c 1799t a p v600e braf mutation  (ATCC)


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    Structured Review

    ATCC c 1799t a p v600e braf mutation
    Endothelial Kras G12D or Braf <t>V600E</t> gain-of-function mutations cause hepatic vascular cavernomas in mice. (A and B) Dissected livers and H&E-stained liver frontal sections show vascular cavernomas (black arrows) in tamoxifen-treated Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (A) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (B) mice ( n = 3). Pdpn (green) and Flt4 (red) coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (A) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (B) liver sections shows contribution of Flt4 + and Pdpn-negative endothelial cells to hepatic vascular cavernomas (white arrows). n = 3. Scale bars: 500 µm (top row), 100 µm (second and third row from top), and 10 µm (bottom row). Two independent experiments. (C and D) Dissected Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (C) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (D) embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5) embryos show reduced liver size (red arrow; n = 3). H&E-stained Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (C) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (D) E14.5 liver frontal sections show vascular cavernomas (black arrows; n = 3). Coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) shows contribution of Lyve1 + (green) and Pecam1 + (red) endothelial cells (white arrows) to hepatic vascular cavernomas. n = 3. Scale bars: 500 µm (top row), 100 µm (second and third row from top), and 10 µm (bottom row). Two independent experiments. (E) Dissected Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre livers show reduction in liver size at E13.5 and progressive development of hepatic vascular cavernomas (black arrows). n = 3. Scale bars: 500 µm. (F) Lyve1 (green), Hif1α (red), and Cleaved caspase 3 (CC3, white) coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (F) and Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (G) E13.5 liver frontal sections shows hypoxia and apoptosis in clusters of nonendothelial hepatic cells near vascular cavernomas (white arrows). n = 3. Scale bars: 100 µm (top row) and 10 µm (bottom row). Two independent experiments. Littermates were used as controls for all experiments. All experimental data verified in at least two independent experiments. BD, bild duct; LL, left lobe; LML, left medial lobe; LS, liver sinusoid; LV, lymphatic vessel; PV, portal vein.
    C 1799t A P V600e Braf Mutation, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    1) Product Images from "KRAS or BRAF mutations cause hepatic vascular cavernomas treatable with MAP2K–MAPK1 inhibition"

    Article Title: KRAS or BRAF mutations cause hepatic vascular cavernomas treatable with MAP2K–MAPK1 inhibition

    Journal: The Journal of Experimental Medicine

    doi: 10.1084/jem.20192205

    Endothelial Kras G12D or Braf V600E gain-of-function mutations cause hepatic vascular cavernomas in mice. (A and B) Dissected livers and H&E-stained liver frontal sections show vascular cavernomas (black arrows) in tamoxifen-treated Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (A) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (B) mice ( n = 3). Pdpn (green) and Flt4 (red) coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (A) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (B) liver sections shows contribution of Flt4 + and Pdpn-negative endothelial cells to hepatic vascular cavernomas (white arrows). n = 3. Scale bars: 500 µm (top row), 100 µm (second and third row from top), and 10 µm (bottom row). Two independent experiments. (C and D) Dissected Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (C) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (D) embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5) embryos show reduced liver size (red arrow; n = 3). H&E-stained Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (C) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (D) E14.5 liver frontal sections show vascular cavernomas (black arrows; n = 3). Coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) shows contribution of Lyve1 + (green) and Pecam1 + (red) endothelial cells (white arrows) to hepatic vascular cavernomas. n = 3. Scale bars: 500 µm (top row), 100 µm (second and third row from top), and 10 µm (bottom row). Two independent experiments. (E) Dissected Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre livers show reduction in liver size at E13.5 and progressive development of hepatic vascular cavernomas (black arrows). n = 3. Scale bars: 500 µm. (F) Lyve1 (green), Hif1α (red), and Cleaved caspase 3 (CC3, white) coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (F) and Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (G) E13.5 liver frontal sections shows hypoxia and apoptosis in clusters of nonendothelial hepatic cells near vascular cavernomas (white arrows). n = 3. Scale bars: 100 µm (top row) and 10 µm (bottom row). Two independent experiments. Littermates were used as controls for all experiments. All experimental data verified in at least two independent experiments. BD, bild duct; LL, left lobe; LML, left medial lobe; LS, liver sinusoid; LV, lymphatic vessel; PV, portal vein.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Endothelial Kras G12D or Braf V600E gain-of-function mutations cause hepatic vascular cavernomas in mice. (A and B) Dissected livers and H&E-stained liver frontal sections show vascular cavernomas (black arrows) in tamoxifen-treated Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (A) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (B) mice ( n = 3). Pdpn (green) and Flt4 (red) coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (A) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (B) liver sections shows contribution of Flt4 + and Pdpn-negative endothelial cells to hepatic vascular cavernomas (white arrows). n = 3. Scale bars: 500 µm (top row), 100 µm (second and third row from top), and 10 µm (bottom row). Two independent experiments. (C and D) Dissected Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (C) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (D) embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5) embryos show reduced liver size (red arrow; n = 3). H&E-stained Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (C) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (D) E14.5 liver frontal sections show vascular cavernomas (black arrows; n = 3). Coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) shows contribution of Lyve1 + (green) and Pecam1 + (red) endothelial cells (white arrows) to hepatic vascular cavernomas. n = 3. Scale bars: 500 µm (top row), 100 µm (second and third row from top), and 10 µm (bottom row). Two independent experiments. (E) Dissected Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre livers show reduction in liver size at E13.5 and progressive development of hepatic vascular cavernomas (black arrows). n = 3. Scale bars: 500 µm. (F) Lyve1 (green), Hif1α (red), and Cleaved caspase 3 (CC3, white) coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (F) and Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (G) E13.5 liver frontal sections shows hypoxia and apoptosis in clusters of nonendothelial hepatic cells near vascular cavernomas (white arrows). n = 3. Scale bars: 100 µm (top row) and 10 µm (bottom row). Two independent experiments. Littermates were used as controls for all experiments. All experimental data verified in at least two independent experiments. BD, bild duct; LL, left lobe; LML, left medial lobe; LS, liver sinusoid; LV, lymphatic vessel; PV, portal vein.

    Techniques Used: Staining

    Endothelial Kras G12D or Braf V600E gain-of-function mutations cause hepatic vascular cavernomas and embryonic lethality in mice. (A and B) Lyve1 (green) and Pecam1 (red) coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on tamoxifen-treated adult Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (A) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (B) liver sections shows contribution of Lyve1 + and Pecam1 + endothelial cells to hepatic vascular cavernomas (white arrows). n = 3. Scale bars: 100 μm (top row) and 10 µm (bottom row). Two independent experiments. (C and D) Dissected livers and H&E-stained liver frontal sections show vascular cavernomas (black arrows) in tamoxifen-treated Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (C) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (D) neonatal mice. Lyve1 (green) and Pecam1 (red) coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (C) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (D) liver sections shows contribution of Lyve1 + and Pecam1 + endothelial cells to hepatic vascular cavernomas (white arrows). n = 3. P, postnatal day. Scale bars: 500 μm (top row), 100 µm (second and third rows from top), and 10 µm (bottom row). Two independent experiments. (E and F) Genotyping tables of embryos or pups derived from Kras G12D F/+ mice crossed with either Lyve1 Cre/+ (E) or Lyve1 Cre/Cre (F) mice. (G and H) Genotyping tables of embryos derived from Braf V600E F/F (G) or Braf V600E F/+ (H) mice crossed with either Lyve1 Cre/+ (G) or Lyve1 Cre/Cre (H) mice. χ 2 P value 0.94 (E, E13.5), 0.09 (E, P0), 0.0001 (F), 0.857 (G, E11.5), 0.285 (G, E14.5), 1.0 (H). LS, liver sinusoid; PV, portal vein.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Endothelial Kras G12D or Braf V600E gain-of-function mutations cause hepatic vascular cavernomas and embryonic lethality in mice. (A and B) Lyve1 (green) and Pecam1 (red) coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on tamoxifen-treated adult Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (A) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (B) liver sections shows contribution of Lyve1 + and Pecam1 + endothelial cells to hepatic vascular cavernomas (white arrows). n = 3. Scale bars: 100 μm (top row) and 10 µm (bottom row). Two independent experiments. (C and D) Dissected livers and H&E-stained liver frontal sections show vascular cavernomas (black arrows) in tamoxifen-treated Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (C) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (D) neonatal mice. Lyve1 (green) and Pecam1 (red) coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (C) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (D) liver sections shows contribution of Lyve1 + and Pecam1 + endothelial cells to hepatic vascular cavernomas (white arrows). n = 3. P, postnatal day. Scale bars: 500 μm (top row), 100 µm (second and third rows from top), and 10 µm (bottom row). Two independent experiments. (E and F) Genotyping tables of embryos or pups derived from Kras G12D F/+ mice crossed with either Lyve1 Cre/+ (E) or Lyve1 Cre/Cre (F) mice. (G and H) Genotyping tables of embryos derived from Braf V600E F/F (G) or Braf V600E F/+ (H) mice crossed with either Lyve1 Cre/+ (G) or Lyve1 Cre/Cre (H) mice. χ 2 P value 0.94 (E, E13.5), 0.09 (E, P0), 0.0001 (F), 0.857 (G, E11.5), 0.285 (G, E14.5), 1.0 (H). LS, liver sinusoid; PV, portal vein.

    Techniques Used: Staining, Derivative Assay

    Mice with endothelial Kras G12D or Braf V600E gain-of-function mutations exhibit normal proliferation of hepatic endothelial cells. (A and B) Ki67 (red) and Cdh5 (green) coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on tamoxifen-treated Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (A) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (B) adult murine liver sections. White arrows show Ki67 + cells. n = 3. Scale bars: 100 µm (top row) and 10 µm (bottom row). Two independent experiments. FDR, false discovery rate. (C and D) Quantitation of proliferating Cdh5 + cells in tamoxifen-treated control, Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (C), and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (D) embryonic murine livers. n = 3. Unpaired t test, P > 0.8 (C) and P > 0.4 (D). Two independent experiments. Data represent the mean ± SEM. (E and F) Ki67 (red) and Cdh5 (green) coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre/+ (C) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre/+ (D) embryonic murine liver sections. White arrows show Ki67 + cells. n = 3. E, embryonic day. Scale bars: 100 µm (top row) and 10 µm (bottom row). Two independent experiments. (G and H) Quantitation of proliferating Cdh5 + cells in control, Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre/+ (G), and Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre/+ (H) mutant murine livers. n = 3. Unpaired t test, P > 0.8. Two independent experiments. Data represent the mean ± SEM. N.S., not significant. BD, bile duct; LS, liver sinusoid; PV, portal vein.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Mice with endothelial Kras G12D or Braf V600E gain-of-function mutations exhibit normal proliferation of hepatic endothelial cells. (A and B) Ki67 (red) and Cdh5 (green) coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on tamoxifen-treated Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (A) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (B) adult murine liver sections. White arrows show Ki67 + cells. n = 3. Scale bars: 100 µm (top row) and 10 µm (bottom row). Two independent experiments. FDR, false discovery rate. (C and D) Quantitation of proliferating Cdh5 + cells in tamoxifen-treated control, Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (C), and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (D) embryonic murine livers. n = 3. Unpaired t test, P > 0.8 (C) and P > 0.4 (D). Two independent experiments. Data represent the mean ± SEM. (E and F) Ki67 (red) and Cdh5 (green) coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre/+ (C) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre/+ (D) embryonic murine liver sections. White arrows show Ki67 + cells. n = 3. E, embryonic day. Scale bars: 100 µm (top row) and 10 µm (bottom row). Two independent experiments. (G and H) Quantitation of proliferating Cdh5 + cells in control, Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre/+ (G), and Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre/+ (H) mutant murine livers. n = 3. Unpaired t test, P > 0.8. Two independent experiments. Data represent the mean ± SEM. N.S., not significant. BD, bile duct; LS, liver sinusoid; PV, portal vein.

    Techniques Used: Staining, Quantitation Assay, Mutagenesis

    Mice with Kras G12D or Braf V600E gain-of-function mutations within macrophages exhibit normal normal sinusoidal and hepatic development. (A and B) Dissected Kras G12D F/+ ; LysM Cre (A) and Braf V600E F/+ ; LysM Cre (B) embryos show normal liver size (black arrows). H&E-stained Kras G12D F/+ ; LysM Cre (A) and Braf V600E F/+ ; LysM Cre (B) liver frontal sections show normal sinusoidal capillaries (black arrows). n = 3. E, embryonic day. Scale bars: 500 µm (top row), 1,000 µm (middle row), and 100 µm (bottom row). Two independent experiments. (C and D) Mice with Kras G12D or Braf V600E gain-of-function mutations within endothelial cells exhibit normal normal spleen morphology and sinusoids. Spleen dissected from adult tamoxifen-treated Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (C) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (D) mice. H&E-stained Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (C) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (D) spleen sagittal sections show normal morphology. Lyve1 (green) and Pecam1 (red) coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (C) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (D) spleen sagittal sections. n = 3. Scale bars: 500 µm (first and second rows), 100 µm (third row), and 50 µm (fourth row). Two independent experiments. White arrows show normal Lyve1 + vessels. A, artery; CrRL, cranial right lobe; LK, left kidney; LL, left lobe; LML, left medial lobe; LV, left ventricle; RK, right kidney; RML, right medial lobe; RV, right ventricle; S, stomach.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Mice with Kras G12D or Braf V600E gain-of-function mutations within macrophages exhibit normal normal sinusoidal and hepatic development. (A and B) Dissected Kras G12D F/+ ; LysM Cre (A) and Braf V600E F/+ ; LysM Cre (B) embryos show normal liver size (black arrows). H&E-stained Kras G12D F/+ ; LysM Cre (A) and Braf V600E F/+ ; LysM Cre (B) liver frontal sections show normal sinusoidal capillaries (black arrows). n = 3. E, embryonic day. Scale bars: 500 µm (top row), 1,000 µm (middle row), and 100 µm (bottom row). Two independent experiments. (C and D) Mice with Kras G12D or Braf V600E gain-of-function mutations within endothelial cells exhibit normal normal spleen morphology and sinusoids. Spleen dissected from adult tamoxifen-treated Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (C) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (D) mice. H&E-stained Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (C) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (D) spleen sagittal sections show normal morphology. Lyve1 (green) and Pecam1 (red) coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (C) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (D) spleen sagittal sections. n = 3. Scale bars: 500 µm (first and second rows), 100 µm (third row), and 50 µm (fourth row). Two independent experiments. White arrows show normal Lyve1 + vessels. A, artery; CrRL, cranial right lobe; LK, left kidney; LL, left lobe; LML, left medial lobe; LV, left ventricle; RK, right kidney; RML, right medial lobe; RV, right ventricle; S, stomach.

    Techniques Used: Staining

    Endothelial Kras G12D or Braf V600E gain-of-function mutations aberrantly enhance zipper-like contiguous expression of adherens junctional proteins at sinusoidal endothelial cell–cell contacts. (A) Distribution of differentially up-regulated transcripts (red), down-regulated transcripts (blue), and unchanged transcripts (gray) in E11.5 Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre livers compared with littermate Control E11.5 livers ( n = 3). FDR, false discovery rate. (B) Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) of differentially regulated, identified transcripts in E11.5 Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre livers ( n = 3). (C) Heatmap of top differentially regulated transcripts within KEGG pathway categories of focal adhesion and cell adhesion ( n = 3). (D and E) Flt4 and Cdh5 immunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on sections of human KRAS c.35 G>A (p.G12D) and BRAF c.1798G>A (p.V600M) liver (D) and Cdh5 immunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on murine Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre liver (E) and murine Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre livers (E). n = 3. White arrows show normal button-like discontiguous expression of junctional proteins between sinusoidal endothelial cells. Red arrows show abnormal zipper-like contiguous expression of adherens junctional proteins at sinusoidal endothelial cell–cell contacts. Scale bars in D: 100 µm (first column from left) and 10 µm (second and third columns from left); scale bars in E: 10 µm (first column from left) and 5 µm (second column from left). All experimental data verified in at least two independent experiments.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Endothelial Kras G12D or Braf V600E gain-of-function mutations aberrantly enhance zipper-like contiguous expression of adherens junctional proteins at sinusoidal endothelial cell–cell contacts. (A) Distribution of differentially up-regulated transcripts (red), down-regulated transcripts (blue), and unchanged transcripts (gray) in E11.5 Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre livers compared with littermate Control E11.5 livers ( n = 3). FDR, false discovery rate. (B) Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) of differentially regulated, identified transcripts in E11.5 Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre livers ( n = 3). (C) Heatmap of top differentially regulated transcripts within KEGG pathway categories of focal adhesion and cell adhesion ( n = 3). (D and E) Flt4 and Cdh5 immunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on sections of human KRAS c.35 G>A (p.G12D) and BRAF c.1798G>A (p.V600M) liver (D) and Cdh5 immunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on murine Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre liver (E) and murine Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre livers (E). n = 3. White arrows show normal button-like discontiguous expression of junctional proteins between sinusoidal endothelial cells. Red arrows show abnormal zipper-like contiguous expression of adherens junctional proteins at sinusoidal endothelial cell–cell contacts. Scale bars in D: 100 µm (first column from left) and 10 µm (second and third columns from left); scale bars in E: 10 µm (first column from left) and 5 µm (second column from left). All experimental data verified in at least two independent experiments.

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Staining

    Endothelial Kras G12D or Braf V600E gain-of-function mutations aberrantly enhance expression of adherens junctional proteins. (A) Analysis of differentially regulated transcripts show expression changes in E11.5 Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre livers ( n = 3). (B) KEGG pathway gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) of differentially regulated, identified transcripts in E11.5 Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre livers ( n = 3). NES, normalized enriched score. (C and D) Flt4 (green) and Pecam1 (red) coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on sections of murine Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre embryonic liver (C) and murine Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre liver (D). Red arrows show increased Flt4 expression. E, embryonic day. Scale bars: 100 µm (top row) and 10 µm (bottom row). n = 3. Two independent experiments. (E and F) Genotyping tables of embryos derived from Mapk1 F/+ ; Kras G12D F/+ mice (E) or Mapk1 F/+ ; Braf V600E F/+ (F) mice crossed with Mapk1 F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre/+ mice. χ 2 P values 0.262 (E) and 0.991 (F).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Endothelial Kras G12D or Braf V600E gain-of-function mutations aberrantly enhance expression of adherens junctional proteins. (A) Analysis of differentially regulated transcripts show expression changes in E11.5 Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre livers ( n = 3). (B) KEGG pathway gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) of differentially regulated, identified transcripts in E11.5 Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre livers ( n = 3). NES, normalized enriched score. (C and D) Flt4 (green) and Pecam1 (red) coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on sections of murine Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre embryonic liver (C) and murine Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre liver (D). Red arrows show increased Flt4 expression. E, embryonic day. Scale bars: 100 µm (top row) and 10 µm (bottom row). n = 3. Two independent experiments. (E and F) Genotyping tables of embryos derived from Mapk1 F/+ ; Kras G12D F/+ mice (E) or Mapk1 F/+ ; Braf V600E F/+ (F) mice crossed with Mapk1 F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre/+ mice. χ 2 P values 0.262 (E) and 0.991 (F).

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Staining, Derivative Assay

    Pharmacologic inhibition of Braf V600E -Map2k or genetic ablation of Mapk1 rescue hepatic vascular cavernomas in Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre and Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre mice . (A and B) Dissected Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre littermate embryos treated with dabrafenib and trametinib (A) or lacking Mapk1 (B) show rescued liver size (green arrows) compared with Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre embryos (yellow arrow; n = 3). H&E-stained or Lyve1 (green), Pecam1 (red), and Hoechst (blue) coimmunofluorescent–stained liver sections of Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre littermate embryos treated with dabrafenib and trametinib (A) or lacking Mapk1 (B) show normal sinusoidal capillaries (green arrows) compared with cavernous sinusoids in Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre embryos (yellow arrows; n = 3). Immunofluorescent staining on liver sections of Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre embryos treated with dabrafenib and trametinib (A) or lacking Mapk1 (B) show normal button-like discontiguous expression of Cdh5 (brown arrows) compared with abnormal zipper-like contiguous expression of Cdh5 in Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre embryos (red arrows; n = 3). White arrows show normal button-like discontiguous expression of Cdh5 in control livers. Scale bars: 500 µm (top row), 1,000 µm (second row from top), 100 µm (third, fourth, and sixth rows from top), and 10 µm (fifth and seventh rows from top). Two independent experiments. (C) Dissected Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre littermate embryos lacking Mapk1 show rescued liver size (green arrow), normal sinusoidal capillaries (green arrows) stained with H&E or Lyve1 (green) and Pecam1 (red), and normal button-like discontiguous expression of Cdh5 (brown arrows) compared with Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (yellow and red arrows). n = 3. Scale bars: 500 µm (first column from left), 1,000 µm (second column from left), 100 µm (third, fourth, and sixth columns from left), and 10 µm (fifth and seventh columns from left). Two independent experiments. (D) Endothelial activating KRAS or BRAF mutations drive hepatic vascular cavernomas via MAP2K–MAPK1 signaling pathway. Proposed model suggesting that constitutive activation of KRAS–BRAF–MAP2K–MAPK1 signaling pathway in sinusoidal endothelial cells promotes aberrant zipper-like contiguous expression of adherens junctional proteins, such as Cdh5, switching hepatic sinusoidal capillaries from branching to cavernous expansion. All experimental data verified in at least two independent experiments. CdRL, caudal right lobe; CL, caudate lobe; CrRL, cranial right lobe; LK, left kidney; LL, left lobe; LML, left medial lobe; LV, left ventricle; RK, right kidney; RML, right medial lobe; RV, right ventricle; S, stomach.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Pharmacologic inhibition of Braf V600E -Map2k or genetic ablation of Mapk1 rescue hepatic vascular cavernomas in Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre and Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre mice . (A and B) Dissected Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre littermate embryos treated with dabrafenib and trametinib (A) or lacking Mapk1 (B) show rescued liver size (green arrows) compared with Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre embryos (yellow arrow; n = 3). H&E-stained or Lyve1 (green), Pecam1 (red), and Hoechst (blue) coimmunofluorescent–stained liver sections of Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre littermate embryos treated with dabrafenib and trametinib (A) or lacking Mapk1 (B) show normal sinusoidal capillaries (green arrows) compared with cavernous sinusoids in Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre embryos (yellow arrows; n = 3). Immunofluorescent staining on liver sections of Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre embryos treated with dabrafenib and trametinib (A) or lacking Mapk1 (B) show normal button-like discontiguous expression of Cdh5 (brown arrows) compared with abnormal zipper-like contiguous expression of Cdh5 in Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre embryos (red arrows; n = 3). White arrows show normal button-like discontiguous expression of Cdh5 in control livers. Scale bars: 500 µm (top row), 1,000 µm (second row from top), 100 µm (third, fourth, and sixth rows from top), and 10 µm (fifth and seventh rows from top). Two independent experiments. (C) Dissected Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre littermate embryos lacking Mapk1 show rescued liver size (green arrow), normal sinusoidal capillaries (green arrows) stained with H&E or Lyve1 (green) and Pecam1 (red), and normal button-like discontiguous expression of Cdh5 (brown arrows) compared with Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (yellow and red arrows). n = 3. Scale bars: 500 µm (first column from left), 1,000 µm (second column from left), 100 µm (third, fourth, and sixth columns from left), and 10 µm (fifth and seventh columns from left). Two independent experiments. (D) Endothelial activating KRAS or BRAF mutations drive hepatic vascular cavernomas via MAP2K–MAPK1 signaling pathway. Proposed model suggesting that constitutive activation of KRAS–BRAF–MAP2K–MAPK1 signaling pathway in sinusoidal endothelial cells promotes aberrant zipper-like contiguous expression of adherens junctional proteins, such as Cdh5, switching hepatic sinusoidal capillaries from branching to cavernous expansion. All experimental data verified in at least two independent experiments. CdRL, caudal right lobe; CL, caudate lobe; CrRL, cranial right lobe; LK, left kidney; LL, left lobe; LML, left medial lobe; LV, left ventricle; RK, right kidney; RML, right medial lobe; RV, right ventricle; S, stomach.

    Techniques Used: Inhibition, Staining, Expressing, Activation Assay

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    ATCC c 1799t a p v600e braf mutation
    Endothelial Kras G12D or Braf <t>V600E</t> gain-of-function mutations cause hepatic vascular cavernomas in mice. (A and B) Dissected livers and H&E-stained liver frontal sections show vascular cavernomas (black arrows) in tamoxifen-treated Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (A) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (B) mice ( n = 3). Pdpn (green) and Flt4 (red) coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (A) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (B) liver sections shows contribution of Flt4 + and Pdpn-negative endothelial cells to hepatic vascular cavernomas (white arrows). n = 3. Scale bars: 500 µm (top row), 100 µm (second and third row from top), and 10 µm (bottom row). Two independent experiments. (C and D) Dissected Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (C) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (D) embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5) embryos show reduced liver size (red arrow; n = 3). H&E-stained Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (C) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (D) E14.5 liver frontal sections show vascular cavernomas (black arrows; n = 3). Coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) shows contribution of Lyve1 + (green) and Pecam1 + (red) endothelial cells (white arrows) to hepatic vascular cavernomas. n = 3. Scale bars: 500 µm (top row), 100 µm (second and third row from top), and 10 µm (bottom row). Two independent experiments. (E) Dissected Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre livers show reduction in liver size at E13.5 and progressive development of hepatic vascular cavernomas (black arrows). n = 3. Scale bars: 500 µm. (F) Lyve1 (green), Hif1α (red), and Cleaved caspase 3 (CC3, white) coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (F) and Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (G) E13.5 liver frontal sections shows hypoxia and apoptosis in clusters of nonendothelial hepatic cells near vascular cavernomas (white arrows). n = 3. Scale bars: 100 µm (top row) and 10 µm (bottom row). Two independent experiments. Littermates were used as controls for all experiments. All experimental data verified in at least two independent experiments. BD, bild duct; LL, left lobe; LML, left medial lobe; LS, liver sinusoid; LV, lymphatic vessel; PV, portal vein.
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    1) Product Images from "KRAS or BRAF mutations cause hepatic vascular cavernomas treatable with MAP2K–MAPK1 inhibition"

    Article Title: KRAS or BRAF mutations cause hepatic vascular cavernomas treatable with MAP2K–MAPK1 inhibition

    Journal: The Journal of Experimental Medicine

    doi: 10.1084/jem.20192205

    Endothelial Kras G12D or Braf V600E gain-of-function mutations cause hepatic vascular cavernomas in mice. (A and B) Dissected livers and H&E-stained liver frontal sections show vascular cavernomas (black arrows) in tamoxifen-treated Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (A) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (B) mice ( n = 3). Pdpn (green) and Flt4 (red) coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (A) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (B) liver sections shows contribution of Flt4 + and Pdpn-negative endothelial cells to hepatic vascular cavernomas (white arrows). n = 3. Scale bars: 500 µm (top row), 100 µm (second and third row from top), and 10 µm (bottom row). Two independent experiments. (C and D) Dissected Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (C) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (D) embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5) embryos show reduced liver size (red arrow; n = 3). H&E-stained Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (C) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (D) E14.5 liver frontal sections show vascular cavernomas (black arrows; n = 3). Coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) shows contribution of Lyve1 + (green) and Pecam1 + (red) endothelial cells (white arrows) to hepatic vascular cavernomas. n = 3. Scale bars: 500 µm (top row), 100 µm (second and third row from top), and 10 µm (bottom row). Two independent experiments. (E) Dissected Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre livers show reduction in liver size at E13.5 and progressive development of hepatic vascular cavernomas (black arrows). n = 3. Scale bars: 500 µm. (F) Lyve1 (green), Hif1α (red), and Cleaved caspase 3 (CC3, white) coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (F) and Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (G) E13.5 liver frontal sections shows hypoxia and apoptosis in clusters of nonendothelial hepatic cells near vascular cavernomas (white arrows). n = 3. Scale bars: 100 µm (top row) and 10 µm (bottom row). Two independent experiments. Littermates were used as controls for all experiments. All experimental data verified in at least two independent experiments. BD, bild duct; LL, left lobe; LML, left medial lobe; LS, liver sinusoid; LV, lymphatic vessel; PV, portal vein.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Endothelial Kras G12D or Braf V600E gain-of-function mutations cause hepatic vascular cavernomas in mice. (A and B) Dissected livers and H&E-stained liver frontal sections show vascular cavernomas (black arrows) in tamoxifen-treated Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (A) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (B) mice ( n = 3). Pdpn (green) and Flt4 (red) coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (A) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (B) liver sections shows contribution of Flt4 + and Pdpn-negative endothelial cells to hepatic vascular cavernomas (white arrows). n = 3. Scale bars: 500 µm (top row), 100 µm (second and third row from top), and 10 µm (bottom row). Two independent experiments. (C and D) Dissected Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (C) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (D) embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5) embryos show reduced liver size (red arrow; n = 3). H&E-stained Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (C) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (D) E14.5 liver frontal sections show vascular cavernomas (black arrows; n = 3). Coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) shows contribution of Lyve1 + (green) and Pecam1 + (red) endothelial cells (white arrows) to hepatic vascular cavernomas. n = 3. Scale bars: 500 µm (top row), 100 µm (second and third row from top), and 10 µm (bottom row). Two independent experiments. (E) Dissected Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre livers show reduction in liver size at E13.5 and progressive development of hepatic vascular cavernomas (black arrows). n = 3. Scale bars: 500 µm. (F) Lyve1 (green), Hif1α (red), and Cleaved caspase 3 (CC3, white) coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (F) and Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (G) E13.5 liver frontal sections shows hypoxia and apoptosis in clusters of nonendothelial hepatic cells near vascular cavernomas (white arrows). n = 3. Scale bars: 100 µm (top row) and 10 µm (bottom row). Two independent experiments. Littermates were used as controls for all experiments. All experimental data verified in at least two independent experiments. BD, bild duct; LL, left lobe; LML, left medial lobe; LS, liver sinusoid; LV, lymphatic vessel; PV, portal vein.

    Techniques Used: Staining

    Endothelial Kras G12D or Braf V600E gain-of-function mutations cause hepatic vascular cavernomas and embryonic lethality in mice. (A and B) Lyve1 (green) and Pecam1 (red) coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on tamoxifen-treated adult Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (A) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (B) liver sections shows contribution of Lyve1 + and Pecam1 + endothelial cells to hepatic vascular cavernomas (white arrows). n = 3. Scale bars: 100 μm (top row) and 10 µm (bottom row). Two independent experiments. (C and D) Dissected livers and H&E-stained liver frontal sections show vascular cavernomas (black arrows) in tamoxifen-treated Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (C) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (D) neonatal mice. Lyve1 (green) and Pecam1 (red) coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (C) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (D) liver sections shows contribution of Lyve1 + and Pecam1 + endothelial cells to hepatic vascular cavernomas (white arrows). n = 3. P, postnatal day. Scale bars: 500 μm (top row), 100 µm (second and third rows from top), and 10 µm (bottom row). Two independent experiments. (E and F) Genotyping tables of embryos or pups derived from Kras G12D F/+ mice crossed with either Lyve1 Cre/+ (E) or Lyve1 Cre/Cre (F) mice. (G and H) Genotyping tables of embryos derived from Braf V600E F/F (G) or Braf V600E F/+ (H) mice crossed with either Lyve1 Cre/+ (G) or Lyve1 Cre/Cre (H) mice. χ 2 P value 0.94 (E, E13.5), 0.09 (E, P0), 0.0001 (F), 0.857 (G, E11.5), 0.285 (G, E14.5), 1.0 (H). LS, liver sinusoid; PV, portal vein.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Endothelial Kras G12D or Braf V600E gain-of-function mutations cause hepatic vascular cavernomas and embryonic lethality in mice. (A and B) Lyve1 (green) and Pecam1 (red) coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on tamoxifen-treated adult Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (A) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (B) liver sections shows contribution of Lyve1 + and Pecam1 + endothelial cells to hepatic vascular cavernomas (white arrows). n = 3. Scale bars: 100 μm (top row) and 10 µm (bottom row). Two independent experiments. (C and D) Dissected livers and H&E-stained liver frontal sections show vascular cavernomas (black arrows) in tamoxifen-treated Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (C) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (D) neonatal mice. Lyve1 (green) and Pecam1 (red) coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (C) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (D) liver sections shows contribution of Lyve1 + and Pecam1 + endothelial cells to hepatic vascular cavernomas (white arrows). n = 3. P, postnatal day. Scale bars: 500 μm (top row), 100 µm (second and third rows from top), and 10 µm (bottom row). Two independent experiments. (E and F) Genotyping tables of embryos or pups derived from Kras G12D F/+ mice crossed with either Lyve1 Cre/+ (E) or Lyve1 Cre/Cre (F) mice. (G and H) Genotyping tables of embryos derived from Braf V600E F/F (G) or Braf V600E F/+ (H) mice crossed with either Lyve1 Cre/+ (G) or Lyve1 Cre/Cre (H) mice. χ 2 P value 0.94 (E, E13.5), 0.09 (E, P0), 0.0001 (F), 0.857 (G, E11.5), 0.285 (G, E14.5), 1.0 (H). LS, liver sinusoid; PV, portal vein.

    Techniques Used: Staining, Derivative Assay

    Mice with endothelial Kras G12D or Braf V600E gain-of-function mutations exhibit normal proliferation of hepatic endothelial cells. (A and B) Ki67 (red) and Cdh5 (green) coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on tamoxifen-treated Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (A) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (B) adult murine liver sections. White arrows show Ki67 + cells. n = 3. Scale bars: 100 µm (top row) and 10 µm (bottom row). Two independent experiments. FDR, false discovery rate. (C and D) Quantitation of proliferating Cdh5 + cells in tamoxifen-treated control, Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (C), and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (D) embryonic murine livers. n = 3. Unpaired t test, P > 0.8 (C) and P > 0.4 (D). Two independent experiments. Data represent the mean ± SEM. (E and F) Ki67 (red) and Cdh5 (green) coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre/+ (C) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre/+ (D) embryonic murine liver sections. White arrows show Ki67 + cells. n = 3. E, embryonic day. Scale bars: 100 µm (top row) and 10 µm (bottom row). Two independent experiments. (G and H) Quantitation of proliferating Cdh5 + cells in control, Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre/+ (G), and Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre/+ (H) mutant murine livers. n = 3. Unpaired t test, P > 0.8. Two independent experiments. Data represent the mean ± SEM. N.S., not significant. BD, bile duct; LS, liver sinusoid; PV, portal vein.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Mice with endothelial Kras G12D or Braf V600E gain-of-function mutations exhibit normal proliferation of hepatic endothelial cells. (A and B) Ki67 (red) and Cdh5 (green) coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on tamoxifen-treated Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (A) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (B) adult murine liver sections. White arrows show Ki67 + cells. n = 3. Scale bars: 100 µm (top row) and 10 µm (bottom row). Two independent experiments. FDR, false discovery rate. (C and D) Quantitation of proliferating Cdh5 + cells in tamoxifen-treated control, Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (C), and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (D) embryonic murine livers. n = 3. Unpaired t test, P > 0.8 (C) and P > 0.4 (D). Two independent experiments. Data represent the mean ± SEM. (E and F) Ki67 (red) and Cdh5 (green) coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre/+ (C) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre/+ (D) embryonic murine liver sections. White arrows show Ki67 + cells. n = 3. E, embryonic day. Scale bars: 100 µm (top row) and 10 µm (bottom row). Two independent experiments. (G and H) Quantitation of proliferating Cdh5 + cells in control, Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre/+ (G), and Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre/+ (H) mutant murine livers. n = 3. Unpaired t test, P > 0.8. Two independent experiments. Data represent the mean ± SEM. N.S., not significant. BD, bile duct; LS, liver sinusoid; PV, portal vein.

    Techniques Used: Staining, Quantitation Assay, Mutagenesis

    Mice with Kras G12D or Braf V600E gain-of-function mutations within macrophages exhibit normal normal sinusoidal and hepatic development. (A and B) Dissected Kras G12D F/+ ; LysM Cre (A) and Braf V600E F/+ ; LysM Cre (B) embryos show normal liver size (black arrows). H&E-stained Kras G12D F/+ ; LysM Cre (A) and Braf V600E F/+ ; LysM Cre (B) liver frontal sections show normal sinusoidal capillaries (black arrows). n = 3. E, embryonic day. Scale bars: 500 µm (top row), 1,000 µm (middle row), and 100 µm (bottom row). Two independent experiments. (C and D) Mice with Kras G12D or Braf V600E gain-of-function mutations within endothelial cells exhibit normal normal spleen morphology and sinusoids. Spleen dissected from adult tamoxifen-treated Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (C) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (D) mice. H&E-stained Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (C) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (D) spleen sagittal sections show normal morphology. Lyve1 (green) and Pecam1 (red) coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (C) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (D) spleen sagittal sections. n = 3. Scale bars: 500 µm (first and second rows), 100 µm (third row), and 50 µm (fourth row). Two independent experiments. White arrows show normal Lyve1 + vessels. A, artery; CrRL, cranial right lobe; LK, left kidney; LL, left lobe; LML, left medial lobe; LV, left ventricle; RK, right kidney; RML, right medial lobe; RV, right ventricle; S, stomach.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Mice with Kras G12D or Braf V600E gain-of-function mutations within macrophages exhibit normal normal sinusoidal and hepatic development. (A and B) Dissected Kras G12D F/+ ; LysM Cre (A) and Braf V600E F/+ ; LysM Cre (B) embryos show normal liver size (black arrows). H&E-stained Kras G12D F/+ ; LysM Cre (A) and Braf V600E F/+ ; LysM Cre (B) liver frontal sections show normal sinusoidal capillaries (black arrows). n = 3. E, embryonic day. Scale bars: 500 µm (top row), 1,000 µm (middle row), and 100 µm (bottom row). Two independent experiments. (C and D) Mice with Kras G12D or Braf V600E gain-of-function mutations within endothelial cells exhibit normal normal spleen morphology and sinusoids. Spleen dissected from adult tamoxifen-treated Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (C) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (D) mice. H&E-stained Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (C) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (D) spleen sagittal sections show normal morphology. Lyve1 (green) and Pecam1 (red) coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (C) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (D) spleen sagittal sections. n = 3. Scale bars: 500 µm (first and second rows), 100 µm (third row), and 50 µm (fourth row). Two independent experiments. White arrows show normal Lyve1 + vessels. A, artery; CrRL, cranial right lobe; LK, left kidney; LL, left lobe; LML, left medial lobe; LV, left ventricle; RK, right kidney; RML, right medial lobe; RV, right ventricle; S, stomach.

    Techniques Used: Staining

    Endothelial Kras G12D or Braf V600E gain-of-function mutations aberrantly enhance zipper-like contiguous expression of adherens junctional proteins at sinusoidal endothelial cell–cell contacts. (A) Distribution of differentially up-regulated transcripts (red), down-regulated transcripts (blue), and unchanged transcripts (gray) in E11.5 Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre livers compared with littermate Control E11.5 livers ( n = 3). FDR, false discovery rate. (B) Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) of differentially regulated, identified transcripts in E11.5 Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre livers ( n = 3). (C) Heatmap of top differentially regulated transcripts within KEGG pathway categories of focal adhesion and cell adhesion ( n = 3). (D and E) Flt4 and Cdh5 immunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on sections of human KRAS c.35 G>A (p.G12D) and BRAF c.1798G>A (p.V600M) liver (D) and Cdh5 immunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on murine Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre liver (E) and murine Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre livers (E). n = 3. White arrows show normal button-like discontiguous expression of junctional proteins between sinusoidal endothelial cells. Red arrows show abnormal zipper-like contiguous expression of adherens junctional proteins at sinusoidal endothelial cell–cell contacts. Scale bars in D: 100 µm (first column from left) and 10 µm (second and third columns from left); scale bars in E: 10 µm (first column from left) and 5 µm (second column from left). All experimental data verified in at least two independent experiments.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Endothelial Kras G12D or Braf V600E gain-of-function mutations aberrantly enhance zipper-like contiguous expression of adherens junctional proteins at sinusoidal endothelial cell–cell contacts. (A) Distribution of differentially up-regulated transcripts (red), down-regulated transcripts (blue), and unchanged transcripts (gray) in E11.5 Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre livers compared with littermate Control E11.5 livers ( n = 3). FDR, false discovery rate. (B) Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) of differentially regulated, identified transcripts in E11.5 Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre livers ( n = 3). (C) Heatmap of top differentially regulated transcripts within KEGG pathway categories of focal adhesion and cell adhesion ( n = 3). (D and E) Flt4 and Cdh5 immunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on sections of human KRAS c.35 G>A (p.G12D) and BRAF c.1798G>A (p.V600M) liver (D) and Cdh5 immunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on murine Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre liver (E) and murine Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre livers (E). n = 3. White arrows show normal button-like discontiguous expression of junctional proteins between sinusoidal endothelial cells. Red arrows show abnormal zipper-like contiguous expression of adherens junctional proteins at sinusoidal endothelial cell–cell contacts. Scale bars in D: 100 µm (first column from left) and 10 µm (second and third columns from left); scale bars in E: 10 µm (first column from left) and 5 µm (second column from left). All experimental data verified in at least two independent experiments.

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Staining

    Endothelial Kras G12D or Braf V600E gain-of-function mutations aberrantly enhance expression of adherens junctional proteins. (A) Analysis of differentially regulated transcripts show expression changes in E11.5 Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre livers ( n = 3). (B) KEGG pathway gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) of differentially regulated, identified transcripts in E11.5 Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre livers ( n = 3). NES, normalized enriched score. (C and D) Flt4 (green) and Pecam1 (red) coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on sections of murine Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre embryonic liver (C) and murine Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre liver (D). Red arrows show increased Flt4 expression. E, embryonic day. Scale bars: 100 µm (top row) and 10 µm (bottom row). n = 3. Two independent experiments. (E and F) Genotyping tables of embryos derived from Mapk1 F/+ ; Kras G12D F/+ mice (E) or Mapk1 F/+ ; Braf V600E F/+ (F) mice crossed with Mapk1 F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre/+ mice. χ 2 P values 0.262 (E) and 0.991 (F).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Endothelial Kras G12D or Braf V600E gain-of-function mutations aberrantly enhance expression of adherens junctional proteins. (A) Analysis of differentially regulated transcripts show expression changes in E11.5 Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre livers ( n = 3). (B) KEGG pathway gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) of differentially regulated, identified transcripts in E11.5 Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre livers ( n = 3). NES, normalized enriched score. (C and D) Flt4 (green) and Pecam1 (red) coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on sections of murine Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre embryonic liver (C) and murine Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre liver (D). Red arrows show increased Flt4 expression. E, embryonic day. Scale bars: 100 µm (top row) and 10 µm (bottom row). n = 3. Two independent experiments. (E and F) Genotyping tables of embryos derived from Mapk1 F/+ ; Kras G12D F/+ mice (E) or Mapk1 F/+ ; Braf V600E F/+ (F) mice crossed with Mapk1 F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre/+ mice. χ 2 P values 0.262 (E) and 0.991 (F).

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Staining, Derivative Assay

    Pharmacologic inhibition of Braf V600E -Map2k or genetic ablation of Mapk1 rescue hepatic vascular cavernomas in Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre and Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre mice . (A and B) Dissected Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre littermate embryos treated with dabrafenib and trametinib (A) or lacking Mapk1 (B) show rescued liver size (green arrows) compared with Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre embryos (yellow arrow; n = 3). H&E-stained or Lyve1 (green), Pecam1 (red), and Hoechst (blue) coimmunofluorescent–stained liver sections of Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre littermate embryos treated with dabrafenib and trametinib (A) or lacking Mapk1 (B) show normal sinusoidal capillaries (green arrows) compared with cavernous sinusoids in Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre embryos (yellow arrows; n = 3). Immunofluorescent staining on liver sections of Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre embryos treated with dabrafenib and trametinib (A) or lacking Mapk1 (B) show normal button-like discontiguous expression of Cdh5 (brown arrows) compared with abnormal zipper-like contiguous expression of Cdh5 in Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre embryos (red arrows; n = 3). White arrows show normal button-like discontiguous expression of Cdh5 in control livers. Scale bars: 500 µm (top row), 1,000 µm (second row from top), 100 µm (third, fourth, and sixth rows from top), and 10 µm (fifth and seventh rows from top). Two independent experiments. (C) Dissected Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre littermate embryos lacking Mapk1 show rescued liver size (green arrow), normal sinusoidal capillaries (green arrows) stained with H&E or Lyve1 (green) and Pecam1 (red), and normal button-like discontiguous expression of Cdh5 (brown arrows) compared with Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (yellow and red arrows). n = 3. Scale bars: 500 µm (first column from left), 1,000 µm (second column from left), 100 µm (third, fourth, and sixth columns from left), and 10 µm (fifth and seventh columns from left). Two independent experiments. (D) Endothelial activating KRAS or BRAF mutations drive hepatic vascular cavernomas via MAP2K–MAPK1 signaling pathway. Proposed model suggesting that constitutive activation of KRAS–BRAF–MAP2K–MAPK1 signaling pathway in sinusoidal endothelial cells promotes aberrant zipper-like contiguous expression of adherens junctional proteins, such as Cdh5, switching hepatic sinusoidal capillaries from branching to cavernous expansion. All experimental data verified in at least two independent experiments. CdRL, caudal right lobe; CL, caudate lobe; CrRL, cranial right lobe; LK, left kidney; LL, left lobe; LML, left medial lobe; LV, left ventricle; RK, right kidney; RML, right medial lobe; RV, right ventricle; S, stomach.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Pharmacologic inhibition of Braf V600E -Map2k or genetic ablation of Mapk1 rescue hepatic vascular cavernomas in Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre and Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre mice . (A and B) Dissected Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre littermate embryos treated with dabrafenib and trametinib (A) or lacking Mapk1 (B) show rescued liver size (green arrows) compared with Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre embryos (yellow arrow; n = 3). H&E-stained or Lyve1 (green), Pecam1 (red), and Hoechst (blue) coimmunofluorescent–stained liver sections of Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre littermate embryos treated with dabrafenib and trametinib (A) or lacking Mapk1 (B) show normal sinusoidal capillaries (green arrows) compared with cavernous sinusoids in Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre embryos (yellow arrows; n = 3). Immunofluorescent staining on liver sections of Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre embryos treated with dabrafenib and trametinib (A) or lacking Mapk1 (B) show normal button-like discontiguous expression of Cdh5 (brown arrows) compared with abnormal zipper-like contiguous expression of Cdh5 in Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre embryos (red arrows; n = 3). White arrows show normal button-like discontiguous expression of Cdh5 in control livers. Scale bars: 500 µm (top row), 1,000 µm (second row from top), 100 µm (third, fourth, and sixth rows from top), and 10 µm (fifth and seventh rows from top). Two independent experiments. (C) Dissected Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre littermate embryos lacking Mapk1 show rescued liver size (green arrow), normal sinusoidal capillaries (green arrows) stained with H&E or Lyve1 (green) and Pecam1 (red), and normal button-like discontiguous expression of Cdh5 (brown arrows) compared with Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (yellow and red arrows). n = 3. Scale bars: 500 µm (first column from left), 1,000 µm (second column from left), 100 µm (third, fourth, and sixth columns from left), and 10 µm (fifth and seventh columns from left). Two independent experiments. (D) Endothelial activating KRAS or BRAF mutations drive hepatic vascular cavernomas via MAP2K–MAPK1 signaling pathway. Proposed model suggesting that constitutive activation of KRAS–BRAF–MAP2K–MAPK1 signaling pathway in sinusoidal endothelial cells promotes aberrant zipper-like contiguous expression of adherens junctional proteins, such as Cdh5, switching hepatic sinusoidal capillaries from branching to cavernous expansion. All experimental data verified in at least two independent experiments. CdRL, caudal right lobe; CL, caudate lobe; CrRL, cranial right lobe; LK, left kidney; LL, left lobe; LML, left medial lobe; LV, left ventricle; RK, right kidney; RML, right medial lobe; RV, right ventricle; S, stomach.

    Techniques Used: Inhibition, Staining, Expressing, Activation Assay

    braf c 1799t a p v600e  (ATCC)


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    ATCC braf c 1799t a p v600e
    Braf C 1799t A P V600e, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    p v600e  (ATCC)


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    ATCC p v600e
    P V600e, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    braf p v600e  (ATCC)


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    ATCC braf p v600e
    Sequences of primers and hydrolysis probes used for ddPCR and dddPCR.
    Braf P V600e, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    1) Product Images from "Denaturation-enhanced droplet digital PCR for liquid biopsies"

    Article Title: Denaturation-enhanced droplet digital PCR for liquid biopsies

    Journal: Clinical chemistry

    doi: 10.1373/clinchem.2018.293845

    Sequences of primers and hydrolysis probes used for ddPCR and dddPCR.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Sequences of primers and hydrolysis probes used for ddPCR and dddPCR.

    Techniques Used: Sequencing, Amplification

    (A) Demonstration of the concept. (B) ddPCR and dddPCR for BRAF V600E using 10ng of HTB-19 cell line gDNA serially diluted into wild type DNA (WT). Outer bars represent the standard error of the mean for the replicates; the inner error bar is the 95% confidence interval for the Poisson distribution. Each sample is composed of 4 merged replicates. RSE=relative standard error.
    Figure Legend Snippet: (A) Demonstration of the concept. (B) ddPCR and dddPCR for BRAF V600E using 10ng of HTB-19 cell line gDNA serially diluted into wild type DNA (WT). Outer bars represent the standard error of the mean for the replicates; the inner error bar is the 95% confidence interval for the Poisson distribution. Each sample is composed of 4 merged replicates. RSE=relative standard error.

    Techniques Used:

    (A) demonstration of the concept. (B) and (C) Analysis of gDNA HD728 serially diluted in WT DNA using 30ng (ddPCR, non-denatured), or split in two 15ng samples (dddPCR, denatured) as DNA input: BRAF V600E and NRAS Q61K screened, respectively. Undiluted gDNA HD728 contains BRAF V600E and NRAS Q61K mutations at 8% and 5% allelic frequencies, respectively. Error bars represent the 95% confidence interval for the Poisson distribution. The dddPCR results represent merged wells for 2 replicates. The concentration of WT and MT copies obtained were similar for both dddPCR and ddPCR (for WT, P = 0.49, 0.71 and 0.69 for 1:5, 1:20 and 1:50 dilutions, respectively. For MT, P = is 0.79, 0.34 and 0.19, respectively. The differences are not significant).
    Figure Legend Snippet: (A) demonstration of the concept. (B) and (C) Analysis of gDNA HD728 serially diluted in WT DNA using 30ng (ddPCR, non-denatured), or split in two 15ng samples (dddPCR, denatured) as DNA input: BRAF V600E and NRAS Q61K screened, respectively. Undiluted gDNA HD728 contains BRAF V600E and NRAS Q61K mutations at 8% and 5% allelic frequencies, respectively. Error bars represent the 95% confidence interval for the Poisson distribution. The dddPCR results represent merged wells for 2 replicates. The concentration of WT and MT copies obtained were similar for both dddPCR and ddPCR (for WT, P = 0.49, 0.71 and 0.69 for 1:5, 1:20 and 1:50 dilutions, respectively. For MT, P = is 0.79, 0.34 and 0.19, respectively. The differences are not significant).

    Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

    (A) Comparison between number of copies per μL of reaction obtained by ddPCR and dddPCR using a BRAF V600E assay. Different input of WT cfDNA and 5ng input of end-repaired cfDNA were analyzed along with WT gDNA as control. (B) SNP rs1050171 assay was used to perform end-repair followed by dddPCR, using cfDNA with 5% of allele A. The blue symbols represent copies with nucleotide G; green symbols are copies with nucleotide A; red symbols represent fractional abundance of allele A. (C, D) The concentration fold-change was calculated by dividing dddPCR by ddPCR values. End-repair and dddPCR were performed sequentially in a single tube reaction. The error bars represent the range of fold change among replicas.
    Figure Legend Snippet: (A) Comparison between number of copies per μL of reaction obtained by ddPCR and dddPCR using a BRAF V600E assay. Different input of WT cfDNA and 5ng input of end-repaired cfDNA were analyzed along with WT gDNA as control. (B) SNP rs1050171 assay was used to perform end-repair followed by dddPCR, using cfDNA with 5% of allele A. The blue symbols represent copies with nucleotide G; green symbols are copies with nucleotide A; red symbols represent fractional abundance of allele A. (C, D) The concentration fold-change was calculated by dividing dddPCR by ddPCR values. End-repair and dddPCR were performed sequentially in a single tube reaction. The error bars represent the range of fold change among replicas.

    Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

    braf p v600e  (ATCC)


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    ATCC braf p v600e
    Sequences of primers and hydrolysis probes used for ddPCR and dddPCR.
    Braf P V600e, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    1) Product Images from "Denaturation-enhanced droplet digital PCR for liquid biopsies"

    Article Title: Denaturation-enhanced droplet digital PCR for liquid biopsies

    Journal: Clinical chemistry

    doi: 10.1373/clinchem.2018.293845

    Sequences of primers and hydrolysis probes used for ddPCR and dddPCR.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Sequences of primers and hydrolysis probes used for ddPCR and dddPCR.

    Techniques Used: Sequencing, Amplification

    (A) Demonstration of the concept. (B) ddPCR and dddPCR for BRAF V600E using 10ng of HTB-19 cell line gDNA serially diluted into wild type DNA (WT). Outer bars represent the standard error of the mean for the replicates; the inner error bar is the 95% confidence interval for the Poisson distribution. Each sample is composed of 4 merged replicates. RSE=relative standard error.
    Figure Legend Snippet: (A) Demonstration of the concept. (B) ddPCR and dddPCR for BRAF V600E using 10ng of HTB-19 cell line gDNA serially diluted into wild type DNA (WT). Outer bars represent the standard error of the mean for the replicates; the inner error bar is the 95% confidence interval for the Poisson distribution. Each sample is composed of 4 merged replicates. RSE=relative standard error.

    Techniques Used:

    (A) demonstration of the concept. (B) and (C) Analysis of gDNA HD728 serially diluted in WT DNA using 30ng (ddPCR, non-denatured), or split in two 15ng samples (dddPCR, denatured) as DNA input: BRAF V600E and NRAS Q61K screened, respectively. Undiluted gDNA HD728 contains BRAF V600E and NRAS Q61K mutations at 8% and 5% allelic frequencies, respectively. Error bars represent the 95% confidence interval for the Poisson distribution. The dddPCR results represent merged wells for 2 replicates. The concentration of WT and MT copies obtained were similar for both dddPCR and ddPCR (for WT, P = 0.49, 0.71 and 0.69 for 1:5, 1:20 and 1:50 dilutions, respectively. For MT, P = is 0.79, 0.34 and 0.19, respectively. The differences are not significant).
    Figure Legend Snippet: (A) demonstration of the concept. (B) and (C) Analysis of gDNA HD728 serially diluted in WT DNA using 30ng (ddPCR, non-denatured), or split in two 15ng samples (dddPCR, denatured) as DNA input: BRAF V600E and NRAS Q61K screened, respectively. Undiluted gDNA HD728 contains BRAF V600E and NRAS Q61K mutations at 8% and 5% allelic frequencies, respectively. Error bars represent the 95% confidence interval for the Poisson distribution. The dddPCR results represent merged wells for 2 replicates. The concentration of WT and MT copies obtained were similar for both dddPCR and ddPCR (for WT, P = 0.49, 0.71 and 0.69 for 1:5, 1:20 and 1:50 dilutions, respectively. For MT, P = is 0.79, 0.34 and 0.19, respectively. The differences are not significant).

    Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

    (A) Comparison between number of copies per μL of reaction obtained by ddPCR and dddPCR using a BRAF V600E assay. Different input of WT cfDNA and 5ng input of end-repaired cfDNA were analyzed along with WT gDNA as control. (B) SNP rs1050171 assay was used to perform end-repair followed by dddPCR, using cfDNA with 5% of allele A. The blue symbols represent copies with nucleotide G; green symbols are copies with nucleotide A; red symbols represent fractional abundance of allele A. (C, D) The concentration fold-change was calculated by dividing dddPCR by ddPCR values. End-repair and dddPCR were performed sequentially in a single tube reaction. The error bars represent the range of fold change among replicas.
    Figure Legend Snippet: (A) Comparison between number of copies per μL of reaction obtained by ddPCR and dddPCR using a BRAF V600E assay. Different input of WT cfDNA and 5ng input of end-repaired cfDNA were analyzed along with WT gDNA as control. (B) SNP rs1050171 assay was used to perform end-repair followed by dddPCR, using cfDNA with 5% of allele A. The blue symbols represent copies with nucleotide G; green symbols are copies with nucleotide A; red symbols represent fractional abundance of allele A. (C, D) The concentration fold-change was calculated by dividing dddPCR by ddPCR values. End-repair and dddPCR were performed sequentially in a single tube reaction. The error bars represent the range of fold change among replicas.

    Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

    braf p v600e p val600glu mutation  (ATCC)


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    ATCC braf p v600e p val600glu mutation
    Braf P V600e P Val600glu Mutation, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    c 1799t a p v600e braf mutation  (ATCC)


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    ATCC c 1799t a p v600e braf mutation
    C 1799t A P V600e Braf Mutation, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    exon 15 homozygous p v600e braf mutation  (ATCC)


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    ATCC exon 15 homozygous p v600e braf mutation
    Frequency of BRAF Mutations Involving Exons 11 and 15 in Melanoma by Site
    Exon 15 Homozygous P V600e Braf Mutation, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    1) Product Images from "Frequency and Spectrum of BRAF Mutations in a Retrospective, Single-Institution Study of 1112 Cases of Melanoma"

    Article Title: Frequency and Spectrum of BRAF Mutations in a Retrospective, Single-Institution Study of 1112 Cases of Melanoma

    Journal: The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics : JMD

    doi: 10.1016/j.jmoldx.2012.10.002

    Frequency of BRAF Mutations Involving Exons 11 and 15 in Melanoma by Site
    Figure Legend Snippet: Frequency of BRAF Mutations Involving Exons 11 and 15 in Melanoma by Site

    Techniques Used:

    Frequency of BRAF Mutations in Nonacral Primary Cutaneous Melanoma by Histopathologic Subtype
    Figure Legend Snippet: Frequency of BRAF Mutations in Nonacral Primary Cutaneous Melanoma by Histopathologic Subtype

    Techniques Used:

    Profile of BRAF Mutations in 499 Cutaneous Melanomas, Including Primary and Metastatic Acral and Nonacral Lesions
    Figure Legend Snippet: Profile of BRAF Mutations in 499 Cutaneous Melanomas, Including Primary and Metastatic Acral and Nonacral Lesions

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    p v600e  (ATCC)


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    ATCC p v600e
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    ATCC c 1799t a p v600e braf mutation
    Endothelial Kras G12D or Braf <t>V600E</t> gain-of-function mutations cause hepatic vascular cavernomas in mice. (A and B) Dissected livers and H&E-stained liver frontal sections show vascular cavernomas (black arrows) in tamoxifen-treated Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (A) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (B) mice ( n = 3). Pdpn (green) and Flt4 (red) coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (A) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (B) liver sections shows contribution of Flt4 + and Pdpn-negative endothelial cells to hepatic vascular cavernomas (white arrows). n = 3. Scale bars: 500 µm (top row), 100 µm (second and third row from top), and 10 µm (bottom row). Two independent experiments. (C and D) Dissected Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (C) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (D) embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5) embryos show reduced liver size (red arrow; n = 3). H&E-stained Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (C) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (D) E14.5 liver frontal sections show vascular cavernomas (black arrows; n = 3). Coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) shows contribution of Lyve1 + (green) and Pecam1 + (red) endothelial cells (white arrows) to hepatic vascular cavernomas. n = 3. Scale bars: 500 µm (top row), 100 µm (second and third row from top), and 10 µm (bottom row). Two independent experiments. (E) Dissected Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre livers show reduction in liver size at E13.5 and progressive development of hepatic vascular cavernomas (black arrows). n = 3. Scale bars: 500 µm. (F) Lyve1 (green), Hif1α (red), and Cleaved caspase 3 (CC3, white) coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (F) and Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (G) E13.5 liver frontal sections shows hypoxia and apoptosis in clusters of nonendothelial hepatic cells near vascular cavernomas (white arrows). n = 3. Scale bars: 100 µm (top row) and 10 µm (bottom row). Two independent experiments. Littermates were used as controls for all experiments. All experimental data verified in at least two independent experiments. BD, bild duct; LL, left lobe; LML, left medial lobe; LS, liver sinusoid; LV, lymphatic vessel; PV, portal vein.
    C 1799t A P V600e Braf Mutation, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    90
    ATCC braf c 1799t a p v600e
    Endothelial Kras G12D or Braf <t>V600E</t> gain-of-function mutations cause hepatic vascular cavernomas in mice. (A and B) Dissected livers and H&E-stained liver frontal sections show vascular cavernomas (black arrows) in tamoxifen-treated Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (A) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (B) mice ( n = 3). Pdpn (green) and Flt4 (red) coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (A) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (B) liver sections shows contribution of Flt4 + and Pdpn-negative endothelial cells to hepatic vascular cavernomas (white arrows). n = 3. Scale bars: 500 µm (top row), 100 µm (second and third row from top), and 10 µm (bottom row). Two independent experiments. (C and D) Dissected Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (C) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (D) embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5) embryos show reduced liver size (red arrow; n = 3). H&E-stained Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (C) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (D) E14.5 liver frontal sections show vascular cavernomas (black arrows; n = 3). Coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) shows contribution of Lyve1 + (green) and Pecam1 + (red) endothelial cells (white arrows) to hepatic vascular cavernomas. n = 3. Scale bars: 500 µm (top row), 100 µm (second and third row from top), and 10 µm (bottom row). Two independent experiments. (E) Dissected Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre livers show reduction in liver size at E13.5 and progressive development of hepatic vascular cavernomas (black arrows). n = 3. Scale bars: 500 µm. (F) Lyve1 (green), Hif1α (red), and Cleaved caspase 3 (CC3, white) coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (F) and Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (G) E13.5 liver frontal sections shows hypoxia and apoptosis in clusters of nonendothelial hepatic cells near vascular cavernomas (white arrows). n = 3. Scale bars: 100 µm (top row) and 10 µm (bottom row). Two independent experiments. Littermates were used as controls for all experiments. All experimental data verified in at least two independent experiments. BD, bild duct; LL, left lobe; LML, left medial lobe; LS, liver sinusoid; LV, lymphatic vessel; PV, portal vein.
    Braf C 1799t A P V600e, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC p v600e
    Endothelial Kras G12D or Braf <t>V600E</t> gain-of-function mutations cause hepatic vascular cavernomas in mice. (A and B) Dissected livers and H&E-stained liver frontal sections show vascular cavernomas (black arrows) in tamoxifen-treated Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (A) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (B) mice ( n = 3). Pdpn (green) and Flt4 (red) coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (A) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (B) liver sections shows contribution of Flt4 + and Pdpn-negative endothelial cells to hepatic vascular cavernomas (white arrows). n = 3. Scale bars: 500 µm (top row), 100 µm (second and third row from top), and 10 µm (bottom row). Two independent experiments. (C and D) Dissected Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (C) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (D) embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5) embryos show reduced liver size (red arrow; n = 3). H&E-stained Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (C) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (D) E14.5 liver frontal sections show vascular cavernomas (black arrows; n = 3). Coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) shows contribution of Lyve1 + (green) and Pecam1 + (red) endothelial cells (white arrows) to hepatic vascular cavernomas. n = 3. Scale bars: 500 µm (top row), 100 µm (second and third row from top), and 10 µm (bottom row). Two independent experiments. (E) Dissected Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre livers show reduction in liver size at E13.5 and progressive development of hepatic vascular cavernomas (black arrows). n = 3. Scale bars: 500 µm. (F) Lyve1 (green), Hif1α (red), and Cleaved caspase 3 (CC3, white) coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (F) and Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (G) E13.5 liver frontal sections shows hypoxia and apoptosis in clusters of nonendothelial hepatic cells near vascular cavernomas (white arrows). n = 3. Scale bars: 100 µm (top row) and 10 µm (bottom row). Two independent experiments. Littermates were used as controls for all experiments. All experimental data verified in at least two independent experiments. BD, bild duct; LL, left lobe; LML, left medial lobe; LS, liver sinusoid; LV, lymphatic vessel; PV, portal vein.
    P V600e, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC braf p v600e
    Sequences of primers and hydrolysis probes used for ddPCR and dddPCR.
    Braf P V600e, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC braf p v600e p val600glu mutation
    Sequences of primers and hydrolysis probes used for ddPCR and dddPCR.
    Braf P V600e P Val600glu Mutation, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC exon 15 homozygous p v600e braf mutation
    Frequency of BRAF Mutations Involving Exons 11 and 15 in Melanoma by Site
    Exon 15 Homozygous P V600e Braf Mutation, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Image Search Results


    Endothelial Kras G12D or Braf V600E gain-of-function mutations cause hepatic vascular cavernomas in mice. (A and B) Dissected livers and H&E-stained liver frontal sections show vascular cavernomas (black arrows) in tamoxifen-treated Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (A) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (B) mice ( n = 3). Pdpn (green) and Flt4 (red) coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (A) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (B) liver sections shows contribution of Flt4 + and Pdpn-negative endothelial cells to hepatic vascular cavernomas (white arrows). n = 3. Scale bars: 500 µm (top row), 100 µm (second and third row from top), and 10 µm (bottom row). Two independent experiments. (C and D) Dissected Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (C) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (D) embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5) embryos show reduced liver size (red arrow; n = 3). H&E-stained Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (C) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (D) E14.5 liver frontal sections show vascular cavernomas (black arrows; n = 3). Coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) shows contribution of Lyve1 + (green) and Pecam1 + (red) endothelial cells (white arrows) to hepatic vascular cavernomas. n = 3. Scale bars: 500 µm (top row), 100 µm (second and third row from top), and 10 µm (bottom row). Two independent experiments. (E) Dissected Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre livers show reduction in liver size at E13.5 and progressive development of hepatic vascular cavernomas (black arrows). n = 3. Scale bars: 500 µm. (F) Lyve1 (green), Hif1α (red), and Cleaved caspase 3 (CC3, white) coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (F) and Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (G) E13.5 liver frontal sections shows hypoxia and apoptosis in clusters of nonendothelial hepatic cells near vascular cavernomas (white arrows). n = 3. Scale bars: 100 µm (top row) and 10 µm (bottom row). Two independent experiments. Littermates were used as controls for all experiments. All experimental data verified in at least two independent experiments. BD, bild duct; LL, left lobe; LML, left medial lobe; LS, liver sinusoid; LV, lymphatic vessel; PV, portal vein.

    Journal: The Journal of Experimental Medicine

    Article Title: KRAS or BRAF mutations cause hepatic vascular cavernomas treatable with MAP2K–MAPK1 inhibition

    doi: 10.1084/jem.20192205

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Endothelial Kras G12D or Braf V600E gain-of-function mutations cause hepatic vascular cavernomas in mice. (A and B) Dissected livers and H&E-stained liver frontal sections show vascular cavernomas (black arrows) in tamoxifen-treated Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (A) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (B) mice ( n = 3). Pdpn (green) and Flt4 (red) coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (A) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (B) liver sections shows contribution of Flt4 + and Pdpn-negative endothelial cells to hepatic vascular cavernomas (white arrows). n = 3. Scale bars: 500 µm (top row), 100 µm (second and third row from top), and 10 µm (bottom row). Two independent experiments. (C and D) Dissected Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (C) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (D) embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5) embryos show reduced liver size (red arrow; n = 3). H&E-stained Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (C) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (D) E14.5 liver frontal sections show vascular cavernomas (black arrows; n = 3). Coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) shows contribution of Lyve1 + (green) and Pecam1 + (red) endothelial cells (white arrows) to hepatic vascular cavernomas. n = 3. Scale bars: 500 µm (top row), 100 µm (second and third row from top), and 10 µm (bottom row). Two independent experiments. (E) Dissected Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre livers show reduction in liver size at E13.5 and progressive development of hepatic vascular cavernomas (black arrows). n = 3. Scale bars: 500 µm. (F) Lyve1 (green), Hif1α (red), and Cleaved caspase 3 (CC3, white) coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (F) and Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (G) E13.5 liver frontal sections shows hypoxia and apoptosis in clusters of nonendothelial hepatic cells near vascular cavernomas (white arrows). n = 3. Scale bars: 100 µm (top row) and 10 µm (bottom row). Two independent experiments. Littermates were used as controls for all experiments. All experimental data verified in at least two independent experiments. BD, bild duct; LL, left lobe; LML, left medial lobe; LS, liver sinusoid; LV, lymphatic vessel; PV, portal vein.

    Article Snippet: The RKO human colon cell line, with c. 1799T>A (p.V600E) BRAF mutation, was used as positive control (ATCC).

    Techniques: Staining

    Endothelial Kras G12D or Braf V600E gain-of-function mutations cause hepatic vascular cavernomas and embryonic lethality in mice. (A and B) Lyve1 (green) and Pecam1 (red) coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on tamoxifen-treated adult Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (A) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (B) liver sections shows contribution of Lyve1 + and Pecam1 + endothelial cells to hepatic vascular cavernomas (white arrows). n = 3. Scale bars: 100 μm (top row) and 10 µm (bottom row). Two independent experiments. (C and D) Dissected livers and H&E-stained liver frontal sections show vascular cavernomas (black arrows) in tamoxifen-treated Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (C) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (D) neonatal mice. Lyve1 (green) and Pecam1 (red) coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (C) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (D) liver sections shows contribution of Lyve1 + and Pecam1 + endothelial cells to hepatic vascular cavernomas (white arrows). n = 3. P, postnatal day. Scale bars: 500 μm (top row), 100 µm (second and third rows from top), and 10 µm (bottom row). Two independent experiments. (E and F) Genotyping tables of embryos or pups derived from Kras G12D F/+ mice crossed with either Lyve1 Cre/+ (E) or Lyve1 Cre/Cre (F) mice. (G and H) Genotyping tables of embryos derived from Braf V600E F/F (G) or Braf V600E F/+ (H) mice crossed with either Lyve1 Cre/+ (G) or Lyve1 Cre/Cre (H) mice. χ 2 P value 0.94 (E, E13.5), 0.09 (E, P0), 0.0001 (F), 0.857 (G, E11.5), 0.285 (G, E14.5), 1.0 (H). LS, liver sinusoid; PV, portal vein.

    Journal: The Journal of Experimental Medicine

    Article Title: KRAS or BRAF mutations cause hepatic vascular cavernomas treatable with MAP2K–MAPK1 inhibition

    doi: 10.1084/jem.20192205

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Endothelial Kras G12D or Braf V600E gain-of-function mutations cause hepatic vascular cavernomas and embryonic lethality in mice. (A and B) Lyve1 (green) and Pecam1 (red) coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on tamoxifen-treated adult Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (A) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (B) liver sections shows contribution of Lyve1 + and Pecam1 + endothelial cells to hepatic vascular cavernomas (white arrows). n = 3. Scale bars: 100 μm (top row) and 10 µm (bottom row). Two independent experiments. (C and D) Dissected livers and H&E-stained liver frontal sections show vascular cavernomas (black arrows) in tamoxifen-treated Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (C) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (D) neonatal mice. Lyve1 (green) and Pecam1 (red) coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (C) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (D) liver sections shows contribution of Lyve1 + and Pecam1 + endothelial cells to hepatic vascular cavernomas (white arrows). n = 3. P, postnatal day. Scale bars: 500 μm (top row), 100 µm (second and third rows from top), and 10 µm (bottom row). Two independent experiments. (E and F) Genotyping tables of embryos or pups derived from Kras G12D F/+ mice crossed with either Lyve1 Cre/+ (E) or Lyve1 Cre/Cre (F) mice. (G and H) Genotyping tables of embryos derived from Braf V600E F/F (G) or Braf V600E F/+ (H) mice crossed with either Lyve1 Cre/+ (G) or Lyve1 Cre/Cre (H) mice. χ 2 P value 0.94 (E, E13.5), 0.09 (E, P0), 0.0001 (F), 0.857 (G, E11.5), 0.285 (G, E14.5), 1.0 (H). LS, liver sinusoid; PV, portal vein.

    Article Snippet: The RKO human colon cell line, with c. 1799T>A (p.V600E) BRAF mutation, was used as positive control (ATCC).

    Techniques: Staining, Derivative Assay

    Mice with endothelial Kras G12D or Braf V600E gain-of-function mutations exhibit normal proliferation of hepatic endothelial cells. (A and B) Ki67 (red) and Cdh5 (green) coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on tamoxifen-treated Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (A) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (B) adult murine liver sections. White arrows show Ki67 + cells. n = 3. Scale bars: 100 µm (top row) and 10 µm (bottom row). Two independent experiments. FDR, false discovery rate. (C and D) Quantitation of proliferating Cdh5 + cells in tamoxifen-treated control, Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (C), and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (D) embryonic murine livers. n = 3. Unpaired t test, P > 0.8 (C) and P > 0.4 (D). Two independent experiments. Data represent the mean ± SEM. (E and F) Ki67 (red) and Cdh5 (green) coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre/+ (C) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre/+ (D) embryonic murine liver sections. White arrows show Ki67 + cells. n = 3. E, embryonic day. Scale bars: 100 µm (top row) and 10 µm (bottom row). Two independent experiments. (G and H) Quantitation of proliferating Cdh5 + cells in control, Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre/+ (G), and Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre/+ (H) mutant murine livers. n = 3. Unpaired t test, P > 0.8. Two independent experiments. Data represent the mean ± SEM. N.S., not significant. BD, bile duct; LS, liver sinusoid; PV, portal vein.

    Journal: The Journal of Experimental Medicine

    Article Title: KRAS or BRAF mutations cause hepatic vascular cavernomas treatable with MAP2K–MAPK1 inhibition

    doi: 10.1084/jem.20192205

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Mice with endothelial Kras G12D or Braf V600E gain-of-function mutations exhibit normal proliferation of hepatic endothelial cells. (A and B) Ki67 (red) and Cdh5 (green) coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on tamoxifen-treated Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (A) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (B) adult murine liver sections. White arrows show Ki67 + cells. n = 3. Scale bars: 100 µm (top row) and 10 µm (bottom row). Two independent experiments. FDR, false discovery rate. (C and D) Quantitation of proliferating Cdh5 + cells in tamoxifen-treated control, Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (C), and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (D) embryonic murine livers. n = 3. Unpaired t test, P > 0.8 (C) and P > 0.4 (D). Two independent experiments. Data represent the mean ± SEM. (E and F) Ki67 (red) and Cdh5 (green) coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre/+ (C) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre/+ (D) embryonic murine liver sections. White arrows show Ki67 + cells. n = 3. E, embryonic day. Scale bars: 100 µm (top row) and 10 µm (bottom row). Two independent experiments. (G and H) Quantitation of proliferating Cdh5 + cells in control, Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre/+ (G), and Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre/+ (H) mutant murine livers. n = 3. Unpaired t test, P > 0.8. Two independent experiments. Data represent the mean ± SEM. N.S., not significant. BD, bile duct; LS, liver sinusoid; PV, portal vein.

    Article Snippet: The RKO human colon cell line, with c. 1799T>A (p.V600E) BRAF mutation, was used as positive control (ATCC).

    Techniques: Staining, Quantitation Assay, Mutagenesis

    Mice with Kras G12D or Braf V600E gain-of-function mutations within macrophages exhibit normal normal sinusoidal and hepatic development. (A and B) Dissected Kras G12D F/+ ; LysM Cre (A) and Braf V600E F/+ ; LysM Cre (B) embryos show normal liver size (black arrows). H&E-stained Kras G12D F/+ ; LysM Cre (A) and Braf V600E F/+ ; LysM Cre (B) liver frontal sections show normal sinusoidal capillaries (black arrows). n = 3. E, embryonic day. Scale bars: 500 µm (top row), 1,000 µm (middle row), and 100 µm (bottom row). Two independent experiments. (C and D) Mice with Kras G12D or Braf V600E gain-of-function mutations within endothelial cells exhibit normal normal spleen morphology and sinusoids. Spleen dissected from adult tamoxifen-treated Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (C) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (D) mice. H&E-stained Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (C) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (D) spleen sagittal sections show normal morphology. Lyve1 (green) and Pecam1 (red) coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (C) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (D) spleen sagittal sections. n = 3. Scale bars: 500 µm (first and second rows), 100 µm (third row), and 50 µm (fourth row). Two independent experiments. White arrows show normal Lyve1 + vessels. A, artery; CrRL, cranial right lobe; LK, left kidney; LL, left lobe; LML, left medial lobe; LV, left ventricle; RK, right kidney; RML, right medial lobe; RV, right ventricle; S, stomach.

    Journal: The Journal of Experimental Medicine

    Article Title: KRAS or BRAF mutations cause hepatic vascular cavernomas treatable with MAP2K–MAPK1 inhibition

    doi: 10.1084/jem.20192205

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Mice with Kras G12D or Braf V600E gain-of-function mutations within macrophages exhibit normal normal sinusoidal and hepatic development. (A and B) Dissected Kras G12D F/+ ; LysM Cre (A) and Braf V600E F/+ ; LysM Cre (B) embryos show normal liver size (black arrows). H&E-stained Kras G12D F/+ ; LysM Cre (A) and Braf V600E F/+ ; LysM Cre (B) liver frontal sections show normal sinusoidal capillaries (black arrows). n = 3. E, embryonic day. Scale bars: 500 µm (top row), 1,000 µm (middle row), and 100 µm (bottom row). Two independent experiments. (C and D) Mice with Kras G12D or Braf V600E gain-of-function mutations within endothelial cells exhibit normal normal spleen morphology and sinusoids. Spleen dissected from adult tamoxifen-treated Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (C) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (D) mice. H&E-stained Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (C) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (D) spleen sagittal sections show normal morphology. Lyve1 (green) and Pecam1 (red) coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on Kras G12D F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (C) and Braf V600E F/+ ; Cdh5 CreERT2 (D) spleen sagittal sections. n = 3. Scale bars: 500 µm (first and second rows), 100 µm (third row), and 50 µm (fourth row). Two independent experiments. White arrows show normal Lyve1 + vessels. A, artery; CrRL, cranial right lobe; LK, left kidney; LL, left lobe; LML, left medial lobe; LV, left ventricle; RK, right kidney; RML, right medial lobe; RV, right ventricle; S, stomach.

    Article Snippet: The RKO human colon cell line, with c. 1799T>A (p.V600E) BRAF mutation, was used as positive control (ATCC).

    Techniques: Staining

    Endothelial Kras G12D or Braf V600E gain-of-function mutations aberrantly enhance zipper-like contiguous expression of adherens junctional proteins at sinusoidal endothelial cell–cell contacts. (A) Distribution of differentially up-regulated transcripts (red), down-regulated transcripts (blue), and unchanged transcripts (gray) in E11.5 Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre livers compared with littermate Control E11.5 livers ( n = 3). FDR, false discovery rate. (B) Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) of differentially regulated, identified transcripts in E11.5 Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre livers ( n = 3). (C) Heatmap of top differentially regulated transcripts within KEGG pathway categories of focal adhesion and cell adhesion ( n = 3). (D and E) Flt4 and Cdh5 immunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on sections of human KRAS c.35 G>A (p.G12D) and BRAF c.1798G>A (p.V600M) liver (D) and Cdh5 immunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on murine Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre liver (E) and murine Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre livers (E). n = 3. White arrows show normal button-like discontiguous expression of junctional proteins between sinusoidal endothelial cells. Red arrows show abnormal zipper-like contiguous expression of adherens junctional proteins at sinusoidal endothelial cell–cell contacts. Scale bars in D: 100 µm (first column from left) and 10 µm (second and third columns from left); scale bars in E: 10 µm (first column from left) and 5 µm (second column from left). All experimental data verified in at least two independent experiments.

    Journal: The Journal of Experimental Medicine

    Article Title: KRAS or BRAF mutations cause hepatic vascular cavernomas treatable with MAP2K–MAPK1 inhibition

    doi: 10.1084/jem.20192205

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Endothelial Kras G12D or Braf V600E gain-of-function mutations aberrantly enhance zipper-like contiguous expression of adherens junctional proteins at sinusoidal endothelial cell–cell contacts. (A) Distribution of differentially up-regulated transcripts (red), down-regulated transcripts (blue), and unchanged transcripts (gray) in E11.5 Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre livers compared with littermate Control E11.5 livers ( n = 3). FDR, false discovery rate. (B) Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) of differentially regulated, identified transcripts in E11.5 Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre livers ( n = 3). (C) Heatmap of top differentially regulated transcripts within KEGG pathway categories of focal adhesion and cell adhesion ( n = 3). (D and E) Flt4 and Cdh5 immunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on sections of human KRAS c.35 G>A (p.G12D) and BRAF c.1798G>A (p.V600M) liver (D) and Cdh5 immunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on murine Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre liver (E) and murine Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre livers (E). n = 3. White arrows show normal button-like discontiguous expression of junctional proteins between sinusoidal endothelial cells. Red arrows show abnormal zipper-like contiguous expression of adherens junctional proteins at sinusoidal endothelial cell–cell contacts. Scale bars in D: 100 µm (first column from left) and 10 µm (second and third columns from left); scale bars in E: 10 µm (first column from left) and 5 µm (second column from left). All experimental data verified in at least two independent experiments.

    Article Snippet: The RKO human colon cell line, with c. 1799T>A (p.V600E) BRAF mutation, was used as positive control (ATCC).

    Techniques: Expressing, Staining

    Endothelial Kras G12D or Braf V600E gain-of-function mutations aberrantly enhance expression of adherens junctional proteins. (A) Analysis of differentially regulated transcripts show expression changes in E11.5 Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre livers ( n = 3). (B) KEGG pathway gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) of differentially regulated, identified transcripts in E11.5 Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre livers ( n = 3). NES, normalized enriched score. (C and D) Flt4 (green) and Pecam1 (red) coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on sections of murine Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre embryonic liver (C) and murine Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre liver (D). Red arrows show increased Flt4 expression. E, embryonic day. Scale bars: 100 µm (top row) and 10 µm (bottom row). n = 3. Two independent experiments. (E and F) Genotyping tables of embryos derived from Mapk1 F/+ ; Kras G12D F/+ mice (E) or Mapk1 F/+ ; Braf V600E F/+ (F) mice crossed with Mapk1 F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre/+ mice. χ 2 P values 0.262 (E) and 0.991 (F).

    Journal: The Journal of Experimental Medicine

    Article Title: KRAS or BRAF mutations cause hepatic vascular cavernomas treatable with MAP2K–MAPK1 inhibition

    doi: 10.1084/jem.20192205

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Endothelial Kras G12D or Braf V600E gain-of-function mutations aberrantly enhance expression of adherens junctional proteins. (A) Analysis of differentially regulated transcripts show expression changes in E11.5 Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre livers ( n = 3). (B) KEGG pathway gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) of differentially regulated, identified transcripts in E11.5 Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre livers ( n = 3). NES, normalized enriched score. (C and D) Flt4 (green) and Pecam1 (red) coimmunofluorescent staining with Hoechst nuclear counterstain (blue) on sections of murine Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre embryonic liver (C) and murine Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre liver (D). Red arrows show increased Flt4 expression. E, embryonic day. Scale bars: 100 µm (top row) and 10 µm (bottom row). n = 3. Two independent experiments. (E and F) Genotyping tables of embryos derived from Mapk1 F/+ ; Kras G12D F/+ mice (E) or Mapk1 F/+ ; Braf V600E F/+ (F) mice crossed with Mapk1 F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre/+ mice. χ 2 P values 0.262 (E) and 0.991 (F).

    Article Snippet: The RKO human colon cell line, with c. 1799T>A (p.V600E) BRAF mutation, was used as positive control (ATCC).

    Techniques: Expressing, Staining, Derivative Assay

    Pharmacologic inhibition of Braf V600E -Map2k or genetic ablation of Mapk1 rescue hepatic vascular cavernomas in Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre and Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre mice . (A and B) Dissected Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre littermate embryos treated with dabrafenib and trametinib (A) or lacking Mapk1 (B) show rescued liver size (green arrows) compared with Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre embryos (yellow arrow; n = 3). H&E-stained or Lyve1 (green), Pecam1 (red), and Hoechst (blue) coimmunofluorescent–stained liver sections of Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre littermate embryos treated with dabrafenib and trametinib (A) or lacking Mapk1 (B) show normal sinusoidal capillaries (green arrows) compared with cavernous sinusoids in Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre embryos (yellow arrows; n = 3). Immunofluorescent staining on liver sections of Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre embryos treated with dabrafenib and trametinib (A) or lacking Mapk1 (B) show normal button-like discontiguous expression of Cdh5 (brown arrows) compared with abnormal zipper-like contiguous expression of Cdh5 in Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre embryos (red arrows; n = 3). White arrows show normal button-like discontiguous expression of Cdh5 in control livers. Scale bars: 500 µm (top row), 1,000 µm (second row from top), 100 µm (third, fourth, and sixth rows from top), and 10 µm (fifth and seventh rows from top). Two independent experiments. (C) Dissected Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre littermate embryos lacking Mapk1 show rescued liver size (green arrow), normal sinusoidal capillaries (green arrows) stained with H&E or Lyve1 (green) and Pecam1 (red), and normal button-like discontiguous expression of Cdh5 (brown arrows) compared with Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (yellow and red arrows). n = 3. Scale bars: 500 µm (first column from left), 1,000 µm (second column from left), 100 µm (third, fourth, and sixth columns from left), and 10 µm (fifth and seventh columns from left). Two independent experiments. (D) Endothelial activating KRAS or BRAF mutations drive hepatic vascular cavernomas via MAP2K–MAPK1 signaling pathway. Proposed model suggesting that constitutive activation of KRAS–BRAF–MAP2K–MAPK1 signaling pathway in sinusoidal endothelial cells promotes aberrant zipper-like contiguous expression of adherens junctional proteins, such as Cdh5, switching hepatic sinusoidal capillaries from branching to cavernous expansion. All experimental data verified in at least two independent experiments. CdRL, caudal right lobe; CL, caudate lobe; CrRL, cranial right lobe; LK, left kidney; LL, left lobe; LML, left medial lobe; LV, left ventricle; RK, right kidney; RML, right medial lobe; RV, right ventricle; S, stomach.

    Journal: The Journal of Experimental Medicine

    Article Title: KRAS or BRAF mutations cause hepatic vascular cavernomas treatable with MAP2K–MAPK1 inhibition

    doi: 10.1084/jem.20192205

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Pharmacologic inhibition of Braf V600E -Map2k or genetic ablation of Mapk1 rescue hepatic vascular cavernomas in Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre and Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre mice . (A and B) Dissected Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre littermate embryos treated with dabrafenib and trametinib (A) or lacking Mapk1 (B) show rescued liver size (green arrows) compared with Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre embryos (yellow arrow; n = 3). H&E-stained or Lyve1 (green), Pecam1 (red), and Hoechst (blue) coimmunofluorescent–stained liver sections of Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre littermate embryos treated with dabrafenib and trametinib (A) or lacking Mapk1 (B) show normal sinusoidal capillaries (green arrows) compared with cavernous sinusoids in Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre embryos (yellow arrows; n = 3). Immunofluorescent staining on liver sections of Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre embryos treated with dabrafenib and trametinib (A) or lacking Mapk1 (B) show normal button-like discontiguous expression of Cdh5 (brown arrows) compared with abnormal zipper-like contiguous expression of Cdh5 in Braf V600E F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre embryos (red arrows; n = 3). White arrows show normal button-like discontiguous expression of Cdh5 in control livers. Scale bars: 500 µm (top row), 1,000 µm (second row from top), 100 µm (third, fourth, and sixth rows from top), and 10 µm (fifth and seventh rows from top). Two independent experiments. (C) Dissected Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre littermate embryos lacking Mapk1 show rescued liver size (green arrow), normal sinusoidal capillaries (green arrows) stained with H&E or Lyve1 (green) and Pecam1 (red), and normal button-like discontiguous expression of Cdh5 (brown arrows) compared with Kras G12D F/+ ; Lyve1 Cre (yellow and red arrows). n = 3. Scale bars: 500 µm (first column from left), 1,000 µm (second column from left), 100 µm (third, fourth, and sixth columns from left), and 10 µm (fifth and seventh columns from left). Two independent experiments. (D) Endothelial activating KRAS or BRAF mutations drive hepatic vascular cavernomas via MAP2K–MAPK1 signaling pathway. Proposed model suggesting that constitutive activation of KRAS–BRAF–MAP2K–MAPK1 signaling pathway in sinusoidal endothelial cells promotes aberrant zipper-like contiguous expression of adherens junctional proteins, such as Cdh5, switching hepatic sinusoidal capillaries from branching to cavernous expansion. All experimental data verified in at least two independent experiments. CdRL, caudal right lobe; CL, caudate lobe; CrRL, cranial right lobe; LK, left kidney; LL, left lobe; LML, left medial lobe; LV, left ventricle; RK, right kidney; RML, right medial lobe; RV, right ventricle; S, stomach.

    Article Snippet: The RKO human colon cell line, with c. 1799T>A (p.V600E) BRAF mutation, was used as positive control (ATCC).

    Techniques: Inhibition, Staining, Expressing, Activation Assay

    Sequences of primers and hydrolysis probes used for ddPCR and dddPCR.

    Journal: Clinical chemistry

    Article Title: Denaturation-enhanced droplet digital PCR for liquid biopsies

    doi: 10.1373/clinchem.2018.293845

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Sequences of primers and hydrolysis probes used for ddPCR and dddPCR.

    Article Snippet: Genomic DNA and circulating cell-free DNA samples Genomic DNA (gDNA) from cell-line MDA-MB-435S (HTB-129D, ATCC) and the Tru-Q1 Reference Standard (HD728, Horizon Discovery) were used as mutated DNA controls for BRAF p.V600E and NRAS p.Q61K.

    Techniques: Sequencing, Amplification

    (A) Demonstration of the concept. (B) ddPCR and dddPCR for BRAF V600E using 10ng of HTB-19 cell line gDNA serially diluted into wild type DNA (WT). Outer bars represent the standard error of the mean for the replicates; the inner error bar is the 95% confidence interval for the Poisson distribution. Each sample is composed of 4 merged replicates. RSE=relative standard error.

    Journal: Clinical chemistry

    Article Title: Denaturation-enhanced droplet digital PCR for liquid biopsies

    doi: 10.1373/clinchem.2018.293845

    Figure Lengend Snippet: (A) Demonstration of the concept. (B) ddPCR and dddPCR for BRAF V600E using 10ng of HTB-19 cell line gDNA serially diluted into wild type DNA (WT). Outer bars represent the standard error of the mean for the replicates; the inner error bar is the 95% confidence interval for the Poisson distribution. Each sample is composed of 4 merged replicates. RSE=relative standard error.

    Article Snippet: Genomic DNA and circulating cell-free DNA samples Genomic DNA (gDNA) from cell-line MDA-MB-435S (HTB-129D, ATCC) and the Tru-Q1 Reference Standard (HD728, Horizon Discovery) were used as mutated DNA controls for BRAF p.V600E and NRAS p.Q61K.

    Techniques:

    (A) demonstration of the concept. (B) and (C) Analysis of gDNA HD728 serially diluted in WT DNA using 30ng (ddPCR, non-denatured), or split in two 15ng samples (dddPCR, denatured) as DNA input: BRAF V600E and NRAS Q61K screened, respectively. Undiluted gDNA HD728 contains BRAF V600E and NRAS Q61K mutations at 8% and 5% allelic frequencies, respectively. Error bars represent the 95% confidence interval for the Poisson distribution. The dddPCR results represent merged wells for 2 replicates. The concentration of WT and MT copies obtained were similar for both dddPCR and ddPCR (for WT, P = 0.49, 0.71 and 0.69 for 1:5, 1:20 and 1:50 dilutions, respectively. For MT, P = is 0.79, 0.34 and 0.19, respectively. The differences are not significant).

    Journal: Clinical chemistry

    Article Title: Denaturation-enhanced droplet digital PCR for liquid biopsies

    doi: 10.1373/clinchem.2018.293845

    Figure Lengend Snippet: (A) demonstration of the concept. (B) and (C) Analysis of gDNA HD728 serially diluted in WT DNA using 30ng (ddPCR, non-denatured), or split in two 15ng samples (dddPCR, denatured) as DNA input: BRAF V600E and NRAS Q61K screened, respectively. Undiluted gDNA HD728 contains BRAF V600E and NRAS Q61K mutations at 8% and 5% allelic frequencies, respectively. Error bars represent the 95% confidence interval for the Poisson distribution. The dddPCR results represent merged wells for 2 replicates. The concentration of WT and MT copies obtained were similar for both dddPCR and ddPCR (for WT, P = 0.49, 0.71 and 0.69 for 1:5, 1:20 and 1:50 dilutions, respectively. For MT, P = is 0.79, 0.34 and 0.19, respectively. The differences are not significant).

    Article Snippet: Genomic DNA and circulating cell-free DNA samples Genomic DNA (gDNA) from cell-line MDA-MB-435S (HTB-129D, ATCC) and the Tru-Q1 Reference Standard (HD728, Horizon Discovery) were used as mutated DNA controls for BRAF p.V600E and NRAS p.Q61K.

    Techniques: Concentration Assay

    (A) Comparison between number of copies per μL of reaction obtained by ddPCR and dddPCR using a BRAF V600E assay. Different input of WT cfDNA and 5ng input of end-repaired cfDNA were analyzed along with WT gDNA as control. (B) SNP rs1050171 assay was used to perform end-repair followed by dddPCR, using cfDNA with 5% of allele A. The blue symbols represent copies with nucleotide G; green symbols are copies with nucleotide A; red symbols represent fractional abundance of allele A. (C, D) The concentration fold-change was calculated by dividing dddPCR by ddPCR values. End-repair and dddPCR were performed sequentially in a single tube reaction. The error bars represent the range of fold change among replicas.

    Journal: Clinical chemistry

    Article Title: Denaturation-enhanced droplet digital PCR for liquid biopsies

    doi: 10.1373/clinchem.2018.293845

    Figure Lengend Snippet: (A) Comparison between number of copies per μL of reaction obtained by ddPCR and dddPCR using a BRAF V600E assay. Different input of WT cfDNA and 5ng input of end-repaired cfDNA were analyzed along with WT gDNA as control. (B) SNP rs1050171 assay was used to perform end-repair followed by dddPCR, using cfDNA with 5% of allele A. The blue symbols represent copies with nucleotide G; green symbols are copies with nucleotide A; red symbols represent fractional abundance of allele A. (C, D) The concentration fold-change was calculated by dividing dddPCR by ddPCR values. End-repair and dddPCR were performed sequentially in a single tube reaction. The error bars represent the range of fold change among replicas.

    Article Snippet: Genomic DNA and circulating cell-free DNA samples Genomic DNA (gDNA) from cell-line MDA-MB-435S (HTB-129D, ATCC) and the Tru-Q1 Reference Standard (HD728, Horizon Discovery) were used as mutated DNA controls for BRAF p.V600E and NRAS p.Q61K.

    Techniques: Concentration Assay

    Frequency of BRAF Mutations Involving Exons 11 and 15 in Melanoma by Site

    Journal: The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics : JMD

    Article Title: Frequency and Spectrum of BRAF Mutations in a Retrospective, Single-Institution Study of 1112 Cases of Melanoma

    doi: 10.1016/j.jmoldx.2012.10.002

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Frequency of BRAF Mutations Involving Exons 11 and 15 in Melanoma by Site

    Article Snippet: After initial optimization of the pyrosequencing assay using the A375 human melanoma cell line (ATCC, Manassas, VA), derived from a melanoma that harbors an exon 15 homozygous p.V600E BRAF mutation, clinical validation was conducted using 20 melanoma samples.

    Techniques:

    Frequency of BRAF Mutations in Nonacral Primary Cutaneous Melanoma by Histopathologic Subtype

    Journal: The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics : JMD

    Article Title: Frequency and Spectrum of BRAF Mutations in a Retrospective, Single-Institution Study of 1112 Cases of Melanoma

    doi: 10.1016/j.jmoldx.2012.10.002

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Frequency of BRAF Mutations in Nonacral Primary Cutaneous Melanoma by Histopathologic Subtype

    Article Snippet: After initial optimization of the pyrosequencing assay using the A375 human melanoma cell line (ATCC, Manassas, VA), derived from a melanoma that harbors an exon 15 homozygous p.V600E BRAF mutation, clinical validation was conducted using 20 melanoma samples.

    Techniques:

    Profile of BRAF Mutations in 499 Cutaneous Melanomas, Including Primary and Metastatic Acral and Nonacral Lesions

    Journal: The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics : JMD

    Article Title: Frequency and Spectrum of BRAF Mutations in a Retrospective, Single-Institution Study of 1112 Cases of Melanoma

    doi: 10.1016/j.jmoldx.2012.10.002

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Profile of BRAF Mutations in 499 Cutaneous Melanomas, Including Primary and Metastatic Acral and Nonacral Lesions

    Article Snippet: After initial optimization of the pyrosequencing assay using the A375 human melanoma cell line (ATCC, Manassas, VA), derived from a melanoma that harbors an exon 15 homozygous p.V600E BRAF mutation, clinical validation was conducted using 20 melanoma samples.

    Techniques: