apamin  (Alomone Labs)


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    Structured Review

    Alomone Labs apamin
    The contribution of various current components (K Ca , K ATP ) and the action of gambierol (100 nM) on total K + current of rat fetal AMC cells. The K + current was recorded using the perforated whole-cell voltage-clamp technique, during 90 ms depolarizing steps from a holding potential of −70 mV, under the conditions indicated in the figure ( A , B ). Note in ( A , B ) the different sequences of gambierol addition to the external medium. ( a ) Superimposed traces of outward K + currents recorded under control conditions and after the perfusion of the different pharmacological agents indicated. AGI denotes the simultaneous perfusion of 400 nM <t>apamin,</t> 200 µM glibenclamide and 100 nM <t>iberiotoxin.</t> ( b ) Current-voltage relationships. The current was measured at the end of the depolarizing steps and expressed as a percentage of control values for the indicated agents. ( c ) Relative outward K + current contribution (expressed as a percentage of the total current) for the pharmacological treatments indicated. The K + current was measured at the end of the depolarizing steps to +40 mV and expressed as a percentage of control values. Note that the percentage of blocked K Ca and K ATP current components were not significantly different whatever the order of gambierol-induced channel inhibition was. In ( b , c ), data represent the mean ± SEM of 4 different experiments.
    Apamin, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/apamin/product/Alomone Labs
    Average 94 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    apamin - by Bioz Stars, 2022-07
    94/100 stars

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    1) Product Images from "Gambierol Blocks a K+ Current Fraction without Affecting Catecholamine Release in Rat Fetal Adrenomedullary Cultured Chromaffin Cells"

    Article Title: Gambierol Blocks a K+ Current Fraction without Affecting Catecholamine Release in Rat Fetal Adrenomedullary Cultured Chromaffin Cells

    Journal: Toxins

    doi: 10.3390/toxins14040254

    The contribution of various current components (K Ca , K ATP ) and the action of gambierol (100 nM) on total K + current of rat fetal AMC cells. The K + current was recorded using the perforated whole-cell voltage-clamp technique, during 90 ms depolarizing steps from a holding potential of −70 mV, under the conditions indicated in the figure ( A , B ). Note in ( A , B ) the different sequences of gambierol addition to the external medium. ( a ) Superimposed traces of outward K + currents recorded under control conditions and after the perfusion of the different pharmacological agents indicated. AGI denotes the simultaneous perfusion of 400 nM apamin, 200 µM glibenclamide and 100 nM iberiotoxin. ( b ) Current-voltage relationships. The current was measured at the end of the depolarizing steps and expressed as a percentage of control values for the indicated agents. ( c ) Relative outward K + current contribution (expressed as a percentage of the total current) for the pharmacological treatments indicated. The K + current was measured at the end of the depolarizing steps to +40 mV and expressed as a percentage of control values. Note that the percentage of blocked K Ca and K ATP current components were not significantly different whatever the order of gambierol-induced channel inhibition was. In ( b , c ), data represent the mean ± SEM of 4 different experiments.
    Figure Legend Snippet: The contribution of various current components (K Ca , K ATP ) and the action of gambierol (100 nM) on total K + current of rat fetal AMC cells. The K + current was recorded using the perforated whole-cell voltage-clamp technique, during 90 ms depolarizing steps from a holding potential of −70 mV, under the conditions indicated in the figure ( A , B ). Note in ( A , B ) the different sequences of gambierol addition to the external medium. ( a ) Superimposed traces of outward K + currents recorded under control conditions and after the perfusion of the different pharmacological agents indicated. AGI denotes the simultaneous perfusion of 400 nM apamin, 200 µM glibenclamide and 100 nM iberiotoxin. ( b ) Current-voltage relationships. The current was measured at the end of the depolarizing steps and expressed as a percentage of control values for the indicated agents. ( c ) Relative outward K + current contribution (expressed as a percentage of the total current) for the pharmacological treatments indicated. The K + current was measured at the end of the depolarizing steps to +40 mV and expressed as a percentage of control values. Note that the percentage of blocked K Ca and K ATP current components were not significantly different whatever the order of gambierol-induced channel inhibition was. In ( b , c ), data represent the mean ± SEM of 4 different experiments.

    Techniques Used: Inhibition

    Number of amperometric spikes related to catecholamine release under control conditions, and during gambierol (50 nM), apamin (400 nM) and iberiotoxin (100 nM) applied cumulatively to the external medium by perfusion. Data obtained from fetal AMC cells showing initially either no action potential firing ( A ) or spontaneous spike activity ( B ), during stimulation with depolarizing current pulses of 11-s duration. Each column represents the mean ± SEM of 3 different experiments. Note that gambierol did not modify the number of release events, while a significant 2.7-fold ( A ) and 3.5-fold ( B ) increase occurred after the addition of K Ca blockers. *: p ≤ 0.005 versus gambierol.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Number of amperometric spikes related to catecholamine release under control conditions, and during gambierol (50 nM), apamin (400 nM) and iberiotoxin (100 nM) applied cumulatively to the external medium by perfusion. Data obtained from fetal AMC cells showing initially either no action potential firing ( A ) or spontaneous spike activity ( B ), during stimulation with depolarizing current pulses of 11-s duration. Each column represents the mean ± SEM of 3 different experiments. Note that gambierol did not modify the number of release events, while a significant 2.7-fold ( A ) and 3.5-fold ( B ) increase occurred after the addition of K Ca blockers. *: p ≤ 0.005 versus gambierol.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay

    Action of gambierol on the voltage-dependence of K + current activation in rat fetal AMC cells. The current was measured at the end of 90 ms depolarizing steps from a holding potential of −70 mV, expressed as a percentage of its maximal value at +40 mV, and plotted as a function of membrane potential during depolarizing pulses, in the absence (AGI, in blue) and presence (in red) of 100 nM of gambierol. Data represent the mean ± SEM of 4 different experiments. The theoretical curves correspond to data point fits according to the Boltzmann equation, as described in Materials and Methods, with V 50% and k values of 14.25 mV and 8.07 mV −1 (R 2 = 0.9989), respectively, for AGI, and 8.93 mV and 10.17 mV − 1 (R 2 = 0.9997), respectively, in the presence of gambierol. AGI denotes the simultaneous perfusion of 400 nM apamin, 200 µM glibenclamide and 100 nM iberiotoxin.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Action of gambierol on the voltage-dependence of K + current activation in rat fetal AMC cells. The current was measured at the end of 90 ms depolarizing steps from a holding potential of −70 mV, expressed as a percentage of its maximal value at +40 mV, and plotted as a function of membrane potential during depolarizing pulses, in the absence (AGI, in blue) and presence (in red) of 100 nM of gambierol. Data represent the mean ± SEM of 4 different experiments. The theoretical curves correspond to data point fits according to the Boltzmann equation, as described in Materials and Methods, with V 50% and k values of 14.25 mV and 8.07 mV −1 (R 2 = 0.9989), respectively, for AGI, and 8.93 mV and 10.17 mV − 1 (R 2 = 0.9997), respectively, in the presence of gambierol. AGI denotes the simultaneous perfusion of 400 nM apamin, 200 µM glibenclamide and 100 nM iberiotoxin.

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay

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    Alomone Labs apamin
    The contribution of various current components (K Ca , K ATP ) and the action of gambierol (100 nM) on total K + current of rat fetal AMC cells. The K + current was recorded using the perforated whole-cell voltage-clamp technique, during 90 ms depolarizing steps from a holding potential of −70 mV, under the conditions indicated in the figure ( A , B ). Note in ( A , B ) the different sequences of gambierol addition to the external medium. ( a ) Superimposed traces of outward K + currents recorded under control conditions and after the perfusion of the different pharmacological agents indicated. AGI denotes the simultaneous perfusion of 400 nM <t>apamin,</t> 200 µM glibenclamide and 100 nM <t>iberiotoxin.</t> ( b ) Current-voltage relationships. The current was measured at the end of the depolarizing steps and expressed as a percentage of control values for the indicated agents. ( c ) Relative outward K + current contribution (expressed as a percentage of the total current) for the pharmacological treatments indicated. The K + current was measured at the end of the depolarizing steps to +40 mV and expressed as a percentage of control values. Note that the percentage of blocked K Ca and K ATP current components were not significantly different whatever the order of gambierol-induced channel inhibition was. In ( b , c ), data represent the mean ± SEM of 4 different experiments.
    Apamin, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/apamin/product/Alomone Labs
    Average 94 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    apamin - by Bioz Stars, 2022-07
    94/100 stars
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    The contribution of various current components (K Ca , K ATP ) and the action of gambierol (100 nM) on total K + current of rat fetal AMC cells. The K + current was recorded using the perforated whole-cell voltage-clamp technique, during 90 ms depolarizing steps from a holding potential of −70 mV, under the conditions indicated in the figure ( A , B ). Note in ( A , B ) the different sequences of gambierol addition to the external medium. ( a ) Superimposed traces of outward K + currents recorded under control conditions and after the perfusion of the different pharmacological agents indicated. AGI denotes the simultaneous perfusion of 400 nM apamin, 200 µM glibenclamide and 100 nM iberiotoxin. ( b ) Current-voltage relationships. The current was measured at the end of the depolarizing steps and expressed as a percentage of control values for the indicated agents. ( c ) Relative outward K + current contribution (expressed as a percentage of the total current) for the pharmacological treatments indicated. The K + current was measured at the end of the depolarizing steps to +40 mV and expressed as a percentage of control values. Note that the percentage of blocked K Ca and K ATP current components were not significantly different whatever the order of gambierol-induced channel inhibition was. In ( b , c ), data represent the mean ± SEM of 4 different experiments.

    Journal: Toxins

    Article Title: Gambierol Blocks a K+ Current Fraction without Affecting Catecholamine Release in Rat Fetal Adrenomedullary Cultured Chromaffin Cells

    doi: 10.3390/toxins14040254

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The contribution of various current components (K Ca , K ATP ) and the action of gambierol (100 nM) on total K + current of rat fetal AMC cells. The K + current was recorded using the perforated whole-cell voltage-clamp technique, during 90 ms depolarizing steps from a holding potential of −70 mV, under the conditions indicated in the figure ( A , B ). Note in ( A , B ) the different sequences of gambierol addition to the external medium. ( a ) Superimposed traces of outward K + currents recorded under control conditions and after the perfusion of the different pharmacological agents indicated. AGI denotes the simultaneous perfusion of 400 nM apamin, 200 µM glibenclamide and 100 nM iberiotoxin. ( b ) Current-voltage relationships. The current was measured at the end of the depolarizing steps and expressed as a percentage of control values for the indicated agents. ( c ) Relative outward K + current contribution (expressed as a percentage of the total current) for the pharmacological treatments indicated. The K + current was measured at the end of the depolarizing steps to +40 mV and expressed as a percentage of control values. Note that the percentage of blocked K Ca and K ATP current components were not significantly different whatever the order of gambierol-induced channel inhibition was. In ( b , c ), data represent the mean ± SEM of 4 different experiments.

    Article Snippet: Tetrodotoxin, apamin, iberiotoxin, and glibenclamide were purchased from Alomone Labs (Jerusalem, Israel), and Latoxan (Portes-lès-Valence, France).

    Techniques: Inhibition

    Number of amperometric spikes related to catecholamine release under control conditions, and during gambierol (50 nM), apamin (400 nM) and iberiotoxin (100 nM) applied cumulatively to the external medium by perfusion. Data obtained from fetal AMC cells showing initially either no action potential firing ( A ) or spontaneous spike activity ( B ), during stimulation with depolarizing current pulses of 11-s duration. Each column represents the mean ± SEM of 3 different experiments. Note that gambierol did not modify the number of release events, while a significant 2.7-fold ( A ) and 3.5-fold ( B ) increase occurred after the addition of K Ca blockers. *: p ≤ 0.005 versus gambierol.

    Journal: Toxins

    Article Title: Gambierol Blocks a K+ Current Fraction without Affecting Catecholamine Release in Rat Fetal Adrenomedullary Cultured Chromaffin Cells

    doi: 10.3390/toxins14040254

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Number of amperometric spikes related to catecholamine release under control conditions, and during gambierol (50 nM), apamin (400 nM) and iberiotoxin (100 nM) applied cumulatively to the external medium by perfusion. Data obtained from fetal AMC cells showing initially either no action potential firing ( A ) or spontaneous spike activity ( B ), during stimulation with depolarizing current pulses of 11-s duration. Each column represents the mean ± SEM of 3 different experiments. Note that gambierol did not modify the number of release events, while a significant 2.7-fold ( A ) and 3.5-fold ( B ) increase occurred after the addition of K Ca blockers. *: p ≤ 0.005 versus gambierol.

    Article Snippet: Tetrodotoxin, apamin, iberiotoxin, and glibenclamide were purchased from Alomone Labs (Jerusalem, Israel), and Latoxan (Portes-lès-Valence, France).

    Techniques: Activity Assay

    Action of gambierol on the voltage-dependence of K + current activation in rat fetal AMC cells. The current was measured at the end of 90 ms depolarizing steps from a holding potential of −70 mV, expressed as a percentage of its maximal value at +40 mV, and plotted as a function of membrane potential during depolarizing pulses, in the absence (AGI, in blue) and presence (in red) of 100 nM of gambierol. Data represent the mean ± SEM of 4 different experiments. The theoretical curves correspond to data point fits according to the Boltzmann equation, as described in Materials and Methods, with V 50% and k values of 14.25 mV and 8.07 mV −1 (R 2 = 0.9989), respectively, for AGI, and 8.93 mV and 10.17 mV − 1 (R 2 = 0.9997), respectively, in the presence of gambierol. AGI denotes the simultaneous perfusion of 400 nM apamin, 200 µM glibenclamide and 100 nM iberiotoxin.

    Journal: Toxins

    Article Title: Gambierol Blocks a K+ Current Fraction without Affecting Catecholamine Release in Rat Fetal Adrenomedullary Cultured Chromaffin Cells

    doi: 10.3390/toxins14040254

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Action of gambierol on the voltage-dependence of K + current activation in rat fetal AMC cells. The current was measured at the end of 90 ms depolarizing steps from a holding potential of −70 mV, expressed as a percentage of its maximal value at +40 mV, and plotted as a function of membrane potential during depolarizing pulses, in the absence (AGI, in blue) and presence (in red) of 100 nM of gambierol. Data represent the mean ± SEM of 4 different experiments. The theoretical curves correspond to data point fits according to the Boltzmann equation, as described in Materials and Methods, with V 50% and k values of 14.25 mV and 8.07 mV −1 (R 2 = 0.9989), respectively, for AGI, and 8.93 mV and 10.17 mV − 1 (R 2 = 0.9997), respectively, in the presence of gambierol. AGI denotes the simultaneous perfusion of 400 nM apamin, 200 µM glibenclamide and 100 nM iberiotoxin.

    Article Snippet: Tetrodotoxin, apamin, iberiotoxin, and glibenclamide were purchased from Alomone Labs (Jerusalem, Israel), and Latoxan (Portes-lès-Valence, France).

    Techniques: Activation Assay