tylosin tartrate  (Gold Biotechnology Inc)


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    Gold Biotechnology Inc tylosin tartrate
    Effects of glyphosate or <t>tylosin</t> exposure on the gut transcriptome of honey bees in fall 2018. A – C Volcano plots showing differential gene expression in the guts of bees exposed to A 0.1 mM glyphosate, B 1.0 mM glyphosate or C 0.1 mM tylosin, when compared to unexposed, control bees, for a total of 9833 genes. Data points are colored for genes significantly differentially expressed, as follows: blue for p -adj < 0.05, green for FC > 2 and red for both p -adj < 0.05 and FC > 2; non-significant points are gray. Each group consists of 5 samples, each representative of 3 bee guts. D , E RT-qPCR expression for the genes D hymenoptaecin and E Toll-like receptor 4 relative to the housekeeping gene rps5 in the guts of unexposed and 5 day exposed bees. Each group consists of 15 samples, each representative of a bee gut. Averages and standard deviations are shown as bars and error bars. The linear regression ‘lm’ option in the pcr package in R was applied to estimate differences between control and treatment groups. ** p < 0.01
    Tylosin Tartrate, supplied by Gold Biotechnology Inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/tylosin tartrate/product/Gold Biotechnology Inc
    Average 92 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    tylosin tartrate - by Bioz Stars, 2024-05
    92/100 stars

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    1) Product Images from "Glyphosate induces immune dysregulation in honey bees"

    Article Title: Glyphosate induces immune dysregulation in honey bees

    Journal: Animal Microbiome

    doi: 10.1186/s42523-022-00165-0

    Effects of glyphosate or tylosin exposure on the gut transcriptome of honey bees in fall 2018. A – C Volcano plots showing differential gene expression in the guts of bees exposed to A 0.1 mM glyphosate, B 1.0 mM glyphosate or C 0.1 mM tylosin, when compared to unexposed, control bees, for a total of 9833 genes. Data points are colored for genes significantly differentially expressed, as follows: blue for p -adj < 0.05, green for FC > 2 and red for both p -adj < 0.05 and FC > 2; non-significant points are gray. Each group consists of 5 samples, each representative of 3 bee guts. D , E RT-qPCR expression for the genes D hymenoptaecin and E Toll-like receptor 4 relative to the housekeeping gene rps5 in the guts of unexposed and 5 day exposed bees. Each group consists of 15 samples, each representative of a bee gut. Averages and standard deviations are shown as bars and error bars. The linear regression ‘lm’ option in the pcr package in R was applied to estimate differences between control and treatment groups. ** p < 0.01
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of glyphosate or tylosin exposure on the gut transcriptome of honey bees in fall 2018. A – C Volcano plots showing differential gene expression in the guts of bees exposed to A 0.1 mM glyphosate, B 1.0 mM glyphosate or C 0.1 mM tylosin, when compared to unexposed, control bees, for a total of 9833 genes. Data points are colored for genes significantly differentially expressed, as follows: blue for p -adj < 0.05, green for FC > 2 and red for both p -adj < 0.05 and FC > 2; non-significant points are gray. Each group consists of 5 samples, each representative of 3 bee guts. D , E RT-qPCR expression for the genes D hymenoptaecin and E Toll-like receptor 4 relative to the housekeeping gene rps5 in the guts of unexposed and 5 day exposed bees. Each group consists of 15 samples, each representative of a bee gut. Averages and standard deviations are shown as bars and error bars. The linear regression ‘lm’ option in the pcr package in R was applied to estimate differences between control and treatment groups. ** p < 0.01

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR

    Effects of glyphosate or tylosin exposure on the gut microbiota of honey bees in the fall 2018 and summer 2020 experiments. A – E Changes in the abundance of 16S rRNA gene transcripts for A Snodgrassella , B Gilliamella , C Bifidobacterium , D Lactobacillus Firm-4, and E Lactobacillus Firm-5 in the guts of honey bees exposed to 0.1 mM glyphosate, 1.0 mM glyphosate or 0.1 mM tylosin for 5 days, when compared to unexposed, control bees. Each group consists of 5 samples, each representative of 3 bee guts. Each experiment was analyzed individually, and significance of differences among groups was measured with Kruskal–Wallis tests followed by Dunn’s multiple-comparison tests. Groups with different letters are significantly different at p < 0.05
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of glyphosate or tylosin exposure on the gut microbiota of honey bees in the fall 2018 and summer 2020 experiments. A – E Changes in the abundance of 16S rRNA gene transcripts for A Snodgrassella , B Gilliamella , C Bifidobacterium , D Lactobacillus Firm-4, and E Lactobacillus Firm-5 in the guts of honey bees exposed to 0.1 mM glyphosate, 1.0 mM glyphosate or 0.1 mM tylosin for 5 days, when compared to unexposed, control bees. Each group consists of 5 samples, each representative of 3 bee guts. Each experiment was analyzed individually, and significance of differences among groups was measured with Kruskal–Wallis tests followed by Dunn’s multiple-comparison tests. Groups with different letters are significantly different at p < 0.05

    Techniques Used:

    In vivo experiments to investigate the effects of glyphosate and tylosin on the honey bee immune system. Three independent experiments were performed with newly emerged honey bees ( Apis mellifera ) originating from different hives from different seasons. In the fall 2018 and fall 2020 experiments, pupae were extracted from a brood frame and allowed to emerge under sterile conditions, whereas in the summer 2020 experiment, pupae were allowed to emerge naturally from a brood frame kept in the laboratory. In all experiments, healthy newly emerged workers were transferred to cup cages and allowed to acquire their microbiota simultaneously to treatment (0.1 mM glyphosate, 1 mM glyphosate or 0.1 mM tylosin in sucrose syrup) for 5 days. A control group was treated with sucrose syrup only. In the fall 2018 and summer 2020 experiments, RNA was extracted from individual bee guts and pooled for 3′-Tag RNA sequencing (3 pooled guts per sample, 5 samples sequenced per group), whereas in the fall 2020 experiment, RNA was extracted from whole bee bodies (15 individual bees per group) and used in downstream analyses
    Figure Legend Snippet: In vivo experiments to investigate the effects of glyphosate and tylosin on the honey bee immune system. Three independent experiments were performed with newly emerged honey bees ( Apis mellifera ) originating from different hives from different seasons. In the fall 2018 and fall 2020 experiments, pupae were extracted from a brood frame and allowed to emerge under sterile conditions, whereas in the summer 2020 experiment, pupae were allowed to emerge naturally from a brood frame kept in the laboratory. In all experiments, healthy newly emerged workers were transferred to cup cages and allowed to acquire their microbiota simultaneously to treatment (0.1 mM glyphosate, 1 mM glyphosate or 0.1 mM tylosin in sucrose syrup) for 5 days. A control group was treated with sucrose syrup only. In the fall 2018 and summer 2020 experiments, RNA was extracted from individual bee guts and pooled for 3′-Tag RNA sequencing (3 pooled guts per sample, 5 samples sequenced per group), whereas in the fall 2020 experiment, RNA was extracted from whole bee bodies (15 individual bees per group) and used in downstream analyses

    Techniques Used: In Vivo, RNA Sequencing Assay

    Effects of glyphosate or tylosin exposure on the expression of immunity genes in honey bees in fall 2020. A – E RT-qPCR expression for the genes A abaecin, B apidaecin, C defensin-2, D hymenoptaecin and E prophenoloxidase relative to the housekeeping gene rps5 in the bodies of unexposed and 5 day exposed bees. n = 17, 11, 19, and 13 for control (C), 0.1 mM glyphosate (0.1G), 1.0 mM glyphosate (1G), and 0.1 mM tylosin (0.1T) groups, respectively. Averages and standard deviations are shown as bars and error bars. The linear regression ‘lm’ option in the pcr package in R was applied to estimate differences between control and treatment groups. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of glyphosate or tylosin exposure on the expression of immunity genes in honey bees in fall 2020. A – E RT-qPCR expression for the genes A abaecin, B apidaecin, C defensin-2, D hymenoptaecin and E prophenoloxidase relative to the housekeeping gene rps5 in the bodies of unexposed and 5 day exposed bees. n = 17, 11, 19, and 13 for control (C), 0.1 mM glyphosate (0.1G), 1.0 mM glyphosate (1G), and 0.1 mM tylosin (0.1T) groups, respectively. Averages and standard deviations are shown as bars and error bars. The linear regression ‘lm’ option in the pcr package in R was applied to estimate differences between control and treatment groups. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR

    Ex vivo and in vivo experiments to investigate the effects of glyphosate and tylosin on melanization in honey bees. Ex vivo experiments were performed with 1-day old bees, 5-day old bees lacking or containing a normal microbiota, and hive bees. 2 μL of hemolymph were extracted from individual bees and used along with variable concentrations of glyphosate or tylosin (0, 0.1, 1, 2, 4, 7 or 10 mM) in melanization assays. In vivo experiments were performed with 5-day old bees lacking or containing a normal microbiota and hive bees previously exposed to different concentrations of glyphosate or tylosin (0, 0.1, 1 or 10 mM) for 5 days. 2 μL or 5 μL of hemolymph were extracted from exposed bees and used in melanization assays. MD microbiota-defective, CV conventional microbiota
    Figure Legend Snippet: Ex vivo and in vivo experiments to investigate the effects of glyphosate and tylosin on melanization in honey bees. Ex vivo experiments were performed with 1-day old bees, 5-day old bees lacking or containing a normal microbiota, and hive bees. 2 μL of hemolymph were extracted from individual bees and used along with variable concentrations of glyphosate or tylosin (0, 0.1, 1, 2, 4, 7 or 10 mM) in melanization assays. In vivo experiments were performed with 5-day old bees lacking or containing a normal microbiota and hive bees previously exposed to different concentrations of glyphosate or tylosin (0, 0.1, 1 or 10 mM) for 5 days. 2 μL or 5 μL of hemolymph were extracted from exposed bees and used in melanization assays. MD microbiota-defective, CV conventional microbiota

    Techniques Used: Ex Vivo, In Vivo

    Ex vivo experiments to investigate the effects of glyphosate or tylosin exposure on the melanization cascade in the hemolymph of honey bees. A – D The formation of dopachrome, an intermediate quinone of the melanization cascade, was measured after adding different concentrations of glyphosate or tylosin to the hemolymph extracted from A 1-day old bees, 5-day old bees B lacking or C containing a normal microbiota, and D hive bees. n = 16 samples per group. Samples were incubated for 30 min at 30 °C, and absorbance was measured at 490 nm. Significance between groups in each assay was measured with Kruskal–Wallis tests followed by Dunn’s multiple-comparison tests. * p < 0.05 and *** p < 0.001. MD microbiota defective, CV conventional microbiota
    Figure Legend Snippet: Ex vivo experiments to investigate the effects of glyphosate or tylosin exposure on the melanization cascade in the hemolymph of honey bees. A – D The formation of dopachrome, an intermediate quinone of the melanization cascade, was measured after adding different concentrations of glyphosate or tylosin to the hemolymph extracted from A 1-day old bees, 5-day old bees B lacking or C containing a normal microbiota, and D hive bees. n = 16 samples per group. Samples were incubated for 30 min at 30 °C, and absorbance was measured at 490 nm. Significance between groups in each assay was measured with Kruskal–Wallis tests followed by Dunn’s multiple-comparison tests. * p < 0.05 and *** p < 0.001. MD microbiota defective, CV conventional microbiota

    Techniques Used: Ex Vivo, Incubation

    In vivo experiments to investigate the effects of glyphosate or tylosin exposure on the melanization cascade in the hemolymph of honey bees. A – F Dopachrome formation was measured in the hemolymph of honey bees previously exposed to different concentrations of glyphosate or tylosin. A , B No l -DOPA was added to the assays. C – F l -DOPA was added to the assays. Samples were incubated for 30 min at 30 °C, and absorbance was measured at 490 nm. A , C , D , E n = 8 samples per group. B n = 4 samples for control, 0.1 mM glyphosate and 1 mM glyphosate groups; n = 8 samples for 10 mM glyphosate group, n = 6 samples for 0.1 mM tylosin and 1 mM tylosin groups. F n = 8 samples per group, except n = 4 for 10 mM tylosin group. No statistically significant differences were observed between groups in any assay ( p > 0.05, Kruskal–Wallis tests). MD microbiota defective, CV conventional microbiota
    Figure Legend Snippet: In vivo experiments to investigate the effects of glyphosate or tylosin exposure on the melanization cascade in the hemolymph of honey bees. A – F Dopachrome formation was measured in the hemolymph of honey bees previously exposed to different concentrations of glyphosate or tylosin. A , B No l -DOPA was added to the assays. C – F l -DOPA was added to the assays. Samples were incubated for 30 min at 30 °C, and absorbance was measured at 490 nm. A , C , D , E n = 8 samples per group. B n = 4 samples for control, 0.1 mM glyphosate and 1 mM glyphosate groups; n = 8 samples for 10 mM glyphosate group, n = 6 samples for 0.1 mM tylosin and 1 mM tylosin groups. F n = 8 samples per group, except n = 4 for 10 mM tylosin group. No statistically significant differences were observed between groups in any assay ( p > 0.05, Kruskal–Wallis tests). MD microbiota defective, CV conventional microbiota

    Techniques Used: In Vivo, Incubation

    tylosin tartrate  (Gold Biotechnology Inc)


    Bioz Verified Symbol Gold Biotechnology Inc is a verified supplier
    Bioz Manufacturer Symbol Gold Biotechnology Inc manufactures this product  
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    Structured Review

    Gold Biotechnology Inc tylosin tartrate
    Effects of glyphosate or <t>tylosin</t> exposure on the gut transcriptome of honey bees in fall 2018. A – C Volcano plots showing differential gene expression in the guts of bees exposed to A 0.1 mM glyphosate, B 1.0 mM glyphosate or C 0.1 mM tylosin, when compared to unexposed, control bees, for a total of 9833 genes. Data points are colored for genes significantly differentially expressed, as follows: blue for p -adj < 0.05, green for FC > 2 and red for both p -adj < 0.05 and FC > 2; non-significant points are gray. Each group consists of 5 samples, each representative of 3 bee guts. D , E RT-qPCR expression for the genes D hymenoptaecin and E Toll-like receptor 4 relative to the housekeeping gene rps5 in the guts of unexposed and 5 day exposed bees. Each group consists of 15 samples, each representative of a bee gut. Averages and standard deviations are shown as bars and error bars. The linear regression ‘lm’ option in the pcr package in R was applied to estimate differences between control and treatment groups. ** p < 0.01
    Tylosin Tartrate, supplied by Gold Biotechnology Inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/tylosin tartrate/product/Gold Biotechnology Inc
    Average 92 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    tylosin tartrate - by Bioz Stars, 2024-05
    92/100 stars

    Images

    1) Product Images from "Glyphosate induces immune dysregulation in honey bees"

    Article Title: Glyphosate induces immune dysregulation in honey bees

    Journal: Animal Microbiome

    doi: 10.1186/s42523-022-00165-0

    Effects of glyphosate or tylosin exposure on the gut transcriptome of honey bees in fall 2018. A – C Volcano plots showing differential gene expression in the guts of bees exposed to A 0.1 mM glyphosate, B 1.0 mM glyphosate or C 0.1 mM tylosin, when compared to unexposed, control bees, for a total of 9833 genes. Data points are colored for genes significantly differentially expressed, as follows: blue for p -adj < 0.05, green for FC > 2 and red for both p -adj < 0.05 and FC > 2; non-significant points are gray. Each group consists of 5 samples, each representative of 3 bee guts. D , E RT-qPCR expression for the genes D hymenoptaecin and E Toll-like receptor 4 relative to the housekeeping gene rps5 in the guts of unexposed and 5 day exposed bees. Each group consists of 15 samples, each representative of a bee gut. Averages and standard deviations are shown as bars and error bars. The linear regression ‘lm’ option in the pcr package in R was applied to estimate differences between control and treatment groups. ** p < 0.01
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of glyphosate or tylosin exposure on the gut transcriptome of honey bees in fall 2018. A – C Volcano plots showing differential gene expression in the guts of bees exposed to A 0.1 mM glyphosate, B 1.0 mM glyphosate or C 0.1 mM tylosin, when compared to unexposed, control bees, for a total of 9833 genes. Data points are colored for genes significantly differentially expressed, as follows: blue for p -adj < 0.05, green for FC > 2 and red for both p -adj < 0.05 and FC > 2; non-significant points are gray. Each group consists of 5 samples, each representative of 3 bee guts. D , E RT-qPCR expression for the genes D hymenoptaecin and E Toll-like receptor 4 relative to the housekeeping gene rps5 in the guts of unexposed and 5 day exposed bees. Each group consists of 15 samples, each representative of a bee gut. Averages and standard deviations are shown as bars and error bars. The linear regression ‘lm’ option in the pcr package in R was applied to estimate differences between control and treatment groups. ** p < 0.01

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR

    Effects of glyphosate or tylosin exposure on the gut microbiota of honey bees in the fall 2018 and summer 2020 experiments. A – E Changes in the abundance of 16S rRNA gene transcripts for A Snodgrassella , B Gilliamella , C Bifidobacterium , D Lactobacillus Firm-4, and E Lactobacillus Firm-5 in the guts of honey bees exposed to 0.1 mM glyphosate, 1.0 mM glyphosate or 0.1 mM tylosin for 5 days, when compared to unexposed, control bees. Each group consists of 5 samples, each representative of 3 bee guts. Each experiment was analyzed individually, and significance of differences among groups was measured with Kruskal–Wallis tests followed by Dunn’s multiple-comparison tests. Groups with different letters are significantly different at p < 0.05
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of glyphosate or tylosin exposure on the gut microbiota of honey bees in the fall 2018 and summer 2020 experiments. A – E Changes in the abundance of 16S rRNA gene transcripts for A Snodgrassella , B Gilliamella , C Bifidobacterium , D Lactobacillus Firm-4, and E Lactobacillus Firm-5 in the guts of honey bees exposed to 0.1 mM glyphosate, 1.0 mM glyphosate or 0.1 mM tylosin for 5 days, when compared to unexposed, control bees. Each group consists of 5 samples, each representative of 3 bee guts. Each experiment was analyzed individually, and significance of differences among groups was measured with Kruskal–Wallis tests followed by Dunn’s multiple-comparison tests. Groups with different letters are significantly different at p < 0.05

    Techniques Used:

    In vivo experiments to investigate the effects of glyphosate and tylosin on the honey bee immune system. Three independent experiments were performed with newly emerged honey bees ( Apis mellifera ) originating from different hives from different seasons. In the fall 2018 and fall 2020 experiments, pupae were extracted from a brood frame and allowed to emerge under sterile conditions, whereas in the summer 2020 experiment, pupae were allowed to emerge naturally from a brood frame kept in the laboratory. In all experiments, healthy newly emerged workers were transferred to cup cages and allowed to acquire their microbiota simultaneously to treatment (0.1 mM glyphosate, 1 mM glyphosate or 0.1 mM tylosin in sucrose syrup) for 5 days. A control group was treated with sucrose syrup only. In the fall 2018 and summer 2020 experiments, RNA was extracted from individual bee guts and pooled for 3′-Tag RNA sequencing (3 pooled guts per sample, 5 samples sequenced per group), whereas in the fall 2020 experiment, RNA was extracted from whole bee bodies (15 individual bees per group) and used in downstream analyses
    Figure Legend Snippet: In vivo experiments to investigate the effects of glyphosate and tylosin on the honey bee immune system. Three independent experiments were performed with newly emerged honey bees ( Apis mellifera ) originating from different hives from different seasons. In the fall 2018 and fall 2020 experiments, pupae were extracted from a brood frame and allowed to emerge under sterile conditions, whereas in the summer 2020 experiment, pupae were allowed to emerge naturally from a brood frame kept in the laboratory. In all experiments, healthy newly emerged workers were transferred to cup cages and allowed to acquire their microbiota simultaneously to treatment (0.1 mM glyphosate, 1 mM glyphosate or 0.1 mM tylosin in sucrose syrup) for 5 days. A control group was treated with sucrose syrup only. In the fall 2018 and summer 2020 experiments, RNA was extracted from individual bee guts and pooled for 3′-Tag RNA sequencing (3 pooled guts per sample, 5 samples sequenced per group), whereas in the fall 2020 experiment, RNA was extracted from whole bee bodies (15 individual bees per group) and used in downstream analyses

    Techniques Used: In Vivo, RNA Sequencing Assay

    Effects of glyphosate or tylosin exposure on the expression of immunity genes in honey bees in fall 2020. A – E RT-qPCR expression for the genes A abaecin, B apidaecin, C defensin-2, D hymenoptaecin and E prophenoloxidase relative to the housekeeping gene rps5 in the bodies of unexposed and 5 day exposed bees. n = 17, 11, 19, and 13 for control (C), 0.1 mM glyphosate (0.1G), 1.0 mM glyphosate (1G), and 0.1 mM tylosin (0.1T) groups, respectively. Averages and standard deviations are shown as bars and error bars. The linear regression ‘lm’ option in the pcr package in R was applied to estimate differences between control and treatment groups. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of glyphosate or tylosin exposure on the expression of immunity genes in honey bees in fall 2020. A – E RT-qPCR expression for the genes A abaecin, B apidaecin, C defensin-2, D hymenoptaecin and E prophenoloxidase relative to the housekeeping gene rps5 in the bodies of unexposed and 5 day exposed bees. n = 17, 11, 19, and 13 for control (C), 0.1 mM glyphosate (0.1G), 1.0 mM glyphosate (1G), and 0.1 mM tylosin (0.1T) groups, respectively. Averages and standard deviations are shown as bars and error bars. The linear regression ‘lm’ option in the pcr package in R was applied to estimate differences between control and treatment groups. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR

    Ex vivo and in vivo experiments to investigate the effects of glyphosate and tylosin on melanization in honey bees. Ex vivo experiments were performed with 1-day old bees, 5-day old bees lacking or containing a normal microbiota, and hive bees. 2 μL of hemolymph were extracted from individual bees and used along with variable concentrations of glyphosate or tylosin (0, 0.1, 1, 2, 4, 7 or 10 mM) in melanization assays. In vivo experiments were performed with 5-day old bees lacking or containing a normal microbiota and hive bees previously exposed to different concentrations of glyphosate or tylosin (0, 0.1, 1 or 10 mM) for 5 days. 2 μL or 5 μL of hemolymph were extracted from exposed bees and used in melanization assays. MD microbiota-defective, CV conventional microbiota
    Figure Legend Snippet: Ex vivo and in vivo experiments to investigate the effects of glyphosate and tylosin on melanization in honey bees. Ex vivo experiments were performed with 1-day old bees, 5-day old bees lacking or containing a normal microbiota, and hive bees. 2 μL of hemolymph were extracted from individual bees and used along with variable concentrations of glyphosate or tylosin (0, 0.1, 1, 2, 4, 7 or 10 mM) in melanization assays. In vivo experiments were performed with 5-day old bees lacking or containing a normal microbiota and hive bees previously exposed to different concentrations of glyphosate or tylosin (0, 0.1, 1 or 10 mM) for 5 days. 2 μL or 5 μL of hemolymph were extracted from exposed bees and used in melanization assays. MD microbiota-defective, CV conventional microbiota

    Techniques Used: Ex Vivo, In Vivo

    Ex vivo experiments to investigate the effects of glyphosate or tylosin exposure on the melanization cascade in the hemolymph of honey bees. A – D The formation of dopachrome, an intermediate quinone of the melanization cascade, was measured after adding different concentrations of glyphosate or tylosin to the hemolymph extracted from A 1-day old bees, 5-day old bees B lacking or C containing a normal microbiota, and D hive bees. n = 16 samples per group. Samples were incubated for 30 min at 30 °C, and absorbance was measured at 490 nm. Significance between groups in each assay was measured with Kruskal–Wallis tests followed by Dunn’s multiple-comparison tests. * p < 0.05 and *** p < 0.001. MD microbiota defective, CV conventional microbiota
    Figure Legend Snippet: Ex vivo experiments to investigate the effects of glyphosate or tylosin exposure on the melanization cascade in the hemolymph of honey bees. A – D The formation of dopachrome, an intermediate quinone of the melanization cascade, was measured after adding different concentrations of glyphosate or tylosin to the hemolymph extracted from A 1-day old bees, 5-day old bees B lacking or C containing a normal microbiota, and D hive bees. n = 16 samples per group. Samples were incubated for 30 min at 30 °C, and absorbance was measured at 490 nm. Significance between groups in each assay was measured with Kruskal–Wallis tests followed by Dunn’s multiple-comparison tests. * p < 0.05 and *** p < 0.001. MD microbiota defective, CV conventional microbiota

    Techniques Used: Ex Vivo, Incubation

    In vivo experiments to investigate the effects of glyphosate or tylosin exposure on the melanization cascade in the hemolymph of honey bees. A – F Dopachrome formation was measured in the hemolymph of honey bees previously exposed to different concentrations of glyphosate or tylosin. A , B No l -DOPA was added to the assays. C – F l -DOPA was added to the assays. Samples were incubated for 30 min at 30 °C, and absorbance was measured at 490 nm. A , C , D , E n = 8 samples per group. B n = 4 samples for control, 0.1 mM glyphosate and 1 mM glyphosate groups; n = 8 samples for 10 mM glyphosate group, n = 6 samples for 0.1 mM tylosin and 1 mM tylosin groups. F n = 8 samples per group, except n = 4 for 10 mM tylosin group. No statistically significant differences were observed between groups in any assay ( p > 0.05, Kruskal–Wallis tests). MD microbiota defective, CV conventional microbiota
    Figure Legend Snippet: In vivo experiments to investigate the effects of glyphosate or tylosin exposure on the melanization cascade in the hemolymph of honey bees. A – F Dopachrome formation was measured in the hemolymph of honey bees previously exposed to different concentrations of glyphosate or tylosin. A , B No l -DOPA was added to the assays. C – F l -DOPA was added to the assays. Samples were incubated for 30 min at 30 °C, and absorbance was measured at 490 nm. A , C , D , E n = 8 samples per group. B n = 4 samples for control, 0.1 mM glyphosate and 1 mM glyphosate groups; n = 8 samples for 10 mM glyphosate group, n = 6 samples for 0.1 mM tylosin and 1 mM tylosin groups. F n = 8 samples per group, except n = 4 for 10 mM tylosin group. No statistically significant differences were observed between groups in any assay ( p > 0.05, Kruskal–Wallis tests). MD microbiota defective, CV conventional microbiota

    Techniques Used: In Vivo, Incubation

    tylosin tartrate  (Gold Biotechnology Inc)


    Bioz Verified Symbol Gold Biotechnology Inc is a verified supplier
    Bioz Manufacturer Symbol Gold Biotechnology Inc manufactures this product  
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    Structured Review

    Gold Biotechnology Inc tylosin tartrate
    Tylosin Tartrate, supplied by Gold Biotechnology Inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/tylosin tartrate/product/Gold Biotechnology Inc
    Average 92 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    tylosin tartrate - by Bioz Stars, 2024-05
    92/100 stars

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    tylosin tartrate  (Gold Biotechnology Inc)


    Bioz Verified Symbol Gold Biotechnology Inc is a verified supplier
    Bioz Manufacturer Symbol Gold Biotechnology Inc manufactures this product  
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  • About
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  • 92

    Structured Review

    Gold Biotechnology Inc tylosin tartrate
    Chronic exposure of recently emerged honey bees to glyphosate or <t>tylosin.</t> Recently emerged bees were transferred to cup cages containing sterile sucrose syrup and bee bread mixed with bee gut homogenate. Then, they were divided into two main groups, 1-day-old bees (early exposure) and 5-day-old bees (late exposure), each split into 7 subgroups fed sterile sucrose syrup with no additive (controls) or with 0.01, 0.04, 0.07, 0.1, or 1.0 mM glyphosate or 0.1 mM tylosin for 20 days and 15 days, respectively. Bees were sampled from each group every 5 days for the period of exposure.
    Tylosin Tartrate, supplied by Gold Biotechnology Inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/tylosin tartrate/product/Gold Biotechnology Inc
    Average 92 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    tylosin tartrate - by Bioz Stars, 2024-05
    92/100 stars

    Images

    1) Product Images from "Impact of Glyphosate on the Honey Bee Gut Microbiota: Effects of Intensity, Duration, and Timing of Exposure"

    Article Title: Impact of Glyphosate on the Honey Bee Gut Microbiota: Effects of Intensity, Duration, and Timing of Exposure

    Journal: mSystems

    doi: 10.1128/mSystems.00268-20

    Chronic exposure of recently emerged honey bees to glyphosate or tylosin. Recently emerged bees were transferred to cup cages containing sterile sucrose syrup and bee bread mixed with bee gut homogenate. Then, they were divided into two main groups, 1-day-old bees (early exposure) and 5-day-old bees (late exposure), each split into 7 subgroups fed sterile sucrose syrup with no additive (controls) or with 0.01, 0.04, 0.07, 0.1, or 1.0 mM glyphosate or 0.1 mM tylosin for 20 days and 15 days, respectively. Bees were sampled from each group every 5 days for the period of exposure.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Chronic exposure of recently emerged honey bees to glyphosate or tylosin. Recently emerged bees were transferred to cup cages containing sterile sucrose syrup and bee bread mixed with bee gut homogenate. Then, they were divided into two main groups, 1-day-old bees (early exposure) and 5-day-old bees (late exposure), each split into 7 subgroups fed sterile sucrose syrup with no additive (controls) or with 0.01, 0.04, 0.07, 0.1, or 1.0 mM glyphosate or 0.1 mM tylosin for 20 days and 15 days, respectively. Bees were sampled from each group every 5 days for the period of exposure.

    Techniques Used:

    Effects of different concentrations of glyphosate and of tylosin on bacterial abundance in the guts of laboratory-raised honey bees. (A) Bees at 1 day postemergence (the stage of acquiring the microbiota) were treated with glyphosate or tylosin for 20 days (early exposure). From left to right, box plots show the total 16S rRNA copy numbers in the guts of control bees, of 0.01, 0.04, 0.07, 0.1, and 1.0 mM glyphosate-fed bees, and of 0.1 mM tylosin-fed bees sampled at days 5 ( n = 15 each), 10 ( n = 15 each), 15 ( n = 15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 14, and 15), and 20 ( n = 10, 10, 11, 11, 11, 11, and 10) after the start of treatment. (B) Bees at 5 days postemergence (with established gut microbial communities) were treated with glyphosate or tylosin for 15 days (late exposure). From left to right, box plots show the total 16S rRNA copy numbers in the guts of control bees, of 0.01, 0.04, 0.07, 0.1, and 1.0 mM glyphosate-fed bees, and of 0.1 mM tylosin-fed bees sampled at days 5 ( n = 13, 13, 13, 13, 13, 13, and 12), 10 ( n = 12 each), and 15 ( n = 12 each) after the start of treatment. Groups with different letters are statistically significantly different ( P < 0.05, Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Dunn’s multiple-comparison test) ( <xref ref-type=Table S1B ). " title="Effects of different concentrations of glyphosate and of tylosin on bacterial abundance in the guts of laboratory-raised ..." property="contentUrl" width="100%" height="100%"/>
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of different concentrations of glyphosate and of tylosin on bacterial abundance in the guts of laboratory-raised honey bees. (A) Bees at 1 day postemergence (the stage of acquiring the microbiota) were treated with glyphosate or tylosin for 20 days (early exposure). From left to right, box plots show the total 16S rRNA copy numbers in the guts of control bees, of 0.01, 0.04, 0.07, 0.1, and 1.0 mM glyphosate-fed bees, and of 0.1 mM tylosin-fed bees sampled at days 5 ( n = 15 each), 10 ( n = 15 each), 15 ( n = 15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 14, and 15), and 20 ( n = 10, 10, 11, 11, 11, 11, and 10) after the start of treatment. (B) Bees at 5 days postemergence (with established gut microbial communities) were treated with glyphosate or tylosin for 15 days (late exposure). From left to right, box plots show the total 16S rRNA copy numbers in the guts of control bees, of 0.01, 0.04, 0.07, 0.1, and 1.0 mM glyphosate-fed bees, and of 0.1 mM tylosin-fed bees sampled at days 5 ( n = 13, 13, 13, 13, 13, 13, and 12), 10 ( n = 12 each), and 15 ( n = 12 each) after the start of treatment. Groups with different letters are statistically significantly different ( P < 0.05, Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Dunn’s multiple-comparison test) ( Table S1B ).

    Techniques Used:

    Effects of different concentrations of glyphosate and of tylosin on Snodgrassella abundance in the guts of laboratory-raised honey bees. (A) Bees at 1 day postemergence were treated with glyphosate or tylosin for 20 days (early exposure). From left to right, box plots show Snodgrassella 16S rRNA copy numbers in the guts of control bees, of 0.01, 0.04, 0.07, 0.1, and 1.0 mM glyphosate-fed bees, and of 0.1 mM tylosin-fed bees sampled at days 5 ( n = 15 each), 10 ( n = 15 each), 15 ( n = 15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 14, and 15), and 20 ( n = 10, 10, 11, 11, 11, 11, and 10) after the start of treatment. (B) Bees at 5 days postemergence were treated with glyphosate or tylosin for 15 days (late exposure). From left to right, box plots show Snodgrassella 16S rRNA copy numbers in the guts of control bees, of 0.01, 0.04, 0.07, 0.1, and 1.0 mM glyphosate-fed bees, and of 0.1 mM tylosin-fed bees sampled at days 5 ( n = 13, 13, 13, 13, 13, 13, and 12), 10 ( n = 12 each), and 15 ( n = 12 each) after the start of treatment. Groups with different letters are statistically significantly different ( P < 0.05, Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Dunn’s multiple-comparison test) ( <xref ref-type=Table S1C ). " title="Effects of different concentrations of glyphosate and of tylosin on Snodgrassella abundance in the guts of laboratory-raised ..." property="contentUrl" width="100%" height="100%"/>
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of different concentrations of glyphosate and of tylosin on Snodgrassella abundance in the guts of laboratory-raised honey bees. (A) Bees at 1 day postemergence were treated with glyphosate or tylosin for 20 days (early exposure). From left to right, box plots show Snodgrassella 16S rRNA copy numbers in the guts of control bees, of 0.01, 0.04, 0.07, 0.1, and 1.0 mM glyphosate-fed bees, and of 0.1 mM tylosin-fed bees sampled at days 5 ( n = 15 each), 10 ( n = 15 each), 15 ( n = 15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 14, and 15), and 20 ( n = 10, 10, 11, 11, 11, 11, and 10) after the start of treatment. (B) Bees at 5 days postemergence were treated with glyphosate or tylosin for 15 days (late exposure). From left to right, box plots show Snodgrassella 16S rRNA copy numbers in the guts of control bees, of 0.01, 0.04, 0.07, 0.1, and 1.0 mM glyphosate-fed bees, and of 0.1 mM tylosin-fed bees sampled at days 5 ( n = 13, 13, 13, 13, 13, 13, and 12), 10 ( n = 12 each), and 15 ( n = 12 each) after the start of treatment. Groups with different letters are statistically significantly different ( P < 0.05, Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Dunn’s multiple-comparison test) ( Table S1C ).

    Techniques Used:

    Percent survival of age-controlled, caged bees treated with different doses of glyphosate or tylosin, shown as a Kaplan-Meier survival curve. (A and B) In fall of 2018, 1-day-old bees (A) and 5-day-old bees (B) were divided into seven groups, composed of 4 cup cages each with 26 to 30 bees, which were fed 0.01, 0.04, 0.07, 0.1, or 1.0 mM glyphosate in sterile sucrose syrup, 0.1 mM tylosin in sterile sucrose syrup, or sterile sucrose syrup for 20 and 15 days, respectively. Bees were sampled from each group every 5 days after the start of treatment, and dead bees were counted and removed from cup cages in a daily census. (C and D) The experiment was replicated in the summer of 2019, when 1-day-old bees (C) and 5-day-old bees (D) were divided into seven groups, composed of 4 cup cages each with 38 to 40 or 30 to 32 bees, respectively, which were fed 0.01, 0.04, 0.07, 0.1, or 1.0 mM glyphosate in sterile sucrose syrup, 0.1 mM tylosin in sterile sucrose syrup, or sterile sucrose syrup for 40 and 35 days, respectively. Bees were not sampled during treatment; dead bees were removed from cup cages in a daily census. The Cox proportional hazards model was implemented in the survival package in R ( <xref ref-type=Table S3 ). *, P < 0.05; **, P < 0.01; ***, P < 0.001. " title="... bees treated with different doses of glyphosate or tylosin, shown as a Kaplan-Meier survival curve. (A and ..." property="contentUrl" width="100%" height="100%"/>
    Figure Legend Snippet: Percent survival of age-controlled, caged bees treated with different doses of glyphosate or tylosin, shown as a Kaplan-Meier survival curve. (A and B) In fall of 2018, 1-day-old bees (A) and 5-day-old bees (B) were divided into seven groups, composed of 4 cup cages each with 26 to 30 bees, which were fed 0.01, 0.04, 0.07, 0.1, or 1.0 mM glyphosate in sterile sucrose syrup, 0.1 mM tylosin in sterile sucrose syrup, or sterile sucrose syrup for 20 and 15 days, respectively. Bees were sampled from each group every 5 days after the start of treatment, and dead bees were counted and removed from cup cages in a daily census. (C and D) The experiment was replicated in the summer of 2019, when 1-day-old bees (C) and 5-day-old bees (D) were divided into seven groups, composed of 4 cup cages each with 38 to 40 or 30 to 32 bees, respectively, which were fed 0.01, 0.04, 0.07, 0.1, or 1.0 mM glyphosate in sterile sucrose syrup, 0.1 mM tylosin in sterile sucrose syrup, or sterile sucrose syrup for 40 and 35 days, respectively. Bees were not sampled during treatment; dead bees were removed from cup cages in a daily census. The Cox proportional hazards model was implemented in the survival package in R ( Table S3 ). *, P < 0.05; **, P < 0.01; ***, P < 0.001.

    Techniques Used:

    Principal-coordinate plots of gut community compositions of bees treated with glyphosate or tylosin at different stages of gut microbial acquisition using Bray-Curtis dissimilarity. (A) Bees at 1 day postemergence were treated with glyphosate or tylosin for 20 days (early exposure). Control bees, 0.01, 0.04, 0.07, 0.1, and 1.0 mM glyphosate-fed bees, and 0.1 mM tylosin-fed bees were sampled at days 5 ( n = 15 each), 10 ( n = 15 each), 15 ( n = 15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 14, and 15), and 20 ( n = 10, 10, 11, 11, 11, 11, and 10). (B) Bees at 5 days postemergence were treated with glyphosate or tylosin for 15 days (late exposure). Control bees, 0.01, 0.04, 0.07, 0.1, and 1.0 mM glyphosate-fed bees, and 0.1 mM tylosin-fed bees were sampled at days 5 ( n = 13, 13, 13, 13, 13, 13, and 12), 10 ( n = 12 each), and 15 ( n = 12 each) after the start of treatment. Within each sampling day, groups with different letters are statistically significantly different ( P < 0.05, pairwise PERMANOVA with 999 permutations) ( <xref ref-type=Table S4 ). " title="... community compositions of bees treated with glyphosate or tylosin at different stages of gut microbial acquisition using ..." property="contentUrl" width="100%" height="100%"/>
    Figure Legend Snippet: Principal-coordinate plots of gut community compositions of bees treated with glyphosate or tylosin at different stages of gut microbial acquisition using Bray-Curtis dissimilarity. (A) Bees at 1 day postemergence were treated with glyphosate or tylosin for 20 days (early exposure). Control bees, 0.01, 0.04, 0.07, 0.1, and 1.0 mM glyphosate-fed bees, and 0.1 mM tylosin-fed bees were sampled at days 5 ( n = 15 each), 10 ( n = 15 each), 15 ( n = 15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 14, and 15), and 20 ( n = 10, 10, 11, 11, 11, 11, and 10). (B) Bees at 5 days postemergence were treated with glyphosate or tylosin for 15 days (late exposure). Control bees, 0.01, 0.04, 0.07, 0.1, and 1.0 mM glyphosate-fed bees, and 0.1 mM tylosin-fed bees were sampled at days 5 ( n = 13, 13, 13, 13, 13, 13, and 12), 10 ( n = 12 each), and 15 ( n = 12 each) after the start of treatment. Within each sampling day, groups with different letters are statistically significantly different ( P < 0.05, pairwise PERMANOVA with 999 permutations) ( Table S4 ).

    Techniques Used: Sampling

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    Gold Biotechnology Inc tylosin tartrate
    Effects of glyphosate or <t>tylosin</t> exposure on the gut transcriptome of honey bees in fall 2018. A – C Volcano plots showing differential gene expression in the guts of bees exposed to A 0.1 mM glyphosate, B 1.0 mM glyphosate or C 0.1 mM tylosin, when compared to unexposed, control bees, for a total of 9833 genes. Data points are colored for genes significantly differentially expressed, as follows: blue for p -adj < 0.05, green for FC > 2 and red for both p -adj < 0.05 and FC > 2; non-significant points are gray. Each group consists of 5 samples, each representative of 3 bee guts. D , E RT-qPCR expression for the genes D hymenoptaecin and E Toll-like receptor 4 relative to the housekeeping gene rps5 in the guts of unexposed and 5 day exposed bees. Each group consists of 15 samples, each representative of a bee gut. Averages and standard deviations are shown as bars and error bars. The linear regression ‘lm’ option in the pcr package in R was applied to estimate differences between control and treatment groups. ** p < 0.01
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    Effects of glyphosate or tylosin exposure on the gut transcriptome of honey bees in fall 2018. A – C Volcano plots showing differential gene expression in the guts of bees exposed to A 0.1 mM glyphosate, B 1.0 mM glyphosate or C 0.1 mM tylosin, when compared to unexposed, control bees, for a total of 9833 genes. Data points are colored for genes significantly differentially expressed, as follows: blue for p -adj < 0.05, green for FC > 2 and red for both p -adj < 0.05 and FC > 2; non-significant points are gray. Each group consists of 5 samples, each representative of 3 bee guts. D , E RT-qPCR expression for the genes D hymenoptaecin and E Toll-like receptor 4 relative to the housekeeping gene rps5 in the guts of unexposed and 5 day exposed bees. Each group consists of 15 samples, each representative of a bee gut. Averages and standard deviations are shown as bars and error bars. The linear regression ‘lm’ option in the pcr package in R was applied to estimate differences between control and treatment groups. ** p < 0.01

    Journal: Animal Microbiome

    Article Title: Glyphosate induces immune dysregulation in honey bees

    doi: 10.1186/s42523-022-00165-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of glyphosate or tylosin exposure on the gut transcriptome of honey bees in fall 2018. A – C Volcano plots showing differential gene expression in the guts of bees exposed to A 0.1 mM glyphosate, B 1.0 mM glyphosate or C 0.1 mM tylosin, when compared to unexposed, control bees, for a total of 9833 genes. Data points are colored for genes significantly differentially expressed, as follows: blue for p -adj < 0.05, green for FC > 2 and red for both p -adj < 0.05 and FC > 2; non-significant points are gray. Each group consists of 5 samples, each representative of 3 bee guts. D , E RT-qPCR expression for the genes D hymenoptaecin and E Toll-like receptor 4 relative to the housekeeping gene rps5 in the guts of unexposed and 5 day exposed bees. Each group consists of 15 samples, each representative of a bee gut. Averages and standard deviations are shown as bars and error bars. The linear regression ‘lm’ option in the pcr package in R was applied to estimate differences between control and treatment groups. ** p < 0.01

    Article Snippet: Tylosin tartrate was purchased from GoldBio, USA (Lot: 2313.081915A).

    Techniques: Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR

    Effects of glyphosate or tylosin exposure on the gut microbiota of honey bees in the fall 2018 and summer 2020 experiments. A – E Changes in the abundance of 16S rRNA gene transcripts for A Snodgrassella , B Gilliamella , C Bifidobacterium , D Lactobacillus Firm-4, and E Lactobacillus Firm-5 in the guts of honey bees exposed to 0.1 mM glyphosate, 1.0 mM glyphosate or 0.1 mM tylosin for 5 days, when compared to unexposed, control bees. Each group consists of 5 samples, each representative of 3 bee guts. Each experiment was analyzed individually, and significance of differences among groups was measured with Kruskal–Wallis tests followed by Dunn’s multiple-comparison tests. Groups with different letters are significantly different at p < 0.05

    Journal: Animal Microbiome

    Article Title: Glyphosate induces immune dysregulation in honey bees

    doi: 10.1186/s42523-022-00165-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of glyphosate or tylosin exposure on the gut microbiota of honey bees in the fall 2018 and summer 2020 experiments. A – E Changes in the abundance of 16S rRNA gene transcripts for A Snodgrassella , B Gilliamella , C Bifidobacterium , D Lactobacillus Firm-4, and E Lactobacillus Firm-5 in the guts of honey bees exposed to 0.1 mM glyphosate, 1.0 mM glyphosate or 0.1 mM tylosin for 5 days, when compared to unexposed, control bees. Each group consists of 5 samples, each representative of 3 bee guts. Each experiment was analyzed individually, and significance of differences among groups was measured with Kruskal–Wallis tests followed by Dunn’s multiple-comparison tests. Groups with different letters are significantly different at p < 0.05

    Article Snippet: Tylosin tartrate was purchased from GoldBio, USA (Lot: 2313.081915A).

    Techniques:

    In vivo experiments to investigate the effects of glyphosate and tylosin on the honey bee immune system. Three independent experiments were performed with newly emerged honey bees ( Apis mellifera ) originating from different hives from different seasons. In the fall 2018 and fall 2020 experiments, pupae were extracted from a brood frame and allowed to emerge under sterile conditions, whereas in the summer 2020 experiment, pupae were allowed to emerge naturally from a brood frame kept in the laboratory. In all experiments, healthy newly emerged workers were transferred to cup cages and allowed to acquire their microbiota simultaneously to treatment (0.1 mM glyphosate, 1 mM glyphosate or 0.1 mM tylosin in sucrose syrup) for 5 days. A control group was treated with sucrose syrup only. In the fall 2018 and summer 2020 experiments, RNA was extracted from individual bee guts and pooled for 3′-Tag RNA sequencing (3 pooled guts per sample, 5 samples sequenced per group), whereas in the fall 2020 experiment, RNA was extracted from whole bee bodies (15 individual bees per group) and used in downstream analyses

    Journal: Animal Microbiome

    Article Title: Glyphosate induces immune dysregulation in honey bees

    doi: 10.1186/s42523-022-00165-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: In vivo experiments to investigate the effects of glyphosate and tylosin on the honey bee immune system. Three independent experiments were performed with newly emerged honey bees ( Apis mellifera ) originating from different hives from different seasons. In the fall 2018 and fall 2020 experiments, pupae were extracted from a brood frame and allowed to emerge under sterile conditions, whereas in the summer 2020 experiment, pupae were allowed to emerge naturally from a brood frame kept in the laboratory. In all experiments, healthy newly emerged workers were transferred to cup cages and allowed to acquire their microbiota simultaneously to treatment (0.1 mM glyphosate, 1 mM glyphosate or 0.1 mM tylosin in sucrose syrup) for 5 days. A control group was treated with sucrose syrup only. In the fall 2018 and summer 2020 experiments, RNA was extracted from individual bee guts and pooled for 3′-Tag RNA sequencing (3 pooled guts per sample, 5 samples sequenced per group), whereas in the fall 2020 experiment, RNA was extracted from whole bee bodies (15 individual bees per group) and used in downstream analyses

    Article Snippet: Tylosin tartrate was purchased from GoldBio, USA (Lot: 2313.081915A).

    Techniques: In Vivo, RNA Sequencing Assay

    Effects of glyphosate or tylosin exposure on the expression of immunity genes in honey bees in fall 2020. A – E RT-qPCR expression for the genes A abaecin, B apidaecin, C defensin-2, D hymenoptaecin and E prophenoloxidase relative to the housekeeping gene rps5 in the bodies of unexposed and 5 day exposed bees. n = 17, 11, 19, and 13 for control (C), 0.1 mM glyphosate (0.1G), 1.0 mM glyphosate (1G), and 0.1 mM tylosin (0.1T) groups, respectively. Averages and standard deviations are shown as bars and error bars. The linear regression ‘lm’ option in the pcr package in R was applied to estimate differences between control and treatment groups. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001

    Journal: Animal Microbiome

    Article Title: Glyphosate induces immune dysregulation in honey bees

    doi: 10.1186/s42523-022-00165-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of glyphosate or tylosin exposure on the expression of immunity genes in honey bees in fall 2020. A – E RT-qPCR expression for the genes A abaecin, B apidaecin, C defensin-2, D hymenoptaecin and E prophenoloxidase relative to the housekeeping gene rps5 in the bodies of unexposed and 5 day exposed bees. n = 17, 11, 19, and 13 for control (C), 0.1 mM glyphosate (0.1G), 1.0 mM glyphosate (1G), and 0.1 mM tylosin (0.1T) groups, respectively. Averages and standard deviations are shown as bars and error bars. The linear regression ‘lm’ option in the pcr package in R was applied to estimate differences between control and treatment groups. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001

    Article Snippet: Tylosin tartrate was purchased from GoldBio, USA (Lot: 2313.081915A).

    Techniques: Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR

    Ex vivo and in vivo experiments to investigate the effects of glyphosate and tylosin on melanization in honey bees. Ex vivo experiments were performed with 1-day old bees, 5-day old bees lacking or containing a normal microbiota, and hive bees. 2 μL of hemolymph were extracted from individual bees and used along with variable concentrations of glyphosate or tylosin (0, 0.1, 1, 2, 4, 7 or 10 mM) in melanization assays. In vivo experiments were performed with 5-day old bees lacking or containing a normal microbiota and hive bees previously exposed to different concentrations of glyphosate or tylosin (0, 0.1, 1 or 10 mM) for 5 days. 2 μL or 5 μL of hemolymph were extracted from exposed bees and used in melanization assays. MD microbiota-defective, CV conventional microbiota

    Journal: Animal Microbiome

    Article Title: Glyphosate induces immune dysregulation in honey bees

    doi: 10.1186/s42523-022-00165-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Ex vivo and in vivo experiments to investigate the effects of glyphosate and tylosin on melanization in honey bees. Ex vivo experiments were performed with 1-day old bees, 5-day old bees lacking or containing a normal microbiota, and hive bees. 2 μL of hemolymph were extracted from individual bees and used along with variable concentrations of glyphosate or tylosin (0, 0.1, 1, 2, 4, 7 or 10 mM) in melanization assays. In vivo experiments were performed with 5-day old bees lacking or containing a normal microbiota and hive bees previously exposed to different concentrations of glyphosate or tylosin (0, 0.1, 1 or 10 mM) for 5 days. 2 μL or 5 μL of hemolymph were extracted from exposed bees and used in melanization assays. MD microbiota-defective, CV conventional microbiota

    Article Snippet: Tylosin tartrate was purchased from GoldBio, USA (Lot: 2313.081915A).

    Techniques: Ex Vivo, In Vivo

    Ex vivo experiments to investigate the effects of glyphosate or tylosin exposure on the melanization cascade in the hemolymph of honey bees. A – D The formation of dopachrome, an intermediate quinone of the melanization cascade, was measured after adding different concentrations of glyphosate or tylosin to the hemolymph extracted from A 1-day old bees, 5-day old bees B lacking or C containing a normal microbiota, and D hive bees. n = 16 samples per group. Samples were incubated for 30 min at 30 °C, and absorbance was measured at 490 nm. Significance between groups in each assay was measured with Kruskal–Wallis tests followed by Dunn’s multiple-comparison tests. * p < 0.05 and *** p < 0.001. MD microbiota defective, CV conventional microbiota

    Journal: Animal Microbiome

    Article Title: Glyphosate induces immune dysregulation in honey bees

    doi: 10.1186/s42523-022-00165-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Ex vivo experiments to investigate the effects of glyphosate or tylosin exposure on the melanization cascade in the hemolymph of honey bees. A – D The formation of dopachrome, an intermediate quinone of the melanization cascade, was measured after adding different concentrations of glyphosate or tylosin to the hemolymph extracted from A 1-day old bees, 5-day old bees B lacking or C containing a normal microbiota, and D hive bees. n = 16 samples per group. Samples were incubated for 30 min at 30 °C, and absorbance was measured at 490 nm. Significance between groups in each assay was measured with Kruskal–Wallis tests followed by Dunn’s multiple-comparison tests. * p < 0.05 and *** p < 0.001. MD microbiota defective, CV conventional microbiota

    Article Snippet: Tylosin tartrate was purchased from GoldBio, USA (Lot: 2313.081915A).

    Techniques: Ex Vivo, Incubation

    In vivo experiments to investigate the effects of glyphosate or tylosin exposure on the melanization cascade in the hemolymph of honey bees. A – F Dopachrome formation was measured in the hemolymph of honey bees previously exposed to different concentrations of glyphosate or tylosin. A , B No l -DOPA was added to the assays. C – F l -DOPA was added to the assays. Samples were incubated for 30 min at 30 °C, and absorbance was measured at 490 nm. A , C , D , E n = 8 samples per group. B n = 4 samples for control, 0.1 mM glyphosate and 1 mM glyphosate groups; n = 8 samples for 10 mM glyphosate group, n = 6 samples for 0.1 mM tylosin and 1 mM tylosin groups. F n = 8 samples per group, except n = 4 for 10 mM tylosin group. No statistically significant differences were observed between groups in any assay ( p > 0.05, Kruskal–Wallis tests). MD microbiota defective, CV conventional microbiota

    Journal: Animal Microbiome

    Article Title: Glyphosate induces immune dysregulation in honey bees

    doi: 10.1186/s42523-022-00165-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: In vivo experiments to investigate the effects of glyphosate or tylosin exposure on the melanization cascade in the hemolymph of honey bees. A – F Dopachrome formation was measured in the hemolymph of honey bees previously exposed to different concentrations of glyphosate or tylosin. A , B No l -DOPA was added to the assays. C – F l -DOPA was added to the assays. Samples were incubated for 30 min at 30 °C, and absorbance was measured at 490 nm. A , C , D , E n = 8 samples per group. B n = 4 samples for control, 0.1 mM glyphosate and 1 mM glyphosate groups; n = 8 samples for 10 mM glyphosate group, n = 6 samples for 0.1 mM tylosin and 1 mM tylosin groups. F n = 8 samples per group, except n = 4 for 10 mM tylosin group. No statistically significant differences were observed between groups in any assay ( p > 0.05, Kruskal–Wallis tests). MD microbiota defective, CV conventional microbiota

    Article Snippet: Tylosin tartrate was purchased from GoldBio, USA (Lot: 2313.081915A).

    Techniques: In Vivo, Incubation