adenylyl cyclases  (Santa Cruz Biotechnology)

 
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    Name:
    Adenylyl 3 5 cytidine
    Description:

    Catalog Number:
    SC-221218
    Price:
    None
    Category:
    Chemicals Other Chemicals Additional Biochemicals Additional Biochemicals A Adenylyl 3 5 cytidine
    Applications:
    Adenylyl(3′ 5′)cytidine is an adenosine-containing dinucleotide
    Purity:
    ≥98%
    Molecular Weight:
    572.42
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    Structured Review

    Santa Cruz Biotechnology adenylyl cyclases
    Western analysis of <t>adenylyl</t> cyclases 3 (AC3) and 5/6(AC5/6) in floxed control and CD ET-1 KO IMCD. All results were normalized to β-actin. Upper panel shows representative blot (n = 8 total). Bottom panel shows densitometry analysis. *p

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    Images

    1) Product Images from "Altered collecting duct adenylyl cyclase content in collecting duct endothelin-1 knockout mice"

    Article Title: Altered collecting duct adenylyl cyclase content in collecting duct endothelin-1 knockout mice

    Journal: BMC Nephrology

    doi: 10.1186/1471-2369-8-8

    Western analysis of adenylyl cyclases 3 (AC3) and 5/6(AC5/6) in floxed control and CD ET-1 KO IMCD. All results were normalized to β-actin. Upper panel shows representative blot (n = 8 total). Bottom panel shows densitometry analysis. *p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Western analysis of adenylyl cyclases 3 (AC3) and 5/6(AC5/6) in floxed control and CD ET-1 KO IMCD. All results were normalized to β-actin. Upper panel shows representative blot (n = 8 total). Bottom panel shows densitometry analysis. *p

    Techniques Used: Western Blot

    RT-PCR analysis of adenylyl cyclases 3 (AC3) and 6 (AC6) in floxed control and CD ET-1 KO IMCD. All results were normalized to GAPDH. A representative blot is shown (n = 5 total).
    Figure Legend Snippet: RT-PCR analysis of adenylyl cyclases 3 (AC3) and 6 (AC6) in floxed control and CD ET-1 KO IMCD. All results were normalized to GAPDH. A representative blot is shown (n = 5 total).

    Techniques Used: Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Related Articles

    other:

    Article Title: Altered collecting duct adenylyl cyclase content in collecting duct endothelin-1 knockout mice
    Article Snippet: All primary antibodies directed against adenylyl cyclases were purchased from Santa Cruz Biotechnology (Santa Cruz, CA).

    In Situ Hybridization:

    Article Title: Aggressive behaviour and physiological responses to pheromones are strongly impaired in mice deficient for the olfactory G-protein γ-subunit Gγ8
    Article Snippet: .. Antibodies against OMP (Dako, Carpinteria, CA, USA; 1:5000), Gαolf (Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA, USA; 1:100), type III adenylyl cyclase (Santa Cruz; 1:200), Tmem16b (anoctamine-2) (Sigma, St Louis, MO, USA; 1:100), GAP-43 (Chemicon, Temecula, CA, USA) and acetylated α-tubulin (Sigma; 1:400) were employed after treatment of the sections with 0.5% SDS for 5 min. For in situ hybridization in the olfactory epithelium, a riboprobe was synthesized from the coding region of the mouse OMP cDNA as template. ..

    Synthesized:

    Article Title: Aggressive behaviour and physiological responses to pheromones are strongly impaired in mice deficient for the olfactory G-protein γ-subunit Gγ8
    Article Snippet: .. Antibodies against OMP (Dako, Carpinteria, CA, USA; 1:5000), Gαolf (Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA, USA; 1:100), type III adenylyl cyclase (Santa Cruz; 1:200), Tmem16b (anoctamine-2) (Sigma, St Louis, MO, USA; 1:100), GAP-43 (Chemicon, Temecula, CA, USA) and acetylated α-tubulin (Sigma; 1:400) were employed after treatment of the sections with 0.5% SDS for 5 min. For in situ hybridization in the olfactory epithelium, a riboprobe was synthesized from the coding region of the mouse OMP cDNA as template. ..

    Staining:

    Article Title: Leptin Elongates Hypothalamic Neuronal Cilia via Transcriptional Regulation and Actin Destabilization *
    Article Snippet: .. To stain the cilia of the neuronal cells, the cells were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde for 15 min at room temperature and incubated with primary antibodies against acetylated α-tubulin (1:1000; mouse; Sigma) or adenylyl cyclase-3 (1:500; rabbit; Santa Cruz Biotechnology) at 4 °C for 48 h. After washing, the slides were incubated with Alexa Fluor-conjugated secondary antibody (1:1000; Invitrogen) at room temperature for 1 h. Nuclei were stained with DAPI for 10 min before mounting. ..

    Incubation:

    Article Title: Leptin Elongates Hypothalamic Neuronal Cilia via Transcriptional Regulation and Actin Destabilization *
    Article Snippet: .. To stain the cilia of the neuronal cells, the cells were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde for 15 min at room temperature and incubated with primary antibodies against acetylated α-tubulin (1:1000; mouse; Sigma) or adenylyl cyclase-3 (1:500; rabbit; Santa Cruz Biotechnology) at 4 °C for 48 h. After washing, the slides were incubated with Alexa Fluor-conjugated secondary antibody (1:1000; Invitrogen) at room temperature for 1 h. Nuclei were stained with DAPI for 10 min before mounting. ..

    Article Title: Cyclic Nucleotide-Mediated Regulation of Hippocampal Mossy Fiber Development: A Target-Specific Guidance
    Article Snippet: .. Without washing, the cultures were incubated overnight at 4°C with primary antibodies to GAP-43 (1:1000) and adenylyl cyclase (1:400). ..

    Cell Culture:

    Article Title: Cyclic Nucleotide-Mediated Regulation of Hippocampal Mossy Fiber Development: A Target-Specific Guidance
    Article Snippet: .. Cultured dentate granule cells were immunolabeled with mouse monoclonal antibody against growth cone-associated protein 43 (GAP-43) (Sigma) and rabbit polyclonal antibody against all isoforms of adenylyl cyclase (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA). ..

    Immunolabeling:

    Article Title: Cyclic Nucleotide-Mediated Regulation of Hippocampal Mossy Fiber Development: A Target-Specific Guidance
    Article Snippet: .. Cultured dentate granule cells were immunolabeled with mouse monoclonal antibody against growth cone-associated protein 43 (GAP-43) (Sigma) and rabbit polyclonal antibody against all isoforms of adenylyl cyclase (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA). ..

    Marker:

    Article Title: Leptin Elongates Hypothalamic Neuronal Cilia via Transcriptional Regulation and Actin Destabilization *
    Article Snippet: .. Ciliary analysis using another ciliary marker, adenylyl cyclase-3 ( , ), confirmed the effects of leptin on ciliary lengths in serum-starved N1 cells ( C ). ..

    Western Blot:

    Article Title: Disruption of ROCK1 gene attenuates cardiac dilation and improves contractile function in pathological cardiac hypertrophy
    Article Snippet: .. Western blot analysis was performed with an antibody against type V/VI adenylyl cyclase because type V or VI specific antibodies are not commercially available. ..

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    Santa Cruz Biotechnology aciii
    Differential effects of Tub on ciliary GPCR trafficking. (A) IMCD3 Flp-In cells stably expressing LAP–TUB isoform b ( Mukhopadhyay et al., 2010 ) were sequentially transfected with 200 nM of the indicated siRNAs twice for 72 h (see Materials and methods) and serum starved for the last 24 h before fixation and immunostained for GFP, acetylated tubulin, and DNA. GFP-positive cilia were counted in two experiments, and total counted cells are > 400/condition. Data represent means ± SD. Bars, 5 µm. (B) MBP TUB isoform b and MBP TULP3 immobilized on amylose resin were incubated with PreScission eluates from IFT140 LAP RPE cells ± His TULP3 (1–183 aa; see Materials and methods; Mukhopadhyay et al., 2010 ). LAP, S tag–PreScission-GFP. MBP TUB- and MBP TULP3-bound proteins and corresponding flowthroughs were immunoblotted for S tag (IFT140 S tag ), maltose-binding protein (MBP), and His-tag as indicated. Data are representative of two experiments. (C and D) Embryonic day 16.5, day in vitro (DIV) 8 hippocampal neurons from wild-type (WT) and Tub mice were immunostained for Gpr161/Gpr19 (green), DyLight594-labeled <t>ACIII</t> (red), and <t>Sstr3</t> (white; C). Gpr161/Gpr19-positive and -negative cilia are marked by arrows (A and C) and arrowheads (C), respectively. Gpr161/Sstr3 coexpressing cells are marked by yellow arrows. The red dot indicates debris under the coverslip. Data represents means ± SD from cultures of two different embryos belonging to each genotype. Total counted cells are > 300 per condition for Gpr161/Sstr3 and > 90 per condition for Gpr19. Bars, 5 µm. Ciliary lengths are 3.2 ± 0.1 µm (wild type) and 3.5 ± 0.1 µm ( Tub ) neurons in experiments with Gpr161 staining and 3.7 ± 0.9 µm (wild type) and 3.5 ± 0.8 µm ( Tub ) in experiments with Gpr19 staining. Data represent means ± SD. n > 50 each. (E) Embryonic day 16.5 DIV5 hippocampal neurons from wild-type mice were transfected with indicated GFP-tagged N terminus (NT) wild-type or non–IFT-A binding ( mut12 ) TULP3 constructs ( Mukhopadhyay et al., 2010 ), fixed at DIV8, and immunostained for Gpr161 and DyLight594-labeled ACIII. GFP-positive cells were quantified for Gpr161-positive cilia from two different coverslips, and total counted neurons are > 24 per condition. (F) Embryonic day 18.5 DIV5 glia from wild-type mice were transfected with constructs as in C, fixed at DIV8, and immunostained for Gpr19 and Arl13b. GFP-positive cells were quantified for Gpr19-positive cilia from cultures from two different mice, and total counted cells are > 110 per condition. (A and D–F) *, P
    Aciii, supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 80/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    Santa Cruz Biotechnology adenylyl cyclase iii
    A , N41 cells transfected with the Lepr-b :: eGFP overexpression vector and treated with leptin. B , immunohistochemistry showing the arcuate hypothalamic region adjacent to the third ventricle from mice administered leptin peripherally. C , fasted mice; D , mice administered leptin and cathepsin L inhibitor I peripherally. Cilia are stained with an <t>Adenylyl</t> cyclase <t>III</t> (AcIII)-specific antibody.
    Adenylyl Cyclase Iii, supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Santa Cruz Biotechnology anti adenylyl cyclase 3
    Increased expression of intra-ovarian <t>adenylyl</t> <t>cyclase</t> 3 following exposure to male-derived scent. Ovaries of 2 wild type (A, B) and 2 mutant (C, D) unisexually isolated mice, either unexposed (A, C) or exposed (B, D) to male-derived scent for 9 hours, were stained with a polyclonal antibody against adenylyl cyclase 3. Absence of estrous activity in mice not exposed to male-derived scent and presence of such activity in mice exposed to such scent were confirmed by vaginal cytology obtained just before the mice were euthanized. Stars are over the granulosa cell layers of ovarian follicles. CL: corpus luteum. Bars: 50 microns.
    Anti Adenylyl Cyclase 3, supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    91
    Santa Cruz Biotechnology pac1 receptor
    Time-course gene expression profiling of ( A ) Vip ; ( B ) Adcyap1 ; ( C ) <t>Adcyap1r1</t> ; ( D ) Vipr1 and ( E ) Vipr2 mRNAs in RT4 SCs treated with LPS at the indicated concentration. Relative transcript levels were measured by quantitative real-time PCR analyses. Amplifications were performed using selected primers optimized for qPCR analyses (
    Pac1 Receptor, supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Image Search Results


    Differential effects of Tub on ciliary GPCR trafficking. (A) IMCD3 Flp-In cells stably expressing LAP–TUB isoform b ( Mukhopadhyay et al., 2010 ) were sequentially transfected with 200 nM of the indicated siRNAs twice for 72 h (see Materials and methods) and serum starved for the last 24 h before fixation and immunostained for GFP, acetylated tubulin, and DNA. GFP-positive cilia were counted in two experiments, and total counted cells are > 400/condition. Data represent means ± SD. Bars, 5 µm. (B) MBP TUB isoform b and MBP TULP3 immobilized on amylose resin were incubated with PreScission eluates from IFT140 LAP RPE cells ± His TULP3 (1–183 aa; see Materials and methods; Mukhopadhyay et al., 2010 ). LAP, S tag–PreScission-GFP. MBP TUB- and MBP TULP3-bound proteins and corresponding flowthroughs were immunoblotted for S tag (IFT140 S tag ), maltose-binding protein (MBP), and His-tag as indicated. Data are representative of two experiments. (C and D) Embryonic day 16.5, day in vitro (DIV) 8 hippocampal neurons from wild-type (WT) and Tub mice were immunostained for Gpr161/Gpr19 (green), DyLight594-labeled ACIII (red), and Sstr3 (white; C). Gpr161/Gpr19-positive and -negative cilia are marked by arrows (A and C) and arrowheads (C), respectively. Gpr161/Sstr3 coexpressing cells are marked by yellow arrows. The red dot indicates debris under the coverslip. Data represents means ± SD from cultures of two different embryos belonging to each genotype. Total counted cells are > 300 per condition for Gpr161/Sstr3 and > 90 per condition for Gpr19. Bars, 5 µm. Ciliary lengths are 3.2 ± 0.1 µm (wild type) and 3.5 ± 0.1 µm ( Tub ) neurons in experiments with Gpr161 staining and 3.7 ± 0.9 µm (wild type) and 3.5 ± 0.8 µm ( Tub ) in experiments with Gpr19 staining. Data represent means ± SD. n > 50 each. (E) Embryonic day 16.5 DIV5 hippocampal neurons from wild-type mice were transfected with indicated GFP-tagged N terminus (NT) wild-type or non–IFT-A binding ( mut12 ) TULP3 constructs ( Mukhopadhyay et al., 2010 ), fixed at DIV8, and immunostained for Gpr161 and DyLight594-labeled ACIII. GFP-positive cells were quantified for Gpr161-positive cilia from two different coverslips, and total counted neurons are > 24 per condition. (F) Embryonic day 18.5 DIV5 glia from wild-type mice were transfected with constructs as in C, fixed at DIV8, and immunostained for Gpr19 and Arl13b. GFP-positive cells were quantified for Gpr19-positive cilia from cultures from two different mice, and total counted cells are > 110 per condition. (A and D–F) *, P

    Journal: The Journal of Cell Biology

    Article Title: Tubby family proteins are adapters for ciliary trafficking of integral membrane proteins

    doi: 10.1083/jcb.201607095

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Differential effects of Tub on ciliary GPCR trafficking. (A) IMCD3 Flp-In cells stably expressing LAP–TUB isoform b ( Mukhopadhyay et al., 2010 ) were sequentially transfected with 200 nM of the indicated siRNAs twice for 72 h (see Materials and methods) and serum starved for the last 24 h before fixation and immunostained for GFP, acetylated tubulin, and DNA. GFP-positive cilia were counted in two experiments, and total counted cells are > 400/condition. Data represent means ± SD. Bars, 5 µm. (B) MBP TUB isoform b and MBP TULP3 immobilized on amylose resin were incubated with PreScission eluates from IFT140 LAP RPE cells ± His TULP3 (1–183 aa; see Materials and methods; Mukhopadhyay et al., 2010 ). LAP, S tag–PreScission-GFP. MBP TUB- and MBP TULP3-bound proteins and corresponding flowthroughs were immunoblotted for S tag (IFT140 S tag ), maltose-binding protein (MBP), and His-tag as indicated. Data are representative of two experiments. (C and D) Embryonic day 16.5, day in vitro (DIV) 8 hippocampal neurons from wild-type (WT) and Tub mice were immunostained for Gpr161/Gpr19 (green), DyLight594-labeled ACIII (red), and Sstr3 (white; C). Gpr161/Gpr19-positive and -negative cilia are marked by arrows (A and C) and arrowheads (C), respectively. Gpr161/Sstr3 coexpressing cells are marked by yellow arrows. The red dot indicates debris under the coverslip. Data represents means ± SD from cultures of two different embryos belonging to each genotype. Total counted cells are > 300 per condition for Gpr161/Sstr3 and > 90 per condition for Gpr19. Bars, 5 µm. Ciliary lengths are 3.2 ± 0.1 µm (wild type) and 3.5 ± 0.1 µm ( Tub ) neurons in experiments with Gpr161 staining and 3.7 ± 0.9 µm (wild type) and 3.5 ± 0.8 µm ( Tub ) in experiments with Gpr19 staining. Data represent means ± SD. n > 50 each. (E) Embryonic day 16.5 DIV5 hippocampal neurons from wild-type mice were transfected with indicated GFP-tagged N terminus (NT) wild-type or non–IFT-A binding ( mut12 ) TULP3 constructs ( Mukhopadhyay et al., 2010 ), fixed at DIV8, and immunostained for Gpr161 and DyLight594-labeled ACIII. GFP-positive cells were quantified for Gpr161-positive cilia from two different coverslips, and total counted neurons are > 24 per condition. (F) Embryonic day 18.5 DIV5 glia from wild-type mice were transfected with constructs as in C, fixed at DIV8, and immunostained for Gpr19 and Arl13b. GFP-positive cells were quantified for Gpr19-positive cilia from cultures from two different mice, and total counted cells are > 110 per condition. (A and D–F) *, P

    Article Snippet: Commercial antibodies used were against α-tubulin (rat YL1/2; Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc.), acetylated α-tubulin (mAb 6-11B-1; Sigma-Aldrich; and rabbit polyclonal 5335; Cell Signaling Technology), rabbit polyclonal PC2 (H-280; Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc.; Fig. S5, A and B), S tag (mouse monoclonal MAC112; EMD Millipore), Myc tag (goat polyclonal ab9132; Abcam [for immunoblotting and immunofluorescence]), Flag (goat polyclonal ab1257; Abcam [for immunoblotting]; and M2 monoclonal F1804; Sigma-Aldrich [for immunofluorescence]), His tag (mouse monoclonal GT359; Sigma-Aldrich), MBP (mouse monoclonal; New England Biolabs, Inc.), Arl13b (mouse monoclonal N295B/66; NeuroMab), Sstr3 (goat polyclonal sc-11617; Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc.), and ACIII (rabbit polyclonal sc-588; Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc.).

    Techniques: Stable Transfection, Expressing, Transfection, Incubation, Binding Assay, In Vitro, Mouse Assay, Labeling, Staining, Construct

    A , N41 cells transfected with the Lepr-b :: eGFP overexpression vector and treated with leptin. B , immunohistochemistry showing the arcuate hypothalamic region adjacent to the third ventricle from mice administered leptin peripherally. C , fasted mice; D , mice administered leptin and cathepsin L inhibitor I peripherally. Cilia are stained with an Adenylyl cyclase III (AcIII)-specific antibody.

    Journal: The Journal of Biological Chemistry

    Article Title: Cut-like Homeobox 1 (CUX1) Regulates Expression of the Fat Mass and Obesity-associated and Retinitis Pigmentosa GTPase Regulator-interacting Protein-1-like (RPGRIP1L) Genes and Coordinates Leptin Receptor Signaling *

    doi: 10.1074/jbc.M110.188482

    Figure Lengend Snippet: A , N41 cells transfected with the Lepr-b :: eGFP overexpression vector and treated with leptin. B , immunohistochemistry showing the arcuate hypothalamic region adjacent to the third ventricle from mice administered leptin peripherally. C , fasted mice; D , mice administered leptin and cathepsin L inhibitor I peripherally. Cilia are stained with an Adenylyl cyclase III (AcIII)-specific antibody.

    Article Snippet: Primary antibodies against LEPR (2 μg/ml for immunohistochemistry, 0.5 μg/ml for immunofluorescence; Mouse; catalog no. AF497, R & D Systems, Minneapolis, MN), adenylyl cyclase III (AcIII; 1:500; mouse; catalog no. sc-588, Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA), pericentrin (1:500; rabbit; catalog no. ab4448, Abcam, Cambridge, MA), and GFP (1:500; mouse; catalog no. 11814460001, Roche Applied Science) were used in conjunction with Alexa Fluor® 488, 555, and 647 secondary antibodies (Invitrogen).

    Techniques: Transfection, Over Expression, Plasmid Preparation, Immunohistochemistry, Mouse Assay, Staining

    Increased expression of intra-ovarian adenylyl cyclase 3 following exposure to male-derived scent. Ovaries of 2 wild type (A, B) and 2 mutant (C, D) unisexually isolated mice, either unexposed (A, C) or exposed (B, D) to male-derived scent for 9 hours, were stained with a polyclonal antibody against adenylyl cyclase 3. Absence of estrous activity in mice not exposed to male-derived scent and presence of such activity in mice exposed to such scent were confirmed by vaginal cytology obtained just before the mice were euthanized. Stars are over the granulosa cell layers of ovarian follicles. CL: corpus luteum. Bars: 50 microns.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Brca1 Mutations Enhance Mouse Reproductive Functions by Increasing Responsiveness to Male-Derived Scent

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0139013

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Increased expression of intra-ovarian adenylyl cyclase 3 following exposure to male-derived scent. Ovaries of 2 wild type (A, B) and 2 mutant (C, D) unisexually isolated mice, either unexposed (A, C) or exposed (B, D) to male-derived scent for 9 hours, were stained with a polyclonal antibody against adenylyl cyclase 3. Absence of estrous activity in mice not exposed to male-derived scent and presence of such activity in mice exposed to such scent were confirmed by vaginal cytology obtained just before the mice were euthanized. Stars are over the granulosa cell layers of ovarian follicles. CL: corpus luteum. Bars: 50 microns.

    Article Snippet: Immunohistochemistry Anti-Olfr68 (Abcam, Cambridge, MA, catalog #ab62606), anti-Olfr1508 (Abcam, catalog #ab65734), and anti-adenylyl cyclase 3 (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, catalog #sc-588) antibodies were used at a dilution of 1:100 on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections.

    Techniques: Expressing, Derivative Assay, Mutagenesis, Isolation, Mouse Assay, Staining, Activity Assay

    Time-course gene expression profiling of ( A ) Vip ; ( B ) Adcyap1 ; ( C ) Adcyap1r1 ; ( D ) Vipr1 and ( E ) Vipr2 mRNAs in RT4 SCs treated with LPS at the indicated concentration. Relative transcript levels were measured by quantitative real-time PCR analyses. Amplifications were performed using selected primers optimized for qPCR analyses (

    Journal: International Journal of Molecular Sciences

    Article Title: Identification of Dysregulated microRNA Networks in Schwann Cell-Like Cultures Exposed to Immune Challenge: Potential Crosstalk with the Protective VIP/PACAP Neuropeptide System

    doi: 10.3390/ijms19040981

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Time-course gene expression profiling of ( A ) Vip ; ( B ) Adcyap1 ; ( C ) Adcyap1r1 ; ( D ) Vipr1 and ( E ) Vipr2 mRNAs in RT4 SCs treated with LPS at the indicated concentration. Relative transcript levels were measured by quantitative real-time PCR analyses. Amplifications were performed using selected primers optimized for qPCR analyses (

    Article Snippet: Western blot analyses were performed using the following primary rabbit polyclonal antibodies: PAC1 receptor (1:500, cat no# sc-30018, Santa Cruz Biotechnology Inc., Heidelberg, Germany), VPAC1 receptor (1:800, cat no# sc-30019, Santa Cruz Biotechnology Inc.), VPAC2 receptor (1:400, cat no# sc-30020, Santa Cruz Biotechnology Inc.), PACAP peptide (1:500, cat no# sc-25439, Santa Cruz Biotechnology Inc.), VIP peptide (1:1000, cat no# GTX129461, GeneTex) and GAPDH (1:2000, cat no# sc-47724, Santa Cruz Biotechnology Inc.).

    Techniques: Expressing, Concentration Assay, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction

    ( A ) Representative Western blots showing the effects of 24 h exposure to 1 µg/mL LPS in RT4 SCs. Semi-quantitative analyses of bands’ intensities show significant increases both in ( B ) VIP and ( C ) PACAP protein expression levels, but not in ( D ) PAC1 receptor, which was unaffected by treatment. Conversely, both ( E ) VPAC1 and ( F ) VPAC2 receptor levels were diminished. Data are the mean ± SEM of two experiments, each using 2 separate batches of cells per group ( n = 4). * p

    Journal: International Journal of Molecular Sciences

    Article Title: Identification of Dysregulated microRNA Networks in Schwann Cell-Like Cultures Exposed to Immune Challenge: Potential Crosstalk with the Protective VIP/PACAP Neuropeptide System

    doi: 10.3390/ijms19040981

    Figure Lengend Snippet: ( A ) Representative Western blots showing the effects of 24 h exposure to 1 µg/mL LPS in RT4 SCs. Semi-quantitative analyses of bands’ intensities show significant increases both in ( B ) VIP and ( C ) PACAP protein expression levels, but not in ( D ) PAC1 receptor, which was unaffected by treatment. Conversely, both ( E ) VPAC1 and ( F ) VPAC2 receptor levels were diminished. Data are the mean ± SEM of two experiments, each using 2 separate batches of cells per group ( n = 4). * p

    Article Snippet: Western blot analyses were performed using the following primary rabbit polyclonal antibodies: PAC1 receptor (1:500, cat no# sc-30018, Santa Cruz Biotechnology Inc., Heidelberg, Germany), VPAC1 receptor (1:800, cat no# sc-30019, Santa Cruz Biotechnology Inc.), VPAC2 receptor (1:400, cat no# sc-30020, Santa Cruz Biotechnology Inc.), PACAP peptide (1:500, cat no# sc-25439, Santa Cruz Biotechnology Inc.), VIP peptide (1:1000, cat no# GTX129461, GeneTex) and GAPDH (1:2000, cat no# sc-47724, Santa Cruz Biotechnology Inc.).

    Techniques: Western Blot, Expressing

    Scatterplots and regression lines showing the relationship between dysregulated miRNAs and the expression profile of VIP/PACAP system components following exposure to LPS. Only significant correlations are shown. Positive correlations were found between ( A ) rno-miR-155 and Vip ; ( B ) rno-miR-145-5p and Adcyap1r1 and ( C ) rno-miR-340-5p and Vipr1 mRNAs. Inverse relationships were found between ( D ) rno-miR-155 and Vipr1 ; ( E ) rno-miR-29a and Vipr1 ; ( F ) rno-miR-21 and Vipr2 and ( G ) rno-miR-146a and Vipr2 . Coefficients of determination ( r 2 ) and related p values are shown in each panel.

    Journal: International Journal of Molecular Sciences

    Article Title: Identification of Dysregulated microRNA Networks in Schwann Cell-Like Cultures Exposed to Immune Challenge: Potential Crosstalk with the Protective VIP/PACAP Neuropeptide System

    doi: 10.3390/ijms19040981

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Scatterplots and regression lines showing the relationship between dysregulated miRNAs and the expression profile of VIP/PACAP system components following exposure to LPS. Only significant correlations are shown. Positive correlations were found between ( A ) rno-miR-155 and Vip ; ( B ) rno-miR-145-5p and Adcyap1r1 and ( C ) rno-miR-340-5p and Vipr1 mRNAs. Inverse relationships were found between ( D ) rno-miR-155 and Vipr1 ; ( E ) rno-miR-29a and Vipr1 ; ( F ) rno-miR-21 and Vipr2 and ( G ) rno-miR-146a and Vipr2 . Coefficients of determination ( r 2 ) and related p values are shown in each panel.

    Article Snippet: Western blot analyses were performed using the following primary rabbit polyclonal antibodies: PAC1 receptor (1:500, cat no# sc-30018, Santa Cruz Biotechnology Inc., Heidelberg, Germany), VPAC1 receptor (1:800, cat no# sc-30019, Santa Cruz Biotechnology Inc.), VPAC2 receptor (1:400, cat no# sc-30020, Santa Cruz Biotechnology Inc.), PACAP peptide (1:500, cat no# sc-25439, Santa Cruz Biotechnology Inc.), VIP peptide (1:1000, cat no# GTX129461, GeneTex) and GAPDH (1:2000, cat no# sc-47724, Santa Cruz Biotechnology Inc.).

    Techniques: Expressing