Imperatoxin A, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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1) Product Images from "Voltage-Dependent Modulation of Cardiac Ryanodine Receptors (RyR2) by Protamine"
Article Title: Voltage-Dependent Modulation of Cardiac Ryanodine Receptors (RyR2) by Protamine
Journal: PLoS ONE
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of protamine compared to other conductance-modifiers. Single-channel recordings of fully active RyR2 channels (10 µM cytosolic Ca 2+ /5 mM caffeine) in the presence of 1 µg/ml protamine, 10 µM ryanodol or 50 nM imperatoxin A ( A , B and C , respectively). Channel activity was recorded at V m = 0 mV (top traces) and +40 mV (bottom traces). The current levels for the baseline, full open state and substates induced by protamine, ryanodol and IpTx A are indicated ( b, o, p, r and i , respectively). ( D ) Current amplitude as a function of voltage for the full open state (n = 28) and for substates induced by protamine (n = 10), ryanodol (n = 13) and IpTx A (n = 5). Slope conductances were, in pS, 129±1, 123±3, 56±2 and 43±3, respectively.
Techniques Used: Activity Assay
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of protamine in combination with imperatoxin A (IpTx A ). RyR2 channels fully activated by the combined action of cytosolic Ca 2+ (10 µM) and caffeine (5 mM) were used as control ( A ). Subsequently, 50 nM IpTx A ( B ) or 1 µg/ml protamine ( C ) were added. To test the combined effect of 1 µg/ml protamine + 50 nM IpTx A two sets of experiments were performed: one adding protamine first and then IpTx A and the other, switching the order in which these agents were added. The results were the same in both sets of experiments. A representative recording is displayed in panel ( D ). All traces shown were performed at V m = +20 mV. Current levels for the baseline ( b ), full open state (o), protamine-induced substate ( p ) are indicated. A small substate ( s ) is indicated. In panels ( A ) and ( B ) the amplitude of this substate is ∼30% of the full open state and in panels ( C ) and ( D ) it is ∼30% the amplitude of the protamine-induced substate. ( E ) Probability of substates at the s level (P S ) as a function of holding voltage of RyR2 channels under control conditions (open triangles), exposed to 50 nM IpTx A (open circles), 1 µg/ml protamine (filled triangles) and 50 nM IpTx A +1 µg/ml protamine (filled circles). Values are means±SEM (* P