Ryanodine, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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1) Product Images from "Ca2+-sparks constitute elementary building blocks for global Ca2+-signals in myocytes of retinal arterioles"
Article Title: Ca2+-sparks constitute elementary building blocks for global Ca2+-signals in myocytes of retinal arterioles
Journal: Cell Calcium
Figure Legend Snippet: Ryanodine inhibited Ca 2+ -sparks and oscillations. (A) Linescan and normalised fluorescence plots for 2 adjacent myocytes in an arteriole under control conditions and during superfusion with 100 μM ryanodine. Time-course data in the graph refers to the indicated regions of interest (R.O.I.). (B) Summary data from 17 cells for spark frequency and amplitude during the 20 s control period and 3 consecutive, 10 s periods of superfusion with ryanodine ( ** P
Techniques Used: Fluorescence
2) Product Images from "Early and Simultaneous Emergence of Multiple Hippocampal Biomarkers of Aging Is Mediated by Ca2+-Induced Ca2+ Release"
Article Title: Early and Simultaneous Emergence of Multiple Hippocampal Biomarkers of Aging Is Mediated by Ca2+-Induced Ca2+ Release
Journal: The Journal of Neuroscience
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of ryanodine on kinetics of the [Ca 2+ ] i response. A , Examples of the effects of ryanodine in slowing the rising phase of somatic Ca 2+ at the onset of RSS in a 4-month-old (left) and 23-month-old (right) animal. B , Ryanodine did not significantly affect peak Ca 2+ levels measured during RSS. Grayscale bars, Preryanodine. White bars, Postryanodine. Aging effect persists after ryanodine (asterisks). C , Ryanodine eliminated the effect of aging on measures of the AUC. Although the rising ( D ) and decaying ( E ) time constants of Ca 2+ did not differ with aging, ryanodine treatment significantly lengthened both time constants. All aging comparisons are made within a treatment condition (i.e., preryanodine only or postryanodine only). Note that peak Ca 2+ levels are increased with aging in cells before the ryanodine treatment (asterisks above grayscale bars) and also after ryanodine treatment (asterisks above white bars). *Different from the 4-month-old group appropriate for preryanodine and postryanodine comparisons at p
3) Product Images from "Discovery of long-range inhibitory signaling to ensure single axon formation"
Article Title: Discovery of long-range inhibitory signaling to ensure single axon formation
Journal: Nature Communications
Figure Legend Snippet: NT-3 generated long-range Ca 2+ signaling from the axon to the cell body. a Long-range Ca 2+ wave. The relative change in the Cal-520 emission ratio (defined as R) was used as a measure of changes in Ca 2+ concentration. The pseudocolored images represent R after local application of PBS ( top ) or NT-3 ( bottom ) to the axon ( arrow ). Scale bars, 50 μm. b The mean amplitude of R treat / R 0 for 90 s during local application of NT-3 in the presence of the indicated inhibitors (PBS = 10, NT-3 = 16, xestospongin C = 9, ryanodine = 15, dantrolene = 18, SKF96365 = 12 neurons from three independent experiments). c , d The axon was exposed to NT-3 in the presence of the indicated inhibitors, and then minor neurite outgrowth (PBS = 21, NT-3 = 21, xestospongin C = 26, ryanodine = 25, dantrolene = 25, SKF96365 = 24 neurites from three independent experiments) c and axonal outgrowth (PBS = 7, NT-3 = 9, xestospongin C = 9, ryanodine = 9, dantrolene = 8, SKF96365 = 8 neurons from three independent experiments) d were measured. e Local application of NT-3 increased the quantity of phospho-CaMKI in the cell body. After local application of PBS ( top ) or NT-3 ( bottom ), hippocampal neurons were immunostained with antibodies against CaMKI ( green ) and phospho-Thr177 of CaMKI ( magenta ). The merged images ( right panels ) are shown. The graph plots the fluorescence intensities of total CaMKI ( green ) and CaMKI phosphorylated at Thr177 ( magenta ) and in the line. Scale bars, 20 μm. f NT-3-induced minor neurite retraction was abolished by Ca 2+ signaling inhibitors. The axon was exposed to NT-3 in the presence of the indicated inhibitors, and minor neurite outgrowth was measured (PBS = 27, NT-3 = 31, BAPTA = 47, STO-609 = 45, KN-93 = 40 neurites from three independent experiments). g , h Local application of indicated inhibitors to the axon. Minor neurite outgrowth (DMSO = 42, xestospongin C = 32, ryanodine = 37, dantrolene = 35, SKF96365 = 32 neurons from three independent experiments) g and axonal outgrowth (DMSO = 14, xestospongin C = 11, ryanodine = 13, dantrolene = 13, SKF96365 = 12 neurons from three independent experiments) h were measured. Error bars represent SEM. * P
Techniques Used: Generated, Concentration Assay, Fluorescence
4) Product Images from "Voltage-gated calcium channels contribute to spontaneous glutamate release directly via nanodomain coupling or indirectly via calmodulin"
Article Title: Voltage-gated calcium channels contribute to spontaneous glutamate release directly via nanodomain coupling or indirectly via calmodulin
Figure Legend Snippet: Ca 2+ cooperativity for glutamatergic spontaneous release. (Aa) A representative image of hippocampal neurons in autaptic culture system labeled by the extracellular application of lipophilic fluorescent dyes, Dil. (Ab) Top. A representative trace of mEPSC in the presence of picrotoxin (PTX) and CNQX. Bottom. left: An enlarged trace of a single mEPSC. middle: A bar graph indicating rise and decay time constants of mEPSCs. Rise time constant was 0.53 ± 0.02 ms ( N = 62). right: A histogram representing number of cells by mEPSC frequency. (Ac) A representative trace of mEPSCs before (Ctrl) and after the application of 0.5 μM tetrodotoxin (TTX). (B) Ba-Bc. Top. Representative traces of mEPSCs in control (2 mM Ca 2+ ) and 0 mM [Ca 2+ ] e (0 Ca 2+ ) (Ba), and the presence of ryanodine (RYN) followed by 2-aminoethoxydiphenylborane (2-APB) (Bb), and 2-APB followed by RYN (Bc), respectively. Five 500 ms-long mEPSC traces were overlaid. Bottom. Average time courses of the normalized mEPSC frequency. In each time course plot, solid lines indicate the presence of 0 Ca 2+ , RYN, 2-APB, and RYN with 2-APB, respectively. The data were normalized by the mean mEPSC frequency of control. (Bd) A bar graph of average values of the normalized mEPSC frequency in 0 Ca 2+ ( N = 13, 0.42 ± 0.03, P
Techniques Used: Labeling
5) Product Images from "Simultaneous recordings of action potentials and calcium transients from human induced pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes"
Article Title: Simultaneous recordings of action potentials and calcium transients from human induced pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes
Journal: Biology Open
Figure Legend Snippet: Representative immunofluorescence images of hiPSC-CMs showing cardiac proteins. (Upper) 50 slices were combined from confocal immunofluorescence images of nucleus (DAPI, blue), cardiac troponin T (cTnT, green) and cardiac ryanodine receptors (RyR2, red). Final panel shows the former three merged. (Lower) 40 slices were combined from confocal immunoflurescence images of nucleus (DAPI, blue), cTnT (green), L-type calcium channels (Ca V 1.2, red). Final panel shows the former three merged. Scale bars: 10 µM.
Techniques Used: Immunofluorescence
6) Product Images from "Ca2+-Dependent Regulation of Rho GTPases Triggers Turning of Nerve Growth Cones"
Article Title: Ca2+-Dependent Regulation of Rho GTPases Triggers Turning of Nerve Growth Cones
Journal: The Journal of Neuroscience
Figure Legend Snippet: PKC mediates Ca 2+ signaling to Rho GTPases. a , b , Western blots showing the active form of PKC and CaMKII in HEK293T cells or cultured cerebellar granule cells treated with ryanodine (10 n m ) at different times. Western blots using antibody against actin
Techniques Used: Western Blot, Cell Culture
Figure Legend Snippet: Ryanodine-induced attractive turning response depends on both Ca 2+ and Rho GTPases. a , Distribution of growth cone turning angles (left) for control neurons and neurons treated with BAPTA-AM (BAPTA; 10 μ m ), thapsigargin (Thaps; 10 μ m ),
Figure Legend Snippet: Ca 2+ elevation regulates the activity of Rho GTPases in transfected HEK293T cells. a , b , Representative Western blots showing the dose-response and time course of the activation of Cdc42 and Rac and inactivation of RhoA by bath-applied ryanodine in HEK293T
Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Transfection, Western Blot, Activation Assay
Figure Legend Snippet: Ryanodine-induced attraction depends on CaMKII and PKC. Distribution of turning angles in a gradient of ryanodine ( a , c , 10 μ m in the pipette) or netrin-1 ( b , 5 μg/ml in the pipette) for cultured Xenopus spinal neurons in control condition
Techniques Used: Transferring, Cell Culture
Figure Legend Snippet: Ca 2+ -dependent regulation of Rho GTPase activity in cultured neurons. a , Activation of Cdc42 and inactivation of RhoA by bath-applied ryanodine (10 n m . The effects
Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Cell Culture, Activation Assay
Figure Legend Snippet: Growth cone turning and local [Ca 2+ ] i elevation induced by ryanodine gradient. a , Microscopic images of a cultured Xenopus spinal neuron at the beginning (0 min) and the end (60 min) at a 1 hexposure to a ryanodine gradient created by pulsatile application
Techniques Used: Cell Culture
Figure Legend Snippet: Regulation of the activities of Rho GTPases by ryanodine requires CaMKII and PKC. a , b , Regulation of Rho GTPases by bath-applied ryanodine (10 n m for 3 min) in HEK293T cells transfected with wild-type Rho GTPases was abolished by specific inhibitors
Techniques Used: Transfection
7) Product Images from "Uniform Action Potential Repolarization within the Sarcolemma of In Situ Ventricular Cardiomyocytes"
Article Title: Uniform Action Potential Repolarization within the Sarcolemma of In Situ Ventricular Cardiomyocytes
Figure Legend Snippet: Confocal imaging of the cardiomyocyte action potential in Langendorff-perfused mouse hearts in the presence of 50 μ M cytochalasin D and 1 μ M ryanodine. ( A ) Full-frame mode ( XY ) image obtained from a heart loaded with ANNINE-6. The green
Techniques Used: Imaging
8) Product Images from "Double nanodomain coupling of calcium channels, ryanodine receptors and BK channels controls generation of burst firing"
Article Title: Double nanodomain coupling of calcium channels, ryanodine receptors and BK channels controls generation of burst firing
Figure Legend Snippet: Action potential-induced CICR at somatic plasma membrane but not AIS or dendrites (A) Two-photon Ca 2+ imaging at somatic plasma membrane. (Ai) Maximum intensity projection of Alexa-594-filled cartwheel cell. The red boxed region is enlarged in Ai, inset. Regions of interest for segmented line scans are indicated by red lines. C: cytosolic side. M: membrane side. (Aii, top and middle panels) Spike trains evoked by current injection (top) elicited an increase of Fluo-5F fluorescence with no change in Alexa-594. (Aii, bottom) Ca 2+ transients induced by spike trains (6 simple spikes at 50 Hz). The transients are expressed as ΔG/R (change in Fluo-5F intensity divided by Alexa-594 intensity). Black, control; blue, in ryanodine. (Aiii) Averaged Ca 2+ transients from 10 regions of interest of 5 cells. Single spike or trains of simple spikes (6 spikes at 50 Hz) evoked by current injection. (Aiv) Summary of the changes in Ca 2+ transients. *** p
Techniques Used: Imaging, Injection, Fluorescence
Figure Legend Snippet: The effects of ryanodine and IbTX on action potential properties (A and B) Evoked action potentials recorded in perforated patch mode. Resting potential was slightly hyperpolarized by injecting negative current to suppress spontaneous firing (A). Traces recorded in control (black) and ryanodine (gray) are superimposed. Injected currents in (Ai) and (Aii) were 500 and 900 pA, respectively. Duration: 5 ms. Asterisk indicates fAHP between 1st and 2nd spikelets. The region surrounded with box in (Ai) was expanded in the inset. The inset in (Aii) includes a longer segment of the recording to illustrate the slow afterpotential. (Aiii) Summary of the change of burst firing probability by ryanodine. Three to four successive trials were used to obtain averaged probability in each experiment. (B) The effect of ryanodine was occluded by IbTX. Bath application of IbTX (100 nM) alone broadened 1st action potentials (Bi and Bii, gray traces) and made the fAHP less negative (Bii,, asterisk). Subsequent application of ryanodine in the presence of IbTX did not affect the waveform (Bi’ and Bii’, black traces). Inset in (Bii) is the same sweep but displayed with longer time base, with spikes truncated. (Biii) Summary of the change of burst firing probabilities by IbTX. Statistical significance was tested between control and IbTX.
Techniques Used: Injection, Mass Spectrometry
Figure Legend Snippet: CICR triggers BK channel-mediated transient outward currents (A) IbTX-sensitive transient outward currents. (Ai) In control, transient currents followed by sustained currents were evoked by depolarizing voltage steps (−30 to −10 mV from −70 mV holding potential, 10-mV increment). All transient current was inhibited by 100 nM IbTX (traces in IbTX and subtraction). IbTX-sensitive currents were obtained by subtracting traces in IbTX from control traces. (Aii) Summary of the peak current densities (left panel), and rise time and decay time constant of IbTX-sensitive currents (right panel). In (A) and (B), capacitive artifacts were blanked for clarity. Here and in following figures, dashed lines in current traces indicate zero current levels. (B) RyRs are involved in the transient outward currents. Same voltage protocol as in (A). (Bi) Note that some transient outward currents remain in ryanodine (Bi, ryanodine). (Bii) Summary of peak current densities (left panel) and rise time and decay time constant of ryanodine-sensitive currents (right panel). (Ci) Most of the transient current is suppressed by ω-Agatoxin-IVA (Aga-IVA, a P/Q-type blocker, 200 nM; trace in Aga-IVA and Aga-IVA-sensitive). Subsequent application of nonspecific Ca v channel blockers (200 µM CdCl 2 and 500 µM NiCl 2 ) blocked transient currents almost completely (traces in lower panel in Ci). Data in (C) were recorded in the presence of TTX, synaptic blockers, and 1 mM 4-AP. (Cii) Summary of peak current densities (left panel), and the rise time and decay time constant of Aga-VIA-sensitive currents (right panel). (Ciii) Summary of effects of subtype-specific Ca v blockers on transient currents. Aga-VIA inhibited transient currents more potently than nimodipine or TTA-P2. Effects are expressed as 100 × (selective blocker-sensitive current)/(nonspecific Ca v blockers-sensitive current). ***p
Figure Legend Snippet: SMOCs are induced by CICR triggered by P/Q-type Ca 2+ channels (A–C) Representative current traces containing SMOCs evoked by 10-mV depolarization from −70 mV in the presence of TTX and synaptic blockers. SMOCs were blocked completely by IbTX (A), ryanodine (B), and Aga-IVA (P/Q-type Ca 2+ blocker, 200 nM). (D) Summary of change of SMOC frequency (Di) and amplitude (Dii). Frequencies and amplitudes were normalized by using control data obtained before drug application. ** p
Figure Legend Snippet: Blockade of CICR induces spontaneous spike bursts (A) Loose cell-attached recordings of a spontaneously firing cell in the presence of synaptic blockers. (Ai, left) Control, all action potentials are simple spikes. (Ai, right) The boxed region in (Ai, left) with expanded time base. (Aii, left) Bursting (*) observed in the presence of 20 µM ryanodine. (Aii, right) The boxed region (Aii, left), showing one burst of 5 spikelets. (B) Instantaneous firing frequency over time. The data were obtained from the same cell in (A). Ryanodine was bath-applied during time marked by gray box. (C) Summarized data of instantaneous frequencies in ryanodine or CPA (10 µM). Simple: data from spontaneous simple spike-firing cells; Burst: data from spontaneous burst-firing cells; Simple+Burst: pooled data from both firing types of cells. Here and elsewhere, error bars indicate SEM, and statistical significance was tested using paired t -test unless otherwise stated (significance, p
9) Product Images from "Staphylococcal leukotoxins trigger free intracellular Ca2+ rise in neurones, signalling through acidic stores and activation of store-operated channels"
Article Title: Staphylococcal leukotoxins trigger free intracellular Ca2+ rise in neurones, signalling through acidic stores and activation of store-operated channels
Journal: Cellular Microbiology
Figure Legend Snippet: Disruption of the Store-Operated Ca 2+ entry complex strongly inhibits the effect of leukotoxin HlgC/HlgB in cerebellar neurones. A. Mean traces of cells recorded in the presence of 5 μM econazole (24 cells) and 100 μM gadolinium (38 cells). The control experiment corresponds to the mean of 35 cells. B. Mean traces of cells recorded in the presence of drugs that target SOCE by also interfering with Ins(1,4,5)-P3 Ca 2+ mobilization (2-APB, 100 μM) or ryanodine receptors (dentrolene, 90 μM). Pre-treatment with these agents significantly reduced the effect of γ-leukotoxin HlgC/HlgB. Control experiment, 38 cells; 2-APB, 13 cells; dentrolene, 49 cells. This experiment was reproduced three times. C. incubation of neurones in the presence of LY-294002 (50 μM), which inactivates phosphatidylinositol 3 and 4 kinase and modifies membrane PIP2 content, thus strongly affecting the cellular response to leukotoxin action. Control boxes present the median of 110 recorded cells and LY-294002 (red lines) recordings are the mean of 52 and 63 treated cells. The boxes in the three panels correspond to the values of control recordings. Addition of the toxins is indicated by a vertical stroke in all panels.
Techniques Used: Incubation
10) Product Images from "Disrupting Function of FK506-Binding Protein 1b/12.6 Induces the Ca2+-Dysregulation Aging Phenotype in Hippocampal Neurons"
Article Title: Disrupting Function of FK506-Binding Protein 1b/12.6 Induces the Ca2+-Dysregulation Aging Phenotype in Hippocampal Neurons
Journal: The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Figure Legend Snippet: Rapamycin (Rap) enhanced the ryanodine (Rya)-sensitive AHP in hippocampal slices. A , Representative intracellular recording traces of AHPs, shown at high magnification to illustrate the enhancing effect of rapamycin on the AHP and its reversal by ryanodine,
Figure Legend Snippet: Rapamycin enhanced the ryanodine-sensitive component (CICR) of stimulated Ca 2+ transients in hippocampal slice neurons. Representative traces showing Ca 2+ indicator fluorescence responses during 7 Hz RSS in a control ( A1 ) and a rapamycin-treated ( A2 ) neuron,
Techniques Used: Fluorescence
11) Product Images from "Alteration of Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Ca2+ Release in Skeletal Muscle from Calpain 3-Deficient Mice"
Article Title: Alteration of Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Ca2+ Release in Skeletal Muscle from Calpain 3-Deficient Mice
Journal: International Journal of Cell Biology
Figure Legend Snippet: Morphological and molecular features of skeletal muscle cells used throughout this study. (a) Phase contrast and fluorescence micrographs of murine skeletal muscle cells in primary culture. Typical morphology of the living cells (left upper panel: myoblasts; right upper panel: myotubes) used for calcium measurements observed by phase contrast microscopy. Circles indicate the region of drug application and monitoring of [Ca 2+ ] i . Immunological staining of myogenin on myoblasts (left middle panel) and myotubes (right middle panel) was visualized by confocal microscopy using a FITC-labelled secondary antibody (green fluorescence). Myosine Heavy Chain (MHC) was similarly observed in myoblasts (left lower panel) and myotubes (right lower panel) using a TRITC-labelled secondary antibody (red fluorescence). Myoblasts and myotubes were obtained after 6 or 11 days in culture, respectively. (b) Detection of calpain 3-mRNA in wild type (+/+) myoblasts and myotubes by RT-PCR. Gel electrophoresis of the RT-PCR reactions obtained using the primer pairs p94sys3, p94sys5 and p94sys6 (see Section 2 ) on murine myoblast (MB) or myotube (MT) mRNA. (c) Detection of the ryanodine receptor in skeletal muscle from normal and capn3 -deficient mice. Muscle from normal (Lane 3) and capn3 -deficient mice (Lane 2) were extracted and left 30 min at room temperature to allow the cleavage of RyR and were then subjected to SDS-PAGE. Human muscle was used as control (Lane1). No difference in the cleavage pattern was observed, indicating that the partial cleavage of RyR also occurs in the absence of calpain 3 in this biochemical assay. (d) Measurement of caspase 3 activity in wild type and capn3 -deficient myoblasts. The graph displays the levels of substrate cleavage expressed as means ± S.D. in arbitrary units. The results are based on 4 different experiments. The differences in the median values among the two groups are greater than would be expected by chance; there is a statistically significant difference ( P = 0.029), as indicated by a Mann-Whitney Rank Sum test.
Techniques Used: Fluorescence, Microscopy, Staining, Confocal Microscopy, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Nucleic Acid Electrophoresis, Mouse Assay, SDS Page, Activity Assay, MANN-WHITNEY