a actinomycetemcomitans  (ATCC)


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    ATCC a actinomycetemcomitans
    Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. <t>actinomycetemcomitans</t> infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the
    A Actinomycetemcomitans, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 7 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Images

    1) Product Images from "Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages"

    Article Title: Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.01226-13

    Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the
    Figure Legend Snippet: Cytokines production by WT and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. BMDMs from WT and MyD88-deficient mice were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans for 6 h, and, as indicated, the

    Techniques Used: Infection, Mouse Assay

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α in WT and TLR2/4- and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of NF-κB and MAPKs on F. nucleatum - and A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced production of cytokines by macrophages. WT BMDMs were pretreated with various doses of each inhibitor 2 h before infection. The cells were then infected with F. nucleatum

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of endosomal TLRs and bacterial DNA on cytokine production by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs were pretreated with chloroquine (CLQ) 2 h before infection. The cells were then

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and TNF-α by WT and TLR2-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans . BMDMs were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at the indicated MOI. At 6 (A to D) or

    Techniques Used: Infection

    NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein
    Figure Legend Snippet: NF-κB and MAPK activation in WT and TLR2/4-, and MyD88-deficient BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Cells were infected with F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans at an MOI of 1/100, and cellular protein

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay, Infection

    2) Product Images from "Periodontal inflammation and alveolar bone loss induced by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is attenuated in sphingosine kinase 1-deficient mice"

    Article Title: Periodontal inflammation and alveolar bone loss induced by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is attenuated in sphingosine kinase 1-deficient mice

    Journal: Journal of periodontal research

    doi: 10.1111/jre.12276

    SK1 deficiency in BMMs had no significant impact on proinflammatory cytokine levels induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans ( Aa ). Murine WT BMMs were treated for 4 h with either vehicle (PBS containing 4mg/mL of fatty acid-free BSA), various concentrations
    Figure Legend Snippet: SK1 deficiency in BMMs had no significant impact on proinflammatory cytokine levels induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans ( Aa ). Murine WT BMMs were treated for 4 h with either vehicle (PBS containing 4mg/mL of fatty acid-free BSA), various concentrations

    Techniques Used:

    SK1 deficiency significantly decreased S1P production induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans ( Aa ) in BMMs. Murine BMMs derived from SK1 KO or WT mice were either untreated or stimulated with A. actinomycetemcomitans (1.5 CFU/cell) for 1 to 8 h. (A) S1P biosynthesis
    Figure Legend Snippet: SK1 deficiency significantly decreased S1P production induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans ( Aa ) in BMMs. Murine BMMs derived from SK1 KO or WT mice were either untreated or stimulated with A. actinomycetemcomitans (1.5 CFU/cell) for 1 to 8 h. (A) S1P biosynthesis

    Techniques Used: Derivative Assay, Mouse Assay

    SK1 KO mice showed significantly attenuated alveolar bone loss induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans ( Aa ) as compared with A. actinomycetemcomitans -treated WT mice. SK1 WT and KO mice were injected with PBS or A. actinomycetemcomitans in the periodontal
    Figure Legend Snippet: SK1 KO mice showed significantly attenuated alveolar bone loss induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans ( Aa ) as compared with A. actinomycetemcomitans -treated WT mice. SK1 WT and KO mice were injected with PBS or A. actinomycetemcomitans in the periodontal

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Injection

    SK1 KO mice exhibited a significant decrease in the number of periodontal leukocytes and osteoclasts induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans ( Aa ) as compared with A. actinomycetemcomitans -treated WT mice. SK1 WT and KO mice were injected with PBS or A. actinomycetemcomitans
    Figure Legend Snippet: SK1 KO mice exhibited a significant decrease in the number of periodontal leukocytes and osteoclasts induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans ( Aa ) as compared with A. actinomycetemcomitans -treated WT mice. SK1 WT and KO mice were injected with PBS or A. actinomycetemcomitans

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Injection

    3) Product Images from "Multiserotype Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay as a Diagnostic Aid for Periodontitis in Large-Scale Studies"

    Article Title: Multiserotype Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay as a Diagnostic Aid for Periodontitis in Large-Scale Studies

    Journal: Journal of Clinical Microbiology

    doi: 10.1128/JCM.40.2.512-518.2002

    A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis IgG results in different subject groups. The IgG levels, expressed as AUCs, against the two periodontal pathogens were measured by an ELISA in which mixtures of six A. actinomycetemcomitans strains (A) and three P. gingivalis strains (B) were used as antigens. The patients ( n = 35) were divided in two groups according to the subgingival presence or absence of the pathogen by PCR detection. The statistical significance of the difference in the results between the groups is depicted (∗∗∗, P
    Figure Legend Snippet: A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis IgG results in different subject groups. The IgG levels, expressed as AUCs, against the two periodontal pathogens were measured by an ELISA in which mixtures of six A. actinomycetemcomitans strains (A) and three P. gingivalis strains (B) were used as antigens. The patients ( n = 35) were divided in two groups according to the subgingival presence or absence of the pathogen by PCR detection. The statistical significance of the difference in the results between the groups is depicted (∗∗∗, P

    Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Comparison of serum IgG levels against A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis measured by serotype-specific and serotype mixture ELISA. Four subjects (I, II, III, and IV) were chosen according to presence (+) or absence (−) of subgingival A. actinomycetemcomitans (A.a.) and P. gingivalis (P.g.) by PCR detection, and their serum samples were analyzed by ELISA. (A) A. actinomycetemcomitans serotypes a (ATCC 29523), b (ATCC 43718), c (ATCC 33384), d (IDH 781), e (IDH 1705), and × (non-serotypeable) or their mixture (mix) was used as antigen. (B) P. gingivalis serotypes a (ATCC 33277), b (W50), and c (OMGS 434) or their mixture (mix) was used as antigen.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Comparison of serum IgG levels against A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis measured by serotype-specific and serotype mixture ELISA. Four subjects (I, II, III, and IV) were chosen according to presence (+) or absence (−) of subgingival A. actinomycetemcomitans (A.a.) and P. gingivalis (P.g.) by PCR detection, and their serum samples were analyzed by ELISA. (A) A. actinomycetemcomitans serotypes a (ATCC 29523), b (ATCC 43718), c (ATCC 33384), d (IDH 781), e (IDH 1705), and × (non-serotypeable) or their mixture (mix) was used as antigen. (B) P. gingivalis serotypes a (ATCC 33277), b (W50), and c (OMGS 434) or their mixture (mix) was used as antigen.

    Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Individual serum IgG levels against A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis before and after periodontal treatment. From 31 patients with periodontitis, follow-up samples were collected approximately 3 months after the first sampling, and their levels of IgG against A. actinomycetemcomitans (A) and P. gingivalis (B) were measured using a serotype mixture ELISA. The white bars and striped bars represent the level (AUC) before and after treatment, respectively.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Individual serum IgG levels against A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis before and after periodontal treatment. From 31 patients with periodontitis, follow-up samples were collected approximately 3 months after the first sampling, and their levels of IgG against A. actinomycetemcomitans (A) and P. gingivalis (B) were measured using a serotype mixture ELISA. The white bars and striped bars represent the level (AUC) before and after treatment, respectively.

    Techniques Used: Sampling, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    4) Product Images from "Differential effects of periopathogens on host protease inhibitors SLPI, elafin, SCCA1, and SCCA2"

    Article Title: Differential effects of periopathogens on host protease inhibitors SLPI, elafin, SCCA1, and SCCA2

    Journal: Journal of Oral Microbiology

    doi: 10.3402/jom.v2i0.5070

    P. gingivalis supernatant significantly induced mRNA gene expression of epithelial protease inhibitors (SLPI, elafin, SCCA1, and SCCA2). GECs were stimulated with cell-free supernatants of P. gingivalis (Pg), P. gingivalis mutant KDP112 (Pg−/−), T. forsythia (Tf) A. actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), and whole bacterial F. nucleatum (Fn) at MOIs of 100 or equivalent for 24 h. Change of mRNA expression was evaluated by QRT-PCR and results are expressed as fold change in gene expression compared with the unstimulated control after normalization with the housekeeping gene ribosomal phosphoprotein (RPO). The change of gene expression of SLPI, elafin, SCCA1, and SCCA2 was minimal in GEC stimulated by Fn, Aa, Tf, Pg−/− compared to the unstimulated control (inset of Fig. 1 ). TLCK pre-incubated with P. gingivalis supernatant blocked upregulation. The data are derived from three different cell donors tested in duplicate. Error bars indicate SEM (standard error of the mean).
    Figure Legend Snippet: P. gingivalis supernatant significantly induced mRNA gene expression of epithelial protease inhibitors (SLPI, elafin, SCCA1, and SCCA2). GECs were stimulated with cell-free supernatants of P. gingivalis (Pg), P. gingivalis mutant KDP112 (Pg−/−), T. forsythia (Tf) A. actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), and whole bacterial F. nucleatum (Fn) at MOIs of 100 or equivalent for 24 h. Change of mRNA expression was evaluated by QRT-PCR and results are expressed as fold change in gene expression compared with the unstimulated control after normalization with the housekeeping gene ribosomal phosphoprotein (RPO). The change of gene expression of SLPI, elafin, SCCA1, and SCCA2 was minimal in GEC stimulated by Fn, Aa, Tf, Pg−/− compared to the unstimulated control (inset of Fig. 1 ). TLCK pre-incubated with P. gingivalis supernatant blocked upregulation. The data are derived from three different cell donors tested in duplicate. Error bars indicate SEM (standard error of the mean).

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Mutagenesis, Quantitative RT-PCR, Incubation, Derivative Assay

    Secreted SLPI and elafin are degraded by P. gingivalis supernatants. GECs were treated for 24 h (A and B) or for the time indicated (C) with various bacterial supernatants and the media analyzed by ELISA. (A) Secreted level of SLPI and elafin compared for various bacteria. GECs were stimulated with P. gingivalis (Pg), P. gingivalis mutant KDP112 (Pg−/−), T. forsythia (Tf) A. actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), and F. nucleatum (Fn) at MOIs of 100 or equivalent. (B) Secreted SLPI and elafin in media from GECs treated with graded doses of P. gingivalis supernatants and whole P. gingivalis . (C and D) Time course for the secreted levels of SLPI (C) and elafin (D) in GEC media in response to P. gingivalis supernatant stimulation (dark bar) and the unstimulated control (grey bar). The secreted level in response to P. gingivalis supernatant is shown with an expanded scale (insets). The results were expressed as means±SD (standard deviation) of values from three independent experiments. (*) indicates significant difference ( p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Secreted SLPI and elafin are degraded by P. gingivalis supernatants. GECs were treated for 24 h (A and B) or for the time indicated (C) with various bacterial supernatants and the media analyzed by ELISA. (A) Secreted level of SLPI and elafin compared for various bacteria. GECs were stimulated with P. gingivalis (Pg), P. gingivalis mutant KDP112 (Pg−/−), T. forsythia (Tf) A. actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), and F. nucleatum (Fn) at MOIs of 100 or equivalent. (B) Secreted SLPI and elafin in media from GECs treated with graded doses of P. gingivalis supernatants and whole P. gingivalis . (C and D) Time course for the secreted levels of SLPI (C) and elafin (D) in GEC media in response to P. gingivalis supernatant stimulation (dark bar) and the unstimulated control (grey bar). The secreted level in response to P. gingivalis supernatant is shown with an expanded scale (insets). The results were expressed as means±SD (standard deviation) of values from three independent experiments. (*) indicates significant difference ( p

    Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Mutagenesis, Standard Deviation

    5) Product Images from "Synergistic Anti-Inflammatory Activity of the Antimicrobial Peptides Human Beta-Defensin-3 (hBD-3) and Cathelicidin (LL-37) in a Three-Dimensional Co-Culture Model of Gingival Epithelial Cells and Fibroblasts"

    Article Title: Synergistic Anti-Inflammatory Activity of the Antimicrobial Peptides Human Beta-Defensin-3 (hBD-3) and Cathelicidin (LL-37) in a Three-Dimensional Co-Culture Model of Gingival Epithelial Cells and Fibroblasts

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0106766

    Light microscopic observations of the individual cell lines and the 3D co-culture model. A: Collagen-gingival fibroblast (HGF-1) gel; B: Gingival epithelial cells (OBA-9) seeded on the collagen gel; C and D: 3D co-culture model composed of gingival fibroblasts embedded in a collagen matrix overlaid with gingival epithelial cells. The epithelial cells, fibroblasts, and 3D co-culture model were stimulated with A. actinomycetemcomitans LPS (1 µg/mL) for 24 h at 37°C in a 5% CO 2 atmosphere. Panels A, B, and C (4× magnification). Panel D (10× magnification).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Light microscopic observations of the individual cell lines and the 3D co-culture model. A: Collagen-gingival fibroblast (HGF-1) gel; B: Gingival epithelial cells (OBA-9) seeded on the collagen gel; C and D: 3D co-culture model composed of gingival fibroblasts embedded in a collagen matrix overlaid with gingival epithelial cells. The epithelial cells, fibroblasts, and 3D co-culture model were stimulated with A. actinomycetemcomitans LPS (1 µg/mL) for 24 h at 37°C in a 5% CO 2 atmosphere. Panels A, B, and C (4× magnification). Panel D (10× magnification).

    Techniques Used: Co-Culture Assay

    Amount of IL-6 (A) and IL-8 (B) secreted by gingival fibroblasts (HGF-1), gingival epithelial cells (OBA-9), and the 3D co-culture model in the absence and presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans LPS (1 µg/mL). Results are expressed as means ± standard deviation of triplicate assays from two independent experiments. *, p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Amount of IL-6 (A) and IL-8 (B) secreted by gingival fibroblasts (HGF-1), gingival epithelial cells (OBA-9), and the 3D co-culture model in the absence and presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans LPS (1 µg/mL). Results are expressed as means ± standard deviation of triplicate assays from two independent experiments. *, p

    Techniques Used: Co-Culture Assay, Standard Deviation

    6) Product Images from "Antibacterial Activity of As-Annealed TiO2 Nanotubes Doped with Ag Nanoparticles against Periodontal Pathogens"

    Article Title: Antibacterial Activity of As-Annealed TiO2 Nanotubes Doped with Ag Nanoparticles against Periodontal Pathogens

    Journal: Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications

    doi: 10.1155/2014/829496

    Descriptive analysis of adhesion of (a) A. actinomycetemcomitans , (b) T. forsythia , and (c) C. rectus on all groups tested (Group TiO 2 : as-annealed TiO 2 nanotubes; Group Ag: as-annealed Ag doped TiO 2 nanotubes; Group Ti: commercially pure Ti sheet; Control Group: 24-well cell culture plate bottoms). Data are presented as the mean ± SD (standard deviation). Results were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA and post hoc analyses were performed using Tukey's studentized range (HSD) test (* P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Descriptive analysis of adhesion of (a) A. actinomycetemcomitans , (b) T. forsythia , and (c) C. rectus on all groups tested (Group TiO 2 : as-annealed TiO 2 nanotubes; Group Ag: as-annealed Ag doped TiO 2 nanotubes; Group Ti: commercially pure Ti sheet; Control Group: 24-well cell culture plate bottoms). Data are presented as the mean ± SD (standard deviation). Results were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA and post hoc analyses were performed using Tukey's studentized range (HSD) test (* P

    Techniques Used: Cell Culture, Standard Deviation

    SEM micrographs after adhesion of A. actinomycetemcomitans , T. forsythia , and C. rectus on the surface of (a) Group TiO 2 : as-annealed TiO 2 nanotubes; (b) Group Ag: as-annealed Ag doped TiO 2 nanotubes; (c) Group Ti: commercially pure Ti sheet.
    Figure Legend Snippet: SEM micrographs after adhesion of A. actinomycetemcomitans , T. forsythia , and C. rectus on the surface of (a) Group TiO 2 : as-annealed TiO 2 nanotubes; (b) Group Ag: as-annealed Ag doped TiO 2 nanotubes; (c) Group Ti: commercially pure Ti sheet.

    Techniques Used:

    7) Product Images from "Assessment of Photodynamic Inactivation against Periodontal Bacteria Mediated by a Chitosan Hydrogel in a 3D Gingival Model"

    Article Title: Assessment of Photodynamic Inactivation against Periodontal Bacteria Mediated by a Chitosan Hydrogel in a 3D Gingival Model

    Journal: International Journal of Molecular Sciences

    doi: 10.3390/ijms17111821

    Cell survival fraction of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans ( A. actinomycetemcomitans ) ( A ) and P. gingivalis ( B ) biofilms in a 3D gingival model after incubation with F-2 for 0.5 h, and subjected to various doses of light illumination from four sides. After PDI, biofilm maintained contact with F-2 for 0.5 h (☐) and 2 h (■) prior to plate count. Each value is the mean of three independent experiments ± standard deviation. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Cell survival fraction of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans ( A. actinomycetemcomitans ) ( A ) and P. gingivalis ( B ) biofilms in a 3D gingival model after incubation with F-2 for 0.5 h, and subjected to various doses of light illumination from four sides. After PDI, biofilm maintained contact with F-2 for 0.5 h (☐) and 2 h (■) prior to plate count. Each value is the mean of three independent experiments ± standard deviation. * p

    Techniques Used: Incubation, Standard Deviation

    8) Product Images from "Chlamydia pneumoniae is present in the dental plaque of periodontitis patients and stimulates an inflammatory response in gingival epithelial cells"

    Article Title: Chlamydia pneumoniae is present in the dental plaque of periodontitis patients and stimulates an inflammatory response in gingival epithelial cells

    Journal: Microbial Cell

    doi: 10.15698/mic2019.04.674

    FIGURE 1: C. pneumoniae is present more frequently in subgingival plaque obtained from periodontally diseased sites vs. healthy sites. Dental plaques were obtained from subgingival locations in ten healthy patients (HPt, four sites for each one) and in ten patients with periodontal disease (PPt). For patients with periodontal disease, subgingival dental plaques were obtained from both areas with periodontitis (P, two sites per subject) and areas without periodontitis (H, two sites per subject). All dental plaque samples were subjected to PCR followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. (A, C, E) Representative gel electrophoretogram of PCR products screening C. pneumoniae (A) , P. gingivalis (C) and A. actinomycetemcomitans (E) . Quantification of C. pneumoniae (B) , P. gingivalis (D) and A. actinomycetemcomitans (F) 16S rRNA, PCR products. (B, D, F) Healthy sites: n = 40 (only from healthy donors) and diseased sites: n = 20. For each dental plaque sample, seven different runs were performed for C. pneumoniae and three different runs for P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans. Arrows indicate positive bands in the expected bp size. Error bars represent ± SD; 2-sided, paired Student's t test, * P ≤ 0.05, ***P≤0.001.
    Figure Legend Snippet: FIGURE 1: C. pneumoniae is present more frequently in subgingival plaque obtained from periodontally diseased sites vs. healthy sites. Dental plaques were obtained from subgingival locations in ten healthy patients (HPt, four sites for each one) and in ten patients with periodontal disease (PPt). For patients with periodontal disease, subgingival dental plaques were obtained from both areas with periodontitis (P, two sites per subject) and areas without periodontitis (H, two sites per subject). All dental plaque samples were subjected to PCR followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. (A, C, E) Representative gel electrophoretogram of PCR products screening C. pneumoniae (A) , P. gingivalis (C) and A. actinomycetemcomitans (E) . Quantification of C. pneumoniae (B) , P. gingivalis (D) and A. actinomycetemcomitans (F) 16S rRNA, PCR products. (B, D, F) Healthy sites: n = 40 (only from healthy donors) and diseased sites: n = 20. For each dental plaque sample, seven different runs were performed for C. pneumoniae and three different runs for P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans. Arrows indicate positive bands in the expected bp size. Error bars represent ± SD; 2-sided, paired Student's t test, * P ≤ 0.05, ***P≤0.001.

    Techniques Used: Polymerase Chain Reaction, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis

    9) Product Images from "Photocatalytical Antibacterial Activity of Mixed-Phase TiO2 Nanocomposite Thin Films against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans"

    Article Title: Photocatalytical Antibacterial Activity of Mixed-Phase TiO2 Nanocomposite Thin Films against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans

    Journal: BioMed Research International

    doi: 10.1155/2015/705871

    Descriptive analysis of adhesion of A. Actinomycetemcomitans on all groups tested (Group Ti: cpTi surface; Group AR: anatase/rutile mixed-phase TiO 2 thin film surface; Group D: culture plates' well bottoms). Data are presented as the mean ± SD ( n = 39) for all bars. Results were analyzed using the two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by subsequent one-way ANOVA and Student's t -test. If one-way ANOVA suggested a significant difference between means among the groups, post hoc analyses were performed using Tukey HSD test, and Tamhane's T 2 test ( ∗ p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Descriptive analysis of adhesion of A. Actinomycetemcomitans on all groups tested (Group Ti: cpTi surface; Group AR: anatase/rutile mixed-phase TiO 2 thin film surface; Group D: culture plates' well bottoms). Data are presented as the mean ± SD ( n = 39) for all bars. Results were analyzed using the two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by subsequent one-way ANOVA and Student's t -test. If one-way ANOVA suggested a significant difference between means among the groups, post hoc analyses were performed using Tukey HSD test, and Tamhane's T 2 test ( ∗ p

    Techniques Used:

    10) Product Images from "Synergistic Antibacterial Effects of Nanoparticles Encapsulated with Scutellaria baicalensis and Pure Chlorhexidine on Oral Bacterial Biofilms"

    Article Title: Synergistic Antibacterial Effects of Nanoparticles Encapsulated with Scutellaria baicalensis and Pure Chlorhexidine on Oral Bacterial Biofilms

    Journal: Nanomaterials

    doi: 10.3390/nano6040061

    Effect of the Nano-MIX on the multi-species biofilms of S. mutans , F. nucleatum , A. actinomycetemcomitans , and P. gingivalis at 24 h. The confocal scanning laser microscopy (CLSM) ( A , B ) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images ( C , D ) showing comparative antibacterial effects of the Nano-MIX treatment ( B , D ) on the mixed-species oral biofilms with reference to the blank nanoparticles ( A , C ), respectively.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of the Nano-MIX on the multi-species biofilms of S. mutans , F. nucleatum , A. actinomycetemcomitans , and P. gingivalis at 24 h. The confocal scanning laser microscopy (CLSM) ( A , B ) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images ( C , D ) showing comparative antibacterial effects of the Nano-MIX treatment ( B , D ) on the mixed-species oral biofilms with reference to the blank nanoparticles ( A , C ), respectively.

    Techniques Used: Microscopy, Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, Electron Microscopy

    11) Product Images from "Uptake pathways of anionic and cationic photosensitizers into bacteria"

    Article Title: Uptake pathways of anionic and cationic photosensitizers into bacteria

    Journal: Photochemical & photobiological sciences : Official journal of the European Photochemistry Association and the European Society for Photobiology

    doi: 10.1039/b809624d

    Uptake of PS (50 μM, A, MB; B, ICG) by A. actinomycetemcomitans cells with increasing concentrations of CaCl 2 , MgCl 2 or EDTA.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Uptake of PS (50 μM, A, MB; B, ICG) by A. actinomycetemcomitans cells with increasing concentrations of CaCl 2 , MgCl 2 or EDTA.

    Techniques Used:

    12) Product Images from "Characterization of Heat-Inducible Expression and Cloning of HtpG (Hsp90 Homologue) of Porphyromonas gingivalis"

    Article Title: Characterization of Heat-Inducible Expression and Cloning of HtpG (Hsp90 Homologue) of Porphyromonas gingivalis

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    doi:

    Alignments of deduced amino acid sequences of P. gingivalis , E. coli , and A. actinomycetemcomitans HtpG. Optimal alignment of the deduced HtpG peptide sequences of E. coli ), A. actinomycetemcomitans ), and P. gingivalis ).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Alignments of deduced amino acid sequences of P. gingivalis , E. coli , and A. actinomycetemcomitans HtpG. Optimal alignment of the deduced HtpG peptide sequences of E. coli ), A. actinomycetemcomitans ), and P. gingivalis ).

    Techniques Used:

    Related Articles

    Diagnostic Assay:

    Article Title: Uptake pathways of anionic and cationic photosensitizers into bacteria
    Article Snippet: E. faecalis (ATCC 29212), a Gram-positive bacterium, and A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC 33384), a Gram-negative bacterium, were used in this study. .. E. faecalis was grown in All Culture (AC) media (Sigma Aldrich, USA), while A. actinomycetemcomitans was grown in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) broth (Difco, BD Diagnostic Systems, MD) supplemented with hemin and vitamin K. Bacterial cells in the stationary phase (over-night growth) were collected by centrifugation (3000 g for 10 min) and were washed with deionized (DI) water.

    Clone Assay:

    Article Title: Characterization of Heat-Inducible Expression and Cloning of HtpG (Hsp90 Homologue) of Porphyromonas gingivalis
    Article Snippet: Paragraph title: Cloning and sequence analysis of P. gingivalis htpG. ... Under high-stringency conditions, this probe hybridized with DNA of all P. gingivalis strains (ATCC 33277, SUNYaB A7A1-28, ATCC 53978, and 381) but did not hybridize with E. coli (JB45 and DH5α) or A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC 43718) (data not shown).

    Centrifugation:

    Article Title: Uptake pathways of anionic and cationic photosensitizers into bacteria
    Article Snippet: E. faecalis (ATCC 29212), a Gram-positive bacterium, and A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC 33384), a Gram-negative bacterium, were used in this study. .. E. faecalis was grown in All Culture (AC) media (Sigma Aldrich, USA), while A. actinomycetemcomitans was grown in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) broth (Difco, BD Diagnostic Systems, MD) supplemented with hemin and vitamin K. Bacterial cells in the stationary phase (over-night growth) were collected by centrifugation (3000 g for 10 min) and were washed with deionized (DI) water.

    Amplification:

    Article Title: Chlamydia pneumoniae is present in the dental plaque of periodontitis patients and stimulates an inflammatory response in gingival epithelial cells
    Article Snippet: All amplicon sizes were examined by electrophoresis in a 2% agarose gel stained with a final concentration of 0.5 µg/ml ethidium bromide (EtBr; Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) and visualized under UV light. .. To be used as positive controls, genomic DNA was isolated from C. pneumoniae (CM-1, ATCC and ATCC VR-1360D, Chlamydophila pneumoniae , Strain CM-1), P. gingivalis (ATCC® 33277), A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC® 29522) using TRIzol (Thermo Fisher Scientific), and DNA of C. trachomatis was obtained from ATCC (ATCC® VR-885D, Serovar D; Strain UW-3/Cx).

    Article Title: Characterization of Heat-Inducible Expression and Cloning of HtpG (Hsp90 Homologue) of Porphyromonas gingivalis
    Article Snippet: PCR amplification from P. gingivalis 33277 with primers 3547I and 3546I generated a 0.6-kb DNA product. .. Under high-stringency conditions, this probe hybridized with DNA of all P. gingivalis strains (ATCC 33277, SUNYaB A7A1-28, ATCC 53978, and 381) but did not hybridize with E. coli (JB45 and DH5α) or A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC 43718) (data not shown).

    Blocking Assay:

    Article Title: Comparison of serum amyloid A protein and C-reactive protein levels as inflammatory markers in periodontitis
    Article Snippet: ELISA was performed as follows: a 96-well plate (Immulux HB, Technologies Inc., Chantilly, VA, USA) was covered with 50 µL of a 10-µg/mL concentration of sonicated P. gingivalis (TCC 33277), T. forsythia (ATCC43037) or A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC 29523) in a carbonate buffer (pH 9.6) and incubated overnight. .. The plates were blocked with 150 µL of solution of phosphate buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.2) with 1% bovine serum albumin (BSA, Sigma-Aldrich Co.), for one hour, and 1% milk and avidin (Avidin/Biotin Blocking Kit, Vector Laboratories Inc., Burlingame, CA, USA).

    Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay:

    Article Title: Comparison of serum amyloid A protein and C-reactive protein levels as inflammatory markers in periodontitis
    Article Snippet: .. ELISA was performed as follows: a 96-well plate (Immulux HB, Technologies Inc., Chantilly, VA, USA) was covered with 50 µL of a 10-µg/mL concentration of sonicated P. gingivalis (TCC 33277), T. forsythia (ATCC43037) or A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC 29523) in a carbonate buffer (pH 9.6) and incubated overnight. .. The plates were blocked with 150 µL of solution of phosphate buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.2) with 1% bovine serum albumin (BSA, Sigma-Aldrich Co.), for one hour, and 1% milk and avidin (Avidin/Biotin Blocking Kit, Vector Laboratories Inc., Burlingame, CA, USA).

    Incubation:

    Article Title: Comparison of serum amyloid A protein and C-reactive protein levels as inflammatory markers in periodontitis
    Article Snippet: .. ELISA was performed as follows: a 96-well plate (Immulux HB, Technologies Inc., Chantilly, VA, USA) was covered with 50 µL of a 10-µg/mL concentration of sonicated P. gingivalis (TCC 33277), T. forsythia (ATCC43037) or A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC 29523) in a carbonate buffer (pH 9.6) and incubated overnight. .. The plates were blocked with 150 µL of solution of phosphate buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.2) with 1% bovine serum albumin (BSA, Sigma-Aldrich Co.), for one hour, and 1% milk and avidin (Avidin/Biotin Blocking Kit, Vector Laboratories Inc., Burlingame, CA, USA).

    Article Title: Lack of cathelicidin processing in Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome patients reveals essential role of LL-37 in periodontal homeostasis
    Article Snippet: Determination of antimicrobial activity against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Suspensions of several strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC 33844 and six clinical isolates) were preincubated with different concentrations of LL-37 for 1 h at 37°C. .. Strains incubated in the same conditions but without the peptide constituted the control of survival (100% survival).

    Activity Assay:

    Article Title: Lack of cathelicidin processing in Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome patients reveals essential role of LL-37 in periodontal homeostasis
    Article Snippet: .. Determination of antimicrobial activity against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Suspensions of several strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC 33844 and six clinical isolates) were preincubated with different concentrations of LL-37 for 1 h at 37°C. .. Strains incubated in the same conditions but without the peptide constituted the control of survival (100% survival).

    Modification:

    Article Title: Antibacterial Activity of As-Annealed TiO2 Nanotubes Doped with Ag Nanoparticles against Periodontal Pathogens
    Article Snippet: Antibacterial Assay The tests were performed using A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC 43718; ATCC, Rockville MD, USA), T. forsythia (ATCC43037A), and C. rectus (ATCC 33238). .. Sheets of the Groups TiO2 , Ag, Ti, and Control Group were placed into individual wells of the sterile 24-well culture plates with their modified surfaces placed facing upward and bacteria cells were pipetted onto the samples for the three different bacteria experiments.

    Article Title: Assessment of Photodynamic Inactivation against Periodontal Bacteria Mediated by a Chitosan Hydrogel in a 3D Gingival Model
    Article Snippet: Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivals ATCC 33277) and A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC 10953) were provided by Dr. Yee-Chun Chen from the NTU Hospital (Taipei, Taiwan). .. Bacterial biofilm grown on a traditional disk reactor was modified from Pitts et al. design [ ].

    Article Title: Photocatalytical Antibacterial Activity of Mixed-Phase TiO2 Nanocomposite Thin Films against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans
    Article Snippet: Colony-Forming Assay for Antibacterial Effect The tests were performed using A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC 43718; ATCC, Rockville MD, USA). .. Sheets from both experimental groups (n = 78 each) were placed into individual wells of the sterile 24-well culture plates with their modified surfaces placed facing upwards and bacteria cells were pipetted onto these sheets.

    Derivative Assay:

    Article Title: Synergistic Antibacterial Effects of Nanoparticles Encapsulated with Scutellaria baicalensis and Pure Chlorhexidine on Oral Bacterial Biofilms
    Article Snippet: .. Anti-Biofilm Properties of the Nano-MIX (Nano-SB and Nano-CHX at 9:1 w/w) Representative oral bacteria including S. mutans (ATCC 35668), S. sobrinus (ATCC 33478), F. nucleatum (ATCC 25586), A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC 43718), E. faecalis (ATCC 29212), and P. gingivalis (ATCC 33277), derived from the archival collection at the Centralized Research Laboratory of the Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong, were used in the present study. ..

    Article Title: Characterization of Heat-Inducible Expression and Cloning of HtpG (Hsp90 Homologue) of Porphyromonas gingivalis
    Article Snippet: Under high-stringency conditions, this probe hybridized with DNA of all P. gingivalis strains (ATCC 33277, SUNYaB A7A1-28, ATCC 53978, and 381) but did not hybridize with E. coli (JB45 and DH5α) or A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC 43718) (data not shown). .. P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 DNA was subjected to PCR using oligonucleotide primers 7752I and 733J derived from sequences flanking the putative htpG locus of P. gingivalis W83.

    Serial Dilution:

    Article Title: Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages
    Article Snippet: F. nucleatum (ATCC 25586) and A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC 43718) were purchased from the American Type Culture Collection (Manassas, VA, USA). .. A 1/10 dilution of the overnight culture was prepared and allowed to grow with shaking to an optical density (at a wavelength of 600 nm) of 0.6, which corresponds to ∼109 CFU/ml of viable bacteria by serial dilution and plate counts.

    Northern Blot:

    Article Title: Characterization of Heat-Inducible Expression and Cloning of HtpG (Hsp90 Homologue) of Porphyromonas gingivalis
    Article Snippet: This PCR product was used as a probe in subsequent Southern and Northern analyses. .. Under high-stringency conditions, this probe hybridized with DNA of all P. gingivalis strains (ATCC 33277, SUNYaB A7A1-28, ATCC 53978, and 381) but did not hybridize with E. coli (JB45 and DH5α) or A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC 43718) (data not shown).

    Cell Culture:

    Article Title: Antibacterial Activity of As-Annealed TiO2 Nanotubes Doped with Ag Nanoparticles against Periodontal Pathogens
    Article Snippet: Antibacterial Assay The tests were performed using A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC 43718; ATCC, Rockville MD, USA), T. forsythia (ATCC43037A), and C. rectus (ATCC 33238). .. Bacteria cells were cultured in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth (Thermo Scientific Remel, Lenexa, KS, USA) overnight at 37°C.

    Article Title: Photocatalytical Antibacterial Activity of Mixed-Phase TiO2 Nanocomposite Thin Films against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans
    Article Snippet: Colony-Forming Assay for Antibacterial Effect The tests were performed using A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC 43718; ATCC, Rockville MD, USA). .. Bacteria cells were cultured in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth (Thermo Scientific Remel, Lenexa, KS, USA) overnight at 37°C.

    Article Title: Differential effects of periopathogens on host protease inhibitors SLPI, elafin, SCCA1, and SCCA2
    Article Snippet: P. gingivalis wild-type and mutant strains were cultured under anaerobic conditions (85% N2 , 10% H2 , and 5% CO2 ) at 37°C in Trypticase soy broth (BBL, Sparks, MD) supplemented with 1 g of yeast extract, 5 mg of hemin, and 1 mg of menadione per liter. .. A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC 700685) and F. nucleatum (ATCC 25586) were grown in Todd-Hewitt broth supplemented with 1 g of yeast extract per 100 ml at 37°C under anaerobic conditions.

    Article Title: Periodontal inflammation and alveolar bone loss induced by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is attenuated in sphingosine kinase 1-deficient mice
    Article Snippet: A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC 43718, serotype b, strain Y4) was purchased from American Type Culture Collection. .. Bacterial colonies were grown on Difco™ brain heart infusion agar plates (BD Biosciences, Sparks, MD, USA) and cultured in Bacto™ brain heart infusion broth (BD Biosciences) at 37°C with 10% CO2 for 24 h. Bacteria were centrifuged, washed with PBS with 5% glycerol, and resuspended in PBS with 5% glycerol.

    Generated:

    Article Title: Characterization of Heat-Inducible Expression and Cloning of HtpG (Hsp90 Homologue) of Porphyromonas gingivalis
    Article Snippet: PCR amplification from P. gingivalis 33277 with primers 3547I and 3546I generated a 0.6-kb DNA product. .. Under high-stringency conditions, this probe hybridized with DNA of all P. gingivalis strains (ATCC 33277, SUNYaB A7A1-28, ATCC 53978, and 381) but did not hybridize with E. coli (JB45 and DH5α) or A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC 43718) (data not shown).

    Inhibition:

    Article Title: Antibacterial Effect of Copaifera duckei Dwyer Oleoresin and Its Main Diterpenes against Oral Pathogens and Their Cytotoxic Effect
    Article Snippet: Compared to the results of Bardají et al. , in this work inhibition of biofilm formation by cariogenic strains provided by the C. duckei oleoresin and (–)-polyalthic acid was more promising: from 3.12 to 12.5 μg mL−1 and from 12.5 to 50.0 μg mL−1 , respectively (Figure ). .. Moraes et al. ( ) also detected an additive effect for the combination of chlorhexidine with the C. oblongifolia oleoresin against S. mitis (ATCC 49456) and A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC 43717).

    DNA Sequencing:

    Article Title: Characterization of Heat-Inducible Expression and Cloning of HtpG (Hsp90 Homologue) of Porphyromonas gingivalis
    Article Snippet: DNA sequencing confirmed its identity as the P. gingivalis sequence lying between the regions of homology identified with A. actinomycetemcomitans (data not shown). .. Under high-stringency conditions, this probe hybridized with DNA of all P. gingivalis strains (ATCC 33277, SUNYaB A7A1-28, ATCC 53978, and 381) but did not hybridize with E. coli (JB45 and DH5α) or A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC 43718) (data not shown).

    Polymerase Chain Reaction:

    Article Title: Multiserotype Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay as a Diagnostic Aid for Periodontitis in Large-Scale Studies
    Article Snippet: .. In every series of PCR, chromosomal DNA extracted ( ) from A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC 43718) and P. gingivalis (W50) strains served as positive controls and water served as the negative control. .. Serum IgG antibodies against A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis were determined by an ELISA essentially as described earlier ( ).

    Article Title: Chlamydia pneumoniae is present in the dental plaque of periodontitis patients and stimulates an inflammatory response in gingival epithelial cells
    Article Snippet: A hot-start protocol was used at 95°C (5 min) and the PCR cycling parameters were: denaturation at 96°C (5 sec), annealing at 45°C (5 sec) for C. pneumoniae, 57°C (5 sec) for C. trachomatis , 52°C (5 sec) for P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans , and extension at 68°C (15 sec) for C. pneumoniae , 68°C (9 sec) for C. trachomatis and 68°C (4 sec) for P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans in a total of 40 cycles, followed by a final extension at 72°C (1 min). .. To be used as positive controls, genomic DNA was isolated from C. pneumoniae (CM-1, ATCC and ATCC VR-1360D, Chlamydophila pneumoniae , Strain CM-1), P. gingivalis (ATCC® 33277), A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC® 29522) using TRIzol (Thermo Fisher Scientific), and DNA of C. trachomatis was obtained from ATCC (ATCC® VR-885D, Serovar D; Strain UW-3/Cx).

    Article Title: Characterization of Heat-Inducible Expression and Cloning of HtpG (Hsp90 Homologue) of Porphyromonas gingivalis
    Article Snippet: This PCR product was used as a probe in subsequent Southern and Northern analyses. .. Under high-stringency conditions, this probe hybridized with DNA of all P. gingivalis strains (ATCC 33277, SUNYaB A7A1-28, ATCC 53978, and 381) but did not hybridize with E. coli (JB45 and DH5α) or A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC 43718) (data not shown).

    Sonication:

    Article Title: Comparison of serum amyloid A protein and C-reactive protein levels as inflammatory markers in periodontitis
    Article Snippet: .. ELISA was performed as follows: a 96-well plate (Immulux HB, Technologies Inc., Chantilly, VA, USA) was covered with 50 µL of a 10-µg/mL concentration of sonicated P. gingivalis (TCC 33277), T. forsythia (ATCC43037) or A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC 29523) in a carbonate buffer (pH 9.6) and incubated overnight. .. The plates were blocked with 150 µL of solution of phosphate buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.2) with 1% bovine serum albumin (BSA, Sigma-Aldrich Co.), for one hour, and 1% milk and avidin (Avidin/Biotin Blocking Kit, Vector Laboratories Inc., Burlingame, CA, USA).

    Mutagenesis:

    Article Title: Differential effects of periopathogens on host protease inhibitors SLPI, elafin, SCCA1, and SCCA2
    Article Snippet: Appropriate antibiotics previously described were added to each culture of mutant of P. gingivalis ( , ). .. A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC 700685) and F. nucleatum (ATCC 25586) were grown in Todd-Hewitt broth supplemented with 1 g of yeast extract per 100 ml at 37°C under anaerobic conditions.

    Isolation:

    Article Title: Multiserotype Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay as a Diagnostic Aid for Periodontitis in Large-Scale Studies
    Article Snippet: DNA was isolated according to the supplier's instructions using Chelex 100 resin (Bio-Rad, Helsinki, Finland), and A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis were detected by PCR as reported earlier ( , ). .. In every series of PCR, chromosomal DNA extracted ( ) from A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC 43718) and P. gingivalis (W50) strains served as positive controls and water served as the negative control.

    Article Title: Chlamydia pneumoniae is present in the dental plaque of periodontitis patients and stimulates an inflammatory response in gingival epithelial cells
    Article Snippet: .. To be used as positive controls, genomic DNA was isolated from C. pneumoniae (CM-1, ATCC and ATCC VR-1360D, Chlamydophila pneumoniae , Strain CM-1), P. gingivalis (ATCC® 33277), A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC® 29522) using TRIzol (Thermo Fisher Scientific), and DNA of C. trachomatis was obtained from ATCC (ATCC® VR-885D, Serovar D; Strain UW-3/Cx). .. Ultra-pure water was used as negative control indicating primers were specific without self-annealing detections.

    Article Title: Synergistic Anti-Inflammatory Activity of the Antimicrobial Peptides Human Beta-Defensin-3 (hBD-3) and Cathelicidin (LL-37) in a Three-Dimensional Co-Culture Model of Gingival Epithelial Cells and Fibroblasts
    Article Snippet: .. A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC 29522) LPS was isolated using the protocol previously described by Darveau and Hancock . ..

    Avidin-Biotin Assay:

    Article Title: Comparison of serum amyloid A protein and C-reactive protein levels as inflammatory markers in periodontitis
    Article Snippet: ELISA was performed as follows: a 96-well plate (Immulux HB, Technologies Inc., Chantilly, VA, USA) was covered with 50 µL of a 10-µg/mL concentration of sonicated P. gingivalis (TCC 33277), T. forsythia (ATCC43037) or A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC 29523) in a carbonate buffer (pH 9.6) and incubated overnight. .. The plates were blocked with 150 µL of solution of phosphate buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.2) with 1% bovine serum albumin (BSA, Sigma-Aldrich Co.), for one hour, and 1% milk and avidin (Avidin/Biotin Blocking Kit, Vector Laboratories Inc., Burlingame, CA, USA).

    Microscopy:

    Article Title: Differential effects of periopathogens on host protease inhibitors SLPI, elafin, SCCA1, and SCCA2
    Article Snippet: A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC 700685) and F. nucleatum (ATCC 25586) were grown in Todd-Hewitt broth supplemented with 1 g of yeast extract per 100 ml at 37°C under anaerobic conditions. .. Bacterial purity was determined by microscopy and Gram staining, and numbers were estimated by absorbance measurement using the TECAN GENios Multidetection Reader, V.4.51 (Phoenix, Hayward, CA).

    Size-exclusion Chromatography:

    Article Title: Chlamydia pneumoniae is present in the dental plaque of periodontitis patients and stimulates an inflammatory response in gingival epithelial cells
    Article Snippet: A hot-start protocol was used at 95°C (5 min) and the PCR cycling parameters were: denaturation at 96°C (5 sec), annealing at 45°C (5 sec) for C. pneumoniae, 57°C (5 sec) for C. trachomatis , 52°C (5 sec) for P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans , and extension at 68°C (15 sec) for C. pneumoniae , 68°C (9 sec) for C. trachomatis and 68°C (4 sec) for P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans in a total of 40 cycles, followed by a final extension at 72°C (1 min). .. To be used as positive controls, genomic DNA was isolated from C. pneumoniae (CM-1, ATCC and ATCC VR-1360D, Chlamydophila pneumoniae , Strain CM-1), P. gingivalis (ATCC® 33277), A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC® 29522) using TRIzol (Thermo Fisher Scientific), and DNA of C. trachomatis was obtained from ATCC (ATCC® VR-885D, Serovar D; Strain UW-3/Cx).

    Sequencing:

    Article Title: Characterization of Heat-Inducible Expression and Cloning of HtpG (Hsp90 Homologue) of Porphyromonas gingivalis
    Article Snippet: Paragraph title: Cloning and sequence analysis of P. gingivalis htpG. ... Under high-stringency conditions, this probe hybridized with DNA of all P. gingivalis strains (ATCC 33277, SUNYaB A7A1-28, ATCC 53978, and 381) but did not hybridize with E. coli (JB45 and DH5α) or A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC 43718) (data not shown).

    Plasmid Preparation:

    Article Title: Comparison of serum amyloid A protein and C-reactive protein levels as inflammatory markers in periodontitis
    Article Snippet: ELISA was performed as follows: a 96-well plate (Immulux HB, Technologies Inc., Chantilly, VA, USA) was covered with 50 µL of a 10-µg/mL concentration of sonicated P. gingivalis (TCC 33277), T. forsythia (ATCC43037) or A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC 29523) in a carbonate buffer (pH 9.6) and incubated overnight. .. ELISA was performed as follows: a 96-well plate (Immulux HB, Technologies Inc., Chantilly, VA, USA) was covered with 50 µL of a 10-µg/mL concentration of sonicated P. gingivalis (TCC 33277), T. forsythia (ATCC43037) or A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC 29523) in a carbonate buffer (pH 9.6) and incubated overnight.

    Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction:

    Article Title: Chlamydia pneumoniae is present in the dental plaque of periodontitis patients and stimulates an inflammatory response in gingival epithelial cells
    Article Snippet: Paragraph title: Plaque collection and qPCR analysis of clinical samples ... To be used as positive controls, genomic DNA was isolated from C. pneumoniae (CM-1, ATCC and ATCC VR-1360D, Chlamydophila pneumoniae , Strain CM-1), P. gingivalis (ATCC® 33277), A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC® 29522) using TRIzol (Thermo Fisher Scientific), and DNA of C. trachomatis was obtained from ATCC (ATCC® VR-885D, Serovar D; Strain UW-3/Cx).

    Negative Control:

    Article Title: Multiserotype Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay as a Diagnostic Aid for Periodontitis in Large-Scale Studies
    Article Snippet: .. In every series of PCR, chromosomal DNA extracted ( ) from A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC 43718) and P. gingivalis (W50) strains served as positive controls and water served as the negative control. .. Serum IgG antibodies against A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis were determined by an ELISA essentially as described earlier ( ).

    Article Title: Chlamydia pneumoniae is present in the dental plaque of periodontitis patients and stimulates an inflammatory response in gingival epithelial cells
    Article Snippet: To be used as positive controls, genomic DNA was isolated from C. pneumoniae (CM-1, ATCC and ATCC VR-1360D, Chlamydophila pneumoniae , Strain CM-1), P. gingivalis (ATCC® 33277), A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC® 29522) using TRIzol (Thermo Fisher Scientific), and DNA of C. trachomatis was obtained from ATCC (ATCC® VR-885D, Serovar D; Strain UW-3/Cx). .. Ultra-pure water was used as negative control indicating primers were specific without self-annealing detections.

    Agarose Gel Electrophoresis:

    Article Title: Chlamydia pneumoniae is present in the dental plaque of periodontitis patients and stimulates an inflammatory response in gingival epithelial cells
    Article Snippet: All amplicon sizes were examined by electrophoresis in a 2% agarose gel stained with a final concentration of 0.5 µg/ml ethidium bromide (EtBr; Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) and visualized under UV light. .. To be used as positive controls, genomic DNA was isolated from C. pneumoniae (CM-1, ATCC and ATCC VR-1360D, Chlamydophila pneumoniae , Strain CM-1), P. gingivalis (ATCC® 33277), A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC® 29522) using TRIzol (Thermo Fisher Scientific), and DNA of C. trachomatis was obtained from ATCC (ATCC® VR-885D, Serovar D; Strain UW-3/Cx).

    Electrophoresis:

    Article Title: Chlamydia pneumoniae is present in the dental plaque of periodontitis patients and stimulates an inflammatory response in gingival epithelial cells
    Article Snippet: All amplicon sizes were examined by electrophoresis in a 2% agarose gel stained with a final concentration of 0.5 µg/ml ethidium bromide (EtBr; Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) and visualized under UV light. .. To be used as positive controls, genomic DNA was isolated from C. pneumoniae (CM-1, ATCC and ATCC VR-1360D, Chlamydophila pneumoniae , Strain CM-1), P. gingivalis (ATCC® 33277), A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC® 29522) using TRIzol (Thermo Fisher Scientific), and DNA of C. trachomatis was obtained from ATCC (ATCC® VR-885D, Serovar D; Strain UW-3/Cx).

    Sampling:

    Article Title: Multiserotype Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay as a Diagnostic Aid for Periodontitis in Large-Scale Studies
    Article Snippet: Paragraph title: Bacterial sampling and PCR detection. ... In every series of PCR, chromosomal DNA extracted ( ) from A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC 43718) and P. gingivalis (W50) strains served as positive controls and water served as the negative control.

    Concentration Assay:

    Article Title: Comparison of serum amyloid A protein and C-reactive protein levels as inflammatory markers in periodontitis
    Article Snippet: .. ELISA was performed as follows: a 96-well plate (Immulux HB, Technologies Inc., Chantilly, VA, USA) was covered with 50 µL of a 10-µg/mL concentration of sonicated P. gingivalis (TCC 33277), T. forsythia (ATCC43037) or A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC 29523) in a carbonate buffer (pH 9.6) and incubated overnight. .. The plates were blocked with 150 µL of solution of phosphate buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.2) with 1% bovine serum albumin (BSA, Sigma-Aldrich Co.), for one hour, and 1% milk and avidin (Avidin/Biotin Blocking Kit, Vector Laboratories Inc., Burlingame, CA, USA).

    Article Title: Diverse Toll-Like Receptors Mediate Cytokine Production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Macrophages
    Article Snippet: F. nucleatum (ATCC 25586) and A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC 43718) were purchased from the American Type Culture Collection (Manassas, VA, USA). .. After two washes with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS; pH 7.4), bacteria were diluted to the desired concentration with PBS or medium and used in subsequent experiments.

    Article Title: Periodontal inflammation and alveolar bone loss induced by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is attenuated in sphingosine kinase 1-deficient mice
    Article Snippet: A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC 43718, serotype b, strain Y4) was purchased from American Type Culture Collection. .. Bacterial concentration was determined by measuring optical density and followed by plating on brain heart infusion agar plates (OD600 =1, about 3× 107 colony forming units, CFU/mL).

    Article Title: Chlamydia pneumoniae is present in the dental plaque of periodontitis patients and stimulates an inflammatory response in gingival epithelial cells
    Article Snippet: All amplicon sizes were examined by electrophoresis in a 2% agarose gel stained with a final concentration of 0.5 µg/ml ethidium bromide (EtBr; Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) and visualized under UV light. .. To be used as positive controls, genomic DNA was isolated from C. pneumoniae (CM-1, ATCC and ATCC VR-1360D, Chlamydophila pneumoniae , Strain CM-1), P. gingivalis (ATCC® 33277), A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC® 29522) using TRIzol (Thermo Fisher Scientific), and DNA of C. trachomatis was obtained from ATCC (ATCC® VR-885D, Serovar D; Strain UW-3/Cx).

    Article Title: Synergistic Anti-Inflammatory Activity of the Antimicrobial Peptides Human Beta-Defensin-3 (hBD-3) and Cathelicidin (LL-37) in a Three-Dimensional Co-Culture Model of Gingival Epithelial Cells and Fibroblasts
    Article Snippet: They were dissolved in sterile UltraPure DNase/RNase-free distilled water (Life Technologies Inc., Burlington, ON, Canada) at a concentration of 1 mM and were stored at −20°C until used. .. A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC 29522) LPS was isolated using the protocol previously described by Darveau and Hancock .

    Staining:

    Article Title: Assessment of Photodynamic Inactivation against Periodontal Bacteria Mediated by a Chitosan Hydrogel in a 3D Gingival Model
    Article Snippet: Paragraph title: 4.3. Biofilm Formation and EPS Staining in Biofilms ... Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivals ATCC 33277) and A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC 10953) were provided by Dr. Yee-Chun Chen from the NTU Hospital (Taipei, Taiwan).

    Article Title: Differential effects of periopathogens on host protease inhibitors SLPI, elafin, SCCA1, and SCCA2
    Article Snippet: A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC 700685) and F. nucleatum (ATCC 25586) were grown in Todd-Hewitt broth supplemented with 1 g of yeast extract per 100 ml at 37°C under anaerobic conditions. .. Bacterial purity was determined by microscopy and Gram staining, and numbers were estimated by absorbance measurement using the TECAN GENios Multidetection Reader, V.4.51 (Phoenix, Hayward, CA).

    Article Title: Chlamydia pneumoniae is present in the dental plaque of periodontitis patients and stimulates an inflammatory response in gingival epithelial cells
    Article Snippet: All amplicon sizes were examined by electrophoresis in a 2% agarose gel stained with a final concentration of 0.5 µg/ml ethidium bromide (EtBr; Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) and visualized under UV light. .. To be used as positive controls, genomic DNA was isolated from C. pneumoniae (CM-1, ATCC and ATCC VR-1360D, Chlamydophila pneumoniae , Strain CM-1), P. gingivalis (ATCC® 33277), A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC® 29522) using TRIzol (Thermo Fisher Scientific), and DNA of C. trachomatis was obtained from ATCC (ATCC® VR-885D, Serovar D; Strain UW-3/Cx).

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    ATCC a actinomycetemcomitans
    LL-37 binds A. <t>actinomycetemcomitans</t> at submicrocidal concentrations. (A) Fluorescence microscopy analysis of binding of 4.4 μM and 11.1 μM tetramethylrhodamine-labeled LL-37 (red) to FITC-stained A. actinomycetemcomitans JP2 (green). (B) Flow cytometry analysis of A. actinomycetemcomitans strains incubated with increasing concentrations of tetramethylrhodamine-labeled LL-37. Graphs indicate mean cell percentages ± standard deviations from three independent experiments.
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    LL-37 binds A. actinomycetemcomitans at submicrocidal concentrations. (A) Fluorescence microscopy analysis of binding of 4.4 μM and 11.1 μM tetramethylrhodamine-labeled LL-37 (red) to FITC-stained A. actinomycetemcomitans JP2 (green). (B) Flow cytometry analysis of A. actinomycetemcomitans strains incubated with increasing concentrations of tetramethylrhodamine-labeled LL-37. Graphs indicate mean cell percentages ± standard deviations from three independent experiments.

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    Article Title: LL-37 Opsonizes and Inhibits Biofilm Formation of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans at Subbactericidal Concentrations

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.01288-12

    Figure Lengend Snippet: LL-37 binds A. actinomycetemcomitans at submicrocidal concentrations. (A) Fluorescence microscopy analysis of binding of 4.4 μM and 11.1 μM tetramethylrhodamine-labeled LL-37 (red) to FITC-stained A. actinomycetemcomitans JP2 (green). (B) Flow cytometry analysis of A. actinomycetemcomitans strains incubated with increasing concentrations of tetramethylrhodamine-labeled LL-37. Graphs indicate mean cell percentages ± standard deviations from three independent experiments.

    Article Snippet: Opsonization of A. actinomycetemcomitans with 11.1 μM (50 μg/ml) LL-37 increased the binding of A. actinomycetemcomitans JP2 by neutrophils by approximately 10-fold ( ) and increased the uptake of the four other tested strains (excluding strain ATCC 29523 where the increase in uptake was not statistically significant) by 2.8 to 9.5-fold ( ).

    Techniques: Fluorescence, Microscopy, Binding Assay, Labeling, Staining, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Incubation

    LL-37 acts as an opsonin of A. actinomycetemcomitans . (A) FACS analysis (fold increase of mean fluorescence intensity [MFI]) of human neutrophils incubated with FITC-labeled A. actinomycetemcomitans JP2 in the absence (black lines) or presence (red lines) of 6.6 μM, 8.8 μM, and 11.1 μM LL-37 and 11.1 μM scrambled LL-37. Neutrophils without labeled bacteria and without LL-37 were used as baseline, which is represented by a filled blue histogram. (B) Fold increase of mean fluorescence intensity of A. actinomycetemcomitans ( A. a ) opsonization in the presence of increasing concentrations of LL-37. Neutrophils with A. actinomycetemcomitans only were used as a baseline. (C) Fold increase of mean fluorescence intensity of A. actinomycetemcomitans VT726S Ltx − opsonization after incubation with LL-37 or scrambled LL-37. Neutrophils with labeled bacteria and no LL-37 were used as a baseline. (D) Fluorescence microscopy of human neutrophils (arrows) incubated with FITC-labeled A. actinomycetemcomitans JP2 ( A. a ) in the absence or presence of LL-37. * , P

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    Article Title: LL-37 Opsonizes and Inhibits Biofilm Formation of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans at Subbactericidal Concentrations

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.01288-12

    Figure Lengend Snippet: LL-37 acts as an opsonin of A. actinomycetemcomitans . (A) FACS analysis (fold increase of mean fluorescence intensity [MFI]) of human neutrophils incubated with FITC-labeled A. actinomycetemcomitans JP2 in the absence (black lines) or presence (red lines) of 6.6 μM, 8.8 μM, and 11.1 μM LL-37 and 11.1 μM scrambled LL-37. Neutrophils without labeled bacteria and without LL-37 were used as baseline, which is represented by a filled blue histogram. (B) Fold increase of mean fluorescence intensity of A. actinomycetemcomitans ( A. a ) opsonization in the presence of increasing concentrations of LL-37. Neutrophils with A. actinomycetemcomitans only were used as a baseline. (C) Fold increase of mean fluorescence intensity of A. actinomycetemcomitans VT726S Ltx − opsonization after incubation with LL-37 or scrambled LL-37. Neutrophils with labeled bacteria and no LL-37 were used as a baseline. (D) Fluorescence microscopy of human neutrophils (arrows) incubated with FITC-labeled A. actinomycetemcomitans JP2 ( A. a ) in the absence or presence of LL-37. * , P

    Article Snippet: Opsonization of A. actinomycetemcomitans with 11.1 μM (50 μg/ml) LL-37 increased the binding of A. actinomycetemcomitans JP2 by neutrophils by approximately 10-fold ( ) and increased the uptake of the four other tested strains (excluding strain ATCC 29523 where the increase in uptake was not statistically significant) by 2.8 to 9.5-fold ( ).

    Techniques: FACS, Fluorescence, Incubation, Labeling, Microscopy

    Binding of LL-37 to A. actinomycetemcomitans is sequence specific and sensitive to high ionic strength. (A) Flow cytometry analysis of A. actinomycetemcomitans JP2 incubated with increasing concentrations of tetramethylrhodamine-labeled LL-37 and 6-FAM-labeled scrambled LL-37. (B) A. actinomycetemcomitans incubated with tetramethylrhodamine-labeled LL-37 in the presence (+sLL-37) or absence (no sLL-37) of unlabeled 11.1 μM scrambled LL-37. (C) Flow cytometry histogram of binding of 11.1 μM tetramethylrhodamine-labeled LL-37 (TMR-LL-37) to A. actinomycetemcomitans JP2 at physiological ionic strength (PBS) (red) or high ionic strength (200 mM NaCl [black line] or 50 mM MgCl 2 [blue line]). The gray filled line represents JP2 without LL-37. Graphs and numbers indicate cell percentages ± standard deviations from two independent experiments.

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    Article Title: LL-37 Opsonizes and Inhibits Biofilm Formation of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans at Subbactericidal Concentrations

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.01288-12

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Binding of LL-37 to A. actinomycetemcomitans is sequence specific and sensitive to high ionic strength. (A) Flow cytometry analysis of A. actinomycetemcomitans JP2 incubated with increasing concentrations of tetramethylrhodamine-labeled LL-37 and 6-FAM-labeled scrambled LL-37. (B) A. actinomycetemcomitans incubated with tetramethylrhodamine-labeled LL-37 in the presence (+sLL-37) or absence (no sLL-37) of unlabeled 11.1 μM scrambled LL-37. (C) Flow cytometry histogram of binding of 11.1 μM tetramethylrhodamine-labeled LL-37 (TMR-LL-37) to A. actinomycetemcomitans JP2 at physiological ionic strength (PBS) (red) or high ionic strength (200 mM NaCl [black line] or 50 mM MgCl 2 [blue line]). The gray filled line represents JP2 without LL-37. Graphs and numbers indicate cell percentages ± standard deviations from two independent experiments.

    Article Snippet: Opsonization of A. actinomycetemcomitans with 11.1 μM (50 μg/ml) LL-37 increased the binding of A. actinomycetemcomitans JP2 by neutrophils by approximately 10-fold ( ) and increased the uptake of the four other tested strains (excluding strain ATCC 29523 where the increase in uptake was not statistically significant) by 2.8 to 9.5-fold ( ).

    Techniques: Binding Assay, Sequencing, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Incubation, Labeling

    Resistance of A. actinomycetemcomitans to LL-37. (A) MICs of A. actinomycetemcomitans strains tested in this study. (B and C) Growth inhibition (see Materials and Methods) of A. actinomycetemcomitans strains and E. coli ATCC 25922 grown in the presence of increasing concentrations of LL-37 (B) or scrambled LL-37 (C) (22.2 μM). *, P

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    Article Title: LL-37 Opsonizes and Inhibits Biofilm Formation of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans at Subbactericidal Concentrations

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.01288-12

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Resistance of A. actinomycetemcomitans to LL-37. (A) MICs of A. actinomycetemcomitans strains tested in this study. (B and C) Growth inhibition (see Materials and Methods) of A. actinomycetemcomitans strains and E. coli ATCC 25922 grown in the presence of increasing concentrations of LL-37 (B) or scrambled LL-37 (C) (22.2 μM). *, P

    Article Snippet: Opsonization of A. actinomycetemcomitans with 11.1 μM (50 μg/ml) LL-37 increased the binding of A. actinomycetemcomitans JP2 by neutrophils by approximately 10-fold ( ) and increased the uptake of the four other tested strains (excluding strain ATCC 29523 where the increase in uptake was not statistically significant) by 2.8 to 9.5-fold ( ).

    Techniques: Inhibition

    LL-37 enhances killing of A. actinomycetemcomitans by murine macrophages. A. actinomycetemcomitans JP2 was incubated with macrophage-like RAW 264.7 cells at a multiplicity of infection of 10 for 2 h in the presence of LL-37 or scrambled LL-37 at increasing concentrations. Murine macrophage killing of A. actinomycetemcomitans JP2 was determined after 2 h of incubation by plating the samples on blood agar. A. actinomycetemcomitans JP2 without macrophages was used as a reference of bacteria number and no killing (0%).

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    Article Title: LL-37 Opsonizes and Inhibits Biofilm Formation of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans at Subbactericidal Concentrations

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.01288-12

    Figure Lengend Snippet: LL-37 enhances killing of A. actinomycetemcomitans by murine macrophages. A. actinomycetemcomitans JP2 was incubated with macrophage-like RAW 264.7 cells at a multiplicity of infection of 10 for 2 h in the presence of LL-37 or scrambled LL-37 at increasing concentrations. Murine macrophage killing of A. actinomycetemcomitans JP2 was determined after 2 h of incubation by plating the samples on blood agar. A. actinomycetemcomitans JP2 without macrophages was used as a reference of bacteria number and no killing (0%).

    Article Snippet: Opsonization of A. actinomycetemcomitans with 11.1 μM (50 μg/ml) LL-37 increased the binding of A. actinomycetemcomitans JP2 by neutrophils by approximately 10-fold ( ) and increased the uptake of the four other tested strains (excluding strain ATCC 29523 where the increase in uptake was not statistically significant) by 2.8 to 9.5-fold ( ).

    Techniques: Incubation, Infection

    Preincubation of A. actinomycetemcomitans JP2 with LL-37 enhances its phagocytosis by murine macrophages. FITC-labeled A. actinomycetemcomitans ( A. a ) was incubated in the absence of tetramethylrhodamine-labeled LL-37 or in the presence of increasing concentrations of tetramethylrhodamine-labeled LL-37 (6.6 μM, 8.8 μM, and 11.1 μM) for 10 min at room temperature, washed twice, incubated with macrophage-like RAW 264.7 cells for 2 h, washed twice, and analyzed using fluorescence microscopy. Colocalization analysis appears above the colocalization panels for each concentration. Mean fluorescence intensities from two independent experiments are shown in the bottom panel.

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    Article Title: LL-37 Opsonizes and Inhibits Biofilm Formation of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans at Subbactericidal Concentrations

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.01288-12

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Preincubation of A. actinomycetemcomitans JP2 with LL-37 enhances its phagocytosis by murine macrophages. FITC-labeled A. actinomycetemcomitans ( A. a ) was incubated in the absence of tetramethylrhodamine-labeled LL-37 or in the presence of increasing concentrations of tetramethylrhodamine-labeled LL-37 (6.6 μM, 8.8 μM, and 11.1 μM) for 10 min at room temperature, washed twice, incubated with macrophage-like RAW 264.7 cells for 2 h, washed twice, and analyzed using fluorescence microscopy. Colocalization analysis appears above the colocalization panels for each concentration. Mean fluorescence intensities from two independent experiments are shown in the bottom panel.

    Article Snippet: Opsonization of A. actinomycetemcomitans with 11.1 μM (50 μg/ml) LL-37 increased the binding of A. actinomycetemcomitans JP2 by neutrophils by approximately 10-fold ( ) and increased the uptake of the four other tested strains (excluding strain ATCC 29523 where the increase in uptake was not statistically significant) by 2.8 to 9.5-fold ( ).

    Techniques: Labeling, Incubation, Fluorescence, Microscopy, Concentration Assay

    LL-37 inhibits biofilm formation of A. actinomycetemcomitans . Biofilm formation of A. actinomycetemcomitans strains on 96-well microtiter plates grown in the presence of increasing concentrations of LL-37 (A) or 22.2 μM scrambled LL-37 (B) for 24 h (see Materials and Methods) is shown.

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    Article Title: LL-37 Opsonizes and Inhibits Biofilm Formation of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans at Subbactericidal Concentrations

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.01288-12

    Figure Lengend Snippet: LL-37 inhibits biofilm formation of A. actinomycetemcomitans . Biofilm formation of A. actinomycetemcomitans strains on 96-well microtiter plates grown in the presence of increasing concentrations of LL-37 (A) or 22.2 μM scrambled LL-37 (B) for 24 h (see Materials and Methods) is shown.

    Article Snippet: Opsonization of A. actinomycetemcomitans with 11.1 μM (50 μg/ml) LL-37 increased the binding of A. actinomycetemcomitans JP2 by neutrophils by approximately 10-fold ( ) and increased the uptake of the four other tested strains (excluding strain ATCC 29523 where the increase in uptake was not statistically significant) by 2.8 to 9.5-fold ( ).

    Techniques:

    LL-37 has only a moderate effect on binding of A. actinomycetemcomitans by murine macrophages. Macrophage-like RAW 264.7 cells were incubated with FITC-labeled A. actinomycetemcomitans in the absence (black lines) or presence (red lines) of increasing concentrations of LL-37 (6.6 μM, 8.8 μM, and 11.1 μM). The fold increase in mean fluorescence intensity of A. actinomycetemcomitans JP2 binding to RAW cells in the presence of LL-37 is shown. RAW cells without labeled bacteria and with no LL-37 are represented by a filled blue line. RAW cells incubated with labeled bacteria without LL-37 were used as a baseline for fold increase calculations.

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    Article Title: LL-37 Opsonizes and Inhibits Biofilm Formation of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans at Subbactericidal Concentrations

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.01288-12

    Figure Lengend Snippet: LL-37 has only a moderate effect on binding of A. actinomycetemcomitans by murine macrophages. Macrophage-like RAW 264.7 cells were incubated with FITC-labeled A. actinomycetemcomitans in the absence (black lines) or presence (red lines) of increasing concentrations of LL-37 (6.6 μM, 8.8 μM, and 11.1 μM). The fold increase in mean fluorescence intensity of A. actinomycetemcomitans JP2 binding to RAW cells in the presence of LL-37 is shown. RAW cells without labeled bacteria and with no LL-37 are represented by a filled blue line. RAW cells incubated with labeled bacteria without LL-37 were used as a baseline for fold increase calculations.

    Article Snippet: Opsonization of A. actinomycetemcomitans with 11.1 μM (50 μg/ml) LL-37 increased the binding of A. actinomycetemcomitans JP2 by neutrophils by approximately 10-fold ( ) and increased the uptake of the four other tested strains (excluding strain ATCC 29523 where the increase in uptake was not statistically significant) by 2.8 to 9.5-fold ( ).

    Techniques: Binding Assay, Incubation, Labeling, Fluorescence

    Comparison of mandibles from A. actinomycetemcomitans -infected IL-1Ra KO and WT mice using micro-CT. Micro-CT images of mandibles are shown. (A) Uninfected WT mice; (B) uninfected IL-1Ra KO mice; (C) WT mice infected with A. actinomycetemcomitans ; (D)

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    Article Title: Inflammatory Bone Loss in Experimental Periodontitis Induced by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist Knockout Mice

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.01618-13

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Comparison of mandibles from A. actinomycetemcomitans -infected IL-1Ra KO and WT mice using micro-CT. Micro-CT images of mandibles are shown. (A) Uninfected WT mice; (B) uninfected IL-1Ra KO mice; (C) WT mice infected with A. actinomycetemcomitans ; (D)

    Article Snippet: A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC 29524) cells were grown in brain heart infusion medium (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, MI, USA) with 1% yeast extract (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, MI, USA) at 37°C under a CO2 -rich atmosphere with an AnaeroPack system (Mitsubishi Gas Chemical Co., Inc., Tokyo, Japan) ( ).

    Techniques: Infection, Mouse Assay, Micro-CT

    Ratio of the remaining alveolar crest bone to the root length in A. actinomycetemcomitans -infected IL-1Ra KO and WT mice. The ratio of the remaining alveolar crest bone to the root length was calculated using the formula (ABC − RA)/RL, where (ABC

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    Article Title: Inflammatory Bone Loss in Experimental Periodontitis Induced by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist Knockout Mice

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.01618-13

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Ratio of the remaining alveolar crest bone to the root length in A. actinomycetemcomitans -infected IL-1Ra KO and WT mice. The ratio of the remaining alveolar crest bone to the root length was calculated using the formula (ABC − RA)/RL, where (ABC

    Article Snippet: A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC 29524) cells were grown in brain heart infusion medium (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, MI, USA) with 1% yeast extract (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, MI, USA) at 37°C under a CO2 -rich atmosphere with an AnaeroPack system (Mitsubishi Gas Chemical Co., Inc., Tokyo, Japan) ( ).

    Techniques: Infection, Mouse Assay

    RANKL and M-CSF mRNA expression in IL-1Ra KO and WT mouse osteoblasts stimulated with A. actinomycetemcomitans . IL-1Ra KO ( n = 4) and WT ( n = 4) mouse osteoblasts were stimulated with A. actinomycetemcomitans (MOI, 100). The mRNA levels of RANKL and M-CSF

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    Article Title: Inflammatory Bone Loss in Experimental Periodontitis Induced by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist Knockout Mice

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.01618-13

    Figure Lengend Snippet: RANKL and M-CSF mRNA expression in IL-1Ra KO and WT mouse osteoblasts stimulated with A. actinomycetemcomitans . IL-1Ra KO ( n = 4) and WT ( n = 4) mouse osteoblasts were stimulated with A. actinomycetemcomitans (MOI, 100). The mRNA levels of RANKL and M-CSF

    Article Snippet: A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC 29524) cells were grown in brain heart infusion medium (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, MI, USA) with 1% yeast extract (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, MI, USA) at 37°C under a CO2 -rich atmosphere with an AnaeroPack system (Mitsubishi Gas Chemical Co., Inc., Tokyo, Japan) ( ).

    Techniques: Expressing

    Histologic views of first and second mandibular molars from A. actinomycetemcomitans -infected IL-1Ra KO and WT mice (H E staining; magnification, ×200). Histological findings in periodontal tissues included epithelial attachment loss (arrow)

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    Article Title: Inflammatory Bone Loss in Experimental Periodontitis Induced by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist Knockout Mice

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.01618-13

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Histologic views of first and second mandibular molars from A. actinomycetemcomitans -infected IL-1Ra KO and WT mice (H E staining; magnification, ×200). Histological findings in periodontal tissues included epithelial attachment loss (arrow)

    Article Snippet: A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC 29524) cells were grown in brain heart infusion medium (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, MI, USA) with 1% yeast extract (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, MI, USA) at 37°C under a CO2 -rich atmosphere with an AnaeroPack system (Mitsubishi Gas Chemical Co., Inc., Tokyo, Japan) ( ).

    Techniques: Infection, Mouse Assay, Staining

    Comparison of A. actinomycetemcomitans -specific antibody responses in IL-1Ra KO and WT mice. Antibody titers in IL-1Ra KO mice ( n = 5) infected with A. actinomycetemcomitans were higher than those in infected WT mice ( n = 6), uninfected WT mice ( n = 5),

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    Article Title: Inflammatory Bone Loss in Experimental Periodontitis Induced by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist Knockout Mice

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.01618-13

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Comparison of A. actinomycetemcomitans -specific antibody responses in IL-1Ra KO and WT mice. Antibody titers in IL-1Ra KO mice ( n = 5) infected with A. actinomycetemcomitans were higher than those in infected WT mice ( n = 6), uninfected WT mice ( n = 5),

    Article Snippet: A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC 29524) cells were grown in brain heart infusion medium (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, MI, USA) with 1% yeast extract (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, MI, USA) at 37°C under a CO2 -rich atmosphere with an AnaeroPack system (Mitsubishi Gas Chemical Co., Inc., Tokyo, Japan) ( ).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Infection

    TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1Ra levels in osteoblast culture supernatant fluids from IL-1Ra KO ( n = 4) and WT ( n = 4) mice either left unstimulated or stimulated with A. actinomycetemcomitans . Supernatant fluids were studied after 12 h of culture for

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    Article Title: Inflammatory Bone Loss in Experimental Periodontitis Induced by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist Knockout Mice

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.01618-13

    Figure Lengend Snippet: TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1Ra levels in osteoblast culture supernatant fluids from IL-1Ra KO ( n = 4) and WT ( n = 4) mice either left unstimulated or stimulated with A. actinomycetemcomitans . Supernatant fluids were studied after 12 h of culture for

    Article Snippet: A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC 29524) cells were grown in brain heart infusion medium (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, MI, USA) with 1% yeast extract (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, MI, USA) at 37°C under a CO2 -rich atmosphere with an AnaeroPack system (Mitsubishi Gas Chemical Co., Inc., Tokyo, Japan) ( ).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay

    TRAP enzymology views of second mandibular molars from A. actinomycetemcomitans -infected IL-1Ra KO and WT mice (magnification, ×100). Histological examination of periodontal tissues showed TRAP-positive multinucleated cells (arrowheads) in IL-1Ra

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    Article Title: Inflammatory Bone Loss in Experimental Periodontitis Induced by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist Knockout Mice

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.01618-13

    Figure Lengend Snippet: TRAP enzymology views of second mandibular molars from A. actinomycetemcomitans -infected IL-1Ra KO and WT mice (magnification, ×100). Histological examination of periodontal tissues showed TRAP-positive multinucleated cells (arrowheads) in IL-1Ra

    Article Snippet: A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC 29524) cells were grown in brain heart infusion medium (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, MI, USA) with 1% yeast extract (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, MI, USA) at 37°C under a CO2 -rich atmosphere with an AnaeroPack system (Mitsubishi Gas Chemical Co., Inc., Tokyo, Japan) ( ).

    Techniques: Infection, Mouse Assay

    SK1 deficiency in BMMs had no significant impact on proinflammatory cytokine levels induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans ( Aa ). Murine WT BMMs were treated for 4 h with either vehicle (PBS containing 4mg/mL of fatty acid-free BSA), various concentrations

    Journal: Journal of periodontal research

    Article Title: Periodontal inflammation and alveolar bone loss induced by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is attenuated in sphingosine kinase 1-deficient mice

    doi: 10.1111/jre.12276

    Figure Lengend Snippet: SK1 deficiency in BMMs had no significant impact on proinflammatory cytokine levels induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans ( Aa ). Murine WT BMMs were treated for 4 h with either vehicle (PBS containing 4mg/mL of fatty acid-free BSA), various concentrations

    Article Snippet: To determine the role of S1P in modulating the inflammatory response, murine WT BMMs were treated with either vehicle (PBS containing 4mg/mL of fatty acid-free BSA), various doses of S1P (0.25 to 5 μM), A. actinomycetemcomitans (1.5 CFU/cell) alone, or with both S1P (0.25 to 5 μM) and A. actinomycetemcomitans (1.5 CFU/cell) for 4 h. As shown in , low doses of S1P (≤1μM) did not induce a significant inflammatory response 4 h with or without the presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans .

    Techniques:

    SK1 deficiency significantly decreased S1P production induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans ( Aa ) in BMMs. Murine BMMs derived from SK1 KO or WT mice were either untreated or stimulated with A. actinomycetemcomitans (1.5 CFU/cell) for 1 to 8 h. (A) S1P biosynthesis

    Journal: Journal of periodontal research

    Article Title: Periodontal inflammation and alveolar bone loss induced by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is attenuated in sphingosine kinase 1-deficient mice

    doi: 10.1111/jre.12276

    Figure Lengend Snippet: SK1 deficiency significantly decreased S1P production induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans ( Aa ) in BMMs. Murine BMMs derived from SK1 KO or WT mice were either untreated or stimulated with A. actinomycetemcomitans (1.5 CFU/cell) for 1 to 8 h. (A) S1P biosynthesis

    Article Snippet: To determine the role of S1P in modulating the inflammatory response, murine WT BMMs were treated with either vehicle (PBS containing 4mg/mL of fatty acid-free BSA), various doses of S1P (0.25 to 5 μM), A. actinomycetemcomitans (1.5 CFU/cell) alone, or with both S1P (0.25 to 5 μM) and A. actinomycetemcomitans (1.5 CFU/cell) for 4 h. As shown in , low doses of S1P (≤1μM) did not induce a significant inflammatory response 4 h with or without the presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans .

    Techniques: Derivative Assay, Mouse Assay

    SK1 KO mice showed significantly attenuated alveolar bone loss induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans ( Aa ) as compared with A. actinomycetemcomitans -treated WT mice. SK1 WT and KO mice were injected with PBS or A. actinomycetemcomitans in the periodontal

    Journal: Journal of periodontal research

    Article Title: Periodontal inflammation and alveolar bone loss induced by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is attenuated in sphingosine kinase 1-deficient mice

    doi: 10.1111/jre.12276

    Figure Lengend Snippet: SK1 KO mice showed significantly attenuated alveolar bone loss induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans ( Aa ) as compared with A. actinomycetemcomitans -treated WT mice. SK1 WT and KO mice were injected with PBS or A. actinomycetemcomitans in the periodontal

    Article Snippet: To determine the role of S1P in modulating the inflammatory response, murine WT BMMs were treated with either vehicle (PBS containing 4mg/mL of fatty acid-free BSA), various doses of S1P (0.25 to 5 μM), A. actinomycetemcomitans (1.5 CFU/cell) alone, or with both S1P (0.25 to 5 μM) and A. actinomycetemcomitans (1.5 CFU/cell) for 4 h. As shown in , low doses of S1P (≤1μM) did not induce a significant inflammatory response 4 h with or without the presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans .

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Injection

    SK1 KO mice exhibited a significant decrease in the number of periodontal leukocytes and osteoclasts induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans ( Aa ) as compared with A. actinomycetemcomitans -treated WT mice. SK1 WT and KO mice were injected with PBS or A. actinomycetemcomitans

    Journal: Journal of periodontal research

    Article Title: Periodontal inflammation and alveolar bone loss induced by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is attenuated in sphingosine kinase 1-deficient mice

    doi: 10.1111/jre.12276

    Figure Lengend Snippet: SK1 KO mice exhibited a significant decrease in the number of periodontal leukocytes and osteoclasts induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans ( Aa ) as compared with A. actinomycetemcomitans -treated WT mice. SK1 WT and KO mice were injected with PBS or A. actinomycetemcomitans

    Article Snippet: To determine the role of S1P in modulating the inflammatory response, murine WT BMMs were treated with either vehicle (PBS containing 4mg/mL of fatty acid-free BSA), various doses of S1P (0.25 to 5 μM), A. actinomycetemcomitans (1.5 CFU/cell) alone, or with both S1P (0.25 to 5 μM) and A. actinomycetemcomitans (1.5 CFU/cell) for 4 h. As shown in , low doses of S1P (≤1μM) did not induce a significant inflammatory response 4 h with or without the presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans .

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Injection