S8. Two-tailed Student’s t -test was used for A, B, E, and F. The Spearman correlation was used for C and D. * p < 0.05 , ** p < 0.01 . Note: AGA, appropriate for gestational age; As, arsenic; CYR61, cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61; ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; SD, standard deviation; SEM, standard error of the mean; SGA, small for gestational age.

    Techniques Used: Concentration Assay, Fluorescence, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Staining, Immunohistochemistry, Western Blot, Two Tailed Test, Standard Deviation


    Structured Review

    Vitex Inc angiogenic inducer 61 cyr61
    Angiogenic Inducer 61 Cyr61, supplied by Vitex Inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Average 86 stars, based on 1 article reviews
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    cysteine rich angiogenic inducer 61 cyr61  (Thermo Fisher)


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    Thermo Fisher cysteine rich angiogenic inducer 61 cyr61
    a Lamin A/C (green) and β3-tubulin (red) localization in non-treated TC-71 cells (CTRL) and in mevinolin treated (5 μM) EWS cells (MEV). DNA was counterstained with DAPI (DAPI). Merge of fluorescence signals are shown (MERGE); magnification 100x, scale bar 10 μm; b Lamin A/C (green) and neurofilament-H (NEF-H) (red) localization in non-treated TC-71 cells (CTRL) and in mevinolin treated (5 μM) EWS cells (MEV). DNA was counterstained with DAPI (DAPI). Merge of fluorescence signals are shown (MERGE); magnification 100x, scale bar 10 μm; c qRT-PCR analysis of LMNA , NEF-H , β3-tubulin, nestin and SOX2 genes in untreated TC-71 cells (CTRL) and in mevinolin treated EWS cells (2.5 μM or 5μM MEV). Data are shown as 2- ΔΔ Ct . GAPDH was used as a housekeeping gene. Data are shown as mean values ± SD of three different experiments. Asterisks indicate statistically significant differences with respect to CTRL cells; one-way ANOVA test, * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001; d Lamin A/C (green) and YAP (red) localization in non-treated TC-71 cells (CTRL) and in mevinolin treated (5 μM) EWS cells (MEV). DNA was counterstained with DAPI (DAPI). Merge of fluorescence signals are shown (MERGE). Graphs indicate the fluorescence intensity profile along the white arrows. Representative graphs of at least 30 nuclei analyzed for each sample were shown; magnification 100x, scale bar 10 μm; e qRT-PCR analysis of CTGF and <t>CYR61</t> in non-treated TC-71 cells (CTRL) and in mevinolin treated EWS cells (2.5 μM or 5μM MEV). Data are shown as 2- ΔΔ Ct . GAPDH was used as a housekeeping gene. Data are shown as mean values ± SD of three different experiments. Asterisks indicate statistically significant differences with respect to CTRL cells; one-way ANOVA test, * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01; f Western blotting analysis of YAP, p(Ser127) YAP, MYC and ROCK2 protein expression in non-treated TC-71 cells (CTRL) and in mevinolin treated EWS cells (2.5 μM or 5μM MEV). GAPDH was used as loading control. Densitometric analysis is shown as mean values ± SD of three different experiments. Asterisks indicate statistically significant differences with respect to CTRL cells; one-way ANOVA test, * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01.
    Cysteine Rich Angiogenic Inducer 61 Cyr61, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/cysteine rich angiogenic inducer 61 cyr61/product/Thermo Fisher
    Average 86 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    cysteine rich angiogenic inducer 61 cyr61 - by Bioz Stars, 2024-07
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    1) Product Images from "Lamin A and the LINC complex act as potential tumor suppressors in Ewing Sarcoma"

    Article Title: Lamin A and the LINC complex act as potential tumor suppressors in Ewing Sarcoma

    Journal: Cell Death & Disease

    doi: 10.1038/s41419-022-04729-5

    a Lamin A/C (green) and β3-tubulin (red) localization in non-treated TC-71 cells (CTRL) and in mevinolin treated (5 μM) EWS cells (MEV). DNA was counterstained with DAPI (DAPI). Merge of fluorescence signals are shown (MERGE); magnification 100x, scale bar 10 μm; b Lamin A/C (green) and neurofilament-H (NEF-H) (red) localization in non-treated TC-71 cells (CTRL) and in mevinolin treated (5 μM) EWS cells (MEV). DNA was counterstained with DAPI (DAPI). Merge of fluorescence signals are shown (MERGE); magnification 100x, scale bar 10 μm; c qRT-PCR analysis of LMNA , NEF-H , β3-tubulin, nestin and SOX2 genes in untreated TC-71 cells (CTRL) and in mevinolin treated EWS cells (2.5 μM or 5μM MEV). Data are shown as 2- ΔΔ Ct . GAPDH was used as a housekeeping gene. Data are shown as mean values ± SD of three different experiments. Asterisks indicate statistically significant differences with respect to CTRL cells; one-way ANOVA test, * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001; d Lamin A/C (green) and YAP (red) localization in non-treated TC-71 cells (CTRL) and in mevinolin treated (5 μM) EWS cells (MEV). DNA was counterstained with DAPI (DAPI). Merge of fluorescence signals are shown (MERGE). Graphs indicate the fluorescence intensity profile along the white arrows. Representative graphs of at least 30 nuclei analyzed for each sample were shown; magnification 100x, scale bar 10 μm; e qRT-PCR analysis of CTGF and CYR61 in non-treated TC-71 cells (CTRL) and in mevinolin treated EWS cells (2.5 μM or 5μM MEV). Data are shown as 2- ΔΔ Ct . GAPDH was used as a housekeeping gene. Data are shown as mean values ± SD of three different experiments. Asterisks indicate statistically significant differences with respect to CTRL cells; one-way ANOVA test, * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01; f Western blotting analysis of YAP, p(Ser127) YAP, MYC and ROCK2 protein expression in non-treated TC-71 cells (CTRL) and in mevinolin treated EWS cells (2.5 μM or 5μM MEV). GAPDH was used as loading control. Densitometric analysis is shown as mean values ± SD of three different experiments. Asterisks indicate statistically significant differences with respect to CTRL cells; one-way ANOVA test, * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01.
    Figure Legend Snippet: a Lamin A/C (green) and β3-tubulin (red) localization in non-treated TC-71 cells (CTRL) and in mevinolin treated (5 μM) EWS cells (MEV). DNA was counterstained with DAPI (DAPI). Merge of fluorescence signals are shown (MERGE); magnification 100x, scale bar 10 μm; b Lamin A/C (green) and neurofilament-H (NEF-H) (red) localization in non-treated TC-71 cells (CTRL) and in mevinolin treated (5 μM) EWS cells (MEV). DNA was counterstained with DAPI (DAPI). Merge of fluorescence signals are shown (MERGE); magnification 100x, scale bar 10 μm; c qRT-PCR analysis of LMNA , NEF-H , β3-tubulin, nestin and SOX2 genes in untreated TC-71 cells (CTRL) and in mevinolin treated EWS cells (2.5 μM or 5μM MEV). Data are shown as 2- ΔΔ Ct . GAPDH was used as a housekeeping gene. Data are shown as mean values ± SD of three different experiments. Asterisks indicate statistically significant differences with respect to CTRL cells; one-way ANOVA test, * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001; d Lamin A/C (green) and YAP (red) localization in non-treated TC-71 cells (CTRL) and in mevinolin treated (5 μM) EWS cells (MEV). DNA was counterstained with DAPI (DAPI). Merge of fluorescence signals are shown (MERGE). Graphs indicate the fluorescence intensity profile along the white arrows. Representative graphs of at least 30 nuclei analyzed for each sample were shown; magnification 100x, scale bar 10 μm; e qRT-PCR analysis of CTGF and CYR61 in non-treated TC-71 cells (CTRL) and in mevinolin treated EWS cells (2.5 μM or 5μM MEV). Data are shown as 2- ΔΔ Ct . GAPDH was used as a housekeeping gene. Data are shown as mean values ± SD of three different experiments. Asterisks indicate statistically significant differences with respect to CTRL cells; one-way ANOVA test, * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01; f Western blotting analysis of YAP, p(Ser127) YAP, MYC and ROCK2 protein expression in non-treated TC-71 cells (CTRL) and in mevinolin treated EWS cells (2.5 μM or 5μM MEV). GAPDH was used as loading control. Densitometric analysis is shown as mean values ± SD of three different experiments. Asterisks indicate statistically significant differences with respect to CTRL cells; one-way ANOVA test, * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01.

    Techniques Used: Fluorescence, Quantitative RT-PCR, Western Blot, Expressing


    Structured Review

    Eppendorf AG angiogenic inducer 61 cyr61
    Angiogenic Inducer 61 Cyr61, supplied by Eppendorf AG, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/angiogenic inducer 61 cyr61/product/Eppendorf AG
    Average 86 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
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    angiogenic inducer 61 cyr61  (Cell Signaling Technology Inc)


    Bioz Manufacturer Symbol Cell Signaling Technology Inc manufactures this product  
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    Structured Review

    Cell Signaling Technology Inc angiogenic inducer 61 cyr61
    The cell function analysis are all chemically synthesized interference lncRNA and eukaryotic plasmid-mediated lncRNA transient transfection. These have limited gene silencing and overexpression efficiency and show that the correlation between LNC01508 and OC cisplatin resistance is not highly significant. Furthermore, the effect of eukaryotic plasmid-mediated lncRNA overexpression is better than the chemical synthesis of lncRNA. This suggests a stable transfection in vitro to provide knockout and overexpression effects. (A) qPCR detects a lower LINC01508 expression, and the CCK-8 assay measures the cell viability. IC 50 values in LINC01508 inhibition OV2008 cells. (B) qPCR inspects a higher LINC01508 expression, and the CCK-8 assay measures the cell viability. IC 50 values in LINC01508 overexpression C13K cells. (C and D) Colony formation assays were conducted to determine the cell proliferation ability for transfected OC cells. (E and F) GAPDH, <t>Cyr61,</t> ERCC1, and p-AKT protein levels were determined by Western blot. All experiments are repeated in triplicated, and data are shown as mean±SE. lncRNA, long non-coding RNAs; OC, ovarian cancer; qPCR, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction; CCK-8, cell counting kit-8; IC 50 , half maximal inhibitory concentration; GAPDH, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase; Cyr61, cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61; ERCC1, excision repair cross complementing‐group 1; p-AKT, phospho-AKT; SE, standard error. * p<0.05; † p<0.01.
    Angiogenic Inducer 61 Cyr61, supplied by Cell Signaling Technology Inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/angiogenic inducer 61 cyr61/product/Cell Signaling Technology Inc
    Average 86 stars, based on 1 article reviews
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    angiogenic inducer 61 cyr61 - by Bioz Stars, 2024-07
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    1) Product Images from "Downregulation of LINC01508 contributes to cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer via the regulation of the Hippo-YAP pathway"

    Article Title: Downregulation of LINC01508 contributes to cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer via the regulation of the Hippo-YAP pathway

    Journal: Journal of Gynecologic Oncology

    doi: 10.3802/jgo.2021.32.e77

    The cell function analysis are all chemically synthesized interference lncRNA and eukaryotic plasmid-mediated lncRNA transient transfection. These have limited gene silencing and overexpression efficiency and show that the correlation between LNC01508 and OC cisplatin resistance is not highly significant. Furthermore, the effect of eukaryotic plasmid-mediated lncRNA overexpression is better than the chemical synthesis of lncRNA. This suggests a stable transfection in vitro to provide knockout and overexpression effects. (A) qPCR detects a lower LINC01508 expression, and the CCK-8 assay measures the cell viability. IC 50 values in LINC01508 inhibition OV2008 cells. (B) qPCR inspects a higher LINC01508 expression, and the CCK-8 assay measures the cell viability. IC 50 values in LINC01508 overexpression C13K cells. (C and D) Colony formation assays were conducted to determine the cell proliferation ability for transfected OC cells. (E and F) GAPDH, Cyr61, ERCC1, and p-AKT protein levels were determined by Western blot. All experiments are repeated in triplicated, and data are shown as mean±SE. lncRNA, long non-coding RNAs; OC, ovarian cancer; qPCR, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction; CCK-8, cell counting kit-8; IC 50 , half maximal inhibitory concentration; GAPDH, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase; Cyr61, cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61; ERCC1, excision repair cross complementing‐group 1; p-AKT, phospho-AKT; SE, standard error. * p<0.05; † p<0.01.
    Figure Legend Snippet: The cell function analysis are all chemically synthesized interference lncRNA and eukaryotic plasmid-mediated lncRNA transient transfection. These have limited gene silencing and overexpression efficiency and show that the correlation between LNC01508 and OC cisplatin resistance is not highly significant. Furthermore, the effect of eukaryotic plasmid-mediated lncRNA overexpression is better than the chemical synthesis of lncRNA. This suggests a stable transfection in vitro to provide knockout and overexpression effects. (A) qPCR detects a lower LINC01508 expression, and the CCK-8 assay measures the cell viability. IC 50 values in LINC01508 inhibition OV2008 cells. (B) qPCR inspects a higher LINC01508 expression, and the CCK-8 assay measures the cell viability. IC 50 values in LINC01508 overexpression C13K cells. (C and D) Colony formation assays were conducted to determine the cell proliferation ability for transfected OC cells. (E and F) GAPDH, Cyr61, ERCC1, and p-AKT protein levels were determined by Western blot. All experiments are repeated in triplicated, and data are shown as mean±SE. lncRNA, long non-coding RNAs; OC, ovarian cancer; qPCR, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction; CCK-8, cell counting kit-8; IC 50 , half maximal inhibitory concentration; GAPDH, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase; Cyr61, cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61; ERCC1, excision repair cross complementing‐group 1; p-AKT, phospho-AKT; SE, standard error. * p<0.05; † p<0.01.

    Techniques Used: Cell Function Assay, Synthesized, Plasmid Preparation, Transfection, Over Expression, Stable Transfection, In Vitro, Knock-Out, Expressing, CCK-8 Assay, Inhibition, Western Blot, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Cell Counting, Concentration Assay

    (A) Western blot analyses of YAP and p-YAP protein expression in OC cells. (B and C) Cell survival rate and colony formation pictures of C13K cells after treatment of verteporfin and different doses of cisplatin. Data were shown as mean±SE of 3 experiments. (D) Cyr61 protein is marked by green fluorescence. Cyr61 protein was mainly localized in the cytoplasm. Nuclear staining with DAPI is shown in blue (magnification ×400). Representative images from 3 independent experiments are shown. OC, ovarian cancer; YAP, yes-associated protein 1; p-YAP, phospho-YAP; SE, standard error; Cyr61, cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61; DAPI, diamidino-2-phenylindole; DMSO, dimethyl sulfoxide. * p<0.05; † p<0.01, compared with DMSO group.
    Figure Legend Snippet: (A) Western blot analyses of YAP and p-YAP protein expression in OC cells. (B and C) Cell survival rate and colony formation pictures of C13K cells after treatment of verteporfin and different doses of cisplatin. Data were shown as mean±SE of 3 experiments. (D) Cyr61 protein is marked by green fluorescence. Cyr61 protein was mainly localized in the cytoplasm. Nuclear staining with DAPI is shown in blue (magnification ×400). Representative images from 3 independent experiments are shown. OC, ovarian cancer; YAP, yes-associated protein 1; p-YAP, phospho-YAP; SE, standard error; Cyr61, cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61; DAPI, diamidino-2-phenylindole; DMSO, dimethyl sulfoxide. * p<0.05; † p<0.01, compared with DMSO group.

    Techniques Used: Western Blot, Expressing, Fluorescence, Staining


    Structured Review

    Santa Cruz Biotechnology angiogenic inducer 61 cyr61
    The cell function analysis are all chemically synthesized interference lncRNA and eukaryotic plasmid-mediated lncRNA transient transfection. These have limited gene silencing and overexpression efficiency and show that the correlation between LNC01508 and OC cisplatin resistance is not highly significant. Furthermore, the effect of eukaryotic plasmid-mediated lncRNA overexpression is better than the chemical synthesis of lncRNA. This suggests a stable transfection in vitro to provide knockout and overexpression effects. (A) qPCR detects a lower LINC01508 expression, and the CCK-8 assay measures the cell viability. IC 50 values in LINC01508 inhibition OV2008 cells. (B) qPCR inspects a higher LINC01508 expression, and the CCK-8 assay measures the cell viability. IC 50 values in LINC01508 overexpression C13K cells. (C and D) Colony formation assays were conducted to determine the cell proliferation ability for transfected OC cells. (E and F) GAPDH, <t>Cyr61,</t> ERCC1, and p-AKT protein levels were determined by Western blot. All experiments are repeated in triplicated, and data are shown as mean±SE. lncRNA, long non-coding RNAs; OC, ovarian cancer; qPCR, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction; CCK-8, cell counting kit-8; IC 50 , half maximal inhibitory concentration; GAPDH, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase; Cyr61, cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61; ERCC1, excision repair cross complementing‐group 1; p-AKT, phospho-AKT; SE, standard error. * p<0.05; † p<0.01.
    Angiogenic Inducer 61 Cyr61, supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/angiogenic inducer 61 cyr61/product/Santa Cruz Biotechnology
    Average 86 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    angiogenic inducer 61 cyr61 - by Bioz Stars, 2024-07
    86/100 stars

    Images

    1) Product Images from "Downregulation of LINC01508 contributes to cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer via the regulation of the Hippo-YAP pathway"

    Article Title: Downregulation of LINC01508 contributes to cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer via the regulation of the Hippo-YAP pathway

    Journal: Journal of Gynecologic Oncology

    doi: 10.3802/jgo.2021.32.e77

    The cell function analysis are all chemically synthesized interference lncRNA and eukaryotic plasmid-mediated lncRNA transient transfection. These have limited gene silencing and overexpression efficiency and show that the correlation between LNC01508 and OC cisplatin resistance is not highly significant. Furthermore, the effect of eukaryotic plasmid-mediated lncRNA overexpression is better than the chemical synthesis of lncRNA. This suggests a stable transfection in vitro to provide knockout and overexpression effects. (A) qPCR detects a lower LINC01508 expression, and the CCK-8 assay measures the cell viability. IC 50 values in LINC01508 inhibition OV2008 cells. (B) qPCR inspects a higher LINC01508 expression, and the CCK-8 assay measures the cell viability. IC 50 values in LINC01508 overexpression C13K cells. (C and D) Colony formation assays were conducted to determine the cell proliferation ability for transfected OC cells. (E and F) GAPDH, Cyr61, ERCC1, and p-AKT protein levels were determined by Western blot. All experiments are repeated in triplicated, and data are shown as mean±SE. lncRNA, long non-coding RNAs; OC, ovarian cancer; qPCR, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction; CCK-8, cell counting kit-8; IC 50 , half maximal inhibitory concentration; GAPDH, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase; Cyr61, cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61; ERCC1, excision repair cross complementing‐group 1; p-AKT, phospho-AKT; SE, standard error. * p<0.05; † p<0.01.
    Figure Legend Snippet: The cell function analysis are all chemically synthesized interference lncRNA and eukaryotic plasmid-mediated lncRNA transient transfection. These have limited gene silencing and overexpression efficiency and show that the correlation between LNC01508 and OC cisplatin resistance is not highly significant. Furthermore, the effect of eukaryotic plasmid-mediated lncRNA overexpression is better than the chemical synthesis of lncRNA. This suggests a stable transfection in vitro to provide knockout and overexpression effects. (A) qPCR detects a lower LINC01508 expression, and the CCK-8 assay measures the cell viability. IC 50 values in LINC01508 inhibition OV2008 cells. (B) qPCR inspects a higher LINC01508 expression, and the CCK-8 assay measures the cell viability. IC 50 values in LINC01508 overexpression C13K cells. (C and D) Colony formation assays were conducted to determine the cell proliferation ability for transfected OC cells. (E and F) GAPDH, Cyr61, ERCC1, and p-AKT protein levels were determined by Western blot. All experiments are repeated in triplicated, and data are shown as mean±SE. lncRNA, long non-coding RNAs; OC, ovarian cancer; qPCR, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction; CCK-8, cell counting kit-8; IC 50 , half maximal inhibitory concentration; GAPDH, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase; Cyr61, cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61; ERCC1, excision repair cross complementing‐group 1; p-AKT, phospho-AKT; SE, standard error. * p<0.05; † p<0.01.

    Techniques Used: Cell Function Assay, Synthesized, Plasmid Preparation, Transfection, Over Expression, Stable Transfection, In Vitro, Knock-Out, Expressing, CCK-8 Assay, Inhibition, Western Blot, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Cell Counting, Concentration Assay

    (A) Western blot analyses of YAP and p-YAP protein expression in OC cells. (B and C) Cell survival rate and colony formation pictures of C13K cells after treatment of verteporfin and different doses of cisplatin. Data were shown as mean±SE of 3 experiments. (D) Cyr61 protein is marked by green fluorescence. Cyr61 protein was mainly localized in the cytoplasm. Nuclear staining with DAPI is shown in blue (magnification ×400). Representative images from 3 independent experiments are shown. OC, ovarian cancer; YAP, yes-associated protein 1; p-YAP, phospho-YAP; SE, standard error; Cyr61, cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61; DAPI, diamidino-2-phenylindole; DMSO, dimethyl sulfoxide. * p<0.05; † p<0.01, compared with DMSO group.
    Figure Legend Snippet: (A) Western blot analyses of YAP and p-YAP protein expression in OC cells. (B and C) Cell survival rate and colony formation pictures of C13K cells after treatment of verteporfin and different doses of cisplatin. Data were shown as mean±SE of 3 experiments. (D) Cyr61 protein is marked by green fluorescence. Cyr61 protein was mainly localized in the cytoplasm. Nuclear staining with DAPI is shown in blue (magnification ×400). Representative images from 3 independent experiments are shown. OC, ovarian cancer; YAP, yes-associated protein 1; p-YAP, phospho-YAP; SE, standard error; Cyr61, cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61; DAPI, diamidino-2-phenylindole; DMSO, dimethyl sulfoxide. * p<0.05; † p<0.01, compared with DMSO group.

    Techniques Used: Western Blot, Expressing, Fluorescence, Staining

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    R&D Systems angiogenic inducer 61 cyr61
    Angiogenic Inducer 61 Cyr61, supplied by R&D Systems, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    JTE-013 alleviated fibrosis by inhibiting the expression of RHOA, YAP, and related pathway proteins in lung tissues. ( A ): Protein–protein-interaction network constructed using the String database; ( B ): Co-expression of proteins retrieved from databases; ( C ): Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the expression of RHOA, YAP, CTGF, and <t>CYR61</t> and their OD quantitative analysis chart (scale bar = 50 μm). ( D ): Immunofluorescence staining was used to detect the expression of RHOA and their quantitative analysis chart (scale bar = 200 μm). ( E ): Immunofluorescence staining was used to detect the colocalization of YAP and α-SMA. ( F ): Western blot was used to detect the expression of RHOA, TAZ, CTGF, CYR61, and the phosphorylation of Lats1 and YAP. Their relative levels were analyzed and compared. (** p < 0.01 vs. control group, ## p < 0.01 vs. BLM group, && p < 0.01 vs. BLM + JTE-013 group). Original Western blot available in .
    Angiogenic Inducer 61 Cyr61, supplied by Bioss, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Cusabio angiogenic inducer 61 cyr61 elisa kit
    RNA-seq on placentas from mice exposed to NaAsO 2 . (A–G) All pregnant mice except controls were exposed to NaAsO 2 ( 15 mg / L ) by drinking water throughout pregnancy. All pregnant mice were sacrificed on GD 18. (A) Volcano plot of differentially expressed genes in mouse placentas. A total of 743 genes (red triangle) were up-regulated, and 1,889 genes (green dot) were down-regulated by at least 1.5-fold with a significance level ( p < 0.05 ). (B) KEGG pathway analysis. (C) Top 100 genes were screened based on the p -value ranking of all differential genes and then we screened 40 candidate genes among them, with the average FPKM > 10 of all samples as the filter condition. RNA-seq of mouse placentae from three dams were analyzed per group. (D) Validation of trophoblasts development-related differentially expressed genes by real-time RT-PCR ( n = 6 mice/group). (E) Fold differences in differentially expressed genes between RNA-seq and real-time RT-PCR. (F) Placental <t>CYR61</t> was detected by immunoblotting ( n = 3 mice/group, repeated three times). (G) Representative pictures of CYR61-positive cells in labyrinth zone and junctional zone. Scale bars, 20 μ m ( n = 6 mice/group). (H–J) HTR-8/SVneo cells were exposed to NaAsO 2 ( 2 μ M ). (H) Cyr61 mRNA was measured by real-time RT-PCR ( n = 6 samples/group). (I) <t>CYR61</t> <t>protein</t> was detected by immunoblotting ( n = 3 samples/group, repeated three times). (J) CYR61-positive cells were stained with by immunofluorescence ( n = 3 samples/group). All data are expressed as mean ± SEM . The numeric data are shown in Table S8. RNA-seq data are reported in an Excel sheet and uploaded to the National Center for Biotechnology Information (GSE222092). Unpaired two-tailed Student’s t -test was used for D–F, H, I. * p < 0.05 , ** p < 0.01 . Note: As, arsenic; As-H, 15 mg / L NaAsO 2 ; Ceacam 3/13, carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 3/13; CTRL, control; CYR61, cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61; FPKM, fragments per kilobase per million; Not DEG, not differential gene expression; RNA-seq, RNA sequencing; RT-PCR, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction; SEM, standard error of the mean; Sparcl1, SPARC-like protein 1; TGF- β 2 , transforming growth factor β 2 ; μ M , μ mol / L .
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    Vitex Inc angiogenic inducer 61 cyr61
    RNA-seq on placentas from mice exposed to NaAsO 2 . (A–G) All pregnant mice except controls were exposed to NaAsO 2 ( 15 mg / L ) by drinking water throughout pregnancy. All pregnant mice were sacrificed on GD 18. (A) Volcano plot of differentially expressed genes in mouse placentas. A total of 743 genes (red triangle) were up-regulated, and 1,889 genes (green dot) were down-regulated by at least 1.5-fold with a significance level ( p < 0.05 ). (B) KEGG pathway analysis. (C) Top 100 genes were screened based on the p -value ranking of all differential genes and then we screened 40 candidate genes among them, with the average FPKM > 10 of all samples as the filter condition. RNA-seq of mouse placentae from three dams were analyzed per group. (D) Validation of trophoblasts development-related differentially expressed genes by real-time RT-PCR ( n = 6 mice/group). (E) Fold differences in differentially expressed genes between RNA-seq and real-time RT-PCR. (F) Placental <t>CYR61</t> was detected by immunoblotting ( n = 3 mice/group, repeated three times). (G) Representative pictures of CYR61-positive cells in labyrinth zone and junctional zone. Scale bars, 20 μ m ( n = 6 mice/group). (H–J) HTR-8/SVneo cells were exposed to NaAsO 2 ( 2 μ M ). (H) Cyr61 mRNA was measured by real-time RT-PCR ( n = 6 samples/group). (I) <t>CYR61</t> <t>protein</t> was detected by immunoblotting ( n = 3 samples/group, repeated three times). (J) CYR61-positive cells were stained with by immunofluorescence ( n = 3 samples/group). All data are expressed as mean ± SEM . The numeric data are shown in Table S8. RNA-seq data are reported in an Excel sheet and uploaded to the National Center for Biotechnology Information (GSE222092). Unpaired two-tailed Student’s t -test was used for D–F, H, I. * p < 0.05 , ** p < 0.01 . Note: As, arsenic; As-H, 15 mg / L NaAsO 2 ; Ceacam 3/13, carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 3/13; CTRL, control; CYR61, cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61; FPKM, fragments per kilobase per million; Not DEG, not differential gene expression; RNA-seq, RNA sequencing; RT-PCR, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction; SEM, standard error of the mean; Sparcl1, SPARC-like protein 1; TGF- β 2 , transforming growth factor β 2 ; μ M , μ mol / L .
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    a Lamin A/C (green) and β3-tubulin (red) localization in non-treated TC-71 cells (CTRL) and in mevinolin treated (5 μM) EWS cells (MEV). DNA was counterstained with DAPI (DAPI). Merge of fluorescence signals are shown (MERGE); magnification 100x, scale bar 10 μm; b Lamin A/C (green) and neurofilament-H (NEF-H) (red) localization in non-treated TC-71 cells (CTRL) and in mevinolin treated (5 μM) EWS cells (MEV). DNA was counterstained with DAPI (DAPI). Merge of fluorescence signals are shown (MERGE); magnification 100x, scale bar 10 μm; c qRT-PCR analysis of LMNA , NEF-H , β3-tubulin, nestin and SOX2 genes in untreated TC-71 cells (CTRL) and in mevinolin treated EWS cells (2.5 μM or 5μM MEV). Data are shown as 2- ΔΔ Ct . GAPDH was used as a housekeeping gene. Data are shown as mean values ± SD of three different experiments. Asterisks indicate statistically significant differences with respect to CTRL cells; one-way ANOVA test, * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001; d Lamin A/C (green) and YAP (red) localization in non-treated TC-71 cells (CTRL) and in mevinolin treated (5 μM) EWS cells (MEV). DNA was counterstained with DAPI (DAPI). Merge of fluorescence signals are shown (MERGE). Graphs indicate the fluorescence intensity profile along the white arrows. Representative graphs of at least 30 nuclei analyzed for each sample were shown; magnification 100x, scale bar 10 μm; e qRT-PCR analysis of CTGF and <t>CYR61</t> in non-treated TC-71 cells (CTRL) and in mevinolin treated EWS cells (2.5 μM or 5μM MEV). Data are shown as 2- ΔΔ Ct . GAPDH was used as a housekeeping gene. Data are shown as mean values ± SD of three different experiments. Asterisks indicate statistically significant differences with respect to CTRL cells; one-way ANOVA test, * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01; f Western blotting analysis of YAP, p(Ser127) YAP, MYC and ROCK2 protein expression in non-treated TC-71 cells (CTRL) and in mevinolin treated EWS cells (2.5 μM or 5μM MEV). GAPDH was used as loading control. Densitometric analysis is shown as mean values ± SD of three different experiments. Asterisks indicate statistically significant differences with respect to CTRL cells; one-way ANOVA test, * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01.
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    86
    Eppendorf AG angiogenic inducer 61 cyr61
    a Lamin A/C (green) and β3-tubulin (red) localization in non-treated TC-71 cells (CTRL) and in mevinolin treated (5 μM) EWS cells (MEV). DNA was counterstained with DAPI (DAPI). Merge of fluorescence signals are shown (MERGE); magnification 100x, scale bar 10 μm; b Lamin A/C (green) and neurofilament-H (NEF-H) (red) localization in non-treated TC-71 cells (CTRL) and in mevinolin treated (5 μM) EWS cells (MEV). DNA was counterstained with DAPI (DAPI). Merge of fluorescence signals are shown (MERGE); magnification 100x, scale bar 10 μm; c qRT-PCR analysis of LMNA , NEF-H , β3-tubulin, nestin and SOX2 genes in untreated TC-71 cells (CTRL) and in mevinolin treated EWS cells (2.5 μM or 5μM MEV). Data are shown as 2- ΔΔ Ct . GAPDH was used as a housekeeping gene. Data are shown as mean values ± SD of three different experiments. Asterisks indicate statistically significant differences with respect to CTRL cells; one-way ANOVA test, * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001; d Lamin A/C (green) and YAP (red) localization in non-treated TC-71 cells (CTRL) and in mevinolin treated (5 μM) EWS cells (MEV). DNA was counterstained with DAPI (DAPI). Merge of fluorescence signals are shown (MERGE). Graphs indicate the fluorescence intensity profile along the white arrows. Representative graphs of at least 30 nuclei analyzed for each sample were shown; magnification 100x, scale bar 10 μm; e qRT-PCR analysis of CTGF and <t>CYR61</t> in non-treated TC-71 cells (CTRL) and in mevinolin treated EWS cells (2.5 μM or 5μM MEV). Data are shown as 2- ΔΔ Ct . GAPDH was used as a housekeeping gene. Data are shown as mean values ± SD of three different experiments. Asterisks indicate statistically significant differences with respect to CTRL cells; one-way ANOVA test, * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01; f Western blotting analysis of YAP, p(Ser127) YAP, MYC and ROCK2 protein expression in non-treated TC-71 cells (CTRL) and in mevinolin treated EWS cells (2.5 μM or 5μM MEV). GAPDH was used as loading control. Densitometric analysis is shown as mean values ± SD of three different experiments. Asterisks indicate statistically significant differences with respect to CTRL cells; one-way ANOVA test, * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01.
    Angiogenic Inducer 61 Cyr61, supplied by Eppendorf AG, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/angiogenic inducer 61 cyr61/product/Eppendorf AG
    Average 86 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    angiogenic inducer 61 cyr61 - by Bioz Stars, 2024-07
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    86
    Cell Signaling Technology Inc angiogenic inducer 61 cyr61
    The cell function analysis are all chemically synthesized interference lncRNA and eukaryotic plasmid-mediated lncRNA transient transfection. These have limited gene silencing and overexpression efficiency and show that the correlation between LNC01508 and OC cisplatin resistance is not highly significant. Furthermore, the effect of eukaryotic plasmid-mediated lncRNA overexpression is better than the chemical synthesis of lncRNA. This suggests a stable transfection in vitro to provide knockout and overexpression effects. (A) qPCR detects a lower LINC01508 expression, and the CCK-8 assay measures the cell viability. IC 50 values in LINC01508 inhibition OV2008 cells. (B) qPCR inspects a higher LINC01508 expression, and the CCK-8 assay measures the cell viability. IC 50 values in LINC01508 overexpression C13K cells. (C and D) Colony formation assays were conducted to determine the cell proliferation ability for transfected OC cells. (E and F) GAPDH, <t>Cyr61,</t> ERCC1, and p-AKT protein levels were determined by Western blot. All experiments are repeated in triplicated, and data are shown as mean±SE. lncRNA, long non-coding RNAs; OC, ovarian cancer; qPCR, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction; CCK-8, cell counting kit-8; IC 50 , half maximal inhibitory concentration; GAPDH, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase; Cyr61, cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61; ERCC1, excision repair cross complementing‐group 1; p-AKT, phospho-AKT; SE, standard error. * p<0.05; † p<0.01.
    Angiogenic Inducer 61 Cyr61, supplied by Cell Signaling Technology Inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/angiogenic inducer 61 cyr61/product/Cell Signaling Technology Inc
    Average 86 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    angiogenic inducer 61 cyr61 - by Bioz Stars, 2024-07
    86/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    86
    Santa Cruz Biotechnology angiogenic inducer 61 cyr61
    The cell function analysis are all chemically synthesized interference lncRNA and eukaryotic plasmid-mediated lncRNA transient transfection. These have limited gene silencing and overexpression efficiency and show that the correlation between LNC01508 and OC cisplatin resistance is not highly significant. Furthermore, the effect of eukaryotic plasmid-mediated lncRNA overexpression is better than the chemical synthesis of lncRNA. This suggests a stable transfection in vitro to provide knockout and overexpression effects. (A) qPCR detects a lower LINC01508 expression, and the CCK-8 assay measures the cell viability. IC 50 values in LINC01508 inhibition OV2008 cells. (B) qPCR inspects a higher LINC01508 expression, and the CCK-8 assay measures the cell viability. IC 50 values in LINC01508 overexpression C13K cells. (C and D) Colony formation assays were conducted to determine the cell proliferation ability for transfected OC cells. (E and F) GAPDH, <t>Cyr61,</t> ERCC1, and p-AKT protein levels were determined by Western blot. All experiments are repeated in triplicated, and data are shown as mean±SE. lncRNA, long non-coding RNAs; OC, ovarian cancer; qPCR, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction; CCK-8, cell counting kit-8; IC 50 , half maximal inhibitory concentration; GAPDH, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase; Cyr61, cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61; ERCC1, excision repair cross complementing‐group 1; p-AKT, phospho-AKT; SE, standard error. * p<0.05; † p<0.01.
    Angiogenic Inducer 61 Cyr61, supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/angiogenic inducer 61 cyr61/product/Santa Cruz Biotechnology
    Average 86 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    angiogenic inducer 61 cyr61 - by Bioz Stars, 2024-07
    86/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    Image Search Results


    JTE-013 alleviated fibrosis by inhibiting the expression of RHOA, YAP, and related pathway proteins in lung tissues. ( A ): Protein–protein-interaction network constructed using the String database; ( B ): Co-expression of proteins retrieved from databases; ( C ): Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the expression of RHOA, YAP, CTGF, and CYR61 and their OD quantitative analysis chart (scale bar = 50 μm). ( D ): Immunofluorescence staining was used to detect the expression of RHOA and their quantitative analysis chart (scale bar = 200 μm). ( E ): Immunofluorescence staining was used to detect the colocalization of YAP and α-SMA. ( F ): Western blot was used to detect the expression of RHOA, TAZ, CTGF, CYR61, and the phosphorylation of Lats1 and YAP. Their relative levels were analyzed and compared. (** p < 0.01 vs. control group, ## p < 0.01 vs. BLM group, && p < 0.01 vs. BLM + JTE-013 group). Original Western blot available in .

    Journal: Pharmaceuticals

    Article Title: JTE-013 Alleviates Pulmonary Fibrosis by Affecting the RhoA/YAP Pathway and Mitochondrial Fusion/Fission

    doi: 10.3390/ph16101444

    Figure Lengend Snippet: JTE-013 alleviated fibrosis by inhibiting the expression of RHOA, YAP, and related pathway proteins in lung tissues. ( A ): Protein–protein-interaction network constructed using the String database; ( B ): Co-expression of proteins retrieved from databases; ( C ): Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the expression of RHOA, YAP, CTGF, and CYR61 and their OD quantitative analysis chart (scale bar = 50 μm). ( D ): Immunofluorescence staining was used to detect the expression of RHOA and their quantitative analysis chart (scale bar = 200 μm). ( E ): Immunofluorescence staining was used to detect the colocalization of YAP and α-SMA. ( F ): Western blot was used to detect the expression of RHOA, TAZ, CTGF, CYR61, and the phosphorylation of Lats1 and YAP. Their relative levels were analyzed and compared. (** p < 0.01 vs. control group, ## p < 0.01 vs. BLM group, && p < 0.01 vs. BLM + JTE-013 group). Original Western blot available in .

    Article Snippet: Rabbit anti-RHOA (#bs-1180R), rabbit anti-Lats1 (#bs-2904R), rabbit anti-P-Lats1 (#bs-3246R), rabbit anti-TAZ (#bs-12367R), rabbit anti-connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) (#bs-0743R), Rabbit anti-Human Cysteine Rich Protein, Angiogenic Inducer 61 (CYR61) (#bs-1290R) were purchased from Bioss (Beijing, China).

    Techniques: Expressing, Construct, Immunohistochemistry, Staining, Immunofluorescence, Western Blot

    JTE-013 inhibited the expression of the RHOA/YAP pathway proteins and fibrosis marker proteins in alveolar epithelial MLE-12 cells. ( A ): MTT assay was used to detect the viability of MLE-12 cells treated with S1P * p < 0.05 vs. 0 μmol/L, ** p < 0.01 vs. 0 μmol/L). ( B – D ): Immunofluorescence staining was used to detect the expression of RHOA ( B ), CTGF ( C ), and YAP ( D ) (scale bar = 100 μm). ( E ): Immunofluorescence staining was used to detect the colocalization of YAP and Drp1 (scale bar = 20 μm). ( F ): Western blot was used to detect the expression of RHOA, TAZ, CTGF, CYR61, and the phosphorylation of Lats1 and YAP. ( G ): The expressions of α-SMA, COL1A1, and MMP-9 were detected by Western blot. (** p < 0.01 vs. control group, ## p < 0.01 vs. S1P group, && p < 0.01 vs. S1P + JTE-013 group). Original Western blot available in .

    Journal: Pharmaceuticals

    Article Title: JTE-013 Alleviates Pulmonary Fibrosis by Affecting the RhoA/YAP Pathway and Mitochondrial Fusion/Fission

    doi: 10.3390/ph16101444

    Figure Lengend Snippet: JTE-013 inhibited the expression of the RHOA/YAP pathway proteins and fibrosis marker proteins in alveolar epithelial MLE-12 cells. ( A ): MTT assay was used to detect the viability of MLE-12 cells treated with S1P * p < 0.05 vs. 0 μmol/L, ** p < 0.01 vs. 0 μmol/L). ( B – D ): Immunofluorescence staining was used to detect the expression of RHOA ( B ), CTGF ( C ), and YAP ( D ) (scale bar = 100 μm). ( E ): Immunofluorescence staining was used to detect the colocalization of YAP and Drp1 (scale bar = 20 μm). ( F ): Western blot was used to detect the expression of RHOA, TAZ, CTGF, CYR61, and the phosphorylation of Lats1 and YAP. ( G ): The expressions of α-SMA, COL1A1, and MMP-9 were detected by Western blot. (** p < 0.01 vs. control group, ## p < 0.01 vs. S1P group, && p < 0.01 vs. S1P + JTE-013 group). Original Western blot available in .

    Article Snippet: Rabbit anti-RHOA (#bs-1180R), rabbit anti-Lats1 (#bs-2904R), rabbit anti-P-Lats1 (#bs-3246R), rabbit anti-TAZ (#bs-12367R), rabbit anti-connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) (#bs-0743R), Rabbit anti-Human Cysteine Rich Protein, Angiogenic Inducer 61 (CYR61) (#bs-1290R) were purchased from Bioss (Beijing, China).

    Techniques: Expressing, Marker, MTT Assay, Immunofluorescence, Staining, Western Blot

    Schematic representation of the role of JTE-013 in pulmonary fibrosis. JTE-013 or S1PR2 knockdown inhibited the binding of S1P and S1PR2 to regulate the RHOA/YAP pathway. This further affected the downstream CTGF/CYR61 expression and mitochondrial dynamics, promoted mitochondrial fusion and the phenotypic transition of MFN, inhibited mitochondrial fission, down-regulated the phosphorylation level of Fis1 and Drp1, and reduced the production of mitochondrial ROS and ROS, thereby alleviating pulmonary fibrosis.

    Journal: Pharmaceuticals

    Article Title: JTE-013 Alleviates Pulmonary Fibrosis by Affecting the RhoA/YAP Pathway and Mitochondrial Fusion/Fission

    doi: 10.3390/ph16101444

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Schematic representation of the role of JTE-013 in pulmonary fibrosis. JTE-013 or S1PR2 knockdown inhibited the binding of S1P and S1PR2 to regulate the RHOA/YAP pathway. This further affected the downstream CTGF/CYR61 expression and mitochondrial dynamics, promoted mitochondrial fusion and the phenotypic transition of MFN, inhibited mitochondrial fission, down-regulated the phosphorylation level of Fis1 and Drp1, and reduced the production of mitochondrial ROS and ROS, thereby alleviating pulmonary fibrosis.

    Article Snippet: Rabbit anti-RHOA (#bs-1180R), rabbit anti-Lats1 (#bs-2904R), rabbit anti-P-Lats1 (#bs-3246R), rabbit anti-TAZ (#bs-12367R), rabbit anti-connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) (#bs-0743R), Rabbit anti-Human Cysteine Rich Protein, Angiogenic Inducer 61 (CYR61) (#bs-1290R) were purchased from Bioss (Beijing, China).

    Techniques: Binding Assay, Expressing

    RNA-seq on placentas from mice exposed to NaAsO 2 . (A–G) All pregnant mice except controls were exposed to NaAsO 2 ( 15 mg / L ) by drinking water throughout pregnancy. All pregnant mice were sacrificed on GD 18. (A) Volcano plot of differentially expressed genes in mouse placentas. A total of 743 genes (red triangle) were up-regulated, and 1,889 genes (green dot) were down-regulated by at least 1.5-fold with a significance level ( p < 0.05 ). (B) KEGG pathway analysis. (C) Top 100 genes were screened based on the p -value ranking of all differential genes and then we screened 40 candidate genes among them, with the average FPKM > 10 of all samples as the filter condition. RNA-seq of mouse placentae from three dams were analyzed per group. (D) Validation of trophoblasts development-related differentially expressed genes by real-time RT-PCR ( n = 6 mice/group). (E) Fold differences in differentially expressed genes between RNA-seq and real-time RT-PCR. (F) Placental CYR61 was detected by immunoblotting ( n = 3 mice/group, repeated three times). (G) Representative pictures of CYR61-positive cells in labyrinth zone and junctional zone. Scale bars, 20 μ m ( n = 6 mice/group). (H–J) HTR-8/SVneo cells were exposed to NaAsO 2 ( 2 μ M ). (H) Cyr61 mRNA was measured by real-time RT-PCR ( n = 6 samples/group). (I) CYR61 protein was detected by immunoblotting ( n = 3 samples/group, repeated three times). (J) CYR61-positive cells were stained with by immunofluorescence ( n = 3 samples/group). All data are expressed as mean ± SEM . The numeric data are shown in Table S8. RNA-seq data are reported in an Excel sheet and uploaded to the National Center for Biotechnology Information (GSE222092). Unpaired two-tailed Student’s t -test was used for D–F, H, I. * p < 0.05 , ** p < 0.01 . Note: As, arsenic; As-H, 15 mg / L NaAsO 2 ; Ceacam 3/13, carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 3/13; CTRL, control; CYR61, cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61; FPKM, fragments per kilobase per million; Not DEG, not differential gene expression; RNA-seq, RNA sequencing; RT-PCR, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction; SEM, standard error of the mean; Sparcl1, SPARC-like protein 1; TGF- β 2 , transforming growth factor β 2 ; μ M , μ mol / L .

    Journal: Environmental Health Perspectives

    Article Title: Effects of Gestational Arsenic Exposures on Placental and Fetal Development in Mice: The Role of Cyr61 m 6 A

    doi: 10.1289/EHP12207

    Figure Lengend Snippet: RNA-seq on placentas from mice exposed to NaAsO 2 . (A–G) All pregnant mice except controls were exposed to NaAsO 2 ( 15 mg / L ) by drinking water throughout pregnancy. All pregnant mice were sacrificed on GD 18. (A) Volcano plot of differentially expressed genes in mouse placentas. A total of 743 genes (red triangle) were up-regulated, and 1,889 genes (green dot) were down-regulated by at least 1.5-fold with a significance level ( p < 0.05 ). (B) KEGG pathway analysis. (C) Top 100 genes were screened based on the p -value ranking of all differential genes and then we screened 40 candidate genes among them, with the average FPKM > 10 of all samples as the filter condition. RNA-seq of mouse placentae from three dams were analyzed per group. (D) Validation of trophoblasts development-related differentially expressed genes by real-time RT-PCR ( n = 6 mice/group). (E) Fold differences in differentially expressed genes between RNA-seq and real-time RT-PCR. (F) Placental CYR61 was detected by immunoblotting ( n = 3 mice/group, repeated three times). (G) Representative pictures of CYR61-positive cells in labyrinth zone and junctional zone. Scale bars, 20 μ m ( n = 6 mice/group). (H–J) HTR-8/SVneo cells were exposed to NaAsO 2 ( 2 μ M ). (H) Cyr61 mRNA was measured by real-time RT-PCR ( n = 6 samples/group). (I) CYR61 protein was detected by immunoblotting ( n = 3 samples/group, repeated three times). (J) CYR61-positive cells were stained with by immunofluorescence ( n = 3 samples/group). All data are expressed as mean ± SEM . The numeric data are shown in Table S8. RNA-seq data are reported in an Excel sheet and uploaded to the National Center for Biotechnology Information (GSE222092). Unpaired two-tailed Student’s t -test was used for D–F, H, I. * p < 0.05 , ** p < 0.01 . Note: As, arsenic; As-H, 15 mg / L NaAsO 2 ; Ceacam 3/13, carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 3/13; CTRL, control; CYR61, cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61; FPKM, fragments per kilobase per million; Not DEG, not differential gene expression; RNA-seq, RNA sequencing; RT-PCR, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction; SEM, standard error of the mean; Sparcl1, SPARC-like protein 1; TGF- β 2 , transforming growth factor β 2 ; μ M , μ mol / L .

    Article Snippet: The cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61 (CYR61) ELISA kit (#CSB-E13884h) was purchased from Cusabio.

    Techniques: RNA Sequencing Assay, Quantitative RT-PCR, Western Blot, Staining, Immunofluorescence, Two Tailed Test, Expressing, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction

    The role of CYR61 in induced inhibition of migration and invasion in As-exposed human placental trophoblasts. HTR-8/SVneo cells were exposed to NaAsO 2 ( 2 μ M ). (A–D) HTR-8/SVneo cells were transfected with CYR61 overexpression plasmid and then exposed to NaAsO 2 ( 2 μ M ). (A) The efficiency of CYR61 overexpression was determined by real-time RT-PCR ( n = 6 samples/group). (B) Vimentin, N-cadherin, and MMP2 proteins were measured by immunoblotting ( n = 2 samples/group, repeated three times), and β -actin was used as a loading control. (C) Cell migration was determined by transwell migration assay ( n = 3 samples/group, repeated two times). (D) Cell invasion was measured by transwell invasion assay ( n = 3 samples/group, repeated 2 times). (E–H) HTR-8/SVneo cells were transfected with CYR61 knockdown plasmid and then exposed to NaAsO 2 ( 2 μ M ). (E) The efficiency of CYR61 knockdown was determined by real-time RT-PCR ( n = 6 samples/group). (F) Vimentin, N-cadherin, and MMP2 proteins were measured by immunoblotting ( n = 2 samples/group, repeated three times); β -actin was used as a loading control. (G) Cell migration was determined by transwell migration assay ( n = 3 samples/group, repeated two times). (H) Cell invasion was measured by transwell invasion assay ( n = 3 samples/group, repeated 2 times). Scale bars, 200 μ m . All data were expressed as mean ± SEM . The numeric data are shown in Table S8. Unpaired two-tailed Student’s t -test was used for A and E. When ANOVA showed p < 0.05 , the Student-Neuman-Keuls (SNK) multiple comparisons tests were used for B–D and F–H. * p < 0.05 , ** p < 0.01 . Note: ANOVA, analysis of variance; As, arsenic; CTRL, control; CYR61, cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61; CYR61 OE, CYR61 overexpression; shCYR61, CYR61 shRNA; RT-PCR, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction; SEM, standard error of the mean; μ M , μ mol / L .

    Journal: Environmental Health Perspectives

    Article Title: Effects of Gestational Arsenic Exposures on Placental and Fetal Development in Mice: The Role of Cyr61 m 6 A

    doi: 10.1289/EHP12207

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The role of CYR61 in induced inhibition of migration and invasion in As-exposed human placental trophoblasts. HTR-8/SVneo cells were exposed to NaAsO 2 ( 2 μ M ). (A–D) HTR-8/SVneo cells were transfected with CYR61 overexpression plasmid and then exposed to NaAsO 2 ( 2 μ M ). (A) The efficiency of CYR61 overexpression was determined by real-time RT-PCR ( n = 6 samples/group). (B) Vimentin, N-cadherin, and MMP2 proteins were measured by immunoblotting ( n = 2 samples/group, repeated three times), and β -actin was used as a loading control. (C) Cell migration was determined by transwell migration assay ( n = 3 samples/group, repeated two times). (D) Cell invasion was measured by transwell invasion assay ( n = 3 samples/group, repeated 2 times). (E–H) HTR-8/SVneo cells were transfected with CYR61 knockdown plasmid and then exposed to NaAsO 2 ( 2 μ M ). (E) The efficiency of CYR61 knockdown was determined by real-time RT-PCR ( n = 6 samples/group). (F) Vimentin, N-cadherin, and MMP2 proteins were measured by immunoblotting ( n = 2 samples/group, repeated three times); β -actin was used as a loading control. (G) Cell migration was determined by transwell migration assay ( n = 3 samples/group, repeated two times). (H) Cell invasion was measured by transwell invasion assay ( n = 3 samples/group, repeated 2 times). Scale bars, 200 μ m . All data were expressed as mean ± SEM . The numeric data are shown in Table S8. Unpaired two-tailed Student’s t -test was used for A and E. When ANOVA showed p < 0.05 , the Student-Neuman-Keuls (SNK) multiple comparisons tests were used for B–D and F–H. * p < 0.05 , ** p < 0.01 . Note: ANOVA, analysis of variance; As, arsenic; CTRL, control; CYR61, cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61; CYR61 OE, CYR61 overexpression; shCYR61, CYR61 shRNA; RT-PCR, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction; SEM, standard error of the mean; μ M , μ mol / L .

    Article Snippet: The cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61 (CYR61) ELISA kit (#CSB-E13884h) was purchased from Cusabio.

    Techniques: Inhibition, Migration, Transfection, Over Expression, Plasmid Preparation, Quantitative RT-PCR, Western Blot, Transwell Migration Assay, Transwell Invasion Assay, Two Tailed Test, shRNA, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Effect of m 6 A modification on Cyr61 mRNA stability and CYR61 protein in As-exposed human placental trophoblasts. HTR-8/SVneo cells were exposed to NaAsO 2 ( 2 μ M ). (A) HTR8/SVneo cells were treated with actinomycin D ( 5 μ g / mL ), followed by detection of Cyr61 mRNA at indicated times ( n = 3 samples/group, repeated two times). (B) The m 6 A content was measured by EpiQuik m 6 A methylation quantification kit ( n = 5 samples/group, repeated two times). (C) Schematic representation of the position of m 6 A motifs with CYR61 transcript. (D) The m 6 A -modified Cyr61 levels were measured by MeRIP-qPCR ( n = 3 samples/group). (E) Schematic representation of the interaction between Cyr61 mRNA and IGF2BP1/2/3 proteins. (F) The interaction between Cyr61 mRNA and IGF2BP2 proteins was detected by RIP-qPCR ( n = 3 samples/group). (G) The expression of m 6 A methyltransferases and demethylases was measured by real-time RT-PCR ( n = 6 samples/group). (H) The m 6 A methylase activity was measured by Epigenase m 6 A methylase activity/inhibition assay kit ( n = 6 samples/group). (I) A schematic model of the reversible m 6 A methylation. SAM is not only a methyl donor for m 6 A methylation but also a cofactor for catalytic domain of Mettl3. (J) Intracellular SAM content was measured by LC-MS/MS ( n = 6 samples/group). All data were expressed as mean ± SEM . The numeric data are shown in Table S8. Unpaired two-tailed Student’s t -test was used for A, B, D, F, G, H, and J. * p < 0.05 , ** p < 0.01 . Note: ActD, actinomycin D; Alkbh5, a-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase alkB homolog 5; ANOVA, analysis of variance; As, arsenic; CTRL, control; CYR61, cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61; FTO, fat-mass obesity-associated protein; IGF2BP1/2/3, insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein one-half/3; LC-MS/MS, liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry; m 6 A , N 6 -methyladenosine ; MeRIP-qPCR, methylated RNA immunoprecipitation–qPCR; Mettl3/14, methyltransferase-like 3/14; Rbm15/15b, RNA-binding motif protein 15/15b; RIP-qPCR, RNA-binding protein immunoprecipitation–qPCR; RT-PCR, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction; SAH, s-adenosyl-l-homocysteine; SAM, s-adenosylmethionine; SEM, standard error of the mean; μ M , μ mol / L ; WTAP, wilms tumor 1-associating protein.

    Journal: Environmental Health Perspectives

    Article Title: Effects of Gestational Arsenic Exposures on Placental and Fetal Development in Mice: The Role of Cyr61 m 6 A

    doi: 10.1289/EHP12207

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of m 6 A modification on Cyr61 mRNA stability and CYR61 protein in As-exposed human placental trophoblasts. HTR-8/SVneo cells were exposed to NaAsO 2 ( 2 μ M ). (A) HTR8/SVneo cells were treated with actinomycin D ( 5 μ g / mL ), followed by detection of Cyr61 mRNA at indicated times ( n = 3 samples/group, repeated two times). (B) The m 6 A content was measured by EpiQuik m 6 A methylation quantification kit ( n = 5 samples/group, repeated two times). (C) Schematic representation of the position of m 6 A motifs with CYR61 transcript. (D) The m 6 A -modified Cyr61 levels were measured by MeRIP-qPCR ( n = 3 samples/group). (E) Schematic representation of the interaction between Cyr61 mRNA and IGF2BP1/2/3 proteins. (F) The interaction between Cyr61 mRNA and IGF2BP2 proteins was detected by RIP-qPCR ( n = 3 samples/group). (G) The expression of m 6 A methyltransferases and demethylases was measured by real-time RT-PCR ( n = 6 samples/group). (H) The m 6 A methylase activity was measured by Epigenase m 6 A methylase activity/inhibition assay kit ( n = 6 samples/group). (I) A schematic model of the reversible m 6 A methylation. SAM is not only a methyl donor for m 6 A methylation but also a cofactor for catalytic domain of Mettl3. (J) Intracellular SAM content was measured by LC-MS/MS ( n = 6 samples/group). All data were expressed as mean ± SEM . The numeric data are shown in Table S8. Unpaired two-tailed Student’s t -test was used for A, B, D, F, G, H, and J. * p < 0.05 , ** p < 0.01 . Note: ActD, actinomycin D; Alkbh5, a-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase alkB homolog 5; ANOVA, analysis of variance; As, arsenic; CTRL, control; CYR61, cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61; FTO, fat-mass obesity-associated protein; IGF2BP1/2/3, insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein one-half/3; LC-MS/MS, liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry; m 6 A , N 6 -methyladenosine ; MeRIP-qPCR, methylated RNA immunoprecipitation–qPCR; Mettl3/14, methyltransferase-like 3/14; Rbm15/15b, RNA-binding motif protein 15/15b; RIP-qPCR, RNA-binding protein immunoprecipitation–qPCR; RT-PCR, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction; SAH, s-adenosyl-l-homocysteine; SAM, s-adenosylmethionine; SEM, standard error of the mean; μ M , μ mol / L ; WTAP, wilms tumor 1-associating protein.

    Article Snippet: The cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61 (CYR61) ELISA kit (#CSB-E13884h) was purchased from Cusabio.

    Techniques: Modification, Methylation, Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR, Activity Assay, Inhibition, Liquid Chromatography with Mass Spectroscopy, Two Tailed Test, Binding Assay, Liquid Chromatography, Mass Spectrometry, Immunoprecipitation, RNA Binding Assay, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Wilms Tumor Assay

    Effect of As3MT knockdown on Cyr61 m 6 A modification in As-exposed human placental trophoblasts. HTR8/SVneo cells were exposed to 2 μ M NaAsO 2 in presence or absence of As3MT-shRNA (A) The efficiency of As3MT knockdown was determined by real-time RT-PCR ( n = 6 samples/group). (B) Intracellular SAM content was measured by LC-MS/MS ( n = 6 samples/group). (C) The m 6 A methylase activity was measured by Epigenase m 6 A methylase activity/inhibition assay kit ( n = 6 samples/group). (D and E) HTR8/SVneo cells were treated with actinomycin D ( 5 μ g / mL ), followed by detection of Cyr61 mRNA at indicated times ( n = 3 samples/group, repeated two times). (F) CYR61, Vimentin, N-cadherin, and MMP2 proteins were measured by immunoblotting ( n = 3 samples/group). (G) Cell migration was determined by transwell migration assay ( n = 3 samples/group, repeated two times). (H) Cell invasion was measured by transwell invasion assay ( n = 3 samples/group, repeated two times). Scale bars, 200 μ m . All data were expressed as mean ± SEM . The numeric data are shown in Table S8. When ANOVA showed p < 0.05 , the Student-Neuman-Keuls (SNK) multiple comparisons tests were used for A–H. Asterisks indicate comparison with the control group. Hashtags indicate comparison with the As group. * p and # p < 0.05 , ** p and ## p < 0.01 . Note: ActD, actinomycin D; ANOVA, analysis of variance; As, arsenic; As3MT, arsenite methyltransferase; CTRL, control; CYR61, cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61; LC-MS/MS, liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry; MMP2, matrix metalloproteinases 2; RT-PCR, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction; SAM, s-adenosylmethionine; shAs3MT 1#, As3MT shRNA 1#; shAs3MT 2#, As3MT shRNA 2#; SEM, standard error of the mean; μ M , μ mol / L .

    Journal: Environmental Health Perspectives

    Article Title: Effects of Gestational Arsenic Exposures on Placental and Fetal Development in Mice: The Role of Cyr61 m 6 A

    doi: 10.1289/EHP12207

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of As3MT knockdown on Cyr61 m 6 A modification in As-exposed human placental trophoblasts. HTR8/SVneo cells were exposed to 2 μ M NaAsO 2 in presence or absence of As3MT-shRNA (A) The efficiency of As3MT knockdown was determined by real-time RT-PCR ( n = 6 samples/group). (B) Intracellular SAM content was measured by LC-MS/MS ( n = 6 samples/group). (C) The m 6 A methylase activity was measured by Epigenase m 6 A methylase activity/inhibition assay kit ( n = 6 samples/group). (D and E) HTR8/SVneo cells were treated with actinomycin D ( 5 μ g / mL ), followed by detection of Cyr61 mRNA at indicated times ( n = 3 samples/group, repeated two times). (F) CYR61, Vimentin, N-cadherin, and MMP2 proteins were measured by immunoblotting ( n = 3 samples/group). (G) Cell migration was determined by transwell migration assay ( n = 3 samples/group, repeated two times). (H) Cell invasion was measured by transwell invasion assay ( n = 3 samples/group, repeated two times). Scale bars, 200 μ m . All data were expressed as mean ± SEM . The numeric data are shown in Table S8. When ANOVA showed p < 0.05 , the Student-Neuman-Keuls (SNK) multiple comparisons tests were used for A–H. Asterisks indicate comparison with the control group. Hashtags indicate comparison with the As group. * p and # p < 0.05 , ** p and ## p < 0.01 . Note: ActD, actinomycin D; ANOVA, analysis of variance; As, arsenic; As3MT, arsenite methyltransferase; CTRL, control; CYR61, cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61; LC-MS/MS, liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry; MMP2, matrix metalloproteinases 2; RT-PCR, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction; SAM, s-adenosylmethionine; shAs3MT 1#, As3MT shRNA 1#; shAs3MT 2#, As3MT shRNA 2#; SEM, standard error of the mean; μ M , μ mol / L .

    Article Snippet: The cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61 (CYR61) ELISA kit (#CSB-E13884h) was purchased from Cusabio.

    Techniques: Modification, shRNA, Quantitative RT-PCR, Liquid Chromatography with Mass Spectroscopy, Activity Assay, Inhibition, Western Blot, Migration, Transwell Migration Assay, Transwell Invasion Assay, Comparison, Liquid Chromatography, Mass Spectrometry, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Effect of SAM supplementation on induced inhibition of Cyr61 m 6 A modification in As-exposed human placental trophoblasts. HTR8/SVneo cells were incubated with NaAsO 2 ( 2 μ M ) in presence or absence of SAM ( 10 μ M ). (A) Intracellular SAM content was measured by LC-MS/MS ( n = 6 samples/group). (B) The m 6 A methylase activity was measured by Epigenase m 6 A methylase activity/inhibition assay kit ( n = 6 samples/group). (C) HTR8/SVneo cells were treated with actinomycin D ( 5 μ g / mL ), followed by detection of Cyr61 mRNA at indicated times ( n = 3 samples/group, repeated two times). (D and E) CYR61, Vimentin, N-cadherin, and MMP2 proteins were determined by immunoblotting ( n = 3 samples/group, repeated three times). (F) Cell migration was determined by transwell migration assay ( n = 3 samples/group, repeated two times). (G) Cell invasion was measured by transwell invasion assay ( n = 6 samples/group, repeated two times). Scale bars, 200 μ m . All data were expressed as mean ± SEM . The numeric data are shown in Table S8. When ANOVA showed p < 0.05 , the Student-Neuman-Keuls (SNK) multiple comparisons tests were used for A–G. Asterisks indicate comparison with the control group. Hashtags indicate comparison with the As group. * p and # p < 0.05 , ** p and ## p < 0.01 . Note: ANOVA, analysis of variance; As, arsenic; ActD, actinomycin D; CTRL, control; CYR61, cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61; MMP2, matrix metalloproteinases 2; RT-PCR, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction; SAM, s-adenosylmethionine; SEM, standard error of the mean; μ M , μ mol / L .

    Journal: Environmental Health Perspectives

    Article Title: Effects of Gestational Arsenic Exposures on Placental and Fetal Development in Mice: The Role of Cyr61 m 6 A

    doi: 10.1289/EHP12207

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of SAM supplementation on induced inhibition of Cyr61 m 6 A modification in As-exposed human placental trophoblasts. HTR8/SVneo cells were incubated with NaAsO 2 ( 2 μ M ) in presence or absence of SAM ( 10 μ M ). (A) Intracellular SAM content was measured by LC-MS/MS ( n = 6 samples/group). (B) The m 6 A methylase activity was measured by Epigenase m 6 A methylase activity/inhibition assay kit ( n = 6 samples/group). (C) HTR8/SVneo cells were treated with actinomycin D ( 5 μ g / mL ), followed by detection of Cyr61 mRNA at indicated times ( n = 3 samples/group, repeated two times). (D and E) CYR61, Vimentin, N-cadherin, and MMP2 proteins were determined by immunoblotting ( n = 3 samples/group, repeated three times). (F) Cell migration was determined by transwell migration assay ( n = 3 samples/group, repeated two times). (G) Cell invasion was measured by transwell invasion assay ( n = 6 samples/group, repeated two times). Scale bars, 200 μ m . All data were expressed as mean ± SEM . The numeric data are shown in Table S8. When ANOVA showed p < 0.05 , the Student-Neuman-Keuls (SNK) multiple comparisons tests were used for A–G. Asterisks indicate comparison with the control group. Hashtags indicate comparison with the As group. * p and # p < 0.05 , ** p and ## p < 0.01 . Note: ANOVA, analysis of variance; As, arsenic; ActD, actinomycin D; CTRL, control; CYR61, cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61; MMP2, matrix metalloproteinases 2; RT-PCR, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction; SAM, s-adenosylmethionine; SEM, standard error of the mean; μ M , μ mol / L .

    Article Snippet: The cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61 (CYR61) ELISA kit (#CSB-E13884h) was purchased from Cusabio.

    Techniques: Inhibition, Modification, Incubation, Liquid Chromatography with Mass Spectroscopy, Activity Assay, Western Blot, Migration, Transwell Migration Assay, Transwell Invasion Assay, Comparison, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Effect of FA supplementation on placental development and fetal growth restriction in As-exposed mice. Pregnant mice were divided into four groups: CTRL, FA, As, and As + FA groups. In the As and As + FA groups, pregnant mice drank ultrapure water containing NaAsO 2 ( 15 mg / L ) throughout pregnancy. In FA and As + FA groups, pregnant mice were administered FA ( 150 μ g / kg ) by gavage daily throughout pregnancy. All pregnant mice were sacrificed on GD18. (A) Fetal weight ( n = 8 dams/group, 12–15 fetuses per dam). (B) Crown–rump length ( n = 8 dams/group, 12–15 fetuses per dam). (C) Placental weight ( n = 8 dams/group, 12–15 fetuses per dam). (D) Placental diameter ( n = 8 dams/group, 12–15 fetuses per dam). (E) Placental cross-section was stained with H&E. Scale bars, 500 μ m (left); 200 μ m (right) ( n = 6 mice/group). (F) The percentage of labyrinth zone area in the entire placenta area ( n = 6 mice/group). (G) The ratio of cross-sectional thickness of labyrinth zone to junctional zone ( n = 6 mice/group). (H) Placental SAM content was determined by LC-MS/MS ( n = 6 mice/group). (I) The m 6 A methylase activity was measured by Epigenase m 6 A methylase activity/inhibition assay kit ( n = 6 mice/group). (J) Placental CYR61 and MMP2 were measured by immunoblotting ( n = 3 mice/group, repeated two times). All data were expressed as mean ± SEM . The numeric data are shown in Table S8. When ANOVA showed p < 0.05 , the Student-Neuman-Keuls (SNK) multiple comparisons tests were used for A–D and F–J. * p < 0.05 , ** p < 0.01 . Note: ANOVA, analysis of variance; As, arsenic; CTRL, control; CYR61, cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61; FA, folic acid; H&E, hematoxylin and eosin; JZ, junctional zone; LC-MS/MS, liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry; LZ, labyrinth zone; MMP2, matrix metalloproteinases 2; SAM, s-adenosylmethionine; SEM, standard error of the mean.

    Journal: Environmental Health Perspectives

    Article Title: Effects of Gestational Arsenic Exposures on Placental and Fetal Development in Mice: The Role of Cyr61 m 6 A

    doi: 10.1289/EHP12207

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of FA supplementation on placental development and fetal growth restriction in As-exposed mice. Pregnant mice were divided into four groups: CTRL, FA, As, and As + FA groups. In the As and As + FA groups, pregnant mice drank ultrapure water containing NaAsO 2 ( 15 mg / L ) throughout pregnancy. In FA and As + FA groups, pregnant mice were administered FA ( 150 μ g / kg ) by gavage daily throughout pregnancy. All pregnant mice were sacrificed on GD18. (A) Fetal weight ( n = 8 dams/group, 12–15 fetuses per dam). (B) Crown–rump length ( n = 8 dams/group, 12–15 fetuses per dam). (C) Placental weight ( n = 8 dams/group, 12–15 fetuses per dam). (D) Placental diameter ( n = 8 dams/group, 12–15 fetuses per dam). (E) Placental cross-section was stained with H&E. Scale bars, 500 μ m (left); 200 μ m (right) ( n = 6 mice/group). (F) The percentage of labyrinth zone area in the entire placenta area ( n = 6 mice/group). (G) The ratio of cross-sectional thickness of labyrinth zone to junctional zone ( n = 6 mice/group). (H) Placental SAM content was determined by LC-MS/MS ( n = 6 mice/group). (I) The m 6 A methylase activity was measured by Epigenase m 6 A methylase activity/inhibition assay kit ( n = 6 mice/group). (J) Placental CYR61 and MMP2 were measured by immunoblotting ( n = 3 mice/group, repeated two times). All data were expressed as mean ± SEM . The numeric data are shown in Table S8. When ANOVA showed p < 0.05 , the Student-Neuman-Keuls (SNK) multiple comparisons tests were used for A–D and F–J. * p < 0.05 , ** p < 0.01 . Note: ANOVA, analysis of variance; As, arsenic; CTRL, control; CYR61, cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61; FA, folic acid; H&E, hematoxylin and eosin; JZ, junctional zone; LC-MS/MS, liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry; LZ, labyrinth zone; MMP2, matrix metalloproteinases 2; SAM, s-adenosylmethionine; SEM, standard error of the mean.

    Article Snippet: The cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61 (CYR61) ELISA kit (#CSB-E13884h) was purchased from Cusabio.

    Techniques: Staining, Liquid Chromatography with Mass Spectroscopy, Activity Assay, Inhibition, Western Blot, Liquid Chromatography, Mass Spectrometry

    Based on a case–control study: association among maternal urinary As concentration, plasma CYR61 content, and fetal growth restriction. (A) Maternal urinary As concentration in AGA and SGA infants was determined by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry ( n = 45 human sample/group). (B) Maternal plasma CYR61 content in AGA and SGA infants was measured by ELISA ( n = 45 human sample/group). (C) The correlation between maternal urinary As concentration and plasma CYR61 content in AGA infants ( n = 45 human sample). (D) The correlation between maternal urinary As concentration and plasma CYR61 content in SGA infants ( n = 45 human sample). (E) Placental CYR61-positive cells in SGA infants and AGA infants were stained by immunohistochemistry ( n = 18 human sample/group). Representative histology images were showed. Blue arrows indicate CYR61-positive cells. Scale bars, 20 μ m . (F) Placental vimentin, MMP2, and MMP9 were detected by immunoblotting ( n = 18 human sample/group). The data in A and B are expressed as mean ± SD . The data in A–D are represented by dots indicating individual values. The data in E and F are expressed as mean ± SEM . The numeric data are shown in Table S8. Two-tailed Student’s t -test was used for A, B, E, and F. The Spearman correlation was used for C and D. * p < 0.05 , ** p < 0.01 . Note: AGA, appropriate for gestational age; As, arsenic; CYR61, cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61; ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; SD, standard deviation; SEM, standard error of the mean; SGA, small for gestational age.

    Journal: Environmental Health Perspectives

    Article Title: Effects of Gestational Arsenic Exposures on Placental and Fetal Development in Mice: The Role of Cyr61 m 6 A

    doi: 10.1289/EHP12207

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Based on a case–control study: association among maternal urinary As concentration, plasma CYR61 content, and fetal growth restriction. (A) Maternal urinary As concentration in AGA and SGA infants was determined by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry ( n = 45 human sample/group). (B) Maternal plasma CYR61 content in AGA and SGA infants was measured by ELISA ( n = 45 human sample/group). (C) The correlation between maternal urinary As concentration and plasma CYR61 content in AGA infants ( n = 45 human sample). (D) The correlation between maternal urinary As concentration and plasma CYR61 content in SGA infants ( n = 45 human sample). (E) Placental CYR61-positive cells in SGA infants and AGA infants were stained by immunohistochemistry ( n = 18 human sample/group). Representative histology images were showed. Blue arrows indicate CYR61-positive cells. Scale bars, 20 μ m . (F) Placental vimentin, MMP2, and MMP9 were detected by immunoblotting ( n = 18 human sample/group). The data in A and B are expressed as mean ± SD . The data in A–D are represented by dots indicating individual values. The data in E and F are expressed as mean ± SEM . The numeric data are shown in Table S8. Two-tailed Student’s t -test was used for A, B, E, and F. The Spearman correlation was used for C and D. * p < 0.05 , ** p < 0.01 . Note: AGA, appropriate for gestational age; As, arsenic; CYR61, cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61; ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; SD, standard deviation; SEM, standard error of the mean; SGA, small for gestational age.

    Article Snippet: The cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61 (CYR61) ELISA kit (#CSB-E13884h) was purchased from Cusabio.

    Techniques: Concentration Assay, Fluorescence, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Staining, Immunohistochemistry, Western Blot, Two Tailed Test, Standard Deviation

    a Lamin A/C (green) and β3-tubulin (red) localization in non-treated TC-71 cells (CTRL) and in mevinolin treated (5 μM) EWS cells (MEV). DNA was counterstained with DAPI (DAPI). Merge of fluorescence signals are shown (MERGE); magnification 100x, scale bar 10 μm; b Lamin A/C (green) and neurofilament-H (NEF-H) (red) localization in non-treated TC-71 cells (CTRL) and in mevinolin treated (5 μM) EWS cells (MEV). DNA was counterstained with DAPI (DAPI). Merge of fluorescence signals are shown (MERGE); magnification 100x, scale bar 10 μm; c qRT-PCR analysis of LMNA , NEF-H , β3-tubulin, nestin and SOX2 genes in untreated TC-71 cells (CTRL) and in mevinolin treated EWS cells (2.5 μM or 5μM MEV). Data are shown as 2- ΔΔ Ct . GAPDH was used as a housekeeping gene. Data are shown as mean values ± SD of three different experiments. Asterisks indicate statistically significant differences with respect to CTRL cells; one-way ANOVA test, * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001; d Lamin A/C (green) and YAP (red) localization in non-treated TC-71 cells (CTRL) and in mevinolin treated (5 μM) EWS cells (MEV). DNA was counterstained with DAPI (DAPI). Merge of fluorescence signals are shown (MERGE). Graphs indicate the fluorescence intensity profile along the white arrows. Representative graphs of at least 30 nuclei analyzed for each sample were shown; magnification 100x, scale bar 10 μm; e qRT-PCR analysis of CTGF and CYR61 in non-treated TC-71 cells (CTRL) and in mevinolin treated EWS cells (2.5 μM or 5μM MEV). Data are shown as 2- ΔΔ Ct . GAPDH was used as a housekeeping gene. Data are shown as mean values ± SD of three different experiments. Asterisks indicate statistically significant differences with respect to CTRL cells; one-way ANOVA test, * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01; f Western blotting analysis of YAP, p(Ser127) YAP, MYC and ROCK2 protein expression in non-treated TC-71 cells (CTRL) and in mevinolin treated EWS cells (2.5 μM or 5μM MEV). GAPDH was used as loading control. Densitometric analysis is shown as mean values ± SD of three different experiments. Asterisks indicate statistically significant differences with respect to CTRL cells; one-way ANOVA test, * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01.

    Journal: Cell Death & Disease

    Article Title: Lamin A and the LINC complex act as potential tumor suppressors in Ewing Sarcoma

    doi: 10.1038/s41419-022-04729-5

    Figure Lengend Snippet: a Lamin A/C (green) and β3-tubulin (red) localization in non-treated TC-71 cells (CTRL) and in mevinolin treated (5 μM) EWS cells (MEV). DNA was counterstained with DAPI (DAPI). Merge of fluorescence signals are shown (MERGE); magnification 100x, scale bar 10 μm; b Lamin A/C (green) and neurofilament-H (NEF-H) (red) localization in non-treated TC-71 cells (CTRL) and in mevinolin treated (5 μM) EWS cells (MEV). DNA was counterstained with DAPI (DAPI). Merge of fluorescence signals are shown (MERGE); magnification 100x, scale bar 10 μm; c qRT-PCR analysis of LMNA , NEF-H , β3-tubulin, nestin and SOX2 genes in untreated TC-71 cells (CTRL) and in mevinolin treated EWS cells (2.5 μM or 5μM MEV). Data are shown as 2- ΔΔ Ct . GAPDH was used as a housekeeping gene. Data are shown as mean values ± SD of three different experiments. Asterisks indicate statistically significant differences with respect to CTRL cells; one-way ANOVA test, * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001; d Lamin A/C (green) and YAP (red) localization in non-treated TC-71 cells (CTRL) and in mevinolin treated (5 μM) EWS cells (MEV). DNA was counterstained with DAPI (DAPI). Merge of fluorescence signals are shown (MERGE). Graphs indicate the fluorescence intensity profile along the white arrows. Representative graphs of at least 30 nuclei analyzed for each sample were shown; magnification 100x, scale bar 10 μm; e qRT-PCR analysis of CTGF and CYR61 in non-treated TC-71 cells (CTRL) and in mevinolin treated EWS cells (2.5 μM or 5μM MEV). Data are shown as 2- ΔΔ Ct . GAPDH was used as a housekeeping gene. Data are shown as mean values ± SD of three different experiments. Asterisks indicate statistically significant differences with respect to CTRL cells; one-way ANOVA test, * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01; f Western blotting analysis of YAP, p(Ser127) YAP, MYC and ROCK2 protein expression in non-treated TC-71 cells (CTRL) and in mevinolin treated EWS cells (2.5 μM or 5μM MEV). GAPDH was used as loading control. Densitometric analysis is shown as mean values ± SD of three different experiments. Asterisks indicate statistically significant differences with respect to CTRL cells; one-way ANOVA test, * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01.

    Article Snippet: Gene expression was assessed using the TaqMan® Gene Expression Master Mix, and predesigned TaqMan probes (Thermo Fisher) LMNA (Hs.PT.58.24496716), nestin gene (Hs.PT.58.1185097), SOX2 (Hs.PT.58.237897.g), Connective Tissue Growth Factor ( CTGF ) (Hs00170014), Cysteine Rich Angiogenic Inducer 61 (CYR61 ) (Hs00155479), Neurofilament H ( NEF-H ) (Hs00606024) and β3-tubulin gene (Hs.PT.58.20385221) were employed, using the 7300 real-time PCR system (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA).

    Techniques: Fluorescence, Quantitative RT-PCR, Western Blot, Expressing

    The cell function analysis are all chemically synthesized interference lncRNA and eukaryotic plasmid-mediated lncRNA transient transfection. These have limited gene silencing and overexpression efficiency and show that the correlation between LNC01508 and OC cisplatin resistance is not highly significant. Furthermore, the effect of eukaryotic plasmid-mediated lncRNA overexpression is better than the chemical synthesis of lncRNA. This suggests a stable transfection in vitro to provide knockout and overexpression effects. (A) qPCR detects a lower LINC01508 expression, and the CCK-8 assay measures the cell viability. IC 50 values in LINC01508 inhibition OV2008 cells. (B) qPCR inspects a higher LINC01508 expression, and the CCK-8 assay measures the cell viability. IC 50 values in LINC01508 overexpression C13K cells. (C and D) Colony formation assays were conducted to determine the cell proliferation ability for transfected OC cells. (E and F) GAPDH, Cyr61, ERCC1, and p-AKT protein levels were determined by Western blot. All experiments are repeated in triplicated, and data are shown as mean±SE. lncRNA, long non-coding RNAs; OC, ovarian cancer; qPCR, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction; CCK-8, cell counting kit-8; IC 50 , half maximal inhibitory concentration; GAPDH, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase; Cyr61, cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61; ERCC1, excision repair cross complementing‐group 1; p-AKT, phospho-AKT; SE, standard error. * p<0.05; † p<0.01.

    Journal: Journal of Gynecologic Oncology

    Article Title: Downregulation of LINC01508 contributes to cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer via the regulation of the Hippo-YAP pathway

    doi: 10.3802/jgo.2021.32.e77

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The cell function analysis are all chemically synthesized interference lncRNA and eukaryotic plasmid-mediated lncRNA transient transfection. These have limited gene silencing and overexpression efficiency and show that the correlation between LNC01508 and OC cisplatin resistance is not highly significant. Furthermore, the effect of eukaryotic plasmid-mediated lncRNA overexpression is better than the chemical synthesis of lncRNA. This suggests a stable transfection in vitro to provide knockout and overexpression effects. (A) qPCR detects a lower LINC01508 expression, and the CCK-8 assay measures the cell viability. IC 50 values in LINC01508 inhibition OV2008 cells. (B) qPCR inspects a higher LINC01508 expression, and the CCK-8 assay measures the cell viability. IC 50 values in LINC01508 overexpression C13K cells. (C and D) Colony formation assays were conducted to determine the cell proliferation ability for transfected OC cells. (E and F) GAPDH, Cyr61, ERCC1, and p-AKT protein levels were determined by Western blot. All experiments are repeated in triplicated, and data are shown as mean±SE. lncRNA, long non-coding RNAs; OC, ovarian cancer; qPCR, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction; CCK-8, cell counting kit-8; IC 50 , half maximal inhibitory concentration; GAPDH, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase; Cyr61, cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61; ERCC1, excision repair cross complementing‐group 1; p-AKT, phospho-AKT; SE, standard error. * p<0.05; † p<0.01.

    Article Snippet: The primary antibodies used were as follows: yes-associated protein (YAP) and cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61 (Cyr61) (sc-15407 and sc-13100, respectively; Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Dallas, TX, USA), GAPDH and phospho-AKT (p-AKT) (sc-166574 and sc-135650, respectively; Santa Cruz Biotechnology), phospho-YAP (p-YAP) and excision repair cross complementing‐group 1 (ERCC1) (4911 and 3885s, respectively; Cell Signaling Technology).

    Techniques: Cell Function Assay, Synthesized, Plasmid Preparation, Transfection, Over Expression, Stable Transfection, In Vitro, Knock-Out, Expressing, CCK-8 Assay, Inhibition, Western Blot, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Cell Counting, Concentration Assay

    (A) Western blot analyses of YAP and p-YAP protein expression in OC cells. (B and C) Cell survival rate and colony formation pictures of C13K cells after treatment of verteporfin and different doses of cisplatin. Data were shown as mean±SE of 3 experiments. (D) Cyr61 protein is marked by green fluorescence. Cyr61 protein was mainly localized in the cytoplasm. Nuclear staining with DAPI is shown in blue (magnification ×400). Representative images from 3 independent experiments are shown. OC, ovarian cancer; YAP, yes-associated protein 1; p-YAP, phospho-YAP; SE, standard error; Cyr61, cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61; DAPI, diamidino-2-phenylindole; DMSO, dimethyl sulfoxide. * p<0.05; † p<0.01, compared with DMSO group.

    Journal: Journal of Gynecologic Oncology

    Article Title: Downregulation of LINC01508 contributes to cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer via the regulation of the Hippo-YAP pathway

    doi: 10.3802/jgo.2021.32.e77

    Figure Lengend Snippet: (A) Western blot analyses of YAP and p-YAP protein expression in OC cells. (B and C) Cell survival rate and colony formation pictures of C13K cells after treatment of verteporfin and different doses of cisplatin. Data were shown as mean±SE of 3 experiments. (D) Cyr61 protein is marked by green fluorescence. Cyr61 protein was mainly localized in the cytoplasm. Nuclear staining with DAPI is shown in blue (magnification ×400). Representative images from 3 independent experiments are shown. OC, ovarian cancer; YAP, yes-associated protein 1; p-YAP, phospho-YAP; SE, standard error; Cyr61, cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61; DAPI, diamidino-2-phenylindole; DMSO, dimethyl sulfoxide. * p<0.05; † p<0.01, compared with DMSO group.

    Article Snippet: The primary antibodies used were as follows: yes-associated protein (YAP) and cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61 (Cyr61) (sc-15407 and sc-13100, respectively; Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Dallas, TX, USA), GAPDH and phospho-AKT (p-AKT) (sc-166574 and sc-135650, respectively; Santa Cruz Biotechnology), phospho-YAP (p-YAP) and excision repair cross complementing‐group 1 (ERCC1) (4911 and 3885s, respectively; Cell Signaling Technology).

    Techniques: Western Blot, Expressing, Fluorescence, Staining

    The cell function analysis are all chemically synthesized interference lncRNA and eukaryotic plasmid-mediated lncRNA transient transfection. These have limited gene silencing and overexpression efficiency and show that the correlation between LNC01508 and OC cisplatin resistance is not highly significant. Furthermore, the effect of eukaryotic plasmid-mediated lncRNA overexpression is better than the chemical synthesis of lncRNA. This suggests a stable transfection in vitro to provide knockout and overexpression effects. (A) qPCR detects a lower LINC01508 expression, and the CCK-8 assay measures the cell viability. IC 50 values in LINC01508 inhibition OV2008 cells. (B) qPCR inspects a higher LINC01508 expression, and the CCK-8 assay measures the cell viability. IC 50 values in LINC01508 overexpression C13K cells. (C and D) Colony formation assays were conducted to determine the cell proliferation ability for transfected OC cells. (E and F) GAPDH, Cyr61, ERCC1, and p-AKT protein levels were determined by Western blot. All experiments are repeated in triplicated, and data are shown as mean±SE. lncRNA, long non-coding RNAs; OC, ovarian cancer; qPCR, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction; CCK-8, cell counting kit-8; IC 50 , half maximal inhibitory concentration; GAPDH, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase; Cyr61, cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61; ERCC1, excision repair cross complementing‐group 1; p-AKT, phospho-AKT; SE, standard error. * p<0.05; † p<0.01.

    Journal: Journal of Gynecologic Oncology

    Article Title: Downregulation of LINC01508 contributes to cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer via the regulation of the Hippo-YAP pathway

    doi: 10.3802/jgo.2021.32.e77

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The cell function analysis are all chemically synthesized interference lncRNA and eukaryotic plasmid-mediated lncRNA transient transfection. These have limited gene silencing and overexpression efficiency and show that the correlation between LNC01508 and OC cisplatin resistance is not highly significant. Furthermore, the effect of eukaryotic plasmid-mediated lncRNA overexpression is better than the chemical synthesis of lncRNA. This suggests a stable transfection in vitro to provide knockout and overexpression effects. (A) qPCR detects a lower LINC01508 expression, and the CCK-8 assay measures the cell viability. IC 50 values in LINC01508 inhibition OV2008 cells. (B) qPCR inspects a higher LINC01508 expression, and the CCK-8 assay measures the cell viability. IC 50 values in LINC01508 overexpression C13K cells. (C and D) Colony formation assays were conducted to determine the cell proliferation ability for transfected OC cells. (E and F) GAPDH, Cyr61, ERCC1, and p-AKT protein levels were determined by Western blot. All experiments are repeated in triplicated, and data are shown as mean±SE. lncRNA, long non-coding RNAs; OC, ovarian cancer; qPCR, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction; CCK-8, cell counting kit-8; IC 50 , half maximal inhibitory concentration; GAPDH, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase; Cyr61, cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61; ERCC1, excision repair cross complementing‐group 1; p-AKT, phospho-AKT; SE, standard error. * p<0.05; † p<0.01.

    Article Snippet: The primary antibodies used were as follows: yes-associated protein (YAP) and cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61 (Cyr61) (sc-15407 and sc-13100, respectively; Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Dallas, TX, USA), GAPDH and phospho-AKT (p-AKT) (sc-166574 and sc-135650, respectively; Santa Cruz Biotechnology), phospho-YAP (p-YAP) and excision repair cross complementing‐group 1 (ERCC1) (4911 and 3885s, respectively; Cell Signaling Technology).

    Techniques: Cell Function Assay, Synthesized, Plasmid Preparation, Transfection, Over Expression, Stable Transfection, In Vitro, Knock-Out, Expressing, CCK-8 Assay, Inhibition, Western Blot, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Cell Counting, Concentration Assay

    (A) Western blot analyses of YAP and p-YAP protein expression in OC cells. (B and C) Cell survival rate and colony formation pictures of C13K cells after treatment of verteporfin and different doses of cisplatin. Data were shown as mean±SE of 3 experiments. (D) Cyr61 protein is marked by green fluorescence. Cyr61 protein was mainly localized in the cytoplasm. Nuclear staining with DAPI is shown in blue (magnification ×400). Representative images from 3 independent experiments are shown. OC, ovarian cancer; YAP, yes-associated protein 1; p-YAP, phospho-YAP; SE, standard error; Cyr61, cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61; DAPI, diamidino-2-phenylindole; DMSO, dimethyl sulfoxide. * p<0.05; † p<0.01, compared with DMSO group.

    Journal: Journal of Gynecologic Oncology

    Article Title: Downregulation of LINC01508 contributes to cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer via the regulation of the Hippo-YAP pathway

    doi: 10.3802/jgo.2021.32.e77

    Figure Lengend Snippet: (A) Western blot analyses of YAP and p-YAP protein expression in OC cells. (B and C) Cell survival rate and colony formation pictures of C13K cells after treatment of verteporfin and different doses of cisplatin. Data were shown as mean±SE of 3 experiments. (D) Cyr61 protein is marked by green fluorescence. Cyr61 protein was mainly localized in the cytoplasm. Nuclear staining with DAPI is shown in blue (magnification ×400). Representative images from 3 independent experiments are shown. OC, ovarian cancer; YAP, yes-associated protein 1; p-YAP, phospho-YAP; SE, standard error; Cyr61, cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61; DAPI, diamidino-2-phenylindole; DMSO, dimethyl sulfoxide. * p<0.05; † p<0.01, compared with DMSO group.

    Article Snippet: The primary antibodies used were as follows: yes-associated protein (YAP) and cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61 (Cyr61) (sc-15407 and sc-13100, respectively; Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Dallas, TX, USA), GAPDH and phospho-AKT (p-AKT) (sc-166574 and sc-135650, respectively; Santa Cruz Biotechnology), phospho-YAP (p-YAP) and excision repair cross complementing‐group 1 (ERCC1) (4911 and 3885s, respectively; Cell Signaling Technology).

    Techniques: Western Blot, Expressing, Fluorescence, Staining