a actinomycetemcomitans  (ATCC)


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    Name:
    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Y4
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    43718
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    Structured Review

    ATCC a actinomycetemcomitans
    Dual-species community formation between F. alocis and A. <t>actinomycetemcomitans</t> analyzed by CLSM. A. A. actinomycetemcomitans 652 (red, stained with hexidium iodide) was cultured on glass coverslips. F. alocis strains ATCC 35896 (upper left panel) and D-62D (upper right panel) were stained with FITC (green) and reacted with A. actinomycetemcomitans for 24 h, 48 h and 72 h. B. Time-resolved changes in the biovolume of A. actinomycetemcomitans 652, F. alocis ATCC 35896 and D-62D in dual species communities. Data are representative of four independent replicates. P-value compared with control single species communities was calculated by t-test, and significant differences are at p

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    1) Product Images from "Oral Community Interactions of Filifactor alocis In Vitro"

    Article Title: Oral Community Interactions of Filifactor alocis In Vitro

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076271

    Dual-species community formation between F. alocis and A. actinomycetemcomitans analyzed by CLSM. A. A. actinomycetemcomitans 652 (red, stained with hexidium iodide) was cultured on glass coverslips. F. alocis strains ATCC 35896 (upper left panel) and D-62D (upper right panel) were stained with FITC (green) and reacted with A. actinomycetemcomitans for 24 h, 48 h and 72 h. B. Time-resolved changes in the biovolume of A. actinomycetemcomitans 652, F. alocis ATCC 35896 and D-62D in dual species communities. Data are representative of four independent replicates. P-value compared with control single species communities was calculated by t-test, and significant differences are at p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Dual-species community formation between F. alocis and A. actinomycetemcomitans analyzed by CLSM. A. A. actinomycetemcomitans 652 (red, stained with hexidium iodide) was cultured on glass coverslips. F. alocis strains ATCC 35896 (upper left panel) and D-62D (upper right panel) were stained with FITC (green) and reacted with A. actinomycetemcomitans for 24 h, 48 h and 72 h. B. Time-resolved changes in the biovolume of A. actinomycetemcomitans 652, F. alocis ATCC 35896 and D-62D in dual species communities. Data are representative of four independent replicates. P-value compared with control single species communities was calculated by t-test, and significant differences are at p

    Techniques Used: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, Staining, Cell Culture

    CLSM projections of monospecies communities of F.alocis strains ATCC 35896 and D-62D (green, stained with FITC), S. gordonii DL-1, F. nucleatum ATCC25586, A. actinomycetemcomitans 652, or P. gingivalis ATCC33277 (red, stained with hexidium iodide) after 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h.
    Figure Legend Snippet: CLSM projections of monospecies communities of F.alocis strains ATCC 35896 and D-62D (green, stained with FITC), S. gordonii DL-1, F. nucleatum ATCC25586, A. actinomycetemcomitans 652, or P. gingivalis ATCC33277 (red, stained with hexidium iodide) after 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h.

    Techniques Used: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, Staining

    2) Product Images from "Multiserotype Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay as a Diagnostic Aid for Periodontitis in Large-Scale Studies"

    Article Title: Multiserotype Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay as a Diagnostic Aid for Periodontitis in Large-Scale Studies

    Journal: Journal of Clinical Microbiology

    doi: 10.1128/JCM.40.2.512-518.2002

    A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis IgG results in different subject groups. The IgG levels, expressed as AUCs, against the two periodontal pathogens were measured by an ELISA in which mixtures of six A. actinomycetemcomitans strains (A) and three P. gingivalis strains (B) were used as antigens. The patients ( n = 35) were divided in two groups according to the subgingival presence or absence of the pathogen by PCR detection. The statistical significance of the difference in the results between the groups is depicted (∗∗∗, P
    Figure Legend Snippet: A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis IgG results in different subject groups. The IgG levels, expressed as AUCs, against the two periodontal pathogens were measured by an ELISA in which mixtures of six A. actinomycetemcomitans strains (A) and three P. gingivalis strains (B) were used as antigens. The patients ( n = 35) were divided in two groups according to the subgingival presence or absence of the pathogen by PCR detection. The statistical significance of the difference in the results between the groups is depicted (∗∗∗, P

    Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Comparison of serum IgG levels against A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis measured by serotype-specific and serotype mixture ELISA. Four subjects (I, II, III, and IV) were chosen according to presence (+) or absence (−) of subgingival A. actinomycetemcomitans (A.a.) and P. gingivalis (P.g.) by PCR detection, and their serum samples were analyzed by ELISA. (A) A. actinomycetemcomitans serotypes a (ATCC 29523), b (ATCC 43718), c (ATCC 33384), d (IDH 781), e (IDH 1705), and × (non-serotypeable) or their mixture (mix) was used as antigen. (B) P. gingivalis serotypes a (ATCC 33277), b (W50), and c (OMGS 434) or their mixture (mix) was used as antigen.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Comparison of serum IgG levels against A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis measured by serotype-specific and serotype mixture ELISA. Four subjects (I, II, III, and IV) were chosen according to presence (+) or absence (−) of subgingival A. actinomycetemcomitans (A.a.) and P. gingivalis (P.g.) by PCR detection, and their serum samples were analyzed by ELISA. (A) A. actinomycetemcomitans serotypes a (ATCC 29523), b (ATCC 43718), c (ATCC 33384), d (IDH 781), e (IDH 1705), and × (non-serotypeable) or their mixture (mix) was used as antigen. (B) P. gingivalis serotypes a (ATCC 33277), b (W50), and c (OMGS 434) or their mixture (mix) was used as antigen.

    Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Individual serum IgG levels against A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis before and after periodontal treatment. From 31 patients with periodontitis, follow-up samples were collected approximately 3 months after the first sampling, and their levels of IgG against A. actinomycetemcomitans (A) and P. gingivalis (B) were measured using a serotype mixture ELISA. The white bars and striped bars represent the level (AUC) before and after treatment, respectively.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Individual serum IgG levels against A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis before and after periodontal treatment. From 31 patients with periodontitis, follow-up samples were collected approximately 3 months after the first sampling, and their levels of IgG against A. actinomycetemcomitans (A) and P. gingivalis (B) were measured using a serotype mixture ELISA. The white bars and striped bars represent the level (AUC) before and after treatment, respectively.

    Techniques Used: Sampling, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    3) Product Images from "Synergistic Antibacterial Effects of Nanoparticles Encapsulated with Scutellaria baicalensis and Pure Chlorhexidine on Oral Bacterial Biofilms"

    Article Title: Synergistic Antibacterial Effects of Nanoparticles Encapsulated with Scutellaria baicalensis and Pure Chlorhexidine on Oral Bacterial Biofilms

    Journal: Nanomaterials

    doi: 10.3390/nano6040061

    Effect of the Nano-MIX on the multi-species biofilms of S. mutans , F. nucleatum , A. actinomycetemcomitans , and P. gingivalis at 24 h. The confocal scanning laser microscopy (CLSM) ( A , B ) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images ( C , D ) showing comparative antibacterial effects of the Nano-MIX treatment ( B , D ) on the mixed-species oral biofilms with reference to the blank nanoparticles ( A , C ), respectively.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of the Nano-MIX on the multi-species biofilms of S. mutans , F. nucleatum , A. actinomycetemcomitans , and P. gingivalis at 24 h. The confocal scanning laser microscopy (CLSM) ( A , B ) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images ( C , D ) showing comparative antibacterial effects of the Nano-MIX treatment ( B , D ) on the mixed-species oral biofilms with reference to the blank nanoparticles ( A , C ), respectively.

    Techniques Used: Microscopy, Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, Electron Microscopy

    4) Product Images from "Characterization of Heat-Inducible Expression and Cloning of HtpG (Hsp90 Homologue) of Porphyromonas gingivalis"

    Article Title: Characterization of Heat-Inducible Expression and Cloning of HtpG (Hsp90 Homologue) of Porphyromonas gingivalis

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    doi:

    Alignments of deduced amino acid sequences of P. gingivalis , E. coli , and A. actinomycetemcomitans HtpG. Optimal alignment of the deduced HtpG peptide sequences of E. coli ), A. actinomycetemcomitans ), and P. gingivalis ).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Alignments of deduced amino acid sequences of P. gingivalis , E. coli , and A. actinomycetemcomitans HtpG. Optimal alignment of the deduced HtpG peptide sequences of E. coli ), A. actinomycetemcomitans ), and P. gingivalis ).

    Techniques Used:

    5) Product Images from "Characterization of Serologically Nontypeable Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Isolates"

    Article Title: Characterization of Serologically Nontypeable Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Isolates

    Journal: Journal of Clinical Microbiology

    doi:

    The slightly different AP-PCR banding patterns of the nonserotypeable A. actinomycetemcomitans isolates representing AP-PCR type 3 obtained with OPA-13 (lanes 2 through 6) and OPA-03 (lanes 8 through 12). Lanes 1, 7 and 13, molecular size markers; lanes 2 and 8, reference strain A. actinomycetemcomitans ATCC 33384 (serotype c); lanes 3 through 6 and 9 through 12, clinical isolates from four subjects, shown in the same order.
    Figure Legend Snippet: The slightly different AP-PCR banding patterns of the nonserotypeable A. actinomycetemcomitans isolates representing AP-PCR type 3 obtained with OPA-13 (lanes 2 through 6) and OPA-03 (lanes 8 through 12). Lanes 1, 7 and 13, molecular size markers; lanes 2 and 8, reference strain A. actinomycetemcomitans ATCC 33384 (serotype c); lanes 3 through 6 and 9 through 12, clinical isolates from four subjects, shown in the same order.

    Techniques Used: Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Sph I restriction patterns of apaH PCR amplification products of nonserotypeable A. actinomycetemcomitans isolates. Lanes 1 and 3 through 8 represent the Sph I restriction pattern obtained from isolates of AP-PCR type 3. The same restriction pattern was also found among isolates of AP-PCR types 11 and 16. Lane 2 represents the Sph I restriction pattern obtained from an isolate of AP-PCR type 19; the same pattern is also obtained from isolates of AP-PCR types 1, 2, 5, and 18. Right lane, molecular size markers.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Sph I restriction patterns of apaH PCR amplification products of nonserotypeable A. actinomycetemcomitans isolates. Lanes 1 and 3 through 8 represent the Sph I restriction pattern obtained from isolates of AP-PCR type 3. The same restriction pattern was also found among isolates of AP-PCR types 11 and 16. Lane 2 represents the Sph I restriction pattern obtained from an isolate of AP-PCR type 19; the same pattern is also obtained from isolates of AP-PCR types 1, 2, 5, and 18. Right lane, molecular size markers.

    Techniques Used: Polymerase Chain Reaction, Amplification

    6) Product Images from "Uptake pathways of anionic and cationic photosensitizers into bacteria"

    Article Title: Uptake pathways of anionic and cationic photosensitizers into bacteria

    Journal: Photochemical & photobiological sciences : Official journal of the European Photochemistry Association and the European Society for Photobiology

    doi: 10.1039/b809624d

    Uptake of PS (50 μM, A, MB; B, ICG) by A. actinomycetemcomitans cells with increasing concentrations of CaCl 2 , MgCl 2 or EDTA.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Uptake of PS (50 μM, A, MB; B, ICG) by A. actinomycetemcomitans cells with increasing concentrations of CaCl 2 , MgCl 2 or EDTA.

    Techniques Used:

    7) Product Images from "Aggregatibacter, a Low Abundance Pathobiont That Influences Biogeography, Microbial Dysbiosis, and Host Defense Capabilities in Periodontitis: The History of a Bug, and Localization of Disease"

    Article Title: Aggregatibacter, a Low Abundance Pathobiont That Influences Biogeography, Microbial Dysbiosis, and Host Defense Capabilities in Periodontitis: The History of a Bug, and Localization of Disease

    Journal: Pathogens

    doi: 10.3390/pathogens9030179

    Kinetics of binding of A. actinomycetemcomitans to buccal epithelial cells (BECs).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Kinetics of binding of A. actinomycetemcomitans to buccal epithelial cells (BECs).

    Techniques Used: Binding Assay

    A. actinomycetemcomitans abiotic surfaces. A. actinomycetemcomitans was inoculated into a flask and allowed to grow on the side of the flask for three days. The flask on the left is an un-inoculated control. The flask on the right shows binding of A. actinomycetemcomitans to the side of the flask and no microbes can be found in the media. The insert in the center is the colonial morphology of A. actinomycetemcomitans showing star on top and rough colonial outer surface.
    Figure Legend Snippet: A. actinomycetemcomitans abiotic surfaces. A. actinomycetemcomitans was inoculated into a flask and allowed to grow on the side of the flask for three days. The flask on the left is an un-inoculated control. The flask on the right shows binding of A. actinomycetemcomitans to the side of the flask and no microbes can be found in the media. The insert in the center is the colonial morphology of A. actinomycetemcomitans showing star on top and rough colonial outer surface.

    Techniques Used: Binding Assay

    Binding of human A. actinomycetemcomitans to buccal epithelial cells (BECs). A. actinomycetemcomitans binds to BECs from Old World primates but not from New World primates. Mutation of the aae gene significantly reduces binding in these primates.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Binding of human A. actinomycetemcomitans to buccal epithelial cells (BECs). A. actinomycetemcomitans binds to BECs from Old World primates but not from New World primates. Mutation of the aae gene significantly reduces binding in these primates.

    Techniques Used: Binding Assay, Mutagenesis

    8) Product Images from "Photocatalytical Antibacterial Activity of Mixed-Phase TiO2 Nanocomposite Thin Films against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans"

    Article Title: Photocatalytical Antibacterial Activity of Mixed-Phase TiO2 Nanocomposite Thin Films against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans

    Journal: BioMed Research International

    doi: 10.1155/2015/705871

    Descriptive analysis of adhesion of A. Actinomycetemcomitans on all groups tested (Group Ti: cpTi surface; Group AR: anatase/rutile mixed-phase TiO 2 thin film surface; Group D: culture plates' well bottoms). Data are presented as the mean ± SD ( n = 39) for all bars. Results were analyzed using the two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by subsequent one-way ANOVA and Student's t -test. If one-way ANOVA suggested a significant difference between means among the groups, post hoc analyses were performed using Tukey HSD test, and Tamhane's T 2 test ( ∗ p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Descriptive analysis of adhesion of A. Actinomycetemcomitans on all groups tested (Group Ti: cpTi surface; Group AR: anatase/rutile mixed-phase TiO 2 thin film surface; Group D: culture plates' well bottoms). Data are presented as the mean ± SD ( n = 39) for all bars. Results were analyzed using the two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by subsequent one-way ANOVA and Student's t -test. If one-way ANOVA suggested a significant difference between means among the groups, post hoc analyses were performed using Tukey HSD test, and Tamhane's T 2 test ( ∗ p

    Techniques Used:

    9) Product Images from "Assessment of Photodynamic Inactivation against Periodontal Bacteria Mediated by a Chitosan Hydrogel in a 3D Gingival Model"

    Article Title: Assessment of Photodynamic Inactivation against Periodontal Bacteria Mediated by a Chitosan Hydrogel in a 3D Gingival Model

    Journal: International Journal of Molecular Sciences

    doi: 10.3390/ijms17111821

    Cell survival fraction of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans ( A. actinomycetemcomitans ) ( A ) and P. gingivalis ( B ) biofilms in a 3D gingival model after incubation with F-2 for 0.5 h, and subjected to various doses of light illumination from four sides. After PDI, biofilm maintained contact with F-2 for 0.5 h (☐) and 2 h (■) prior to plate count. Each value is the mean of three independent experiments ± standard deviation. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Cell survival fraction of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans ( A. actinomycetemcomitans ) ( A ) and P. gingivalis ( B ) biofilms in a 3D gingival model after incubation with F-2 for 0.5 h, and subjected to various doses of light illumination from four sides. After PDI, biofilm maintained contact with F-2 for 0.5 h (☐) and 2 h (■) prior to plate count. Each value is the mean of three independent experiments ± standard deviation. * p

    Techniques Used: Incubation, Standard Deviation

    10) Product Images from "Chlamydia pneumoniae is present in the dental plaque of periodontitis patients and stimulates an inflammatory response in gingival epithelial cells"

    Article Title: Chlamydia pneumoniae is present in the dental plaque of periodontitis patients and stimulates an inflammatory response in gingival epithelial cells

    Journal: Microbial Cell

    doi: 10.15698/mic2019.04.674

    FIGURE 1: C. pneumoniae is present more frequently in subgingival plaque obtained from periodontally diseased sites vs. healthy sites. Dental plaques were obtained from subgingival locations in ten healthy patients (HPt, four sites for each one) and in ten patients with periodontal disease (PPt). For patients with periodontal disease, subgingival dental plaques were obtained from both areas with periodontitis (P, two sites per subject) and areas without periodontitis (H, two sites per subject). All dental plaque samples were subjected to PCR followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. (A, C, E) Representative gel electrophoretogram of PCR products screening C. pneumoniae (A) , P. gingivalis (C) and A. actinomycetemcomitans (E) . Quantification of C. pneumoniae (B) , P. gingivalis (D) and A. actinomycetemcomitans (F) 16S rRNA, PCR products. (B, D, F) Healthy sites: n = 40 (only from healthy donors) and diseased sites: n = 20. For each dental plaque sample, seven different runs were performed for C. pneumoniae and three different runs for P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans. Arrows indicate positive bands in the expected bp size. Error bars represent ± SD; 2-sided, paired Student's t test, * P ≤ 0.05, ***P≤0.001.
    Figure Legend Snippet: FIGURE 1: C. pneumoniae is present more frequently in subgingival plaque obtained from periodontally diseased sites vs. healthy sites. Dental plaques were obtained from subgingival locations in ten healthy patients (HPt, four sites for each one) and in ten patients with periodontal disease (PPt). For patients with periodontal disease, subgingival dental plaques were obtained from both areas with periodontitis (P, two sites per subject) and areas without periodontitis (H, two sites per subject). All dental plaque samples were subjected to PCR followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. (A, C, E) Representative gel electrophoretogram of PCR products screening C. pneumoniae (A) , P. gingivalis (C) and A. actinomycetemcomitans (E) . Quantification of C. pneumoniae (B) , P. gingivalis (D) and A. actinomycetemcomitans (F) 16S rRNA, PCR products. (B, D, F) Healthy sites: n = 40 (only from healthy donors) and diseased sites: n = 20. For each dental plaque sample, seven different runs were performed for C. pneumoniae and three different runs for P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans. Arrows indicate positive bands in the expected bp size. Error bars represent ± SD; 2-sided, paired Student's t test, * P ≤ 0.05, ***P≤0.001.

    Techniques Used: Polymerase Chain Reaction, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis

    11) Product Images from "Antibacterial Activity of As-Annealed TiO2 Nanotubes Doped with Ag Nanoparticles against Periodontal Pathogens"

    Article Title: Antibacterial Activity of As-Annealed TiO2 Nanotubes Doped with Ag Nanoparticles against Periodontal Pathogens

    Journal: Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications

    doi: 10.1155/2014/829496

    Descriptive analysis of adhesion of (a) A. actinomycetemcomitans , (b) T. forsythia , and (c) C. rectus on all groups tested (Group TiO 2 : as-annealed TiO 2 nanotubes; Group Ag: as-annealed Ag doped TiO 2 nanotubes; Group Ti: commercially pure Ti sheet; Control Group: 24-well cell culture plate bottoms). Data are presented as the mean ± SD (standard deviation). Results were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA and post hoc analyses were performed using Tukey's studentized range (HSD) test (* P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Descriptive analysis of adhesion of (a) A. actinomycetemcomitans , (b) T. forsythia , and (c) C. rectus on all groups tested (Group TiO 2 : as-annealed TiO 2 nanotubes; Group Ag: as-annealed Ag doped TiO 2 nanotubes; Group Ti: commercially pure Ti sheet; Control Group: 24-well cell culture plate bottoms). Data are presented as the mean ± SD (standard deviation). Results were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA and post hoc analyses were performed using Tukey's studentized range (HSD) test (* P

    Techniques Used: Cell Culture, Standard Deviation

    SEM micrographs after adhesion of A. actinomycetemcomitans , T. forsythia , and C. rectus on the surface of (a) Group TiO 2 : as-annealed TiO 2 nanotubes; (b) Group Ag: as-annealed Ag doped TiO 2 nanotubes; (c) Group Ti: commercially pure Ti sheet.
    Figure Legend Snippet: SEM micrographs after adhesion of A. actinomycetemcomitans , T. forsythia , and C. rectus on the surface of (a) Group TiO 2 : as-annealed TiO 2 nanotubes; (b) Group Ag: as-annealed Ag doped TiO 2 nanotubes; (c) Group Ti: commercially pure Ti sheet.

    Techniques Used:

    12) Product Images from "Synergistic Anti-Inflammatory Activity of the Antimicrobial Peptides Human Beta-Defensin-3 (hBD-3) and Cathelicidin (LL-37) in a Three-Dimensional Co-Culture Model of Gingival Epithelial Cells and Fibroblasts"

    Article Title: Synergistic Anti-Inflammatory Activity of the Antimicrobial Peptides Human Beta-Defensin-3 (hBD-3) and Cathelicidin (LL-37) in a Three-Dimensional Co-Culture Model of Gingival Epithelial Cells and Fibroblasts

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0106766

    Light microscopic observations of the individual cell lines and the 3D co-culture model. A: Collagen-gingival fibroblast (HGF-1) gel; B: Gingival epithelial cells (OBA-9) seeded on the collagen gel; C and D: 3D co-culture model composed of gingival fibroblasts embedded in a collagen matrix overlaid with gingival epithelial cells. The epithelial cells, fibroblasts, and 3D co-culture model were stimulated with A. actinomycetemcomitans LPS (1 µg/mL) for 24 h at 37°C in a 5% CO 2 atmosphere. Panels A, B, and C (4× magnification). Panel D (10× magnification).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Light microscopic observations of the individual cell lines and the 3D co-culture model. A: Collagen-gingival fibroblast (HGF-1) gel; B: Gingival epithelial cells (OBA-9) seeded on the collagen gel; C and D: 3D co-culture model composed of gingival fibroblasts embedded in a collagen matrix overlaid with gingival epithelial cells. The epithelial cells, fibroblasts, and 3D co-culture model were stimulated with A. actinomycetemcomitans LPS (1 µg/mL) for 24 h at 37°C in a 5% CO 2 atmosphere. Panels A, B, and C (4× magnification). Panel D (10× magnification).

    Techniques Used: Co-Culture Assay

    Amount of IL-6 (A) and IL-8 (B) secreted by gingival fibroblasts (HGF-1), gingival epithelial cells (OBA-9), and the 3D co-culture model in the absence and presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans LPS (1 µg/mL). Results are expressed as means ± standard deviation of triplicate assays from two independent experiments. *, p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Amount of IL-6 (A) and IL-8 (B) secreted by gingival fibroblasts (HGF-1), gingival epithelial cells (OBA-9), and the 3D co-culture model in the absence and presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans LPS (1 µg/mL). Results are expressed as means ± standard deviation of triplicate assays from two independent experiments. *, p

    Techniques Used: Co-Culture Assay, Standard Deviation

    13) Product Images from "Periodontal inflammation and alveolar bone loss induced by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is attenuated in sphingosine kinase 1-deficient mice"

    Article Title: Periodontal inflammation and alveolar bone loss induced by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is attenuated in sphingosine kinase 1-deficient mice

    Journal: Journal of periodontal research

    doi: 10.1111/jre.12276

    SK1 deficiency in BMMs had no significant impact on proinflammatory cytokine levels induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans ( Aa ). Murine WT BMMs were treated for 4 h with either vehicle (PBS containing 4mg/mL of fatty acid-free BSA), various concentrations
    Figure Legend Snippet: SK1 deficiency in BMMs had no significant impact on proinflammatory cytokine levels induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans ( Aa ). Murine WT BMMs were treated for 4 h with either vehicle (PBS containing 4mg/mL of fatty acid-free BSA), various concentrations

    Techniques Used:

    SK1 deficiency significantly decreased S1P production induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans ( Aa ) in BMMs. Murine BMMs derived from SK1 KO or WT mice were either untreated or stimulated with A. actinomycetemcomitans (1.5 CFU/cell) for 1 to 8 h. (A) S1P biosynthesis
    Figure Legend Snippet: SK1 deficiency significantly decreased S1P production induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans ( Aa ) in BMMs. Murine BMMs derived from SK1 KO or WT mice were either untreated or stimulated with A. actinomycetemcomitans (1.5 CFU/cell) for 1 to 8 h. (A) S1P biosynthesis

    Techniques Used: Derivative Assay, Mouse Assay

    SK1 KO mice showed significantly attenuated alveolar bone loss induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans ( Aa ) as compared with A. actinomycetemcomitans -treated WT mice. SK1 WT and KO mice were injected with PBS or A. actinomycetemcomitans in the periodontal
    Figure Legend Snippet: SK1 KO mice showed significantly attenuated alveolar bone loss induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans ( Aa ) as compared with A. actinomycetemcomitans -treated WT mice. SK1 WT and KO mice were injected with PBS or A. actinomycetemcomitans in the periodontal

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Injection

    SK1 KO mice exhibited a significant decrease in the number of periodontal leukocytes and osteoclasts induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans ( Aa ) as compared with A. actinomycetemcomitans -treated WT mice. SK1 WT and KO mice were injected with PBS or A. actinomycetemcomitans
    Figure Legend Snippet: SK1 KO mice exhibited a significant decrease in the number of periodontal leukocytes and osteoclasts induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans ( Aa ) as compared with A. actinomycetemcomitans -treated WT mice. SK1 WT and KO mice were injected with PBS or A. actinomycetemcomitans

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Injection

    14) Product Images from "Inflammatory Bone Loss in Experimental Periodontitis Induced by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist Knockout Mice"

    Article Title: Inflammatory Bone Loss in Experimental Periodontitis Induced by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist Knockout Mice

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.01618-13

    Comparison of mandibles from A. actinomycetemcomitans -infected IL-1Ra KO and WT mice using micro-CT. Micro-CT images of mandibles are shown. (A) Uninfected WT mice; (B) uninfected IL-1Ra KO mice; (C) WT mice infected with A. actinomycetemcomitans ; (D)
    Figure Legend Snippet: Comparison of mandibles from A. actinomycetemcomitans -infected IL-1Ra KO and WT mice using micro-CT. Micro-CT images of mandibles are shown. (A) Uninfected WT mice; (B) uninfected IL-1Ra KO mice; (C) WT mice infected with A. actinomycetemcomitans ; (D)

    Techniques Used: Infection, Mouse Assay, Micro-CT

    Ratio of the remaining alveolar crest bone to the root length in A. actinomycetemcomitans -infected IL-1Ra KO and WT mice. The ratio of the remaining alveolar crest bone to the root length was calculated using the formula (ABC − RA)/RL, where (ABC
    Figure Legend Snippet: Ratio of the remaining alveolar crest bone to the root length in A. actinomycetemcomitans -infected IL-1Ra KO and WT mice. The ratio of the remaining alveolar crest bone to the root length was calculated using the formula (ABC − RA)/RL, where (ABC

    Techniques Used: Infection, Mouse Assay

    RANKL and M-CSF mRNA expression in IL-1Ra KO and WT mouse osteoblasts stimulated with A. actinomycetemcomitans . IL-1Ra KO ( n = 4) and WT ( n = 4) mouse osteoblasts were stimulated with A. actinomycetemcomitans (MOI, 100). The mRNA levels of RANKL and M-CSF
    Figure Legend Snippet: RANKL and M-CSF mRNA expression in IL-1Ra KO and WT mouse osteoblasts stimulated with A. actinomycetemcomitans . IL-1Ra KO ( n = 4) and WT ( n = 4) mouse osteoblasts were stimulated with A. actinomycetemcomitans (MOI, 100). The mRNA levels of RANKL and M-CSF

    Techniques Used: Expressing

    Histologic views of first and second mandibular molars from A. actinomycetemcomitans -infected IL-1Ra KO and WT mice (H E staining; magnification, ×200). Histological findings in periodontal tissues included epithelial attachment loss (arrow)
    Figure Legend Snippet: Histologic views of first and second mandibular molars from A. actinomycetemcomitans -infected IL-1Ra KO and WT mice (H E staining; magnification, ×200). Histological findings in periodontal tissues included epithelial attachment loss (arrow)

    Techniques Used: Infection, Mouse Assay, Staining

    Comparison of A. actinomycetemcomitans -specific antibody responses in IL-1Ra KO and WT mice. Antibody titers in IL-1Ra KO mice ( n = 5) infected with A. actinomycetemcomitans were higher than those in infected WT mice ( n = 6), uninfected WT mice ( n = 5),
    Figure Legend Snippet: Comparison of A. actinomycetemcomitans -specific antibody responses in IL-1Ra KO and WT mice. Antibody titers in IL-1Ra KO mice ( n = 5) infected with A. actinomycetemcomitans were higher than those in infected WT mice ( n = 6), uninfected WT mice ( n = 5),

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Infection

    TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1Ra levels in osteoblast culture supernatant fluids from IL-1Ra KO ( n = 4) and WT ( n = 4) mice either left unstimulated or stimulated with A. actinomycetemcomitans . Supernatant fluids were studied after 12 h of culture for
    Figure Legend Snippet: TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1Ra levels in osteoblast culture supernatant fluids from IL-1Ra KO ( n = 4) and WT ( n = 4) mice either left unstimulated or stimulated with A. actinomycetemcomitans . Supernatant fluids were studied after 12 h of culture for

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

    TRAP enzymology views of second mandibular molars from A. actinomycetemcomitans -infected IL-1Ra KO and WT mice (magnification, ×100). Histological examination of periodontal tissues showed TRAP-positive multinucleated cells (arrowheads) in IL-1Ra
    Figure Legend Snippet: TRAP enzymology views of second mandibular molars from A. actinomycetemcomitans -infected IL-1Ra KO and WT mice (magnification, ×100). Histological examination of periodontal tissues showed TRAP-positive multinucleated cells (arrowheads) in IL-1Ra

    Techniques Used: Infection, Mouse Assay

    15) Product Images from "Differential effects of periopathogens on host protease inhibitors SLPI, elafin, SCCA1, and SCCA2"

    Article Title: Differential effects of periopathogens on host protease inhibitors SLPI, elafin, SCCA1, and SCCA2

    Journal: Journal of Oral Microbiology

    doi: 10.3402/jom.v2i0.5070

    P. gingivalis supernatant significantly induced mRNA gene expression of epithelial protease inhibitors (SLPI, elafin, SCCA1, and SCCA2). GECs were stimulated with cell-free supernatants of P. gingivalis (Pg), P. gingivalis mutant KDP112 (Pg−/−), T. forsythia (Tf) A. actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), and whole bacterial F. nucleatum (Fn) at MOIs of 100 or equivalent for 24 h. Change of mRNA expression was evaluated by QRT-PCR and results are expressed as fold change in gene expression compared with the unstimulated control after normalization with the housekeeping gene ribosomal phosphoprotein (RPO). The change of gene expression of SLPI, elafin, SCCA1, and SCCA2 was minimal in GEC stimulated by Fn, Aa, Tf, Pg−/− compared to the unstimulated control (inset of Fig. 1 ). TLCK pre-incubated with P. gingivalis supernatant blocked upregulation. The data are derived from three different cell donors tested in duplicate. Error bars indicate SEM (standard error of the mean).
    Figure Legend Snippet: P. gingivalis supernatant significantly induced mRNA gene expression of epithelial protease inhibitors (SLPI, elafin, SCCA1, and SCCA2). GECs were stimulated with cell-free supernatants of P. gingivalis (Pg), P. gingivalis mutant KDP112 (Pg−/−), T. forsythia (Tf) A. actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), and whole bacterial F. nucleatum (Fn) at MOIs of 100 or equivalent for 24 h. Change of mRNA expression was evaluated by QRT-PCR and results are expressed as fold change in gene expression compared with the unstimulated control after normalization with the housekeeping gene ribosomal phosphoprotein (RPO). The change of gene expression of SLPI, elafin, SCCA1, and SCCA2 was minimal in GEC stimulated by Fn, Aa, Tf, Pg−/− compared to the unstimulated control (inset of Fig. 1 ). TLCK pre-incubated with P. gingivalis supernatant blocked upregulation. The data are derived from three different cell donors tested in duplicate. Error bars indicate SEM (standard error of the mean).

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Mutagenesis, Quantitative RT-PCR, Incubation, Derivative Assay

    Secreted SLPI and elafin are degraded by P. gingivalis supernatants. GECs were treated for 24 h (A and B) or for the time indicated (C) with various bacterial supernatants and the media analyzed by ELISA. (A) Secreted level of SLPI and elafin compared for various bacteria. GECs were stimulated with P. gingivalis (Pg), P. gingivalis mutant KDP112 (Pg−/−), T. forsythia (Tf) A. actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), and F. nucleatum (Fn) at MOIs of 100 or equivalent. (B) Secreted SLPI and elafin in media from GECs treated with graded doses of P. gingivalis supernatants and whole P. gingivalis . (C and D) Time course for the secreted levels of SLPI (C) and elafin (D) in GEC media in response to P. gingivalis supernatant stimulation (dark bar) and the unstimulated control (grey bar). The secreted level in response to P. gingivalis supernatant is shown with an expanded scale (insets). The results were expressed as means±SD (standard deviation) of values from three independent experiments. (*) indicates significant difference ( p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Secreted SLPI and elafin are degraded by P. gingivalis supernatants. GECs were treated for 24 h (A and B) or for the time indicated (C) with various bacterial supernatants and the media analyzed by ELISA. (A) Secreted level of SLPI and elafin compared for various bacteria. GECs were stimulated with P. gingivalis (Pg), P. gingivalis mutant KDP112 (Pg−/−), T. forsythia (Tf) A. actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), and F. nucleatum (Fn) at MOIs of 100 or equivalent. (B) Secreted SLPI and elafin in media from GECs treated with graded doses of P. gingivalis supernatants and whole P. gingivalis . (C and D) Time course for the secreted levels of SLPI (C) and elafin (D) in GEC media in response to P. gingivalis supernatant stimulation (dark bar) and the unstimulated control (grey bar). The secreted level in response to P. gingivalis supernatant is shown with an expanded scale (insets). The results were expressed as means±SD (standard deviation) of values from three independent experiments. (*) indicates significant difference ( p

    Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Mutagenesis, Standard Deviation

    16) Product Images from "Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages"

    Article Title: Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.01226-13

    Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the
    Figure Legend Snippet: Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the

    Techniques Used: Infection, Mouse Assay

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or

    Techniques Used: Infection

    NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein
    Figure Legend Snippet: NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay, Infection

    Related Articles

    Negative Control:

    Article Title: Multiserotype Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay as a Diagnostic Aid for Periodontitis in Large-Scale Studies
    Article Snippet: .. In every series of PCR, chromosomal DNA extracted ( ) from A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC 43718) and P. gingivalis (W50) strains served as positive controls and water served as the negative control. .. Serum IgG antibodies against A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis were determined by an ELISA essentially as described earlier ( ).

    Article Title: Distribution of biotypes and leukotoxic activity of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans isolated from Brazilian patients with chronic periodontitis
    Article Snippet: .. Highly producer A. actinomycetemcomitans JP2 was used as positive control, A. actinomycetemcomitans ATCC 43718 (Y4), a medium leukotoxin-producing strain, and A. actinomycetemcomitans SUNY AB 67 or ATCC 33383, non-leukotoxic strains, used as negative control. ..

    Positive Control:

    Article Title: Distribution of biotypes and leukotoxic activity of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans isolated from Brazilian patients with chronic periodontitis
    Article Snippet: .. Highly producer A. actinomycetemcomitans JP2 was used as positive control, A. actinomycetemcomitans ATCC 43718 (Y4), a medium leukotoxin-producing strain, and A. actinomycetemcomitans SUNY AB 67 or ATCC 33383, non-leukotoxic strains, used as negative control. ..

    Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy:

    Article Title: In vitro Increased Respiratory Activity of Selected Oral Bacteria May Explain Competitive and Collaborative Interactions in the Oral Microbiome
    Article Snippet: .. Bacterial cultures and collection The following strains commonly present in the oral microbiome (Aas et al., ; Maddi and Scannapieco, ; Loozen et al., ) were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC): A . actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC 43718), F. nucleatum (ATCC 10953), P. gingivalis (ATCC 33277), P. intermedia (ATCC 25611), S. mutans (ATCC 25175), S. sobrinus (ATCC 33478), T. forsythia (ATCC 43037), Actinomyces naeslundii (ATCC 51655), Capnocytophaga sputigena (ATCC 33612), Streptococcus gordonii (ATCC 49818), Actinomyces viscosus (ATCC 15987), and S. mitis (ATCC 49456). .. Veillonella parvula was obtained from the Leibniz Institute DSMZ-German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures (DSM 2007); S. sanguinis was acquired from the BCCM/LMG Bacteria Collection (LMG 14657).

    Cell Culture:

    Article Title: The Cell Cycle-Specific Growth-Inhibitory Factor Produced by Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Is a Cytolethal Distending Toxin
    Article Snippet: .. A. actinomycetemcomitans Y4 (serotype b, ATCC 43718) was cultured in Trypticase soy broth (Becton Dickinson Microbiology Systems, Cockeysville, Md.) supplemented with 1% (wt/vol) yeast extract in a 5% CO2 atmosphere. ..

    Polymerase Chain Reaction:

    Article Title: Multiserotype Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay as a Diagnostic Aid for Periodontitis in Large-Scale Studies
    Article Snippet: .. In every series of PCR, chromosomal DNA extracted ( ) from A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC 43718) and P. gingivalis (W50) strains served as positive controls and water served as the negative control. .. Serum IgG antibodies against A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis were determined by an ELISA essentially as described earlier ( ).

    Derivative Assay:

    Article Title: Synergistic Antibacterial Effects of Nanoparticles Encapsulated with Scutellaria baicalensis and Pure Chlorhexidine on Oral Bacterial Biofilms
    Article Snippet: .. Anti-Biofilm Properties of the Nano-MIX (Nano-SB and Nano-CHX at 9:1 w/w) Representative oral bacteria including S. mutans (ATCC 35668), S. sobrinus (ATCC 33478), F. nucleatum (ATCC 25586), A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC 43718), E. faecalis (ATCC 29212), and P. gingivalis (ATCC 33277), derived from the archival collection at the Centralized Research Laboratory of the Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong, were used in the present study. ..

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    ATCC a actinomycetemcomitans
    Dual-species community formation between F. alocis and A. <t>actinomycetemcomitans</t> analyzed by CLSM. A. A. actinomycetemcomitans 652 (red, stained with hexidium iodide) was cultured on glass coverslips. F. alocis strains ATCC 35896 (upper left panel) and D-62D (upper right panel) were stained with FITC (green) and reacted with A. actinomycetemcomitans for 24 h, 48 h and 72 h. B. Time-resolved changes in the biovolume of A. actinomycetemcomitans 652, F. alocis ATCC 35896 and D-62D in dual species communities. Data are representative of four independent replicates. P-value compared with control single species communities was calculated by t-test, and significant differences are at p
    A Actinomycetemcomitans, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 15 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/a actinomycetemcomitans/product/ATCC
    Average 92 stars, based on 15 article reviews
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    85
    ATCC a actinomycetemcomitans cdt
    Genes linked to different phenotypes A. Gene trap insertions identified in loci essential for <t>CDT</t> intoxication. A color code distinguishes gene trap insertions that were enriched using distinct CDTs: A. <t>actinomycetemcomitans</t> in green, E. coli in red, H. ducreyi in yellow and C. jejuni in blue. B. Loci linked to 12 separate phenotypes. Cells were exposed to small molecule inhibitors of the Bcl2-family (ABT-737), chk1-kinase activity (AZD7762), Bcr-Abl-activity (imatinib), or DNA methylation (decitabine). Additional phenotypic selections were done using biological agents including TRAIL, CDTs, diphtheria toxin, ricin toxin and reovirus. Gene trap insertions in exonic sequences or in the sense orientation of genes were counted per individual selection. Enrichment p-value was calculated for each gene locus by comparing this number to the number of insertions identified in the same locus within the unselected cell population. Each screen resulted in a distinct set of between 1 and 8 genes with high significance. These include already known entry factors used by pathogens such as the entry receptor for diphtheria toxin (HBEGF), the reovirus receptor (F11R) and an enzyme involved in carbohydrate synthesis required for ricin entry (MGAT2). It also includes downstream effectors of kinases for example CDC25A in a screen with a Chk1 inhibitor or PTPN1 and PTPN12 identified by BCR-ABL inhibition using imatinib. Strong resistance against decitabine was observed in cells containing mutations in deoxycytidine kinase (DCK), the rate-limiting kinase for activation of several nucleoside analogs 20 .
    A Actinomycetemcomitans Cdt, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Dual-species community formation between F. alocis and A. actinomycetemcomitans analyzed by CLSM. A. A. actinomycetemcomitans 652 (red, stained with hexidium iodide) was cultured on glass coverslips. F. alocis strains ATCC 35896 (upper left panel) and D-62D (upper right panel) were stained with FITC (green) and reacted with A. actinomycetemcomitans for 24 h, 48 h and 72 h. B. Time-resolved changes in the biovolume of A. actinomycetemcomitans 652, F. alocis ATCC 35896 and D-62D in dual species communities. Data are representative of four independent replicates. P-value compared with control single species communities was calculated by t-test, and significant differences are at p

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Oral Community Interactions of Filifactor alocis In Vitro

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076271

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Dual-species community formation between F. alocis and A. actinomycetemcomitans analyzed by CLSM. A. A. actinomycetemcomitans 652 (red, stained with hexidium iodide) was cultured on glass coverslips. F. alocis strains ATCC 35896 (upper left panel) and D-62D (upper right panel) were stained with FITC (green) and reacted with A. actinomycetemcomitans for 24 h, 48 h and 72 h. B. Time-resolved changes in the biovolume of A. actinomycetemcomitans 652, F. alocis ATCC 35896 and D-62D in dual species communities. Data are representative of four independent replicates. P-value compared with control single species communities was calculated by t-test, and significant differences are at p

    Article Snippet: Colocalization between A. actinomycetemcomitans and both strains of F. alocis was low, and hence the mutualistic growth between A. actinomycetemcomitans and F. alocis ATCC 35896 may depend on soluble secreted factors.

    Techniques: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, Staining, Cell Culture

    CLSM projections of monospecies communities of F.alocis strains ATCC 35896 and D-62D (green, stained with FITC), S. gordonii DL-1, F. nucleatum ATCC25586, A. actinomycetemcomitans 652, or P. gingivalis ATCC33277 (red, stained with hexidium iodide) after 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Oral Community Interactions of Filifactor alocis In Vitro

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076271

    Figure Lengend Snippet: CLSM projections of monospecies communities of F.alocis strains ATCC 35896 and D-62D (green, stained with FITC), S. gordonii DL-1, F. nucleatum ATCC25586, A. actinomycetemcomitans 652, or P. gingivalis ATCC33277 (red, stained with hexidium iodide) after 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h.

    Article Snippet: Colocalization between A. actinomycetemcomitans and both strains of F. alocis was low, and hence the mutualistic growth between A. actinomycetemcomitans and F. alocis ATCC 35896 may depend on soluble secreted factors.

    Techniques: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, Staining

    Pair-wise genomic comparisons among A. actinomycetemcomitans strains. A heat map of the genome variation among 14 A. actinomycetemcomitans strains is shown. The numbers in the box show the % of protein-coding genes found in one genome (left) but not another. The data are organized by serotypes; a (D17P3, D7S-1, and H5P-1), d (I63B), e (SC1083), e (SCC393), f (D18P1), b (HK1651, ANH9381, SCC1398, I23C), c (D11S-1, D17P2, SCC2302). The patterns of genome similarity mirror those found in phylogenetic analysis by 16S rRNA gene sequences or 25 housekeeping genes shown in Figures 1 and 2 . The numbers in parenthesis on the left of the map indicate the numbers of protein-coding genes.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Identification of the Pangenome and Its Components in 14 Distinct Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Strains by Comparative Genomic Analysis

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0022420

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Pair-wise genomic comparisons among A. actinomycetemcomitans strains. A heat map of the genome variation among 14 A. actinomycetemcomitans strains is shown. The numbers in the box show the % of protein-coding genes found in one genome (left) but not another. The data are organized by serotypes; a (D17P3, D7S-1, and H5P-1), d (I63B), e (SC1083), e (SCC393), f (D18P1), b (HK1651, ANH9381, SCC1398, I23C), c (D11S-1, D17P2, SCC2302). The patterns of genome similarity mirror those found in phylogenetic analysis by 16S rRNA gene sequences or 25 housekeeping genes shown in Figures 1 and 2 . The numbers in parenthesis on the left of the map indicate the numbers of protein-coding genes.

    Article Snippet: Gene prediction and annotation In addition to the 11 A. actinomycetemcomitans strains sequenced in this study, the genome sequences of three previously sequenced A. actinomycetemcomitans strains , ( http://www.genome.ou.edu/act.html ), A. aphrophilus strain NJ 8700 and ATCC 33389 were included in the analysis.

    Techniques:

    Two-way hierarchical clustering of the variable gene profiles of A. actinomycetemcomitans strains. Columns represent A. actinomycetemcomitans genomes. Rows represent genes. Red and black color cells represent presence or absence of genes in a particular genome respectively. Clustering result shows a similar grouping of A. actinomycetemcomitans strains as phylogenetic analysis where strains from serotype a, d, e and f (excluding strain SC1083) form a group and strains from serotype b and c form another group. Image truncated for brevity.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Identification of the Pangenome and Its Components in 14 Distinct Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Strains by Comparative Genomic Analysis

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0022420

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Two-way hierarchical clustering of the variable gene profiles of A. actinomycetemcomitans strains. Columns represent A. actinomycetemcomitans genomes. Rows represent genes. Red and black color cells represent presence or absence of genes in a particular genome respectively. Clustering result shows a similar grouping of A. actinomycetemcomitans strains as phylogenetic analysis where strains from serotype a, d, e and f (excluding strain SC1083) form a group and strains from serotype b and c form another group. Image truncated for brevity.

    Article Snippet: Gene prediction and annotation In addition to the 11 A. actinomycetemcomitans strains sequenced in this study, the genome sequences of three previously sequenced A. actinomycetemcomitans strains , ( http://www.genome.ou.edu/act.html ), A. aphrophilus strain NJ 8700 and ATCC 33389 were included in the analysis.

    Techniques:

    Classification of core and flexible genes in A. actinomycetemcomitans . Genes were classified by the COG super-functional category (A) and the COG functional category (B). As expected, the core genome is better represented by genes that provide the essential cell function for the bacterium whereas the vast majority of the variable genome is made up of poorly characterized genes. Poorly characterized genes also represented about one third of the core genome. This suggests that more studies are still needed to understand the basic biology of this bacterial species.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Identification of the Pangenome and Its Components in 14 Distinct Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Strains by Comparative Genomic Analysis

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0022420

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Classification of core and flexible genes in A. actinomycetemcomitans . Genes were classified by the COG super-functional category (A) and the COG functional category (B). As expected, the core genome is better represented by genes that provide the essential cell function for the bacterium whereas the vast majority of the variable genome is made up of poorly characterized genes. Poorly characterized genes also represented about one third of the core genome. This suggests that more studies are still needed to understand the basic biology of this bacterial species.

    Article Snippet: Gene prediction and annotation In addition to the 11 A. actinomycetemcomitans strains sequenced in this study, the genome sequences of three previously sequenced A. actinomycetemcomitans strains , ( http://www.genome.ou.edu/act.html ), A. aphrophilus strain NJ 8700 and ATCC 33389 were included in the analysis.

    Techniques: Functional Assay, Cell Function Assay

    Phylogenetic tree of A. actinomycetemcomitans and related species based on housekeeping genes. The phylogenetic relationships of A. actinomycetemcomitans , A. aphrophilus , Haemophilus spp. and M. haemolytica strains were examined with 25 housekeeping gene (a total length of 17,840 bp) sequences. Bootstrap values (100 replicates) are given at branch points. Bar represents substitutions per site. M. haemolytica strain PHL213 was used to root the tree. Serotype information is given for all A. actinomycetemcomitans strains. The phylogenetic tree was constructed and drawn using PHYLIP version 3.6.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Identification of the Pangenome and Its Components in 14 Distinct Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Strains by Comparative Genomic Analysis

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0022420

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Phylogenetic tree of A. actinomycetemcomitans and related species based on housekeeping genes. The phylogenetic relationships of A. actinomycetemcomitans , A. aphrophilus , Haemophilus spp. and M. haemolytica strains were examined with 25 housekeeping gene (a total length of 17,840 bp) sequences. Bootstrap values (100 replicates) are given at branch points. Bar represents substitutions per site. M. haemolytica strain PHL213 was used to root the tree. Serotype information is given for all A. actinomycetemcomitans strains. The phylogenetic tree was constructed and drawn using PHYLIP version 3.6.

    Article Snippet: Gene prediction and annotation In addition to the 11 A. actinomycetemcomitans strains sequenced in this study, the genome sequences of three previously sequenced A. actinomycetemcomitans strains , ( http://www.genome.ou.edu/act.html ), A. aphrophilus strain NJ 8700 and ATCC 33389 were included in the analysis.

    Techniques: Construct

    Genetic comparison between A. actinomycetemcomitans strains with or without the cdt -island. Comparison of the genetic locus of the cdt -island in strain D7S-1 and the comparable locus in strain SC1083. The homologous sulfatase and Gly-rRNA between strains are colored in dark blue and red, respectively. Several genes encoding hypothetical proteins and other proteins in the cdt -island of strain D7S-1 are not indicated in the map (see Table S3 for a full list of genes on the island). The comparison shows that strain SC1083 is missing the ∼14 kb cdt -island.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Identification of the Pangenome and Its Components in 14 Distinct Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Strains by Comparative Genomic Analysis

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0022420

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Genetic comparison between A. actinomycetemcomitans strains with or without the cdt -island. Comparison of the genetic locus of the cdt -island in strain D7S-1 and the comparable locus in strain SC1083. The homologous sulfatase and Gly-rRNA between strains are colored in dark blue and red, respectively. Several genes encoding hypothetical proteins and other proteins in the cdt -island of strain D7S-1 are not indicated in the map (see Table S3 for a full list of genes on the island). The comparison shows that strain SC1083 is missing the ∼14 kb cdt -island.

    Article Snippet: Gene prediction and annotation In addition to the 11 A. actinomycetemcomitans strains sequenced in this study, the genome sequences of three previously sequenced A. actinomycetemcomitans strains , ( http://www.genome.ou.edu/act.html ), A. aphrophilus strain NJ 8700 and ATCC 33389 were included in the analysis.

    Techniques:

    Analysis of pangenome and its components in A. actinomycetemcomitans . Analysis of the size of the core genome (A) and whether the pangenome is open or closed (B and C). The number of common genes (A), new genes (B) and size of pangenome (C) are plotted as a function of the number of n of strains sequentially added. Circles show all different strain combinations for each n . Squares are the averages for each n . The continuous curve in A and B represents the least-squares fit of an exponential decay function. The extrapolated A. actinomycetemcomitans core genome size and average number of new genes are shown as dashed lines in top and middle plots respectively. Based on the curve, the core genome size is estimated to be about 2,060 genes. For every additional strain up to 16 new genes can be added to the open pangenome.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Identification of the Pangenome and Its Components in 14 Distinct Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Strains by Comparative Genomic Analysis

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0022420

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Analysis of pangenome and its components in A. actinomycetemcomitans . Analysis of the size of the core genome (A) and whether the pangenome is open or closed (B and C). The number of common genes (A), new genes (B) and size of pangenome (C) are plotted as a function of the number of n of strains sequentially added. Circles show all different strain combinations for each n . Squares are the averages for each n . The continuous curve in A and B represents the least-squares fit of an exponential decay function. The extrapolated A. actinomycetemcomitans core genome size and average number of new genes are shown as dashed lines in top and middle plots respectively. Based on the curve, the core genome size is estimated to be about 2,060 genes. For every additional strain up to 16 new genes can be added to the open pangenome.

    Article Snippet: Gene prediction and annotation In addition to the 11 A. actinomycetemcomitans strains sequenced in this study, the genome sequences of three previously sequenced A. actinomycetemcomitans strains , ( http://www.genome.ou.edu/act.html ), A. aphrophilus strain NJ 8700 and ATCC 33389 were included in the analysis.

    Techniques:

    SK1 deficiency in BMMs had no significant impact on proinflammatory cytokine levels induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans ( Aa ). Murine WT BMMs were treated for 4 h with either vehicle (PBS containing 4mg/mL of fatty acid-free BSA), various concentrations

    Journal: Journal of periodontal research

    Article Title: Periodontal inflammation and alveolar bone loss induced by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is attenuated in sphingosine kinase 1-deficient mice

    doi: 10.1111/jre.12276

    Figure Lengend Snippet: SK1 deficiency in BMMs had no significant impact on proinflammatory cytokine levels induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans ( Aa ). Murine WT BMMs were treated for 4 h with either vehicle (PBS containing 4mg/mL of fatty acid-free BSA), various concentrations

    Article Snippet: To determine the role of S1P in modulating the inflammatory response, murine WT BMMs were treated with either vehicle (PBS containing 4mg/mL of fatty acid-free BSA), various doses of S1P (0.25 to 5 μM), A. actinomycetemcomitans (1.5 CFU/cell) alone, or with both S1P (0.25 to 5 μM) and A. actinomycetemcomitans (1.5 CFU/cell) for 4 h. As shown in , low doses of S1P (≤1μM) did not induce a significant inflammatory response 4 h with or without the presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans .

    Techniques:

    SK1 deficiency significantly decreased S1P production induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans ( Aa ) in BMMs. Murine BMMs derived from SK1 KO or WT mice were either untreated or stimulated with A. actinomycetemcomitans (1.5 CFU/cell) for 1 to 8 h. (A) S1P biosynthesis

    Journal: Journal of periodontal research

    Article Title: Periodontal inflammation and alveolar bone loss induced by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is attenuated in sphingosine kinase 1-deficient mice

    doi: 10.1111/jre.12276

    Figure Lengend Snippet: SK1 deficiency significantly decreased S1P production induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans ( Aa ) in BMMs. Murine BMMs derived from SK1 KO or WT mice were either untreated or stimulated with A. actinomycetemcomitans (1.5 CFU/cell) for 1 to 8 h. (A) S1P biosynthesis

    Article Snippet: To determine the role of S1P in modulating the inflammatory response, murine WT BMMs were treated with either vehicle (PBS containing 4mg/mL of fatty acid-free BSA), various doses of S1P (0.25 to 5 μM), A. actinomycetemcomitans (1.5 CFU/cell) alone, or with both S1P (0.25 to 5 μM) and A. actinomycetemcomitans (1.5 CFU/cell) for 4 h. As shown in , low doses of S1P (≤1μM) did not induce a significant inflammatory response 4 h with or without the presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans .

    Techniques: Derivative Assay, Mouse Assay

    SK1 KO mice showed significantly attenuated alveolar bone loss induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans ( Aa ) as compared with A. actinomycetemcomitans -treated WT mice. SK1 WT and KO mice were injected with PBS or A. actinomycetemcomitans in the periodontal

    Journal: Journal of periodontal research

    Article Title: Periodontal inflammation and alveolar bone loss induced by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is attenuated in sphingosine kinase 1-deficient mice

    doi: 10.1111/jre.12276

    Figure Lengend Snippet: SK1 KO mice showed significantly attenuated alveolar bone loss induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans ( Aa ) as compared with A. actinomycetemcomitans -treated WT mice. SK1 WT and KO mice were injected with PBS or A. actinomycetemcomitans in the periodontal

    Article Snippet: To determine the role of S1P in modulating the inflammatory response, murine WT BMMs were treated with either vehicle (PBS containing 4mg/mL of fatty acid-free BSA), various doses of S1P (0.25 to 5 μM), A. actinomycetemcomitans (1.5 CFU/cell) alone, or with both S1P (0.25 to 5 μM) and A. actinomycetemcomitans (1.5 CFU/cell) for 4 h. As shown in , low doses of S1P (≤1μM) did not induce a significant inflammatory response 4 h with or without the presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans .

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Injection

    SK1 KO mice exhibited a significant decrease in the number of periodontal leukocytes and osteoclasts induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans ( Aa ) as compared with A. actinomycetemcomitans -treated WT mice. SK1 WT and KO mice were injected with PBS or A. actinomycetemcomitans

    Journal: Journal of periodontal research

    Article Title: Periodontal inflammation and alveolar bone loss induced by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is attenuated in sphingosine kinase 1-deficient mice

    doi: 10.1111/jre.12276

    Figure Lengend Snippet: SK1 KO mice exhibited a significant decrease in the number of periodontal leukocytes and osteoclasts induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans ( Aa ) as compared with A. actinomycetemcomitans -treated WT mice. SK1 WT and KO mice were injected with PBS or A. actinomycetemcomitans

    Article Snippet: To determine the role of S1P in modulating the inflammatory response, murine WT BMMs were treated with either vehicle (PBS containing 4mg/mL of fatty acid-free BSA), various doses of S1P (0.25 to 5 μM), A. actinomycetemcomitans (1.5 CFU/cell) alone, or with both S1P (0.25 to 5 μM) and A. actinomycetemcomitans (1.5 CFU/cell) for 4 h. As shown in , low doses of S1P (≤1μM) did not induce a significant inflammatory response 4 h with or without the presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans .

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Injection

    Genes linked to different phenotypes A. Gene trap insertions identified in loci essential for CDT intoxication. A color code distinguishes gene trap insertions that were enriched using distinct CDTs: A. actinomycetemcomitans in green, E. coli in red, H. ducreyi in yellow and C. jejuni in blue. B. Loci linked to 12 separate phenotypes. Cells were exposed to small molecule inhibitors of the Bcl2-family (ABT-737), chk1-kinase activity (AZD7762), Bcr-Abl-activity (imatinib), or DNA methylation (decitabine). Additional phenotypic selections were done using biological agents including TRAIL, CDTs, diphtheria toxin, ricin toxin and reovirus. Gene trap insertions in exonic sequences or in the sense orientation of genes were counted per individual selection. Enrichment p-value was calculated for each gene locus by comparing this number to the number of insertions identified in the same locus within the unselected cell population. Each screen resulted in a distinct set of between 1 and 8 genes with high significance. These include already known entry factors used by pathogens such as the entry receptor for diphtheria toxin (HBEGF), the reovirus receptor (F11R) and an enzyme involved in carbohydrate synthesis required for ricin entry (MGAT2). It also includes downstream effectors of kinases for example CDC25A in a screen with a Chk1 inhibitor or PTPN1 and PTPN12 identified by BCR-ABL inhibition using imatinib. Strong resistance against decitabine was observed in cells containing mutations in deoxycytidine kinase (DCK), the rate-limiting kinase for activation of several nucleoside analogs 20 .

    Journal: Nature biotechnology

    Article Title: Global gene disruption in human cells to assign genes to phenotypes

    doi: 10.1038/nbt.1857

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Genes linked to different phenotypes A. Gene trap insertions identified in loci essential for CDT intoxication. A color code distinguishes gene trap insertions that were enriched using distinct CDTs: A. actinomycetemcomitans in green, E. coli in red, H. ducreyi in yellow and C. jejuni in blue. B. Loci linked to 12 separate phenotypes. Cells were exposed to small molecule inhibitors of the Bcl2-family (ABT-737), chk1-kinase activity (AZD7762), Bcr-Abl-activity (imatinib), or DNA methylation (decitabine). Additional phenotypic selections were done using biological agents including TRAIL, CDTs, diphtheria toxin, ricin toxin and reovirus. Gene trap insertions in exonic sequences or in the sense orientation of genes were counted per individual selection. Enrichment p-value was calculated for each gene locus by comparing this number to the number of insertions identified in the same locus within the unselected cell population. Each screen resulted in a distinct set of between 1 and 8 genes with high significance. These include already known entry factors used by pathogens such as the entry receptor for diphtheria toxin (HBEGF), the reovirus receptor (F11R) and an enzyme involved in carbohydrate synthesis required for ricin entry (MGAT2). It also includes downstream effectors of kinases for example CDC25A in a screen with a Chk1 inhibitor or PTPN1 and PTPN12 identified by BCR-ABL inhibition using imatinib. Strong resistance against decitabine was observed in cells containing mutations in deoxycytidine kinase (DCK), the rate-limiting kinase for activation of several nucleoside analogs 20 .

    Article Snippet: A. actinomycetemcomitans CDT The operon sequence between subunits CdtA and CdtC was amplified from genomic DNA of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC 700685D-5) using the following forward: 5′-ATCTAAGGAGAGGTACAATGAAA-3′ and reverse 5′-TTAGCTACCCTGATTTCTCC-3′ primers.

    Techniques: Activity Assay, DNA Methylation Assay, Selection, Inhibition, Activation Assay