ammtx3  (Alomone Labs)


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    Name:
    AmmTx3 Toxin
    Description:
    A Blocker of A Type K Channels
    Catalog Number:
    STA-305
    Price:
    193.0
    Category:
    Toxin
    Source:
    Synthetic peptide
    Applications:
    0
    Purity:
    >98% (HPLC)
    Size:
    0 1 mg
    Format:
    Lyophilized powder.
    Formula:
    C158H262N50O48S6
    Molecular Weight:
    3822 Da.
    Molecule Name:
    AmmTx3 Toxin, Potassium channel toxin alpha-KTx 15.3
    Buy from Supplier


    Structured Review

    Alomone Labs ammtx3
    AmmTx3 Toxin
    A Blocker of A Type K Channels
    https://www.bioz.com/result/ammtx3/product/Alomone Labs
    Average 94 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    ammtx3 - by Bioz Stars, 2021-09
    94/100 stars

    Images

    1) Product Images from "Refining the Identity and Role of Kv4 Channels in Mouse Substantia Nigra Dopaminergic Neurons"

    Article Title: Refining the Identity and Role of Kv4 Channels in Mouse Substantia Nigra Dopaminergic Neurons

    Journal: eNeuro

    doi: 10.1523/ENEURO.0207-21.2021

    Voltage-clamp analysis of I A in WT and Kv4.3−/− SNc DA neurons. A , Voltage-clamp traces showing representative I A recordings obtained from a WT (black trace) and a Kv4.3−/− SNc DA neuron (red trace) in response to a voltage step to –40 mV (gray trace). The small residual current present in the Kv4.3−/− mice is blocked by AmmTX3 (inset, orange trace). B , Box and whisker plot showing the distribution of values for I A amplitude in WT and Kv4.3−/− SNc DA neurons. C , Box and whisker plot showing the distribution of values for I A time constant of inactivation (I A tau) in WT and Kv4.3−/− SNc DA neurons. The green dotted rectangle highlights five Kv4.3−/− outliers displaying unusually large values for I A tau. D , Box and whisker plot showing the distribution of values for I A charge in WT and Kv4.3−/− SNc DA neurons. The green dotted rectangle highlights five Kv4.3−/− outliers displaying unusually large values for I A charge (same cells as in C ). E , left, Scatter plot showing the relationship between I A tau and charge in WT (gray dots) and Kv4.3−/− SNc DA neurons (red dots). Please note that 5 of the Kv4.3−/− measurements lie in the WT region of space (green dotted ellipse). Right, Voltage-clamp traces showing one example of the atypical I A recording (green trace, corresponding to the large green circle in the scatter plot) encountered in one of the 5 Kv4.3−/− outliers highlighted in panels C , D , compared with the typical recording obtained in Kv4.3−/− neurons (red trace, same as in panel A , corresponding to the large red circle in the scatter plot); *** p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Voltage-clamp analysis of I A in WT and Kv4.3−/− SNc DA neurons. A , Voltage-clamp traces showing representative I A recordings obtained from a WT (black trace) and a Kv4.3−/− SNc DA neuron (red trace) in response to a voltage step to –40 mV (gray trace). The small residual current present in the Kv4.3−/− mice is blocked by AmmTX3 (inset, orange trace). B , Box and whisker plot showing the distribution of values for I A amplitude in WT and Kv4.3−/− SNc DA neurons. C , Box and whisker plot showing the distribution of values for I A time constant of inactivation (I A tau) in WT and Kv4.3−/− SNc DA neurons. The green dotted rectangle highlights five Kv4.3−/− outliers displaying unusually large values for I A tau. D , Box and whisker plot showing the distribution of values for I A charge in WT and Kv4.3−/− SNc DA neurons. The green dotted rectangle highlights five Kv4.3−/− outliers displaying unusually large values for I A charge (same cells as in C ). E , left, Scatter plot showing the relationship between I A tau and charge in WT (gray dots) and Kv4.3−/− SNc DA neurons (red dots). Please note that 5 of the Kv4.3−/− measurements lie in the WT region of space (green dotted ellipse). Right, Voltage-clamp traces showing one example of the atypical I A recording (green trace, corresponding to the large green circle in the scatter plot) encountered in one of the 5 Kv4.3−/− outliers highlighted in panels C , D , compared with the typical recording obtained in Kv4.3−/− neurons (red trace, same as in panel A , corresponding to the large red circle in the scatter plot); *** p

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Whisker Assay

    Comparing the alterations in electrophysiological phenotype after acute blockade of Kv4 channels with the Kv4.3−/− mouse model. A , Current-clamp recordings showing the spontaneous pattern of activity of a WT SNc DA neuron in control condition (black trace, left) and after AmmTX3 application (red trace, right). B , left, Line and scatter plot showing the change in spontaneous firing frequency induced by AmmTX3 application in individual WT SNc DA neurons. Right, Bar plot comparing the average change in spontaneous firing frequency after AmmTX3 application (left, light colors) or Kv4.3 channel deletion (right, dark colors). C , Current-clamp recordings showing the voltage response of a WT SNc DA neuron to a hyperpolarizing current step (bottom gray traces) in control condition (left, black trace) and after AmmTX3 application (right, red trace). D , left, Line and scatter plot showing the change in rebound delay induced by AmmTX3 application in individual WT SNc DA neurons. Right, Bar plot showing the average change in rebound delay after AmmTX3 application (left, light colors) or Kv4.3 channel deletion (right, dark colors); ** p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Comparing the alterations in electrophysiological phenotype after acute blockade of Kv4 channels with the Kv4.3−/− mouse model. A , Current-clamp recordings showing the spontaneous pattern of activity of a WT SNc DA neuron in control condition (black trace, left) and after AmmTX3 application (red trace, right). B , left, Line and scatter plot showing the change in spontaneous firing frequency induced by AmmTX3 application in individual WT SNc DA neurons. Right, Bar plot comparing the average change in spontaneous firing frequency after AmmTX3 application (left, light colors) or Kv4.3 channel deletion (right, dark colors). C , Current-clamp recordings showing the voltage response of a WT SNc DA neuron to a hyperpolarizing current step (bottom gray traces) in control condition (left, black trace) and after AmmTX3 application (right, red trace). D , left, Line and scatter plot showing the change in rebound delay induced by AmmTX3 application in individual WT SNc DA neurons. Right, Bar plot showing the average change in rebound delay after AmmTX3 application (left, light colors) or Kv4.3 channel deletion (right, dark colors); ** p

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay

    2) Product Images from "Activity-dependent tuning of intrinsic excitability in mouse and human neurogliaform cells"

    Article Title: Activity-dependent tuning of intrinsic excitability in mouse and human neurogliaform cells

    Journal: bioRxiv

    doi: 10.1101/2020.03.24.004465

    STP-SE manifests as an increase in afferent recruitment of NGFCs via enhanced E-S coupling. A. Single traces showing the effect of AmmTx3 (500 nM) on EPSC (top traces) and corresponding EPSP (bottom trace) in a given hippocampal NGFC in response to electrical stimulation of SLM afferent fibers (2 x 30Hz). B. Box plots of EPSC amplitudes (EPSC1 versus EPSC2) under baseline conditions and after AmmTx3 treatment (n=7; p values for EPSC1 and EPSC2 comparisons are 0.11 and 0.27, respectively). C. Box plots of paired pulse ratio (EPSC2 peak amplitude/EPSC1 peak amplitude) under baseline conditions and after AmmTx3 treatment (n=7; p value = 0.36). D. Box plots of EPSP summation measured as absolute Vm at peak of EPSP1 and EPSP2 under baseline conditions and after AmmTx3 treatment (n=7; =7; p values for EPSP1 and EPSP2 comparisons are 0.005 and 0.016, respectively)). E-G. Single trace examples depicting a time course of E-S coupling (SLM afferent stimulation delivered at 5 × 30 Hz) during baseline conditions and after STP-SE induction. H. Line plot depicting increased E-S coupling measured as spike probability during 10 sweeps of baseline versus 10 sweeps immediately after STP-SE induction (n=9; p value = 0.002). I. Box plot illustrating duration of enhanced E-S coupling following STP-SE induction (n=9).
    Figure Legend Snippet: STP-SE manifests as an increase in afferent recruitment of NGFCs via enhanced E-S coupling. A. Single traces showing the effect of AmmTx3 (500 nM) on EPSC (top traces) and corresponding EPSP (bottom trace) in a given hippocampal NGFC in response to electrical stimulation of SLM afferent fibers (2 x 30Hz). B. Box plots of EPSC amplitudes (EPSC1 versus EPSC2) under baseline conditions and after AmmTx3 treatment (n=7; p values for EPSC1 and EPSC2 comparisons are 0.11 and 0.27, respectively). C. Box plots of paired pulse ratio (EPSC2 peak amplitude/EPSC1 peak amplitude) under baseline conditions and after AmmTx3 treatment (n=7; p value = 0.36). D. Box plots of EPSP summation measured as absolute Vm at peak of EPSP1 and EPSP2 under baseline conditions and after AmmTx3 treatment (n=7; =7; p values for EPSP1 and EPSP2 comparisons are 0.005 and 0.016, respectively)). E-G. Single trace examples depicting a time course of E-S coupling (SLM afferent stimulation delivered at 5 × 30 Hz) during baseline conditions and after STP-SE induction. H. Line plot depicting increased E-S coupling measured as spike probability during 10 sweeps of baseline versus 10 sweeps immediately after STP-SE induction (n=9; p value = 0.002). I. Box plot illustrating duration of enhanced E-S coupling following STP-SE induction (n=9).

    Techniques Used:

    I KA in NGFCs is predominantly mediated by Kv4-subunit containing channels. A. Uniform Manifold Approximation and Projection (UMAP) plot of RNAseq data publicly available from the Allen Brain Institute (see methods for details) highlighting clusters corresponding to CGE-NGFCs (green; 3626 cells) and hippocampal pyramidal cells (blue; 2530 cells). B. Violin plots depicting comparison of mRNA levels in CGE-NGFCs that encode for subunits of I KA channels. Median values are depicted above each plot. C . Top, middle; Voltage steps and corresponding single current traces illustrating the protocol employed to isolate I KA and I KDR . Bottom; Single traces illustrating the effects of TEA (2-10 mM) and AmmTx3 (500nM) on the isolated I KA and I KDR . D. Box plots depicting inhibition of I KA and I KDR by TEA (n=8) and AmmTx3 (n=4). E. Scatterplot of median expression levels of KCND2 versus KCND3 mRNA in CGE-NGFCs and hippocampal pyramidal cells. F. Representative confocal images of KCND2 and KCND3 transcript expression in CA1 pyramidal cells revealed by RNAscope (see methods for details; scale bar = 100μm) G. Representative confocal image of the distribution of putative NGFCs (via expression of NDNF mRNA transcripts) in CA1 SLM (scale bar -= 100μM). H,I. Representative confocal images of mRNA expression of KCND2 and KNCD3 in putative NGFCs (NDNF-expressing) in CA1 SLM. (Scale bars = 50μm for top panels; 20μm for bottom panels) J. Split-violin plots depicting comparison in the expression levels of mRNA transcripts encoding known auxiliary subunits of Kv4-containing channels (KCHIPs and DPLPs) in CGE-NGFCs (green) versus hippocampal pyramidal cells (blue).
    Figure Legend Snippet: I KA in NGFCs is predominantly mediated by Kv4-subunit containing channels. A. Uniform Manifold Approximation and Projection (UMAP) plot of RNAseq data publicly available from the Allen Brain Institute (see methods for details) highlighting clusters corresponding to CGE-NGFCs (green; 3626 cells) and hippocampal pyramidal cells (blue; 2530 cells). B. Violin plots depicting comparison of mRNA levels in CGE-NGFCs that encode for subunits of I KA channels. Median values are depicted above each plot. C . Top, middle; Voltage steps and corresponding single current traces illustrating the protocol employed to isolate I KA and I KDR . Bottom; Single traces illustrating the effects of TEA (2-10 mM) and AmmTx3 (500nM) on the isolated I KA and I KDR . D. Box plots depicting inhibition of I KA and I KDR by TEA (n=8) and AmmTx3 (n=4). E. Scatterplot of median expression levels of KCND2 versus KCND3 mRNA in CGE-NGFCs and hippocampal pyramidal cells. F. Representative confocal images of KCND2 and KCND3 transcript expression in CA1 pyramidal cells revealed by RNAscope (see methods for details; scale bar = 100μm) G. Representative confocal image of the distribution of putative NGFCs (via expression of NDNF mRNA transcripts) in CA1 SLM (scale bar -= 100μM). H,I. Representative confocal images of mRNA expression of KCND2 and KNCD3 in putative NGFCs (NDNF-expressing) in CA1 SLM. (Scale bars = 50μm for top panels; 20μm for bottom panels) J. Split-violin plots depicting comparison in the expression levels of mRNA transcripts encoding known auxiliary subunits of Kv4-containing channels (KCHIPs and DPLPs) in CGE-NGFCs (green) versus hippocampal pyramidal cells (blue).

    Techniques Used: Isolation, Inhibition, Expressing

    3) Product Images from "Activity-dependent tuning of intrinsic excitability in mouse and human neurogliaform cells"

    Article Title: Activity-dependent tuning of intrinsic excitability in mouse and human neurogliaform cells

    Journal: bioRxiv

    doi: 10.1101/2020.03.24.004465

    STP-SE manifests as an increase in afferent recruitment of NGFCs via enhanced E-S coupling. A. Single traces showing the effect of AmmTx3 (500 nM) on EPSC (top traces) and corresponding EPSP (bottom trace) in a given hippocampal NGFC in response to electrical stimulation of SLM afferent fibers (2 x 30Hz). B. Box plots of EPSC amplitudes (EPSC1 versus EPSC2) under baseline conditions and after AmmTx3 treatment (n=7; p values for EPSC1 and EPSC2 comparisons are 0.11 and 0.27, respectively). C. Box plots of paired pulse ratio (EPSC2 peak amplitude/EPSC1 peak amplitude) under baseline conditions and after AmmTx3 treatment (n=7; p value = 0.36). D. Box plots of EPSP summation measured as absolute Vm at peak of EPSP1 and EPSP2 under baseline conditions and after AmmTx3 treatment (n=7; =7; p values for EPSP1 and EPSP2 comparisons are 0.005 and 0.016, respectively)). E-G. Single trace examples depicting a time course of E-S coupling (SLM afferent stimulation delivered at 5 × 30 Hz) during baseline conditions and after STP-SE induction. H. Line plot depicting increased E-S coupling measured as spike probability during 10 sweeps of baseline versus 10 sweeps immediately after STP-SE induction (n=9; p value = 0.002). I. Box plot illustrating duration of enhanced E-S coupling following STP-SE induction (n=9).
    Figure Legend Snippet: STP-SE manifests as an increase in afferent recruitment of NGFCs via enhanced E-S coupling. A. Single traces showing the effect of AmmTx3 (500 nM) on EPSC (top traces) and corresponding EPSP (bottom trace) in a given hippocampal NGFC in response to electrical stimulation of SLM afferent fibers (2 x 30Hz). B. Box plots of EPSC amplitudes (EPSC1 versus EPSC2) under baseline conditions and after AmmTx3 treatment (n=7; p values for EPSC1 and EPSC2 comparisons are 0.11 and 0.27, respectively). C. Box plots of paired pulse ratio (EPSC2 peak amplitude/EPSC1 peak amplitude) under baseline conditions and after AmmTx3 treatment (n=7; p value = 0.36). D. Box plots of EPSP summation measured as absolute Vm at peak of EPSP1 and EPSP2 under baseline conditions and after AmmTx3 treatment (n=7; =7; p values for EPSP1 and EPSP2 comparisons are 0.005 and 0.016, respectively)). E-G. Single trace examples depicting a time course of E-S coupling (SLM afferent stimulation delivered at 5 × 30 Hz) during baseline conditions and after STP-SE induction. H. Line plot depicting increased E-S coupling measured as spike probability during 10 sweeps of baseline versus 10 sweeps immediately after STP-SE induction (n=9; p value = 0.002). I. Box plot illustrating duration of enhanced E-S coupling following STP-SE induction (n=9).

    Techniques Used:

    I KA in NGFCs is predominantly mediated by Kv4-subunit containing channels. A. Uniform Manifold Approximation and Projection (UMAP) plot of RNAseq data publicly available from the Allen Brain Institute (see methods for details) highlighting clusters corresponding to CGE-NGFCs (green; 3626 cells) and hippocampal pyramidal cells (blue; 2530 cells). B. Violin plots depicting comparison of mRNA levels in CGE-NGFCs that encode for subunits of I KA channels. Median values are depicted above each plot. C . Top, middle; Voltage steps and corresponding single current traces illustrating the protocol employed to isolate I KA and I KDR . Bottom; Single traces illustrating the effects of TEA (2-10 mM) and AmmTx3 (500nM) on the isolated I KA and I KDR . D. Box plots depicting inhibition of I KA and I KDR by TEA (n=8) and AmmTx3 (n=4). E. Scatterplot of median expression levels of KCND2 versus KCND3 mRNA in CGE-NGFCs and hippocampal pyramidal cells. F. Representative confocal images of KCND2 and KCND3 transcript expression in CA1 pyramidal cells revealed by RNAscope (see methods for details; scale bar = 100μm) G. Representative confocal image of the distribution of putative NGFCs (via expression of NDNF mRNA transcripts) in CA1 SLM (scale bar -= 100μM). H,I. Representative confocal images of mRNA expression of KCND2 and KNCD3 in putative NGFCs (NDNF-expressing) in CA1 SLM. (Scale bars = 50μm for top panels; 20μm for bottom panels) J. Split-violin plots depicting comparison in the expression levels of mRNA transcripts encoding known auxiliary subunits of Kv4-containing channels (KCHIPs and DPLPs) in CGE-NGFCs (green) versus hippocampal pyramidal cells (blue).
    Figure Legend Snippet: I KA in NGFCs is predominantly mediated by Kv4-subunit containing channels. A. Uniform Manifold Approximation and Projection (UMAP) plot of RNAseq data publicly available from the Allen Brain Institute (see methods for details) highlighting clusters corresponding to CGE-NGFCs (green; 3626 cells) and hippocampal pyramidal cells (blue; 2530 cells). B. Violin plots depicting comparison of mRNA levels in CGE-NGFCs that encode for subunits of I KA channels. Median values are depicted above each plot. C . Top, middle; Voltage steps and corresponding single current traces illustrating the protocol employed to isolate I KA and I KDR . Bottom; Single traces illustrating the effects of TEA (2-10 mM) and AmmTx3 (500nM) on the isolated I KA and I KDR . D. Box plots depicting inhibition of I KA and I KDR by TEA (n=8) and AmmTx3 (n=4). E. Scatterplot of median expression levels of KCND2 versus KCND3 mRNA in CGE-NGFCs and hippocampal pyramidal cells. F. Representative confocal images of KCND2 and KCND3 transcript expression in CA1 pyramidal cells revealed by RNAscope (see methods for details; scale bar = 100μm) G. Representative confocal image of the distribution of putative NGFCs (via expression of NDNF mRNA transcripts) in CA1 SLM (scale bar -= 100μM). H,I. Representative confocal images of mRNA expression of KCND2 and KNCD3 in putative NGFCs (NDNF-expressing) in CA1 SLM. (Scale bars = 50μm for top panels; 20μm for bottom panels) J. Split-violin plots depicting comparison in the expression levels of mRNA transcripts encoding known auxiliary subunits of Kv4-containing channels (KCHIPs and DPLPs) in CGE-NGFCs (green) versus hippocampal pyramidal cells (blue).

    Techniques Used: Isolation, Inhibition, Expressing

    4) Product Images from "Activity-dependent tuning of intrinsic excitability in mouse and human neurogliaform cells"

    Article Title: Activity-dependent tuning of intrinsic excitability in mouse and human neurogliaform cells

    Journal: bioRxiv

    doi: 10.1101/2020.03.24.004465

    STP-SE manifests as an increase in afferent recruitment of NGFCs via enhanced E-S coupling. A. Single traces showing the effect of AmmTx3 (500 nM) on EPSC (top traces) and corresponding EPSP (bottom trace) in a given hippocampal NGFC in response to electrical stimulation of SLM afferent fibers (2 x 30Hz). B. Box plots of EPSC amplitudes (EPSC1 versus EPSC2) under baseline conditions and after AmmTx3 treatment (n=7; p values for EPSC1 and EPSC2 comparisons are 0.11 and 0.27, respectively). C. Box plots of paired pulse ratio (EPSC2 peak amplitude/EPSC1 peak amplitude) under baseline conditions and after AmmTx3 treatment (n=7; p value = 0.36). D. Box plots of EPSP summation measured as absolute Vm at peak of EPSP1 and EPSP2 under baseline conditions and after AmmTx3 treatment (n=7; =7; p values for EPSP1 and EPSP2 comparisons are 0.005 and 0.016, respectively)). E-G. Single trace examples depicting a time course of E-S coupling (SLM afferent stimulation delivered at 5 × 30 Hz) during baseline conditions and after STP-SE induction. H. Line plot depicting increased E-S coupling measured as spike probability during 10 sweeps of baseline versus 10 sweeps immediately after STP-SE induction (n=9; p value = 0.002). I. Box plot illustrating duration of enhanced E-S coupling following STP-SE induction (n=9).
    Figure Legend Snippet: STP-SE manifests as an increase in afferent recruitment of NGFCs via enhanced E-S coupling. A. Single traces showing the effect of AmmTx3 (500 nM) on EPSC (top traces) and corresponding EPSP (bottom trace) in a given hippocampal NGFC in response to electrical stimulation of SLM afferent fibers (2 x 30Hz). B. Box plots of EPSC amplitudes (EPSC1 versus EPSC2) under baseline conditions and after AmmTx3 treatment (n=7; p values for EPSC1 and EPSC2 comparisons are 0.11 and 0.27, respectively). C. Box plots of paired pulse ratio (EPSC2 peak amplitude/EPSC1 peak amplitude) under baseline conditions and after AmmTx3 treatment (n=7; p value = 0.36). D. Box plots of EPSP summation measured as absolute Vm at peak of EPSP1 and EPSP2 under baseline conditions and after AmmTx3 treatment (n=7; =7; p values for EPSP1 and EPSP2 comparisons are 0.005 and 0.016, respectively)). E-G. Single trace examples depicting a time course of E-S coupling (SLM afferent stimulation delivered at 5 × 30 Hz) during baseline conditions and after STP-SE induction. H. Line plot depicting increased E-S coupling measured as spike probability during 10 sweeps of baseline versus 10 sweeps immediately after STP-SE induction (n=9; p value = 0.002). I. Box plot illustrating duration of enhanced E-S coupling following STP-SE induction (n=9).

    Techniques Used:

    I KA in NGFCs is predominantly mediated by Kv4-subunit containing channels. A. Uniform Manifold Approximation and Projection (UMAP) plot of RNAseq data publicly available from the Allen Brain Institute (see methods for details) highlighting clusters corresponding to CGE-NGFCs (green; 3626 cells) and hippocampal pyramidal cells (blue; 2530 cells). B. Violin plots depicting comparison of mRNA levels in CGE-NGFCs that encode for subunits of I KA channels. Median values are depicted above each plot. C . Top, middle; Voltage steps and corresponding single current traces illustrating the protocol employed to isolate I KA and I KDR . Bottom; Single traces illustrating the effects of TEA (2-10 mM) and AmmTx3 (500nM) on the isolated I KA and I KDR . D. Box plots depicting inhibition of I KA and I KDR by TEA (n=8) and AmmTx3 (n=4). E. Scatterplot of median expression levels of KCND2 versus KCND3 mRNA in CGE-NGFCs and hippocampal pyramidal cells. F. Representative confocal images of KCND2 and KCND3 transcript expression in CA1 pyramidal cells revealed by RNAscope (see methods for details; scale bar = 100μm) G. Representative confocal image of the distribution of putative NGFCs (via expression of NDNF mRNA transcripts) in CA1 SLM (scale bar -= 100μM). H,I. Representative confocal images of mRNA expression of KCND2 and KNCD3 in putative NGFCs (NDNF-expressing) in CA1 SLM. (Scale bars = 50μm for top panels; 20μm for bottom panels) J. Split-violin plots depicting comparison in the expression levels of mRNA transcripts encoding known auxiliary subunits of Kv4-containing channels (KCHIPs and DPLPs) in CGE-NGFCs (green) versus hippocampal pyramidal cells (blue).
    Figure Legend Snippet: I KA in NGFCs is predominantly mediated by Kv4-subunit containing channels. A. Uniform Manifold Approximation and Projection (UMAP) plot of RNAseq data publicly available from the Allen Brain Institute (see methods for details) highlighting clusters corresponding to CGE-NGFCs (green; 3626 cells) and hippocampal pyramidal cells (blue; 2530 cells). B. Violin plots depicting comparison of mRNA levels in CGE-NGFCs that encode for subunits of I KA channels. Median values are depicted above each plot. C . Top, middle; Voltage steps and corresponding single current traces illustrating the protocol employed to isolate I KA and I KDR . Bottom; Single traces illustrating the effects of TEA (2-10 mM) and AmmTx3 (500nM) on the isolated I KA and I KDR . D. Box plots depicting inhibition of I KA and I KDR by TEA (n=8) and AmmTx3 (n=4). E. Scatterplot of median expression levels of KCND2 versus KCND3 mRNA in CGE-NGFCs and hippocampal pyramidal cells. F. Representative confocal images of KCND2 and KCND3 transcript expression in CA1 pyramidal cells revealed by RNAscope (see methods for details; scale bar = 100μm) G. Representative confocal image of the distribution of putative NGFCs (via expression of NDNF mRNA transcripts) in CA1 SLM (scale bar -= 100μM). H,I. Representative confocal images of mRNA expression of KCND2 and KNCD3 in putative NGFCs (NDNF-expressing) in CA1 SLM. (Scale bars = 50μm for top panels; 20μm for bottom panels) J. Split-violin plots depicting comparison in the expression levels of mRNA transcripts encoding known auxiliary subunits of Kv4-containing channels (KCHIPs and DPLPs) in CGE-NGFCs (green) versus hippocampal pyramidal cells (blue).

    Techniques Used: Isolation, Inhibition, Expressing

    Related Articles

    Activation Assay:

    Article Title: Activity-dependent tuning of intrinsic excitability in mouse and human neurogliaform cells
    Article Snippet: .. In experiments assessing the effect of AmmTX3 on EPSP integrations 5mM QX-314Cl- was included in the intracellular solution to prevent activation of voltage-gated sodium channels. ..

    Article Title: Activity-dependent tuning of intrinsic excitability in mouse and human neurogliaform cells
    Article Snippet: .. In experiments assessing the effect of AmmTX3 on EPSP integrations 5 mM QX-314Cl- was included in the intracellular solution to prevent activation of voltage-gated sodium channels. ..

    Blocking Assay:

    Article Title: Refining the Identity and Role of Kv4 Channels in Mouse Substantia Nigra Dopaminergic Neurons
    Article Snippet: .. AmmTX3 (1 μm , Alomone) was used to block the transient potassium current (IA) carried by Kv4 channels. ..

    other:

    Article Title: Activity-dependent tuning of intrinsic excitability in mouse and human neurogliaform cells
    Article Snippet: Electrophysiological recordings were performed on slices perfused with extracellular solution of the following composition (mM): 130 NaCl, 24 NaHCO3 , 1.25 NaH2 PO4 , 3.5 KCl, 1.5 MgCl2 , 2.5 CaCl2 and 10 glucose saturated with 95% O2 and 5% CO2 .

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    Alomone Labs ammtx3
    Voltage-clamp analysis of I A in WT and Kv4.3−/− SNc DA neurons. A , Voltage-clamp traces showing representative I A recordings obtained from a WT (black trace) and a Kv4.3−/− SNc DA neuron (red trace) in response to a voltage step to –40 mV (gray trace). The small residual current present in the Kv4.3−/− mice is blocked by <t>AmmTX3</t> (inset, orange trace). B , Box and whisker plot showing the distribution of values for I A amplitude in WT and Kv4.3−/− SNc DA neurons. C , Box and whisker plot showing the distribution of values for I A time constant of inactivation (I A tau) in WT and Kv4.3−/− SNc DA neurons. The green dotted rectangle highlights five Kv4.3−/− outliers displaying unusually large values for I A tau. D , Box and whisker plot showing the distribution of values for I A charge in WT and Kv4.3−/− SNc DA neurons. The green dotted rectangle highlights five Kv4.3−/− outliers displaying unusually large values for I A charge (same cells as in C ). E , left, Scatter plot showing the relationship between I A tau and charge in WT (gray dots) and Kv4.3−/− SNc DA neurons (red dots). Please note that 5 of the Kv4.3−/− measurements lie in the WT region of space (green dotted ellipse). Right, Voltage-clamp traces showing one example of the atypical I A recording (green trace, corresponding to the large green circle in the scatter plot) encountered in one of the 5 Kv4.3−/− outliers highlighted in panels C , D , compared with the typical recording obtained in Kv4.3−/− neurons (red trace, same as in panel A , corresponding to the large red circle in the scatter plot); *** p
    Ammtx3, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Voltage-clamp analysis of I A in WT and Kv4.3−/− SNc DA neurons. A , Voltage-clamp traces showing representative I A recordings obtained from a WT (black trace) and a Kv4.3−/− SNc DA neuron (red trace) in response to a voltage step to –40 mV (gray trace). The small residual current present in the Kv4.3−/− mice is blocked by AmmTX3 (inset, orange trace). B , Box and whisker plot showing the distribution of values for I A amplitude in WT and Kv4.3−/− SNc DA neurons. C , Box and whisker plot showing the distribution of values for I A time constant of inactivation (I A tau) in WT and Kv4.3−/− SNc DA neurons. The green dotted rectangle highlights five Kv4.3−/− outliers displaying unusually large values for I A tau. D , Box and whisker plot showing the distribution of values for I A charge in WT and Kv4.3−/− SNc DA neurons. The green dotted rectangle highlights five Kv4.3−/− outliers displaying unusually large values for I A charge (same cells as in C ). E , left, Scatter plot showing the relationship between I A tau and charge in WT (gray dots) and Kv4.3−/− SNc DA neurons (red dots). Please note that 5 of the Kv4.3−/− measurements lie in the WT region of space (green dotted ellipse). Right, Voltage-clamp traces showing one example of the atypical I A recording (green trace, corresponding to the large green circle in the scatter plot) encountered in one of the 5 Kv4.3−/− outliers highlighted in panels C , D , compared with the typical recording obtained in Kv4.3−/− neurons (red trace, same as in panel A , corresponding to the large red circle in the scatter plot); *** p

    Journal: eNeuro

    Article Title: Refining the Identity and Role of Kv4 Channels in Mouse Substantia Nigra Dopaminergic Neurons

    doi: 10.1523/ENEURO.0207-21.2021

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Voltage-clamp analysis of I A in WT and Kv4.3−/− SNc DA neurons. A , Voltage-clamp traces showing representative I A recordings obtained from a WT (black trace) and a Kv4.3−/− SNc DA neuron (red trace) in response to a voltage step to –40 mV (gray trace). The small residual current present in the Kv4.3−/− mice is blocked by AmmTX3 (inset, orange trace). B , Box and whisker plot showing the distribution of values for I A amplitude in WT and Kv4.3−/− SNc DA neurons. C , Box and whisker plot showing the distribution of values for I A time constant of inactivation (I A tau) in WT and Kv4.3−/− SNc DA neurons. The green dotted rectangle highlights five Kv4.3−/− outliers displaying unusually large values for I A tau. D , Box and whisker plot showing the distribution of values for I A charge in WT and Kv4.3−/− SNc DA neurons. The green dotted rectangle highlights five Kv4.3−/− outliers displaying unusually large values for I A charge (same cells as in C ). E , left, Scatter plot showing the relationship between I A tau and charge in WT (gray dots) and Kv4.3−/− SNc DA neurons (red dots). Please note that 5 of the Kv4.3−/− measurements lie in the WT region of space (green dotted ellipse). Right, Voltage-clamp traces showing one example of the atypical I A recording (green trace, corresponding to the large green circle in the scatter plot) encountered in one of the 5 Kv4.3−/− outliers highlighted in panels C , D , compared with the typical recording obtained in Kv4.3−/− neurons (red trace, same as in panel A , corresponding to the large red circle in the scatter plot); *** p

    Article Snippet: AmmTX3 (1 μm , Alomone) was used to block the transient potassium current (IA) carried by Kv4 channels.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Whisker Assay

    Comparing the alterations in electrophysiological phenotype after acute blockade of Kv4 channels with the Kv4.3−/− mouse model. A , Current-clamp recordings showing the spontaneous pattern of activity of a WT SNc DA neuron in control condition (black trace, left) and after AmmTX3 application (red trace, right). B , left, Line and scatter plot showing the change in spontaneous firing frequency induced by AmmTX3 application in individual WT SNc DA neurons. Right, Bar plot comparing the average change in spontaneous firing frequency after AmmTX3 application (left, light colors) or Kv4.3 channel deletion (right, dark colors). C , Current-clamp recordings showing the voltage response of a WT SNc DA neuron to a hyperpolarizing current step (bottom gray traces) in control condition (left, black trace) and after AmmTX3 application (right, red trace). D , left, Line and scatter plot showing the change in rebound delay induced by AmmTX3 application in individual WT SNc DA neurons. Right, Bar plot showing the average change in rebound delay after AmmTX3 application (left, light colors) or Kv4.3 channel deletion (right, dark colors); ** p

    Journal: eNeuro

    Article Title: Refining the Identity and Role of Kv4 Channels in Mouse Substantia Nigra Dopaminergic Neurons

    doi: 10.1523/ENEURO.0207-21.2021

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Comparing the alterations in electrophysiological phenotype after acute blockade of Kv4 channels with the Kv4.3−/− mouse model. A , Current-clamp recordings showing the spontaneous pattern of activity of a WT SNc DA neuron in control condition (black trace, left) and after AmmTX3 application (red trace, right). B , left, Line and scatter plot showing the change in spontaneous firing frequency induced by AmmTX3 application in individual WT SNc DA neurons. Right, Bar plot comparing the average change in spontaneous firing frequency after AmmTX3 application (left, light colors) or Kv4.3 channel deletion (right, dark colors). C , Current-clamp recordings showing the voltage response of a WT SNc DA neuron to a hyperpolarizing current step (bottom gray traces) in control condition (left, black trace) and after AmmTX3 application (right, red trace). D , left, Line and scatter plot showing the change in rebound delay induced by AmmTX3 application in individual WT SNc DA neurons. Right, Bar plot showing the average change in rebound delay after AmmTX3 application (left, light colors) or Kv4.3 channel deletion (right, dark colors); ** p

    Article Snippet: AmmTX3 (1 μm , Alomone) was used to block the transient potassium current (IA) carried by Kv4 channels.

    Techniques: Activity Assay

    STP-SE manifests as an increase in afferent recruitment of NGFCs via enhanced E-S coupling. A. Single traces showing the effect of AmmTx3 (500 nM) on EPSC (top traces) and corresponding EPSP (bottom trace) in a given hippocampal NGFC in response to electrical stimulation of SLM afferent fibers (2 x 30Hz). B. Box plots of EPSC amplitudes (EPSC1 versus EPSC2) under baseline conditions and after AmmTx3 treatment (n=7; p values for EPSC1 and EPSC2 comparisons are 0.11 and 0.27, respectively). C. Box plots of paired pulse ratio (EPSC2 peak amplitude/EPSC1 peak amplitude) under baseline conditions and after AmmTx3 treatment (n=7; p value = 0.36). D. Box plots of EPSP summation measured as absolute Vm at peak of EPSP1 and EPSP2 under baseline conditions and after AmmTx3 treatment (n=7; =7; p values for EPSP1 and EPSP2 comparisons are 0.005 and 0.016, respectively)). E-G. Single trace examples depicting a time course of E-S coupling (SLM afferent stimulation delivered at 5 × 30 Hz) during baseline conditions and after STP-SE induction. H. Line plot depicting increased E-S coupling measured as spike probability during 10 sweeps of baseline versus 10 sweeps immediately after STP-SE induction (n=9; p value = 0.002). I. Box plot illustrating duration of enhanced E-S coupling following STP-SE induction (n=9).

    Journal: bioRxiv

    Article Title: Activity-dependent tuning of intrinsic excitability in mouse and human neurogliaform cells

    doi: 10.1101/2020.03.24.004465

    Figure Lengend Snippet: STP-SE manifests as an increase in afferent recruitment of NGFCs via enhanced E-S coupling. A. Single traces showing the effect of AmmTx3 (500 nM) on EPSC (top traces) and corresponding EPSP (bottom trace) in a given hippocampal NGFC in response to electrical stimulation of SLM afferent fibers (2 x 30Hz). B. Box plots of EPSC amplitudes (EPSC1 versus EPSC2) under baseline conditions and after AmmTx3 treatment (n=7; p values for EPSC1 and EPSC2 comparisons are 0.11 and 0.27, respectively). C. Box plots of paired pulse ratio (EPSC2 peak amplitude/EPSC1 peak amplitude) under baseline conditions and after AmmTx3 treatment (n=7; p value = 0.36). D. Box plots of EPSP summation measured as absolute Vm at peak of EPSP1 and EPSP2 under baseline conditions and after AmmTx3 treatment (n=7; =7; p values for EPSP1 and EPSP2 comparisons are 0.005 and 0.016, respectively)). E-G. Single trace examples depicting a time course of E-S coupling (SLM afferent stimulation delivered at 5 × 30 Hz) during baseline conditions and after STP-SE induction. H. Line plot depicting increased E-S coupling measured as spike probability during 10 sweeps of baseline versus 10 sweeps immediately after STP-SE induction (n=9; p value = 0.002). I. Box plot illustrating duration of enhanced E-S coupling following STP-SE induction (n=9).

    Article Snippet: In certain experiments (see results section for details) the extracellular solution was supplemented with one or a combination of the following drugs; 50μM picrotoxin (Millipore Sigma; Cat. No. 80410), 2-5μM CGP556845A (Abcam; Cat. No. ab120337), 5-10μM bicuculline methobromide (Abcam; Cat. No. ab120109), 100μM or 1-3mM 4-aminopyridine (Millipore Sigma; Cat. No. A78403), 100-200nM α -DTX (Alomone Labs; Cat No.D-350), 200 or 500nM AmmTx3 (Alomone Labs; Cat No.STA-305).

    Techniques:

    I KA in NGFCs is predominantly mediated by Kv4-subunit containing channels. A. Uniform Manifold Approximation and Projection (UMAP) plot of RNAseq data publicly available from the Allen Brain Institute (see methods for details) highlighting clusters corresponding to CGE-NGFCs (green; 3626 cells) and hippocampal pyramidal cells (blue; 2530 cells). B. Violin plots depicting comparison of mRNA levels in CGE-NGFCs that encode for subunits of I KA channels. Median values are depicted above each plot. C . Top, middle; Voltage steps and corresponding single current traces illustrating the protocol employed to isolate I KA and I KDR . Bottom; Single traces illustrating the effects of TEA (2-10 mM) and AmmTx3 (500nM) on the isolated I KA and I KDR . D. Box plots depicting inhibition of I KA and I KDR by TEA (n=8) and AmmTx3 (n=4). E. Scatterplot of median expression levels of KCND2 versus KCND3 mRNA in CGE-NGFCs and hippocampal pyramidal cells. F. Representative confocal images of KCND2 and KCND3 transcript expression in CA1 pyramidal cells revealed by RNAscope (see methods for details; scale bar = 100μm) G. Representative confocal image of the distribution of putative NGFCs (via expression of NDNF mRNA transcripts) in CA1 SLM (scale bar -= 100μM). H,I. Representative confocal images of mRNA expression of KCND2 and KNCD3 in putative NGFCs (NDNF-expressing) in CA1 SLM. (Scale bars = 50μm for top panels; 20μm for bottom panels) J. Split-violin plots depicting comparison in the expression levels of mRNA transcripts encoding known auxiliary subunits of Kv4-containing channels (KCHIPs and DPLPs) in CGE-NGFCs (green) versus hippocampal pyramidal cells (blue).

    Journal: bioRxiv

    Article Title: Activity-dependent tuning of intrinsic excitability in mouse and human neurogliaform cells

    doi: 10.1101/2020.03.24.004465

    Figure Lengend Snippet: I KA in NGFCs is predominantly mediated by Kv4-subunit containing channels. A. Uniform Manifold Approximation and Projection (UMAP) plot of RNAseq data publicly available from the Allen Brain Institute (see methods for details) highlighting clusters corresponding to CGE-NGFCs (green; 3626 cells) and hippocampal pyramidal cells (blue; 2530 cells). B. Violin plots depicting comparison of mRNA levels in CGE-NGFCs that encode for subunits of I KA channels. Median values are depicted above each plot. C . Top, middle; Voltage steps and corresponding single current traces illustrating the protocol employed to isolate I KA and I KDR . Bottom; Single traces illustrating the effects of TEA (2-10 mM) and AmmTx3 (500nM) on the isolated I KA and I KDR . D. Box plots depicting inhibition of I KA and I KDR by TEA (n=8) and AmmTx3 (n=4). E. Scatterplot of median expression levels of KCND2 versus KCND3 mRNA in CGE-NGFCs and hippocampal pyramidal cells. F. Representative confocal images of KCND2 and KCND3 transcript expression in CA1 pyramidal cells revealed by RNAscope (see methods for details; scale bar = 100μm) G. Representative confocal image of the distribution of putative NGFCs (via expression of NDNF mRNA transcripts) in CA1 SLM (scale bar -= 100μM). H,I. Representative confocal images of mRNA expression of KCND2 and KNCD3 in putative NGFCs (NDNF-expressing) in CA1 SLM. (Scale bars = 50μm for top panels; 20μm for bottom panels) J. Split-violin plots depicting comparison in the expression levels of mRNA transcripts encoding known auxiliary subunits of Kv4-containing channels (KCHIPs and DPLPs) in CGE-NGFCs (green) versus hippocampal pyramidal cells (blue).

    Article Snippet: In certain experiments (see results section for details) the extracellular solution was supplemented with one or a combination of the following drugs; 50μM picrotoxin (Millipore Sigma; Cat. No. 80410), 2-5μM CGP556845A (Abcam; Cat. No. ab120337), 5-10μM bicuculline methobromide (Abcam; Cat. No. ab120109), 100μM or 1-3mM 4-aminopyridine (Millipore Sigma; Cat. No. A78403), 100-200nM α -DTX (Alomone Labs; Cat No.D-350), 200 or 500nM AmmTx3 (Alomone Labs; Cat No.STA-305).

    Techniques: Isolation, Inhibition, Expressing

    STP-SE manifests as an increase in afferent recruitment of NGFCs via enhanced E-S coupling. A. Single traces showing the effect of AmmTx3 (500 nM) on EPSC (top traces) and corresponding EPSP (bottom trace) in a given hippocampal NGFC in response to electrical stimulation of SLM afferent fibers (2 x 30Hz). B. Box plots of EPSC amplitudes (EPSC1 versus EPSC2) under baseline conditions and after AmmTx3 treatment (n=7; p values for EPSC1 and EPSC2 comparisons are 0.11 and 0.27, respectively). C. Box plots of paired pulse ratio (EPSC2 peak amplitude/EPSC1 peak amplitude) under baseline conditions and after AmmTx3 treatment (n=7; p value = 0.36). D. Box plots of EPSP summation measured as absolute Vm at peak of EPSP1 and EPSP2 under baseline conditions and after AmmTx3 treatment (n=7; =7; p values for EPSP1 and EPSP2 comparisons are 0.005 and 0.016, respectively)). E-G. Single trace examples depicting a time course of E-S coupling (SLM afferent stimulation delivered at 5 × 30 Hz) during baseline conditions and after STP-SE induction. H. Line plot depicting increased E-S coupling measured as spike probability during 10 sweeps of baseline versus 10 sweeps immediately after STP-SE induction (n=9; p value = 0.002). I. Box plot illustrating duration of enhanced E-S coupling following STP-SE induction (n=9).

    Journal: bioRxiv

    Article Title: Activity-dependent tuning of intrinsic excitability in mouse and human neurogliaform cells

    doi: 10.1101/2020.03.24.004465

    Figure Lengend Snippet: STP-SE manifests as an increase in afferent recruitment of NGFCs via enhanced E-S coupling. A. Single traces showing the effect of AmmTx3 (500 nM) on EPSC (top traces) and corresponding EPSP (bottom trace) in a given hippocampal NGFC in response to electrical stimulation of SLM afferent fibers (2 x 30Hz). B. Box plots of EPSC amplitudes (EPSC1 versus EPSC2) under baseline conditions and after AmmTx3 treatment (n=7; p values for EPSC1 and EPSC2 comparisons are 0.11 and 0.27, respectively). C. Box plots of paired pulse ratio (EPSC2 peak amplitude/EPSC1 peak amplitude) under baseline conditions and after AmmTx3 treatment (n=7; p value = 0.36). D. Box plots of EPSP summation measured as absolute Vm at peak of EPSP1 and EPSP2 under baseline conditions and after AmmTx3 treatment (n=7; =7; p values for EPSP1 and EPSP2 comparisons are 0.005 and 0.016, respectively)). E-G. Single trace examples depicting a time course of E-S coupling (SLM afferent stimulation delivered at 5 × 30 Hz) during baseline conditions and after STP-SE induction. H. Line plot depicting increased E-S coupling measured as spike probability during 10 sweeps of baseline versus 10 sweeps immediately after STP-SE induction (n=9; p value = 0.002). I. Box plot illustrating duration of enhanced E-S coupling following STP-SE induction (n=9).

    Article Snippet: In certain experiments (see results section for details) the extracellular solution was supplemented with one or a combination of the following drugs; 50μM picrotoxin (Millipore Sigma; Cat. No. 80410), 2-5μM CGP556845A (Abcam; Cat. No. ab120337), 5-10μM bicuculline methobromide (Abcam; Cat. No. ab120109), 100μM or 1-3mM 4-aminopyridine (Millipore Sigma; Cat. No. A78403), 100-200nM α -DTX (Alomone Labs; Cat No.D-350), 200 or 500nM AmmTx3 (Alomone Labs; Cat No.STA-305).

    Techniques:

    I KA in NGFCs is predominantly mediated by Kv4-subunit containing channels. A. Uniform Manifold Approximation and Projection (UMAP) plot of RNAseq data publicly available from the Allen Brain Institute (see methods for details) highlighting clusters corresponding to CGE-NGFCs (green; 3626 cells) and hippocampal pyramidal cells (blue; 2530 cells). B. Violin plots depicting comparison of mRNA levels in CGE-NGFCs that encode for subunits of I KA channels. Median values are depicted above each plot. C . Top, middle; Voltage steps and corresponding single current traces illustrating the protocol employed to isolate I KA and I KDR . Bottom; Single traces illustrating the effects of TEA (2-10 mM) and AmmTx3 (500nM) on the isolated I KA and I KDR . D. Box plots depicting inhibition of I KA and I KDR by TEA (n=8) and AmmTx3 (n=4). E. Scatterplot of median expression levels of KCND2 versus KCND3 mRNA in CGE-NGFCs and hippocampal pyramidal cells. F. Representative confocal images of KCND2 and KCND3 transcript expression in CA1 pyramidal cells revealed by RNAscope (see methods for details; scale bar = 100μm) G. Representative confocal image of the distribution of putative NGFCs (via expression of NDNF mRNA transcripts) in CA1 SLM (scale bar -= 100μM). H,I. Representative confocal images of mRNA expression of KCND2 and KNCD3 in putative NGFCs (NDNF-expressing) in CA1 SLM. (Scale bars = 50μm for top panels; 20μm for bottom panels) J. Split-violin plots depicting comparison in the expression levels of mRNA transcripts encoding known auxiliary subunits of Kv4-containing channels (KCHIPs and DPLPs) in CGE-NGFCs (green) versus hippocampal pyramidal cells (blue).

    Journal: bioRxiv

    Article Title: Activity-dependent tuning of intrinsic excitability in mouse and human neurogliaform cells

    doi: 10.1101/2020.03.24.004465

    Figure Lengend Snippet: I KA in NGFCs is predominantly mediated by Kv4-subunit containing channels. A. Uniform Manifold Approximation and Projection (UMAP) plot of RNAseq data publicly available from the Allen Brain Institute (see methods for details) highlighting clusters corresponding to CGE-NGFCs (green; 3626 cells) and hippocampal pyramidal cells (blue; 2530 cells). B. Violin plots depicting comparison of mRNA levels in CGE-NGFCs that encode for subunits of I KA channels. Median values are depicted above each plot. C . Top, middle; Voltage steps and corresponding single current traces illustrating the protocol employed to isolate I KA and I KDR . Bottom; Single traces illustrating the effects of TEA (2-10 mM) and AmmTx3 (500nM) on the isolated I KA and I KDR . D. Box plots depicting inhibition of I KA and I KDR by TEA (n=8) and AmmTx3 (n=4). E. Scatterplot of median expression levels of KCND2 versus KCND3 mRNA in CGE-NGFCs and hippocampal pyramidal cells. F. Representative confocal images of KCND2 and KCND3 transcript expression in CA1 pyramidal cells revealed by RNAscope (see methods for details; scale bar = 100μm) G. Representative confocal image of the distribution of putative NGFCs (via expression of NDNF mRNA transcripts) in CA1 SLM (scale bar -= 100μM). H,I. Representative confocal images of mRNA expression of KCND2 and KNCD3 in putative NGFCs (NDNF-expressing) in CA1 SLM. (Scale bars = 50μm for top panels; 20μm for bottom panels) J. Split-violin plots depicting comparison in the expression levels of mRNA transcripts encoding known auxiliary subunits of Kv4-containing channels (KCHIPs and DPLPs) in CGE-NGFCs (green) versus hippocampal pyramidal cells (blue).

    Article Snippet: In certain experiments (see results section for details) the extracellular solution was supplemented with one or a combination of the following drugs; 50μM picrotoxin (Millipore Sigma; Cat. No. 80410), 2-5μM CGP556845A (Abcam; Cat. No. ab120337), 5-10μM bicuculline methobromide (Abcam; Cat. No. ab120109), 100μM or 1-3mM 4-aminopyridine (Millipore Sigma; Cat. No. A78403), 100-200nM α -DTX (Alomone Labs; Cat No.D-350), 200 or 500nM AmmTx3 (Alomone Labs; Cat No.STA-305).

    Techniques: Isolation, Inhibition, Expressing