am404  (Alomone Labs)


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    Structured Review

    Alomone Labs am404
    ( A ) Rats ( n = 5–7 per group) were treated daily with oral haloperidol (1 mg/kg/d) for 21 days and received <t>AM404</t> (0, 10, or 50 nmol) via intracerebroventricular injection at 23 hours after the last administration of haloperidol. The number of VCMs was measured for 3 minutes starting 30 minutes after the administration of AM404. After the experiment, the injection sites were confirmed by injecting Evans blue through the same cannula. A representative image of consecutive coronal sections is shown (43 mm wide in actual size). Individual data are shown with the mean ± SEM. Statistical significance was tested using 1-way ANOVA with post hoc Tukey’s test. * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001. ( B ) Mice ( n = 8 per group) were treated daily with oral haloperidol (2 mg/kg/d) for 21 days. On day 22, after VCMs were counted for 5 minutes as an initial baseline, half of the mice received vehicle (group 1), and the rest received AM404 (0.5 pmol/side; group 2) through a preimplanted cannula in the dorsal striatum. After 5 minutes, the number of VCMs was counted for another 5 minutes to determine the effect of the injected substance. The daily haloperidol treatment was continued for 4 more days; on day 26, the second set of VCM measurements was performed in a crossover design, with AM404 injection in group 1 and vehicle injection in group 2. After the experiment, the injection sites were confirmed by Evans blue staining through the same cannula. A representative image of the coronal section is shown (11.5 mm wide in actual size). Changes in the number of VCMs are represented for individual mice on days 22 and 26 as a percentage of the baseline VCM count. Open and filled circles indicate the results from groups 1 and 2, respectively. Statistical significance was tested using 2-tailed paired t test. ** P < 0.01.
    Am404, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/am404/product/Alomone Labs
    Average 86 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    am404 - by Bioz Stars, 2023-02
    86/100 stars

    Images

    1) Product Images from "Striatal TRPV1 activation by acetaminophen ameliorates dopamine D 2 receptor antagonist–induced orofacial dyskinesia"

    Article Title: Striatal TRPV1 activation by acetaminophen ameliorates dopamine D 2 receptor antagonist–induced orofacial dyskinesia

    Journal: JCI Insight

    doi: 10.1172/jci.insight.145632

    ( A ) Rats ( n = 5–7 per group) were treated daily with oral haloperidol (1 mg/kg/d) for 21 days and received AM404 (0, 10, or 50 nmol) via intracerebroventricular injection at 23 hours after the last administration of haloperidol. The number of VCMs was measured for 3 minutes starting 30 minutes after the administration of AM404. After the experiment, the injection sites were confirmed by injecting Evans blue through the same cannula. A representative image of consecutive coronal sections is shown (43 mm wide in actual size). Individual data are shown with the mean ± SEM. Statistical significance was tested using 1-way ANOVA with post hoc Tukey’s test. * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001. ( B ) Mice ( n = 8 per group) were treated daily with oral haloperidol (2 mg/kg/d) for 21 days. On day 22, after VCMs were counted for 5 minutes as an initial baseline, half of the mice received vehicle (group 1), and the rest received AM404 (0.5 pmol/side; group 2) through a preimplanted cannula in the dorsal striatum. After 5 minutes, the number of VCMs was counted for another 5 minutes to determine the effect of the injected substance. The daily haloperidol treatment was continued for 4 more days; on day 26, the second set of VCM measurements was performed in a crossover design, with AM404 injection in group 1 and vehicle injection in group 2. After the experiment, the injection sites were confirmed by Evans blue staining through the same cannula. A representative image of the coronal section is shown (11.5 mm wide in actual size). Changes in the number of VCMs are represented for individual mice on days 22 and 26 as a percentage of the baseline VCM count. Open and filled circles indicate the results from groups 1 and 2, respectively. Statistical significance was tested using 2-tailed paired t test. ** P < 0.01.
    Figure Legend Snippet: ( A ) Rats ( n = 5–7 per group) were treated daily with oral haloperidol (1 mg/kg/d) for 21 days and received AM404 (0, 10, or 50 nmol) via intracerebroventricular injection at 23 hours after the last administration of haloperidol. The number of VCMs was measured for 3 minutes starting 30 minutes after the administration of AM404. After the experiment, the injection sites were confirmed by injecting Evans blue through the same cannula. A representative image of consecutive coronal sections is shown (43 mm wide in actual size). Individual data are shown with the mean ± SEM. Statistical significance was tested using 1-way ANOVA with post hoc Tukey’s test. * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001. ( B ) Mice ( n = 8 per group) were treated daily with oral haloperidol (2 mg/kg/d) for 21 days. On day 22, after VCMs were counted for 5 minutes as an initial baseline, half of the mice received vehicle (group 1), and the rest received AM404 (0.5 pmol/side; group 2) through a preimplanted cannula in the dorsal striatum. After 5 minutes, the number of VCMs was counted for another 5 minutes to determine the effect of the injected substance. The daily haloperidol treatment was continued for 4 more days; on day 26, the second set of VCM measurements was performed in a crossover design, with AM404 injection in group 1 and vehicle injection in group 2. After the experiment, the injection sites were confirmed by Evans blue staining through the same cannula. A representative image of the coronal section is shown (11.5 mm wide in actual size). Changes in the number of VCMs are represented for individual mice on days 22 and 26 as a percentage of the baseline VCM count. Open and filled circles indicate the results from groups 1 and 2, respectively. Statistical significance was tested using 2-tailed paired t test. ** P < 0.01.

    Techniques Used: Injection, Staining

    WT and TRPV1-KO mice were treated daily with orally administrated haloperidol (2 mg/kg/d) for 21 days. On day 22, after VCMs were counted for 5 minutes as an initial baseline, half of the mice received vehicle (group 1), and the rest received AM404 (1 pmol/side) or capsaicin (10 ng/side) (group 2) through a preimplanted cannula in the dorsal striatum. Five minutes later, the number of VCMs was counted for another 5 minutes to determine the effect of the injected drug. The daily haloperidol treatment was continued for 4 more days; on day 26, the second set of VCM measurements was performed in a crossover design, with AM404 or capsaicin injection in group 1 and vehicle injection in group 2. ( A and B ) Effects of the dorsal striatal injection of AM404 on haloperidol-induced VCMs ( n = 9 per group). ( C and D ) Effects of the dorsal striatal injection of capsaicin on haloperidol-induced VCMs ( n = 7 per group). Changes in the number of VCMs are represented for individual mice on days 22 and 26 as percentages of the baseline VCM count. Open and filled circles indicate the results from groups 1 and 2, respectively. Statistical significance was tested using repeated measures 2-way ANOVA with post hoc multiple comparisons; * P < 0.05; *** P < 0.001.
    Figure Legend Snippet: WT and TRPV1-KO mice were treated daily with orally administrated haloperidol (2 mg/kg/d) for 21 days. On day 22, after VCMs were counted for 5 minutes as an initial baseline, half of the mice received vehicle (group 1), and the rest received AM404 (1 pmol/side) or capsaicin (10 ng/side) (group 2) through a preimplanted cannula in the dorsal striatum. Five minutes later, the number of VCMs was counted for another 5 minutes to determine the effect of the injected drug. The daily haloperidol treatment was continued for 4 more days; on day 26, the second set of VCM measurements was performed in a crossover design, with AM404 or capsaicin injection in group 1 and vehicle injection in group 2. ( A and B ) Effects of the dorsal striatal injection of AM404 on haloperidol-induced VCMs ( n = 9 per group). ( C and D ) Effects of the dorsal striatal injection of capsaicin on haloperidol-induced VCMs ( n = 7 per group). Changes in the number of VCMs are represented for individual mice on days 22 and 26 as percentages of the baseline VCM count. Open and filled circles indicate the results from groups 1 and 2, respectively. Statistical significance was tested using repeated measures 2-way ANOVA with post hoc multiple comparisons; * P < 0.05; *** P < 0.001.

    Techniques Used: Injection

    am404  (Alomone Labs)


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    Alomone Labs am404
    Effects of N-arachidonoylphenolamine <t>(AM404)</t> on excitotoxicity in mouse hippocampal slices cultures [ n = 3 organotypic hippocampal slices cultures (OHSCs)/group]. (A–F) Representative confocal images of the immunostaining with propidium iodide (PI; red) and with the neuronal nuclear marker NeuN (green). (G) Quantitative analysis of the PI fluorescence. The results are expressed as mean ± SEM. * p < 0.05 with respect to negative control and # p < 0.05 compared with N-methyl-D-aspartic acid [NMDA; 25 μM; one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Newman–Keuls test].
    Am404, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/am404/product/Alomone Labs
    Average 86 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    am404 - by Bioz Stars, 2023-02
    86/100 stars

    Images

    1) Product Images from "Neuroprotective Effect of AM404 Against NMDA-Induced Hippocampal Excitotoxicity"

    Article Title: Neuroprotective Effect of AM404 Against NMDA-Induced Hippocampal Excitotoxicity

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience

    doi: 10.3389/fncel.2019.00566

    Effects of N-arachidonoylphenolamine (AM404) on excitotoxicity in mouse hippocampal slices cultures [ n = 3 organotypic hippocampal slices cultures (OHSCs)/group]. (A–F) Representative confocal images of the immunostaining with propidium iodide (PI; red) and with the neuronal nuclear marker NeuN (green). (G) Quantitative analysis of the PI fluorescence. The results are expressed as mean ± SEM. * p < 0.05 with respect to negative control and # p < 0.05 compared with N-methyl-D-aspartic acid [NMDA; 25 μM; one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Newman–Keuls test].
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of N-arachidonoylphenolamine (AM404) on excitotoxicity in mouse hippocampal slices cultures [ n = 3 organotypic hippocampal slices cultures (OHSCs)/group]. (A–F) Representative confocal images of the immunostaining with propidium iodide (PI; red) and with the neuronal nuclear marker NeuN (green). (G) Quantitative analysis of the PI fluorescence. The results are expressed as mean ± SEM. * p < 0.05 with respect to negative control and # p < 0.05 compared with N-methyl-D-aspartic acid [NMDA; 25 μM; one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Newman–Keuls test].

    Techniques Used: Immunostaining, Marker, Fluorescence, Negative Control

    Effects of AM404 on [ 3 H]D-Asp release in hippocampal synaptosomes and intracellular Ca 2+ responses. (A) Time course of [ 3 H]D-Asp release induced by NMDA plus Gly and effects of AM404 in hippocampal synaptosomes. Results are expressed as fractional rate percent. (B) AM404 inhibition of the NMDA plus Glycine-evoked-[ 3 H]D-Asp release in hippocampal synaptosomes. (C) Data of calcium imaging expressed as fluorescence intensity (ΔF/F baseline) vs. time. (D) Data of calcium imaging calculated the area under the curve (AUC). Data are means ± SEM of three independent experiments. # p < 0.05 and ### p < 0.001 compared to NMDA (one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni post hoc tests for [ 3 H]D-Asp release and unpaired t -test of three independent experiments for calcium imaging).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of AM404 on [ 3 H]D-Asp release in hippocampal synaptosomes and intracellular Ca 2+ responses. (A) Time course of [ 3 H]D-Asp release induced by NMDA plus Gly and effects of AM404 in hippocampal synaptosomes. Results are expressed as fractional rate percent. (B) AM404 inhibition of the NMDA plus Glycine-evoked-[ 3 H]D-Asp release in hippocampal synaptosomes. (C) Data of calcium imaging expressed as fluorescence intensity (ΔF/F baseline) vs. time. (D) Data of calcium imaging calculated the area under the curve (AUC). Data are means ± SEM of three independent experiments. # p < 0.05 and ### p < 0.001 compared to NMDA (one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni post hoc tests for [ 3 H]D-Asp release and unpaired t -test of three independent experiments for calcium imaging).

    Techniques Used: Inhibition, Imaging, Fluorescence

    Effects of AM404 on NMDA-induced inflammatory mediators in organotypic hippocampal slices cultures (OHSC). OHSCs were pre-treated with two concentrations of AM404 (25 or 50 μM) for 30 min before stimulating with 10 ng/ml LPS or 25 μM NMDA. After 4 h, interleukin (IL)-1β (A) , IL-6 (B) , TNFα (C) , mPGES-1 (D) , and iNOS (E) were measured by PCR. After 24 h, COX-2 (F) was evaluated by western blot (WB). Data are expressed as mean ± SEM of at least three OHSCs/group. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01 and *** p < 0.001 with respect to negative control and # p < 0.05 in comparison to 25 μM NMDA (one-way ANOVA followed by the Newman–Keuls post-test).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of AM404 on NMDA-induced inflammatory mediators in organotypic hippocampal slices cultures (OHSC). OHSCs were pre-treated with two concentrations of AM404 (25 or 50 μM) for 30 min before stimulating with 10 ng/ml LPS or 25 μM NMDA. After 4 h, interleukin (IL)-1β (A) , IL-6 (B) , TNFα (C) , mPGES-1 (D) , and iNOS (E) were measured by PCR. After 24 h, COX-2 (F) was evaluated by western blot (WB). Data are expressed as mean ± SEM of at least three OHSCs/group. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01 and *** p < 0.001 with respect to negative control and # p < 0.05 in comparison to 25 μM NMDA (one-way ANOVA followed by the Newman–Keuls post-test).

    Techniques Used: Western Blot, Negative Control

    Effect of AM404 on microglia and astrocyte after 25 μM NMDA in OHSC. The OHSCs were pre-treated with two concentrations of AM404 (25 or 50 μM) for 30 min before stimulating with 25 μM NMDA. After 4 h, microglia markers, Iba-1 (A) , CSF1R (B) and CD11b (C) , an astrocyte marker, GFAP (D) were measured by qPCR. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM of at least three OHSCs/group. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01 with respect to negative control (one-way ANOVA followed by the Newman–Keuls post-test).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of AM404 on microglia and astrocyte after 25 μM NMDA in OHSC. The OHSCs were pre-treated with two concentrations of AM404 (25 or 50 μM) for 30 min before stimulating with 25 μM NMDA. After 4 h, microglia markers, Iba-1 (A) , CSF1R (B) and CD11b (C) , an astrocyte marker, GFAP (D) were measured by qPCR. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM of at least three OHSCs/group. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01 with respect to negative control (one-way ANOVA followed by the Newman–Keuls post-test).

    Techniques Used: Marker, Negative Control

    am404  (Alomone Labs)


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    Alomone Labs am404
    Am404, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/am404/product/Alomone Labs
    Average 86 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    am404 - by Bioz Stars, 2023-02
    86/100 stars

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    Alomone Labs am404
    ( A ) Rats ( n = 5–7 per group) were treated daily with oral haloperidol (1 mg/kg/d) for 21 days and received <t>AM404</t> (0, 10, or 50 nmol) via intracerebroventricular injection at 23 hours after the last administration of haloperidol. The number of VCMs was measured for 3 minutes starting 30 minutes after the administration of AM404. After the experiment, the injection sites were confirmed by injecting Evans blue through the same cannula. A representative image of consecutive coronal sections is shown (43 mm wide in actual size). Individual data are shown with the mean ± SEM. Statistical significance was tested using 1-way ANOVA with post hoc Tukey’s test. * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001. ( B ) Mice ( n = 8 per group) were treated daily with oral haloperidol (2 mg/kg/d) for 21 days. On day 22, after VCMs were counted for 5 minutes as an initial baseline, half of the mice received vehicle (group 1), and the rest received AM404 (0.5 pmol/side; group 2) through a preimplanted cannula in the dorsal striatum. After 5 minutes, the number of VCMs was counted for another 5 minutes to determine the effect of the injected substance. The daily haloperidol treatment was continued for 4 more days; on day 26, the second set of VCM measurements was performed in a crossover design, with AM404 injection in group 1 and vehicle injection in group 2. After the experiment, the injection sites were confirmed by Evans blue staining through the same cannula. A representative image of the coronal section is shown (11.5 mm wide in actual size). Changes in the number of VCMs are represented for individual mice on days 22 and 26 as a percentage of the baseline VCM count. Open and filled circles indicate the results from groups 1 and 2, respectively. Statistical significance was tested using 2-tailed paired t test. ** P < 0.01.
    Am404, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/am404/product/Alomone Labs
    Average 86 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    am404 - by Bioz Stars, 2023-02
    86/100 stars
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    ( A ) Rats ( n = 5–7 per group) were treated daily with oral haloperidol (1 mg/kg/d) for 21 days and received AM404 (0, 10, or 50 nmol) via intracerebroventricular injection at 23 hours after the last administration of haloperidol. The number of VCMs was measured for 3 minutes starting 30 minutes after the administration of AM404. After the experiment, the injection sites were confirmed by injecting Evans blue through the same cannula. A representative image of consecutive coronal sections is shown (43 mm wide in actual size). Individual data are shown with the mean ± SEM. Statistical significance was tested using 1-way ANOVA with post hoc Tukey’s test. * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001. ( B ) Mice ( n = 8 per group) were treated daily with oral haloperidol (2 mg/kg/d) for 21 days. On day 22, after VCMs were counted for 5 minutes as an initial baseline, half of the mice received vehicle (group 1), and the rest received AM404 (0.5 pmol/side; group 2) through a preimplanted cannula in the dorsal striatum. After 5 minutes, the number of VCMs was counted for another 5 minutes to determine the effect of the injected substance. The daily haloperidol treatment was continued for 4 more days; on day 26, the second set of VCM measurements was performed in a crossover design, with AM404 injection in group 1 and vehicle injection in group 2. After the experiment, the injection sites were confirmed by Evans blue staining through the same cannula. A representative image of the coronal section is shown (11.5 mm wide in actual size). Changes in the number of VCMs are represented for individual mice on days 22 and 26 as a percentage of the baseline VCM count. Open and filled circles indicate the results from groups 1 and 2, respectively. Statistical significance was tested using 2-tailed paired t test. ** P < 0.01.

    Journal: JCI Insight

    Article Title: Striatal TRPV1 activation by acetaminophen ameliorates dopamine D 2 receptor antagonist–induced orofacial dyskinesia

    doi: 10.1172/jci.insight.145632

    Figure Lengend Snippet: ( A ) Rats ( n = 5–7 per group) were treated daily with oral haloperidol (1 mg/kg/d) for 21 days and received AM404 (0, 10, or 50 nmol) via intracerebroventricular injection at 23 hours after the last administration of haloperidol. The number of VCMs was measured for 3 minutes starting 30 minutes after the administration of AM404. After the experiment, the injection sites were confirmed by injecting Evans blue through the same cannula. A representative image of consecutive coronal sections is shown (43 mm wide in actual size). Individual data are shown with the mean ± SEM. Statistical significance was tested using 1-way ANOVA with post hoc Tukey’s test. * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001. ( B ) Mice ( n = 8 per group) were treated daily with oral haloperidol (2 mg/kg/d) for 21 days. On day 22, after VCMs were counted for 5 minutes as an initial baseline, half of the mice received vehicle (group 1), and the rest received AM404 (0.5 pmol/side; group 2) through a preimplanted cannula in the dorsal striatum. After 5 minutes, the number of VCMs was counted for another 5 minutes to determine the effect of the injected substance. The daily haloperidol treatment was continued for 4 more days; on day 26, the second set of VCM measurements was performed in a crossover design, with AM404 injection in group 1 and vehicle injection in group 2. After the experiment, the injection sites were confirmed by Evans blue staining through the same cannula. A representative image of the coronal section is shown (11.5 mm wide in actual size). Changes in the number of VCMs are represented for individual mice on days 22 and 26 as a percentage of the baseline VCM count. Open and filled circles indicate the results from groups 1 and 2, respectively. Statistical significance was tested using 2-tailed paired t test. ** P < 0.01.

    Article Snippet: Haloperidol was purchased from Tokyo Chemical Industry; acetaminophen and capsaicin from Nacalai Tesque; AM404 from Alomone Labs; methamphetamine from Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma; CNO from Cayman Chemical; DL-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (DL-APV) from MilliporeSigma; dinitroquinoxaline-2,3( 1H,4H )-dione (DNQX) from Tocris Bioscience (Bio-Techne); bicuculline from Enzo Life Science; and pentobarbital from Kyoritsu Seiyaku.

    Techniques: Injection, Staining

    WT and TRPV1-KO mice were treated daily with orally administrated haloperidol (2 mg/kg/d) for 21 days. On day 22, after VCMs were counted for 5 minutes as an initial baseline, half of the mice received vehicle (group 1), and the rest received AM404 (1 pmol/side) or capsaicin (10 ng/side) (group 2) through a preimplanted cannula in the dorsal striatum. Five minutes later, the number of VCMs was counted for another 5 minutes to determine the effect of the injected drug. The daily haloperidol treatment was continued for 4 more days; on day 26, the second set of VCM measurements was performed in a crossover design, with AM404 or capsaicin injection in group 1 and vehicle injection in group 2. ( A and B ) Effects of the dorsal striatal injection of AM404 on haloperidol-induced VCMs ( n = 9 per group). ( C and D ) Effects of the dorsal striatal injection of capsaicin on haloperidol-induced VCMs ( n = 7 per group). Changes in the number of VCMs are represented for individual mice on days 22 and 26 as percentages of the baseline VCM count. Open and filled circles indicate the results from groups 1 and 2, respectively. Statistical significance was tested using repeated measures 2-way ANOVA with post hoc multiple comparisons; * P < 0.05; *** P < 0.001.

    Journal: JCI Insight

    Article Title: Striatal TRPV1 activation by acetaminophen ameliorates dopamine D 2 receptor antagonist–induced orofacial dyskinesia

    doi: 10.1172/jci.insight.145632

    Figure Lengend Snippet: WT and TRPV1-KO mice were treated daily with orally administrated haloperidol (2 mg/kg/d) for 21 days. On day 22, after VCMs were counted for 5 minutes as an initial baseline, half of the mice received vehicle (group 1), and the rest received AM404 (1 pmol/side) or capsaicin (10 ng/side) (group 2) through a preimplanted cannula in the dorsal striatum. Five minutes later, the number of VCMs was counted for another 5 minutes to determine the effect of the injected drug. The daily haloperidol treatment was continued for 4 more days; on day 26, the second set of VCM measurements was performed in a crossover design, with AM404 or capsaicin injection in group 1 and vehicle injection in group 2. ( A and B ) Effects of the dorsal striatal injection of AM404 on haloperidol-induced VCMs ( n = 9 per group). ( C and D ) Effects of the dorsal striatal injection of capsaicin on haloperidol-induced VCMs ( n = 7 per group). Changes in the number of VCMs are represented for individual mice on days 22 and 26 as percentages of the baseline VCM count. Open and filled circles indicate the results from groups 1 and 2, respectively. Statistical significance was tested using repeated measures 2-way ANOVA with post hoc multiple comparisons; * P < 0.05; *** P < 0.001.

    Article Snippet: Haloperidol was purchased from Tokyo Chemical Industry; acetaminophen and capsaicin from Nacalai Tesque; AM404 from Alomone Labs; methamphetamine from Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma; CNO from Cayman Chemical; DL-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (DL-APV) from MilliporeSigma; dinitroquinoxaline-2,3( 1H,4H )-dione (DNQX) from Tocris Bioscience (Bio-Techne); bicuculline from Enzo Life Science; and pentobarbital from Kyoritsu Seiyaku.

    Techniques: Injection