ker nps ptx  (Worthington Biochemical)


Bioz Verified Symbol Worthington Biochemical is a verified supplier
Bioz Manufacturer Symbol Worthington Biochemical manufactures this product  
  • Logo
  • About
  • News
  • Press Release
  • Team
  • Advisors
  • Partners
  • Contact
  • Bioz Stars
  • Bioz vStars
  • 92
    Name:
    Collagenase Type 2
    Description:
    Prepared to contain higher clostripain activity Suggested for bone heart liver thyroid and salivary primary cell isolation Supplied as a dialyzed lyophilized powder
    Catalog Number:
    ls004174
    Price:
    35
    Size:
    100 mg
    Source:
    Clostridium histolyticum
    Cas Number:
    9001.12.1
    Buy from Supplier


    Structured Review

    Worthington Biochemical ker nps ptx
    Antiproliferative activity of <t>PTX</t> in a free form, <t>HSA-NPs-PTX,</t> and <t>KER-NPs-PTX</t> on MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cell lines in 2D model. Notes: Cell viability was evaluated 72 h after exposure to increasing concentrations of PTX (0.00002, 0.02, and 5 µg/mL) by APH assay. Statistical significance versus untreated cells (100%, represented by a dotted line): ** P
    Prepared to contain higher clostripain activity Suggested for bone heart liver thyroid and salivary primary cell isolation Supplied as a dialyzed lyophilized powder
    https://www.bioz.com/result/ker nps ptx/product/Worthington Biochemical
    Average 92 stars, based on 1358 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    ker nps ptx - by Bioz Stars, 2020-10
    92/100 stars

    Images

    1) Product Images from "Anticancer activity of paclitaxel-loaded keratin nanoparticles in two-dimensional and perfused three-dimensional breast cancer models"

    Article Title: Anticancer activity of paclitaxel-loaded keratin nanoparticles in two-dimensional and perfused three-dimensional breast cancer models

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S159942

    Antiproliferative activity of PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, and KER-NPs-PTX on MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cell lines in 2D model. Notes: Cell viability was evaluated 72 h after exposure to increasing concentrations of PTX (0.00002, 0.02, and 5 µg/mL) by APH assay. Statistical significance versus untreated cells (100%, represented by a dotted line): ** P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Antiproliferative activity of PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, and KER-NPs-PTX on MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cell lines in 2D model. Notes: Cell viability was evaluated 72 h after exposure to increasing concentrations of PTX (0.00002, 0.02, and 5 µg/mL) by APH assay. Statistical significance versus untreated cells (100%, represented by a dotted line): ** P

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Multiple Displacement Amplification

    BAX and BCL-2 gene expression analyses in MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells in p3D cultures following 24 h treatments. Notes: Cells were incubated for 24 h with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL). GAPDH was used as reference gene to normalize data. The effects of each treatment were compared with gene expression detectable in untreated cells (=1) as indicated by the dotted line. Statistically significant difference versus untreated cells: * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: BAX and BCL-2 gene expression analyses in MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells in p3D cultures following 24 h treatments. Notes: Cells were incubated for 24 h with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL). GAPDH was used as reference gene to normalize data. The effects of each treatment were compared with gene expression detectable in untreated cells (=1) as indicated by the dotted line. Statistically significant difference versus untreated cells: * P

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Multiple Displacement Amplification, Incubation

    Representative H E staining of scaffold sections from p3D MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cultures after treatments. Notes: MCF-7 (upper panels) and MDA MB 231 (lower panels) cells were initially cultured for 7 and 4 days, respectively, and then left untreated ( A ) or treated for 48 h with PTX in a free form ( B ), HSA-NPs-PTX ( C ), and KER-NPs-PTX ( D ) (PTX, 5 µg/mL). Scale bar: 100 µm. Abbreviations: H E, hematoxylin and eosin; HSA-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in albumin nanoparticles; KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; p3D, three-dimensional model with perfused bioreactor; PTX, paclitaxel.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Representative H E staining of scaffold sections from p3D MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cultures after treatments. Notes: MCF-7 (upper panels) and MDA MB 231 (lower panels) cells were initially cultured for 7 and 4 days, respectively, and then left untreated ( A ) or treated for 48 h with PTX in a free form ( B ), HSA-NPs-PTX ( C ), and KER-NPs-PTX ( D ) (PTX, 5 µg/mL). Scale bar: 100 µm. Abbreviations: H E, hematoxylin and eosin; HSA-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in albumin nanoparticles; KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; p3D, three-dimensional model with perfused bioreactor; PTX, paclitaxel.

    Techniques Used: Staining, Multiple Displacement Amplification, Cell Culture

    BAX and BCL-2 gene expression analyses in MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells cultured in 2D model upon 12 h treatment. Notes: Cells were incubated for 12 h with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL). GAPDH was used as reference gene to normalize data. Effects of each treatment on gene expression levels were compared with those detectable in untreated cells (n=1) as indicated by the dotted line. Statistically significant difference versus untreated cells: * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: BAX and BCL-2 gene expression analyses in MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells cultured in 2D model upon 12 h treatment. Notes: Cells were incubated for 12 h with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL). GAPDH was used as reference gene to normalize data. Effects of each treatment on gene expression levels were compared with those detectable in untreated cells (n=1) as indicated by the dotted line. Statistically significant difference versus untreated cells: * P

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Multiple Displacement Amplification, Cell Culture, Incubation

    Effects of PTX in a free form or vehiculated by HSA-NPs or by KER-NPs on cell death in p3D cultures. Notes: MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were exposed to PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, and KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL) for 24 and 48 h. Apoptosis assays were carried out by flow cytometry, following APC-Annexin V and PI staining. Representative dot plots of MCF-7 ( A ) and MDA MB 231 ( B ) cell lines after each treatment. Percentages of early apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and negative to PI) and late apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and PI) were evaluated 24 and 48 h after treatment ( C ). Statistical significance versus untreated cells: * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of PTX in a free form or vehiculated by HSA-NPs or by KER-NPs on cell death in p3D cultures. Notes: MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were exposed to PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, and KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL) for 24 and 48 h. Apoptosis assays were carried out by flow cytometry, following APC-Annexin V and PI staining. Representative dot plots of MCF-7 ( A ) and MDA MB 231 ( B ) cell lines after each treatment. Percentages of early apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and negative to PI) and late apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and PI) were evaluated 24 and 48 h after treatment ( C ). Statistical significance versus untreated cells: * P

    Techniques Used: Multiple Displacement Amplification, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Staining

    KER-NPs-PTX analysis. Notes: Transmission electron microscopy images of fixed KER-NPs-PTX at two magnifications: scale bar 2 µm ( A ) and scale bar 200 nm ( B ). Morphological analysis showed particles spherical in shape, smooth surface, and an average dry diameter of ~80 nm. Stability of KER-NPs-PTX in physiological conditions ( C ). Fluorescence spectra of KER-NPs-PTX at different PTX loading percentages ( D ). Abbreviations: KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; PDI, polydispersity index; PTX, paclitaxel.
    Figure Legend Snippet: KER-NPs-PTX analysis. Notes: Transmission electron microscopy images of fixed KER-NPs-PTX at two magnifications: scale bar 2 µm ( A ) and scale bar 200 nm ( B ). Morphological analysis showed particles spherical in shape, smooth surface, and an average dry diameter of ~80 nm. Stability of KER-NPs-PTX in physiological conditions ( C ). Fluorescence spectra of KER-NPs-PTX at different PTX loading percentages ( D ). Abbreviations: KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; PDI, polydispersity index; PTX, paclitaxel.

    Techniques Used: Transmission Assay, Electron Microscopy, Fluorescence

    Profiles and mechanisms of PTX release from KER-NPs in vitro. Notes: Profile of PTX release from KER-NPs ( A ). Correlation coefficient values ( R 2 ) used to determine the best fitting model among zero-order, first-order, and Higuchi modes ( B ). Abbreviations: KER-NPs, keratin nanoparticles; PTX, paclitaxel.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Profiles and mechanisms of PTX release from KER-NPs in vitro. Notes: Profile of PTX release from KER-NPs ( A ). Correlation coefficient values ( R 2 ) used to determine the best fitting model among zero-order, first-order, and Higuchi modes ( B ). Abbreviations: KER-NPs, keratin nanoparticles; PTX, paclitaxel.

    Techniques Used: In Vitro

    KER-NPs-PTX preparation. Notes: ( A ) KER-NPs-PTX preparation by aggregation method, starting from a solution of pure keratin powder. ( B ) Correlation between PTX loading and KER-NPs-PTX size. Abbreviations: KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; PDI, polydispersity index; PTX, paclitaxel; RT, room temperature.
    Figure Legend Snippet: KER-NPs-PTX preparation. Notes: ( A ) KER-NPs-PTX preparation by aggregation method, starting from a solution of pure keratin powder. ( B ) Correlation between PTX loading and KER-NPs-PTX size. Abbreviations: KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; PDI, polydispersity index; PTX, paclitaxel; RT, room temperature.

    Techniques Used:

    Immunofluorescence staining of CC3 in MCF-7 (upper panels) and MDA MB 231 (lower panels) scaffold sections. Notes: Images show DAPI (blue) and CC3 (green) staining in MCF-7 ( A ) and MDA MB 231 ( B ) p3D scaffold sections upon treatment with PTX in a free form (b), HSA-NPs-PTX (c), and KER-NPs-PTX (d) (PTX, 5 µg/mL) for 48 h or untreated (a). Scale bar: 100 µm. Abbreviations: CC3, cleaved caspase 3; DAPI, 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole; HSA-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in albumin nanoparticles; KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; p3D, three-dimensional model with perfused bioreactor; PTX, paclitaxel.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Immunofluorescence staining of CC3 in MCF-7 (upper panels) and MDA MB 231 (lower panels) scaffold sections. Notes: Images show DAPI (blue) and CC3 (green) staining in MCF-7 ( A ) and MDA MB 231 ( B ) p3D scaffold sections upon treatment with PTX in a free form (b), HSA-NPs-PTX (c), and KER-NPs-PTX (d) (PTX, 5 µg/mL) for 48 h or untreated (a). Scale bar: 100 µm. Abbreviations: CC3, cleaved caspase 3; DAPI, 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole; HSA-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in albumin nanoparticles; KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; p3D, three-dimensional model with perfused bioreactor; PTX, paclitaxel.

    Techniques Used: Immunofluorescence, Staining, Multiple Displacement Amplification

    Induction of apoptosis in tumor cells cultured in 2D by PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX in 2D model. Notes: MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were exposed to PTX, HSA-NPs-PTX, and KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL) for 24 and 48 h. Apoptosis assays were carried out by flow cytometry, following APC-Annexin V and PI staining. Representative dot plots of MCF-7 ( A ) and MDA MB 231 ( B ) cell lines after each treatment. Percentage of early apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and negative to PI) and late apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and PI) was evaluated 24 and 48 h after treatment ( C ). Statistical significance versus untreated cells: * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Induction of apoptosis in tumor cells cultured in 2D by PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX in 2D model. Notes: MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were exposed to PTX, HSA-NPs-PTX, and KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL) for 24 and 48 h. Apoptosis assays were carried out by flow cytometry, following APC-Annexin V and PI staining. Representative dot plots of MCF-7 ( A ) and MDA MB 231 ( B ) cell lines after each treatment. Percentage of early apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and negative to PI) and late apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and PI) was evaluated 24 and 48 h after treatment ( C ). Statistical significance versus untreated cells: * P

    Techniques Used: Cell Culture, Multiple Displacement Amplification, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Staining

    2) Product Images from "Anticancer activity of paclitaxel-loaded keratin nanoparticles in two-dimensional and perfused three-dimensional breast cancer models"

    Article Title: Anticancer activity of paclitaxel-loaded keratin nanoparticles in two-dimensional and perfused three-dimensional breast cancer models

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S159942

    BAX and BCL-2 gene expression analyses in MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells in p3D cultures following 24 h treatments. Notes: Cells were incubated for 24 h with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL). GAPDH was used as reference gene to normalize data. The effects of each treatment were compared with gene expression detectable in untreated cells (=1) as indicated by the dotted line. Statistically significant difference versus untreated cells: * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: BAX and BCL-2 gene expression analyses in MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells in p3D cultures following 24 h treatments. Notes: Cells were incubated for 24 h with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL). GAPDH was used as reference gene to normalize data. The effects of each treatment were compared with gene expression detectable in untreated cells (=1) as indicated by the dotted line. Statistically significant difference versus untreated cells: * P

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Multiple Displacement Amplification, Incubation

    Representative H E staining of scaffold sections from p3D MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cultures after treatments. Notes: MCF-7 (upper panels) and MDA MB 231 (lower panels) cells were initially cultured for 7 and 4 days, respectively, and then left untreated ( A ) or treated for 48 h with PTX in a free form ( B ), HSA-NPs-PTX ( C ), and KER-NPs-PTX ( D ) (PTX, 5 µg/mL). Scale bar: 100 µm. Abbreviations: H E, hematoxylin and eosin; HSA-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in albumin nanoparticles; KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; p3D, three-dimensional model with perfused bioreactor; PTX, paclitaxel.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Representative H E staining of scaffold sections from p3D MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cultures after treatments. Notes: MCF-7 (upper panels) and MDA MB 231 (lower panels) cells were initially cultured for 7 and 4 days, respectively, and then left untreated ( A ) or treated for 48 h with PTX in a free form ( B ), HSA-NPs-PTX ( C ), and KER-NPs-PTX ( D ) (PTX, 5 µg/mL). Scale bar: 100 µm. Abbreviations: H E, hematoxylin and eosin; HSA-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in albumin nanoparticles; KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; p3D, three-dimensional model with perfused bioreactor; PTX, paclitaxel.

    Techniques Used: Staining, Multiple Displacement Amplification, Cell Culture

    Effects of PTX in a free form or vehiculated by HSA-NPs or by KER-NPs on cell death in p3D cultures. Notes: MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were exposed to PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, and KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL) for 24 and 48 h. Apoptosis assays were carried out by flow cytometry, following APC-Annexin V and PI staining. Representative dot plots of MCF-7 ( A ) and MDA MB 231 ( B ) cell lines after each treatment. Percentages of early apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and negative to PI) and late apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and PI) were evaluated 24 and 48 h after treatment ( C ). Statistical significance versus untreated cells: * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of PTX in a free form or vehiculated by HSA-NPs or by KER-NPs on cell death in p3D cultures. Notes: MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were exposed to PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, and KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL) for 24 and 48 h. Apoptosis assays were carried out by flow cytometry, following APC-Annexin V and PI staining. Representative dot plots of MCF-7 ( A ) and MDA MB 231 ( B ) cell lines after each treatment. Percentages of early apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and negative to PI) and late apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and PI) were evaluated 24 and 48 h after treatment ( C ). Statistical significance versus untreated cells: * P

    Techniques Used: Multiple Displacement Amplification, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Staining

    Immunofluorescence staining of CC3 in MCF-7 (upper panels) and MDA MB 231 (lower panels) scaffold sections. Notes: Images show DAPI (blue) and CC3 (green) staining in MCF-7 ( A ) and MDA MB 231 ( B ) p3D scaffold sections upon treatment with PTX in a free form (b), HSA-NPs-PTX (c), and KER-NPs-PTX (d) (PTX, 5 µg/mL) for 48 h or untreated (a). Scale bar: 100 µm. Abbreviations: CC3, cleaved caspase 3; DAPI, 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole; HSA-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in albumin nanoparticles; KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; p3D, three-dimensional model with perfused bioreactor; PTX, paclitaxel.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Immunofluorescence staining of CC3 in MCF-7 (upper panels) and MDA MB 231 (lower panels) scaffold sections. Notes: Images show DAPI (blue) and CC3 (green) staining in MCF-7 ( A ) and MDA MB 231 ( B ) p3D scaffold sections upon treatment with PTX in a free form (b), HSA-NPs-PTX (c), and KER-NPs-PTX (d) (PTX, 5 µg/mL) for 48 h or untreated (a). Scale bar: 100 µm. Abbreviations: CC3, cleaved caspase 3; DAPI, 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole; HSA-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in albumin nanoparticles; KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; p3D, three-dimensional model with perfused bioreactor; PTX, paclitaxel.

    Techniques Used: Immunofluorescence, Staining, Multiple Displacement Amplification

    3) Product Images from "Anticancer activity of paclitaxel-loaded keratin nanoparticles in two-dimensional and perfused three-dimensional breast cancer models"

    Article Title: Anticancer activity of paclitaxel-loaded keratin nanoparticles in two-dimensional and perfused three-dimensional breast cancer models

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S159942

    Antiproliferative activity of PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, and KER-NPs-PTX on MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cell lines in 2D model. Notes: Cell viability was evaluated 72 h after exposure to increasing concentrations of PTX (0.00002, 0.02, and 5 µg/mL) by APH assay. Statistical significance versus untreated cells (100%, represented by a dotted line): ** P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Antiproliferative activity of PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, and KER-NPs-PTX on MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cell lines in 2D model. Notes: Cell viability was evaluated 72 h after exposure to increasing concentrations of PTX (0.00002, 0.02, and 5 µg/mL) by APH assay. Statistical significance versus untreated cells (100%, represented by a dotted line): ** P

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Multiple Displacement Amplification

    Representative H E staining of scaffold sections from p3D MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cultures after treatments. Notes: MCF-7 (upper panels) and MDA MB 231 (lower panels) cells were initially cultured for 7 and 4 days, respectively, and then left untreated ( A ) or treated for 48 h with PTX in a free form ( B ), HSA-NPs-PTX ( C ), and KER-NPs-PTX ( D ) (PTX, 5 µg/mL). Scale bar: 100 µm. Abbreviations: H E, hematoxylin and eosin; HSA-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in albumin nanoparticles; KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; p3D, three-dimensional model with perfused bioreactor; PTX, paclitaxel.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Representative H E staining of scaffold sections from p3D MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cultures after treatments. Notes: MCF-7 (upper panels) and MDA MB 231 (lower panels) cells were initially cultured for 7 and 4 days, respectively, and then left untreated ( A ) or treated for 48 h with PTX in a free form ( B ), HSA-NPs-PTX ( C ), and KER-NPs-PTX ( D ) (PTX, 5 µg/mL). Scale bar: 100 µm. Abbreviations: H E, hematoxylin and eosin; HSA-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in albumin nanoparticles; KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; p3D, three-dimensional model with perfused bioreactor; PTX, paclitaxel.

    Techniques Used: Staining, Multiple Displacement Amplification, Cell Culture

    BAX and BCL-2 gene expression analyses in MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells cultured in 2D model upon 12 h treatment. Notes: Cells were incubated for 12 h with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL). GAPDH was used as reference gene to normalize data. Effects of each treatment on gene expression levels were compared with those detectable in untreated cells (n=1) as indicated by the dotted line. Statistically significant difference versus untreated cells: * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: BAX and BCL-2 gene expression analyses in MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells cultured in 2D model upon 12 h treatment. Notes: Cells were incubated for 12 h with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL). GAPDH was used as reference gene to normalize data. Effects of each treatment on gene expression levels were compared with those detectable in untreated cells (n=1) as indicated by the dotted line. Statistically significant difference versus untreated cells: * P

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Multiple Displacement Amplification, Cell Culture, Incubation

    Effects of PTX in a free form or vehiculated by HSA-NPs or by KER-NPs on cell death in p3D cultures. Notes: MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were exposed to PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, and KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL) for 24 and 48 h. Apoptosis assays were carried out by flow cytometry, following APC-Annexin V and PI staining. Representative dot plots of MCF-7 ( A ) and MDA MB 231 ( B ) cell lines after each treatment. Percentages of early apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and negative to PI) and late apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and PI) were evaluated 24 and 48 h after treatment ( C ). Statistical significance versus untreated cells: * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of PTX in a free form or vehiculated by HSA-NPs or by KER-NPs on cell death in p3D cultures. Notes: MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were exposed to PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, and KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL) for 24 and 48 h. Apoptosis assays were carried out by flow cytometry, following APC-Annexin V and PI staining. Representative dot plots of MCF-7 ( A ) and MDA MB 231 ( B ) cell lines after each treatment. Percentages of early apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and negative to PI) and late apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and PI) were evaluated 24 and 48 h after treatment ( C ). Statistical significance versus untreated cells: * P

    Techniques Used: Multiple Displacement Amplification, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Staining

    KER-NPs-PTX analysis. Notes: Transmission electron microscopy images of fixed KER-NPs-PTX at two magnifications: scale bar 2 µm ( A ) and scale bar 200 nm ( B ). Morphological analysis showed particles spherical in shape, smooth surface, and an average dry diameter of ~80 nm. Stability of KER-NPs-PTX in physiological conditions ( C ). Fluorescence spectra of KER-NPs-PTX at different PTX loading percentages ( D ). Abbreviations: KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; PDI, polydispersity index; PTX, paclitaxel.
    Figure Legend Snippet: KER-NPs-PTX analysis. Notes: Transmission electron microscopy images of fixed KER-NPs-PTX at two magnifications: scale bar 2 µm ( A ) and scale bar 200 nm ( B ). Morphological analysis showed particles spherical in shape, smooth surface, and an average dry diameter of ~80 nm. Stability of KER-NPs-PTX in physiological conditions ( C ). Fluorescence spectra of KER-NPs-PTX at different PTX loading percentages ( D ). Abbreviations: KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; PDI, polydispersity index; PTX, paclitaxel.

    Techniques Used: Transmission Assay, Electron Microscopy, Fluorescence

    Profiles and mechanisms of PTX release from KER-NPs in vitro. Notes: Profile of PTX release from KER-NPs ( A ). Correlation coefficient values ( R 2 ) used to determine the best fitting model among zero-order, first-order, and Higuchi modes ( B ). Abbreviations: KER-NPs, keratin nanoparticles; PTX, paclitaxel.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Profiles and mechanisms of PTX release from KER-NPs in vitro. Notes: Profile of PTX release from KER-NPs ( A ). Correlation coefficient values ( R 2 ) used to determine the best fitting model among zero-order, first-order, and Higuchi modes ( B ). Abbreviations: KER-NPs, keratin nanoparticles; PTX, paclitaxel.

    Techniques Used: In Vitro

    KER-NPs-PTX preparation. Notes: ( A ) KER-NPs-PTX preparation by aggregation method, starting from a solution of pure keratin powder. ( B ) Correlation between PTX loading and KER-NPs-PTX size. Abbreviations: KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; PDI, polydispersity index; PTX, paclitaxel; RT, room temperature.
    Figure Legend Snippet: KER-NPs-PTX preparation. Notes: ( A ) KER-NPs-PTX preparation by aggregation method, starting from a solution of pure keratin powder. ( B ) Correlation between PTX loading and KER-NPs-PTX size. Abbreviations: KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; PDI, polydispersity index; PTX, paclitaxel; RT, room temperature.

    Techniques Used:

    Immunofluorescence staining of CC3 in MCF-7 (upper panels) and MDA MB 231 (lower panels) scaffold sections. Notes: Images show DAPI (blue) and CC3 (green) staining in MCF-7 ( A ) and MDA MB 231 ( B ) p3D scaffold sections upon treatment with PTX in a free form (b), HSA-NPs-PTX (c), and KER-NPs-PTX (d) (PTX, 5 µg/mL) for 48 h or untreated (a). Scale bar: 100 µm. Abbreviations: CC3, cleaved caspase 3; DAPI, 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole; HSA-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in albumin nanoparticles; KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; p3D, three-dimensional model with perfused bioreactor; PTX, paclitaxel.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Immunofluorescence staining of CC3 in MCF-7 (upper panels) and MDA MB 231 (lower panels) scaffold sections. Notes: Images show DAPI (blue) and CC3 (green) staining in MCF-7 ( A ) and MDA MB 231 ( B ) p3D scaffold sections upon treatment with PTX in a free form (b), HSA-NPs-PTX (c), and KER-NPs-PTX (d) (PTX, 5 µg/mL) for 48 h or untreated (a). Scale bar: 100 µm. Abbreviations: CC3, cleaved caspase 3; DAPI, 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole; HSA-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in albumin nanoparticles; KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; p3D, three-dimensional model with perfused bioreactor; PTX, paclitaxel.

    Techniques Used: Immunofluorescence, Staining, Multiple Displacement Amplification

    Induction of apoptosis in tumor cells cultured in 2D by PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX in 2D model. Notes: MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were exposed to PTX, HSA-NPs-PTX, and KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL) for 24 and 48 h. Apoptosis assays were carried out by flow cytometry, following APC-Annexin V and PI staining. Representative dot plots of MCF-7 ( A ) and MDA MB 231 ( B ) cell lines after each treatment. Percentage of early apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and negative to PI) and late apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and PI) was evaluated 24 and 48 h after treatment ( C ). Statistical significance versus untreated cells: * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Induction of apoptosis in tumor cells cultured in 2D by PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX in 2D model. Notes: MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were exposed to PTX, HSA-NPs-PTX, and KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL) for 24 and 48 h. Apoptosis assays were carried out by flow cytometry, following APC-Annexin V and PI staining. Representative dot plots of MCF-7 ( A ) and MDA MB 231 ( B ) cell lines after each treatment. Percentage of early apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and negative to PI) and late apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and PI) was evaluated 24 and 48 h after treatment ( C ). Statistical significance versus untreated cells: * P

    Techniques Used: Cell Culture, Multiple Displacement Amplification, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Staining

    4) Product Images from "Anticancer activity of paclitaxel-loaded keratin nanoparticles in two-dimensional and perfused three-dimensional breast cancer models"

    Article Title: Anticancer activity of paclitaxel-loaded keratin nanoparticles in two-dimensional and perfused three-dimensional breast cancer models

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S159942

    Antiproliferative activity of PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, and KER-NPs-PTX on MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cell lines in 2D model. Notes: Cell viability was evaluated 72 h after exposure to increasing concentrations of PTX (0.00002, 0.02, and 5 µg/mL) by APH assay. Statistical significance versus untreated cells (100%, represented by a dotted line): ** P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Antiproliferative activity of PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, and KER-NPs-PTX on MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cell lines in 2D model. Notes: Cell viability was evaluated 72 h after exposure to increasing concentrations of PTX (0.00002, 0.02, and 5 µg/mL) by APH assay. Statistical significance versus untreated cells (100%, represented by a dotted line): ** P

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Multiple Displacement Amplification

    BAX and BCL-2 gene expression analyses in MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells in p3D cultures following 24 h treatments. Notes: Cells were incubated for 24 h with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL). GAPDH was used as reference gene to normalize data. The effects of each treatment were compared with gene expression detectable in untreated cells (=1) as indicated by the dotted line. Statistically significant difference versus untreated cells: * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: BAX and BCL-2 gene expression analyses in MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells in p3D cultures following 24 h treatments. Notes: Cells were incubated for 24 h with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL). GAPDH was used as reference gene to normalize data. The effects of each treatment were compared with gene expression detectable in untreated cells (=1) as indicated by the dotted line. Statistically significant difference versus untreated cells: * P

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Multiple Displacement Amplification, Incubation

    Representative H E staining of scaffold sections from p3D MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cultures after treatments. Notes: MCF-7 (upper panels) and MDA MB 231 (lower panels) cells were initially cultured for 7 and 4 days, respectively, and then left untreated ( A ) or treated for 48 h with PTX in a free form ( B ), HSA-NPs-PTX ( C ), and KER-NPs-PTX ( D ) (PTX, 5 µg/mL). Scale bar: 100 µm. Abbreviations: H E, hematoxylin and eosin; HSA-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in albumin nanoparticles; KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; p3D, three-dimensional model with perfused bioreactor; PTX, paclitaxel.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Representative H E staining of scaffold sections from p3D MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cultures after treatments. Notes: MCF-7 (upper panels) and MDA MB 231 (lower panels) cells were initially cultured for 7 and 4 days, respectively, and then left untreated ( A ) or treated for 48 h with PTX in a free form ( B ), HSA-NPs-PTX ( C ), and KER-NPs-PTX ( D ) (PTX, 5 µg/mL). Scale bar: 100 µm. Abbreviations: H E, hematoxylin and eosin; HSA-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in albumin nanoparticles; KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; p3D, three-dimensional model with perfused bioreactor; PTX, paclitaxel.

    Techniques Used: Staining, Multiple Displacement Amplification, Cell Culture

    BAX and BCL-2 gene expression analyses in MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells cultured in 2D model upon 12 h treatment. Notes: Cells were incubated for 12 h with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL). GAPDH was used as reference gene to normalize data. Effects of each treatment on gene expression levels were compared with those detectable in untreated cells (n=1) as indicated by the dotted line. Statistically significant difference versus untreated cells: * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: BAX and BCL-2 gene expression analyses in MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells cultured in 2D model upon 12 h treatment. Notes: Cells were incubated for 12 h with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL). GAPDH was used as reference gene to normalize data. Effects of each treatment on gene expression levels were compared with those detectable in untreated cells (n=1) as indicated by the dotted line. Statistically significant difference versus untreated cells: * P

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Multiple Displacement Amplification, Cell Culture, Incubation

    Effects of PTX in a free form or vehiculated by HSA-NPs or by KER-NPs on cell death in p3D cultures. Notes: MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were exposed to PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, and KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL) for 24 and 48 h. Apoptosis assays were carried out by flow cytometry, following APC-Annexin V and PI staining. Representative dot plots of MCF-7 ( A ) and MDA MB 231 ( B ) cell lines after each treatment. Percentages of early apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and negative to PI) and late apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and PI) were evaluated 24 and 48 h after treatment ( C ). Statistical significance versus untreated cells: * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of PTX in a free form or vehiculated by HSA-NPs or by KER-NPs on cell death in p3D cultures. Notes: MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were exposed to PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, and KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL) for 24 and 48 h. Apoptosis assays were carried out by flow cytometry, following APC-Annexin V and PI staining. Representative dot plots of MCF-7 ( A ) and MDA MB 231 ( B ) cell lines after each treatment. Percentages of early apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and negative to PI) and late apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and PI) were evaluated 24 and 48 h after treatment ( C ). Statistical significance versus untreated cells: * P

    Techniques Used: Multiple Displacement Amplification, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Staining

    KER-NPs-PTX analysis. Notes: Transmission electron microscopy images of fixed KER-NPs-PTX at two magnifications: scale bar 2 µm ( A ) and scale bar 200 nm ( B ). Morphological analysis showed particles spherical in shape, smooth surface, and an average dry diameter of ~80 nm. Stability of KER-NPs-PTX in physiological conditions ( C ). Fluorescence spectra of KER-NPs-PTX at different PTX loading percentages ( D ). Abbreviations: KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; PDI, polydispersity index; PTX, paclitaxel.
    Figure Legend Snippet: KER-NPs-PTX analysis. Notes: Transmission electron microscopy images of fixed KER-NPs-PTX at two magnifications: scale bar 2 µm ( A ) and scale bar 200 nm ( B ). Morphological analysis showed particles spherical in shape, smooth surface, and an average dry diameter of ~80 nm. Stability of KER-NPs-PTX in physiological conditions ( C ). Fluorescence spectra of KER-NPs-PTX at different PTX loading percentages ( D ). Abbreviations: KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; PDI, polydispersity index; PTX, paclitaxel.

    Techniques Used: Transmission Assay, Electron Microscopy, Fluorescence

    Profiles and mechanisms of PTX release from KER-NPs in vitro. Notes: Profile of PTX release from KER-NPs ( A ). Correlation coefficient values ( R 2 ) used to determine the best fitting model among zero-order, first-order, and Higuchi modes ( B ). Abbreviations: KER-NPs, keratin nanoparticles; PTX, paclitaxel.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Profiles and mechanisms of PTX release from KER-NPs in vitro. Notes: Profile of PTX release from KER-NPs ( A ). Correlation coefficient values ( R 2 ) used to determine the best fitting model among zero-order, first-order, and Higuchi modes ( B ). Abbreviations: KER-NPs, keratin nanoparticles; PTX, paclitaxel.

    Techniques Used: In Vitro

    KER-NPs-PTX preparation. Notes: ( A ) KER-NPs-PTX preparation by aggregation method, starting from a solution of pure keratin powder. ( B ) Correlation between PTX loading and KER-NPs-PTX size. Abbreviations: KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; PDI, polydispersity index; PTX, paclitaxel; RT, room temperature.
    Figure Legend Snippet: KER-NPs-PTX preparation. Notes: ( A ) KER-NPs-PTX preparation by aggregation method, starting from a solution of pure keratin powder. ( B ) Correlation between PTX loading and KER-NPs-PTX size. Abbreviations: KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; PDI, polydispersity index; PTX, paclitaxel; RT, room temperature.

    Techniques Used:

    Immunofluorescence staining of CC3 in MCF-7 (upper panels) and MDA MB 231 (lower panels) scaffold sections. Notes: Images show DAPI (blue) and CC3 (green) staining in MCF-7 ( A ) and MDA MB 231 ( B ) p3D scaffold sections upon treatment with PTX in a free form (b), HSA-NPs-PTX (c), and KER-NPs-PTX (d) (PTX, 5 µg/mL) for 48 h or untreated (a). Scale bar: 100 µm. Abbreviations: CC3, cleaved caspase 3; DAPI, 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole; HSA-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in albumin nanoparticles; KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; p3D, three-dimensional model with perfused bioreactor; PTX, paclitaxel.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Immunofluorescence staining of CC3 in MCF-7 (upper panels) and MDA MB 231 (lower panels) scaffold sections. Notes: Images show DAPI (blue) and CC3 (green) staining in MCF-7 ( A ) and MDA MB 231 ( B ) p3D scaffold sections upon treatment with PTX in a free form (b), HSA-NPs-PTX (c), and KER-NPs-PTX (d) (PTX, 5 µg/mL) for 48 h or untreated (a). Scale bar: 100 µm. Abbreviations: CC3, cleaved caspase 3; DAPI, 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole; HSA-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in albumin nanoparticles; KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; p3D, three-dimensional model with perfused bioreactor; PTX, paclitaxel.

    Techniques Used: Immunofluorescence, Staining, Multiple Displacement Amplification

    Induction of apoptosis in tumor cells cultured in 2D by PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX in 2D model. Notes: MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were exposed to PTX, HSA-NPs-PTX, and KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL) for 24 and 48 h. Apoptosis assays were carried out by flow cytometry, following APC-Annexin V and PI staining. Representative dot plots of MCF-7 ( A ) and MDA MB 231 ( B ) cell lines after each treatment. Percentage of early apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and negative to PI) and late apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and PI) was evaluated 24 and 48 h after treatment ( C ). Statistical significance versus untreated cells: * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Induction of apoptosis in tumor cells cultured in 2D by PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX in 2D model. Notes: MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were exposed to PTX, HSA-NPs-PTX, and KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL) for 24 and 48 h. Apoptosis assays were carried out by flow cytometry, following APC-Annexin V and PI staining. Representative dot plots of MCF-7 ( A ) and MDA MB 231 ( B ) cell lines after each treatment. Percentage of early apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and negative to PI) and late apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and PI) was evaluated 24 and 48 h after treatment ( C ). Statistical significance versus untreated cells: * P

    Techniques Used: Cell Culture, Multiple Displacement Amplification, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Staining

    5) Product Images from "Anticancer activity of paclitaxel-loaded keratin nanoparticles in two-dimensional and perfused three-dimensional breast cancer models"

    Article Title: Anticancer activity of paclitaxel-loaded keratin nanoparticles in two-dimensional and perfused three-dimensional breast cancer models

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S159942

    Antiproliferative activity of PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, and KER-NPs-PTX on MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cell lines in 2D model. Notes: Cell viability was evaluated 72 h after exposure to increasing concentrations of PTX (0.00002, 0.02, and 5 µg/mL) by APH assay. Statistical significance versus untreated cells (100%, represented by a dotted line): ** P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Antiproliferative activity of PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, and KER-NPs-PTX on MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cell lines in 2D model. Notes: Cell viability was evaluated 72 h after exposure to increasing concentrations of PTX (0.00002, 0.02, and 5 µg/mL) by APH assay. Statistical significance versus untreated cells (100%, represented by a dotted line): ** P

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Multiple Displacement Amplification

    Representative H E staining of scaffold sections from p3D MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cultures after treatments. Notes: MCF-7 (upper panels) and MDA MB 231 (lower panels) cells were initially cultured for 7 and 4 days, respectively, and then left untreated ( A ) or treated for 48 h with PTX in a free form ( B ), HSA-NPs-PTX ( C ), and KER-NPs-PTX ( D ) (PTX, 5 µg/mL). Scale bar: 100 µm. Abbreviations: H E, hematoxylin and eosin; HSA-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in albumin nanoparticles; KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; p3D, three-dimensional model with perfused bioreactor; PTX, paclitaxel.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Representative H E staining of scaffold sections from p3D MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cultures after treatments. Notes: MCF-7 (upper panels) and MDA MB 231 (lower panels) cells were initially cultured for 7 and 4 days, respectively, and then left untreated ( A ) or treated for 48 h with PTX in a free form ( B ), HSA-NPs-PTX ( C ), and KER-NPs-PTX ( D ) (PTX, 5 µg/mL). Scale bar: 100 µm. Abbreviations: H E, hematoxylin and eosin; HSA-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in albumin nanoparticles; KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; p3D, three-dimensional model with perfused bioreactor; PTX, paclitaxel.

    Techniques Used: Staining, Multiple Displacement Amplification, Cell Culture

    BAX and BCL-2 gene expression analyses in MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells cultured in 2D model upon 12 h treatment. Notes: Cells were incubated for 12 h with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL). GAPDH was used as reference gene to normalize data. Effects of each treatment on gene expression levels were compared with those detectable in untreated cells (n=1) as indicated by the dotted line. Statistically significant difference versus untreated cells: * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: BAX and BCL-2 gene expression analyses in MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells cultured in 2D model upon 12 h treatment. Notes: Cells were incubated for 12 h with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL). GAPDH was used as reference gene to normalize data. Effects of each treatment on gene expression levels were compared with those detectable in untreated cells (n=1) as indicated by the dotted line. Statistically significant difference versus untreated cells: * P

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Multiple Displacement Amplification, Cell Culture, Incubation

    Effects of PTX in a free form or vehiculated by HSA-NPs or by KER-NPs on cell death in p3D cultures. Notes: MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were exposed to PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, and KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL) for 24 and 48 h. Apoptosis assays were carried out by flow cytometry, following APC-Annexin V and PI staining. Representative dot plots of MCF-7 ( A ) and MDA MB 231 ( B ) cell lines after each treatment. Percentages of early apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and negative to PI) and late apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and PI) were evaluated 24 and 48 h after treatment ( C ). Statistical significance versus untreated cells: * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of PTX in a free form or vehiculated by HSA-NPs or by KER-NPs on cell death in p3D cultures. Notes: MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were exposed to PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, and KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL) for 24 and 48 h. Apoptosis assays were carried out by flow cytometry, following APC-Annexin V and PI staining. Representative dot plots of MCF-7 ( A ) and MDA MB 231 ( B ) cell lines after each treatment. Percentages of early apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and negative to PI) and late apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and PI) were evaluated 24 and 48 h after treatment ( C ). Statistical significance versus untreated cells: * P

    Techniques Used: Multiple Displacement Amplification, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Staining

    KER-NPs-PTX analysis. Notes: Transmission electron microscopy images of fixed KER-NPs-PTX at two magnifications: scale bar 2 µm ( A ) and scale bar 200 nm ( B ). Morphological analysis showed particles spherical in shape, smooth surface, and an average dry diameter of ~80 nm. Stability of KER-NPs-PTX in physiological conditions ( C ). Fluorescence spectra of KER-NPs-PTX at different PTX loading percentages ( D ). Abbreviations: KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; PDI, polydispersity index; PTX, paclitaxel.
    Figure Legend Snippet: KER-NPs-PTX analysis. Notes: Transmission electron microscopy images of fixed KER-NPs-PTX at two magnifications: scale bar 2 µm ( A ) and scale bar 200 nm ( B ). Morphological analysis showed particles spherical in shape, smooth surface, and an average dry diameter of ~80 nm. Stability of KER-NPs-PTX in physiological conditions ( C ). Fluorescence spectra of KER-NPs-PTX at different PTX loading percentages ( D ). Abbreviations: KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; PDI, polydispersity index; PTX, paclitaxel.

    Techniques Used: Transmission Assay, Electron Microscopy, Fluorescence

    Profiles and mechanisms of PTX release from KER-NPs in vitro. Notes: Profile of PTX release from KER-NPs ( A ). Correlation coefficient values ( R 2 ) used to determine the best fitting model among zero-order, first-order, and Higuchi modes ( B ). Abbreviations: KER-NPs, keratin nanoparticles; PTX, paclitaxel.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Profiles and mechanisms of PTX release from KER-NPs in vitro. Notes: Profile of PTX release from KER-NPs ( A ). Correlation coefficient values ( R 2 ) used to determine the best fitting model among zero-order, first-order, and Higuchi modes ( B ). Abbreviations: KER-NPs, keratin nanoparticles; PTX, paclitaxel.

    Techniques Used: In Vitro

    KER-NPs-PTX preparation. Notes: ( A ) KER-NPs-PTX preparation by aggregation method, starting from a solution of pure keratin powder. ( B ) Correlation between PTX loading and KER-NPs-PTX size. Abbreviations: KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; PDI, polydispersity index; PTX, paclitaxel; RT, room temperature.
    Figure Legend Snippet: KER-NPs-PTX preparation. Notes: ( A ) KER-NPs-PTX preparation by aggregation method, starting from a solution of pure keratin powder. ( B ) Correlation between PTX loading and KER-NPs-PTX size. Abbreviations: KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; PDI, polydispersity index; PTX, paclitaxel; RT, room temperature.

    Techniques Used:

    Immunofluorescence staining of CC3 in MCF-7 (upper panels) and MDA MB 231 (lower panels) scaffold sections. Notes: Images show DAPI (blue) and CC3 (green) staining in MCF-7 ( A ) and MDA MB 231 ( B ) p3D scaffold sections upon treatment with PTX in a free form (b), HSA-NPs-PTX (c), and KER-NPs-PTX (d) (PTX, 5 µg/mL) for 48 h or untreated (a). Scale bar: 100 µm. Abbreviations: CC3, cleaved caspase 3; DAPI, 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole; HSA-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in albumin nanoparticles; KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; p3D, three-dimensional model with perfused bioreactor; PTX, paclitaxel.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Immunofluorescence staining of CC3 in MCF-7 (upper panels) and MDA MB 231 (lower panels) scaffold sections. Notes: Images show DAPI (blue) and CC3 (green) staining in MCF-7 ( A ) and MDA MB 231 ( B ) p3D scaffold sections upon treatment with PTX in a free form (b), HSA-NPs-PTX (c), and KER-NPs-PTX (d) (PTX, 5 µg/mL) for 48 h or untreated (a). Scale bar: 100 µm. Abbreviations: CC3, cleaved caspase 3; DAPI, 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole; HSA-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in albumin nanoparticles; KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; p3D, three-dimensional model with perfused bioreactor; PTX, paclitaxel.

    Techniques Used: Immunofluorescence, Staining, Multiple Displacement Amplification

    Induction of apoptosis in tumor cells cultured in 2D by PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX in 2D model. Notes: MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were exposed to PTX, HSA-NPs-PTX, and KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL) for 24 and 48 h. Apoptosis assays were carried out by flow cytometry, following APC-Annexin V and PI staining. Representative dot plots of MCF-7 ( A ) and MDA MB 231 ( B ) cell lines after each treatment. Percentage of early apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and negative to PI) and late apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and PI) was evaluated 24 and 48 h after treatment ( C ). Statistical significance versus untreated cells: * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Induction of apoptosis in tumor cells cultured in 2D by PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX in 2D model. Notes: MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were exposed to PTX, HSA-NPs-PTX, and KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL) for 24 and 48 h. Apoptosis assays were carried out by flow cytometry, following APC-Annexin V and PI staining. Representative dot plots of MCF-7 ( A ) and MDA MB 231 ( B ) cell lines after each treatment. Percentage of early apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and negative to PI) and late apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and PI) was evaluated 24 and 48 h after treatment ( C ). Statistical significance versus untreated cells: * P

    Techniques Used: Cell Culture, Multiple Displacement Amplification, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Staining

    6) Product Images from "Anticancer activity of paclitaxel-loaded keratin nanoparticles in two-dimensional and perfused three-dimensional breast cancer models"

    Article Title: Anticancer activity of paclitaxel-loaded keratin nanoparticles in two-dimensional and perfused three-dimensional breast cancer models

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S159942

    Antiproliferative activity of PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, and KER-NPs-PTX on MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cell lines in 2D model. Notes: Cell viability was evaluated 72 h after exposure to increasing concentrations of PTX (0.00002, 0.02, and 5 µg/mL) by APH assay. Statistical significance versus untreated cells (100%, represented by a dotted line): ** P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Antiproliferative activity of PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, and KER-NPs-PTX on MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cell lines in 2D model. Notes: Cell viability was evaluated 72 h after exposure to increasing concentrations of PTX (0.00002, 0.02, and 5 µg/mL) by APH assay. Statistical significance versus untreated cells (100%, represented by a dotted line): ** P

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Multiple Displacement Amplification

    BAX and BCL-2 gene expression analyses in MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells in p3D cultures following 24 h treatments. Notes: Cells were incubated for 24 h with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL). GAPDH was used as reference gene to normalize data. The effects of each treatment were compared with gene expression detectable in untreated cells (=1) as indicated by the dotted line. Statistically significant difference versus untreated cells: * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: BAX and BCL-2 gene expression analyses in MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells in p3D cultures following 24 h treatments. Notes: Cells were incubated for 24 h with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL). GAPDH was used as reference gene to normalize data. The effects of each treatment were compared with gene expression detectable in untreated cells (=1) as indicated by the dotted line. Statistically significant difference versus untreated cells: * P

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Multiple Displacement Amplification, Incubation

    Representative H E staining of scaffold sections from p3D MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cultures after treatments. Notes: MCF-7 (upper panels) and MDA MB 231 (lower panels) cells were initially cultured for 7 and 4 days, respectively, and then left untreated ( A ) or treated for 48 h with PTX in a free form ( B ), HSA-NPs-PTX ( C ), and KER-NPs-PTX ( D ) (PTX, 5 µg/mL). Scale bar: 100 µm. Abbreviations: H E, hematoxylin and eosin; HSA-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in albumin nanoparticles; KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; p3D, three-dimensional model with perfused bioreactor; PTX, paclitaxel.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Representative H E staining of scaffold sections from p3D MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cultures after treatments. Notes: MCF-7 (upper panels) and MDA MB 231 (lower panels) cells were initially cultured for 7 and 4 days, respectively, and then left untreated ( A ) or treated for 48 h with PTX in a free form ( B ), HSA-NPs-PTX ( C ), and KER-NPs-PTX ( D ) (PTX, 5 µg/mL). Scale bar: 100 µm. Abbreviations: H E, hematoxylin and eosin; HSA-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in albumin nanoparticles; KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; p3D, three-dimensional model with perfused bioreactor; PTX, paclitaxel.

    Techniques Used: Staining, Multiple Displacement Amplification, Cell Culture

    BAX and BCL-2 gene expression analyses in MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells cultured in 2D model upon 12 h treatment. Notes: Cells were incubated for 12 h with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL). GAPDH was used as reference gene to normalize data. Effects of each treatment on gene expression levels were compared with those detectable in untreated cells (n=1) as indicated by the dotted line. Statistically significant difference versus untreated cells: * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: BAX and BCL-2 gene expression analyses in MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells cultured in 2D model upon 12 h treatment. Notes: Cells were incubated for 12 h with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL). GAPDH was used as reference gene to normalize data. Effects of each treatment on gene expression levels were compared with those detectable in untreated cells (n=1) as indicated by the dotted line. Statistically significant difference versus untreated cells: * P

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Multiple Displacement Amplification, Cell Culture, Incubation

    Effects of PTX in a free form or vehiculated by HSA-NPs or by KER-NPs on cell death in p3D cultures. Notes: MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were exposed to PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, and KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL) for 24 and 48 h. Apoptosis assays were carried out by flow cytometry, following APC-Annexin V and PI staining. Representative dot plots of MCF-7 ( A ) and MDA MB 231 ( B ) cell lines after each treatment. Percentages of early apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and negative to PI) and late apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and PI) were evaluated 24 and 48 h after treatment ( C ). Statistical significance versus untreated cells: * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of PTX in a free form or vehiculated by HSA-NPs or by KER-NPs on cell death in p3D cultures. Notes: MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were exposed to PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, and KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL) for 24 and 48 h. Apoptosis assays were carried out by flow cytometry, following APC-Annexin V and PI staining. Representative dot plots of MCF-7 ( A ) and MDA MB 231 ( B ) cell lines after each treatment. Percentages of early apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and negative to PI) and late apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and PI) were evaluated 24 and 48 h after treatment ( C ). Statistical significance versus untreated cells: * P

    Techniques Used: Multiple Displacement Amplification, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Staining

    Immunofluorescence staining of CC3 in MCF-7 (upper panels) and MDA MB 231 (lower panels) scaffold sections. Notes: Images show DAPI (blue) and CC3 (green) staining in MCF-7 ( A ) and MDA MB 231 ( B ) p3D scaffold sections upon treatment with PTX in a free form (b), HSA-NPs-PTX (c), and KER-NPs-PTX (d) (PTX, 5 µg/mL) for 48 h or untreated (a). Scale bar: 100 µm. Abbreviations: CC3, cleaved caspase 3; DAPI, 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole; HSA-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in albumin nanoparticles; KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; p3D, three-dimensional model with perfused bioreactor; PTX, paclitaxel.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Immunofluorescence staining of CC3 in MCF-7 (upper panels) and MDA MB 231 (lower panels) scaffold sections. Notes: Images show DAPI (blue) and CC3 (green) staining in MCF-7 ( A ) and MDA MB 231 ( B ) p3D scaffold sections upon treatment with PTX in a free form (b), HSA-NPs-PTX (c), and KER-NPs-PTX (d) (PTX, 5 µg/mL) for 48 h or untreated (a). Scale bar: 100 µm. Abbreviations: CC3, cleaved caspase 3; DAPI, 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole; HSA-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in albumin nanoparticles; KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; p3D, three-dimensional model with perfused bioreactor; PTX, paclitaxel.

    Techniques Used: Immunofluorescence, Staining, Multiple Displacement Amplification

    Induction of apoptosis in tumor cells cultured in 2D by PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX in 2D model. Notes: MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were exposed to PTX, HSA-NPs-PTX, and KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL) for 24 and 48 h. Apoptosis assays were carried out by flow cytometry, following APC-Annexin V and PI staining. Representative dot plots of MCF-7 ( A ) and MDA MB 231 ( B ) cell lines after each treatment. Percentage of early apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and negative to PI) and late apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and PI) was evaluated 24 and 48 h after treatment ( C ). Statistical significance versus untreated cells: * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Induction of apoptosis in tumor cells cultured in 2D by PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX in 2D model. Notes: MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were exposed to PTX, HSA-NPs-PTX, and KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL) for 24 and 48 h. Apoptosis assays were carried out by flow cytometry, following APC-Annexin V and PI staining. Representative dot plots of MCF-7 ( A ) and MDA MB 231 ( B ) cell lines after each treatment. Percentage of early apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and negative to PI) and late apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and PI) was evaluated 24 and 48 h after treatment ( C ). Statistical significance versus untreated cells: * P

    Techniques Used: Cell Culture, Multiple Displacement Amplification, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Staining

    Related Articles

    Isolation:

    Article Title: Exogenous Stimulation of Human Intervertebral Disc Cells in 3-Dimensional Alginate Bead Culture With BMP2 and L51P: Cytocompatibility and Effects on Cell Phenotype
    Article Snippet: .. Briefly, cells were isolated by pronase (Roche, Basel, Switzerland) followed by collagenase type 2 (Worthington, London, UK) enzymatic digestion as previously reported. .. NPCs, AFCs and CEPCs were expanded in proliferation medium (low-glucose [1g/L] Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium supplemented with 10% foetal bovine serum [FBS] and penicillin/streptomycin [P/S]).

    Incubation:

    Article Title: Fli1-haploinsufficient dermal fibroblasts promote skin-localized transdifferentiation of Th2-like regulatory T cells
    Article Snippet: .. Dermis was minced and then incubated with 2 mg/ml collagenase type 2 (CLS-2; Worthington Biochemical, Lakewood, NJ, USA) in Tyrode’s solution for 60–90 minutes. ..

    FACS:

    Article Title: Breast cancer endocrine therapy exhausts adipocyte progenitors promoting weight gain and glucose intolerance
    Article Snippet: .. Adipose Tissue FACS Whole inguinal subcutaneous adipose depots were excised, minced briefly (5 min) with dissecting scissors, and digested for 75 mins at 37C in a collagenase solution (Collagenase type II, Worthington LS004177). (HBSS with 3% BSA, 0.8mM ZnCl2, Mg, Ca, 0.8mg/ml collagenase). .. Stromal pellets were incubated in red blood cell lysis buffer (Sigma Aldrich), washed, and stained with fluorescent-conjugated antibodies for CD45, CD31, Sca1, CD29, CD34, and CD24 as described .

    Mouse Assay:

    Article Title: Cardiac O-GlcNAcylation blunts autophagic signaling in the diabetic heart
    Article Snippet: .. Briefly, hearts were rapidly excised from heparinized and anesthetized mice, perfused retrogradely with Ca2+ -free perfusion buffer consisting of (in mM) 0.6 KH2 PO4 , 0.6 Na2 HPO4 , 1.2 MgSO4 • 7H2 O, 0.032 phenol red, 12 NaHCO3 , 10 KHCO3 , 10 HEPES, 30 taurine, 10 2,3-butanedione monoxime, and 5.5 glucose, pH 7.46, followed by buffer containing 12.5 μM CaCl2 and 0.4 mg/ml collagenase type 2 (Worthington). ..

    Similar Products

  • Logo
  • About
  • News
  • Press Release
  • Team
  • Advisors
  • Partners
  • Contact
  • Bioz Stars
  • Bioz vStars
  • 92
    Worthington Biochemical ker nps ptx
    Antiproliferative activity of <t>PTX</t> in a free form, <t>HSA-NPs-PTX,</t> and <t>KER-NPs-PTX</t> on MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cell lines in 2D model. Notes: Cell viability was evaluated 72 h after exposure to increasing concentrations of PTX (0.00002, 0.02, and 5 µg/mL) by APH assay. Statistical significance versus untreated cells (100%, represented by a dotted line): ** P
    Ker Nps Ptx, supplied by Worthington Biochemical, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/ker nps ptx/product/Worthington Biochemical
    Average 92 stars, based on 2 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    ker nps ptx - by Bioz Stars, 2020-10
    92/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    92
    Worthington Biochemical hsa nps ptx
    Antiproliferative activity of <t>PTX</t> in a free form, <t>HSA-NPs-PTX,</t> and KER-NPs-PTX on MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cell lines in 2D model. Notes: Cell viability was evaluated 72 h after exposure to increasing concentrations of PTX (0.00002, 0.02, and 5 µg/mL) by APH assay. Statistical significance versus untreated cells (100%, represented by a dotted line): ** P
    Hsa Nps Ptx, supplied by Worthington Biochemical, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/hsa nps ptx/product/Worthington Biochemical
    Average 92 stars, based on 2 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    hsa nps ptx - by Bioz Stars, 2020-10
    92/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    Image Search Results


    Antiproliferative activity of PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, and KER-NPs-PTX on MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cell lines in 2D model. Notes: Cell viability was evaluated 72 h after exposure to increasing concentrations of PTX (0.00002, 0.02, and 5 µg/mL) by APH assay. Statistical significance versus untreated cells (100%, represented by a dotted line): ** P

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Anticancer activity of paclitaxel-loaded keratin nanoparticles in two-dimensional and perfused three-dimensional breast cancer models

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S159942

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Antiproliferative activity of PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, and KER-NPs-PTX on MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cell lines in 2D model. Notes: Cell viability was evaluated 72 h after exposure to increasing concentrations of PTX (0.00002, 0.02, and 5 µg/mL) by APH assay. Statistical significance versus untreated cells (100%, represented by a dotted line): ** P

    Article Snippet: For p3D experiments, 2×106 MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were precultured for 7 and 4 days, respectively, and then treated with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX ([PTX] at the same drug concentration [5 µg/mL] used for 2D cultures) for 48 h. Entire scaffolds then underwent collagenase IV (Worthington Biochemical Corporation, Lakewood, NJ, USA) treatment at 37°C for 40 min, and apoptosis in the cell suspensions was evaluated by APC-Annexin V and PI Apoptosis Detection Kit.

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Multiple Displacement Amplification

    BAX and BCL-2 gene expression analyses in MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells in p3D cultures following 24 h treatments. Notes: Cells were incubated for 24 h with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL). GAPDH was used as reference gene to normalize data. The effects of each treatment were compared with gene expression detectable in untreated cells (=1) as indicated by the dotted line. Statistically significant difference versus untreated cells: * P

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Anticancer activity of paclitaxel-loaded keratin nanoparticles in two-dimensional and perfused three-dimensional breast cancer models

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S159942

    Figure Lengend Snippet: BAX and BCL-2 gene expression analyses in MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells in p3D cultures following 24 h treatments. Notes: Cells were incubated for 24 h with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL). GAPDH was used as reference gene to normalize data. The effects of each treatment were compared with gene expression detectable in untreated cells (=1) as indicated by the dotted line. Statistically significant difference versus untreated cells: * P

    Article Snippet: For p3D experiments, 2×106 MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were precultured for 7 and 4 days, respectively, and then treated with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX ([PTX] at the same drug concentration [5 µg/mL] used for 2D cultures) for 48 h. Entire scaffolds then underwent collagenase IV (Worthington Biochemical Corporation, Lakewood, NJ, USA) treatment at 37°C for 40 min, and apoptosis in the cell suspensions was evaluated by APC-Annexin V and PI Apoptosis Detection Kit.

    Techniques: Expressing, Multiple Displacement Amplification, Incubation

    Representative H E staining of scaffold sections from p3D MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cultures after treatments. Notes: MCF-7 (upper panels) and MDA MB 231 (lower panels) cells were initially cultured for 7 and 4 days, respectively, and then left untreated ( A ) or treated for 48 h with PTX in a free form ( B ), HSA-NPs-PTX ( C ), and KER-NPs-PTX ( D ) (PTX, 5 µg/mL). Scale bar: 100 µm. Abbreviations: H E, hematoxylin and eosin; HSA-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in albumin nanoparticles; KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; p3D, three-dimensional model with perfused bioreactor; PTX, paclitaxel.

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Anticancer activity of paclitaxel-loaded keratin nanoparticles in two-dimensional and perfused three-dimensional breast cancer models

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S159942

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Representative H E staining of scaffold sections from p3D MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cultures after treatments. Notes: MCF-7 (upper panels) and MDA MB 231 (lower panels) cells were initially cultured for 7 and 4 days, respectively, and then left untreated ( A ) or treated for 48 h with PTX in a free form ( B ), HSA-NPs-PTX ( C ), and KER-NPs-PTX ( D ) (PTX, 5 µg/mL). Scale bar: 100 µm. Abbreviations: H E, hematoxylin and eosin; HSA-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in albumin nanoparticles; KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; p3D, three-dimensional model with perfused bioreactor; PTX, paclitaxel.

    Article Snippet: For p3D experiments, 2×106 MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were precultured for 7 and 4 days, respectively, and then treated with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX ([PTX] at the same drug concentration [5 µg/mL] used for 2D cultures) for 48 h. Entire scaffolds then underwent collagenase IV (Worthington Biochemical Corporation, Lakewood, NJ, USA) treatment at 37°C for 40 min, and apoptosis in the cell suspensions was evaluated by APC-Annexin V and PI Apoptosis Detection Kit.

    Techniques: Staining, Multiple Displacement Amplification, Cell Culture

    BAX and BCL-2 gene expression analyses in MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells cultured in 2D model upon 12 h treatment. Notes: Cells were incubated for 12 h with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL). GAPDH was used as reference gene to normalize data. Effects of each treatment on gene expression levels were compared with those detectable in untreated cells (n=1) as indicated by the dotted line. Statistically significant difference versus untreated cells: * P

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Anticancer activity of paclitaxel-loaded keratin nanoparticles in two-dimensional and perfused three-dimensional breast cancer models

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S159942

    Figure Lengend Snippet: BAX and BCL-2 gene expression analyses in MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells cultured in 2D model upon 12 h treatment. Notes: Cells were incubated for 12 h with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL). GAPDH was used as reference gene to normalize data. Effects of each treatment on gene expression levels were compared with those detectable in untreated cells (n=1) as indicated by the dotted line. Statistically significant difference versus untreated cells: * P

    Article Snippet: For p3D experiments, 2×106 MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were precultured for 7 and 4 days, respectively, and then treated with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX ([PTX] at the same drug concentration [5 µg/mL] used for 2D cultures) for 48 h. Entire scaffolds then underwent collagenase IV (Worthington Biochemical Corporation, Lakewood, NJ, USA) treatment at 37°C for 40 min, and apoptosis in the cell suspensions was evaluated by APC-Annexin V and PI Apoptosis Detection Kit.

    Techniques: Expressing, Multiple Displacement Amplification, Cell Culture, Incubation

    Effects of PTX in a free form or vehiculated by HSA-NPs or by KER-NPs on cell death in p3D cultures. Notes: MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were exposed to PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, and KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL) for 24 and 48 h. Apoptosis assays were carried out by flow cytometry, following APC-Annexin V and PI staining. Representative dot plots of MCF-7 ( A ) and MDA MB 231 ( B ) cell lines after each treatment. Percentages of early apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and negative to PI) and late apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and PI) were evaluated 24 and 48 h after treatment ( C ). Statistical significance versus untreated cells: * P

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Anticancer activity of paclitaxel-loaded keratin nanoparticles in two-dimensional and perfused three-dimensional breast cancer models

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S159942

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of PTX in a free form or vehiculated by HSA-NPs or by KER-NPs on cell death in p3D cultures. Notes: MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were exposed to PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, and KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL) for 24 and 48 h. Apoptosis assays were carried out by flow cytometry, following APC-Annexin V and PI staining. Representative dot plots of MCF-7 ( A ) and MDA MB 231 ( B ) cell lines after each treatment. Percentages of early apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and negative to PI) and late apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and PI) were evaluated 24 and 48 h after treatment ( C ). Statistical significance versus untreated cells: * P

    Article Snippet: For p3D experiments, 2×106 MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were precultured for 7 and 4 days, respectively, and then treated with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX ([PTX] at the same drug concentration [5 µg/mL] used for 2D cultures) for 48 h. Entire scaffolds then underwent collagenase IV (Worthington Biochemical Corporation, Lakewood, NJ, USA) treatment at 37°C for 40 min, and apoptosis in the cell suspensions was evaluated by APC-Annexin V and PI Apoptosis Detection Kit.

    Techniques: Multiple Displacement Amplification, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Staining

    KER-NPs-PTX analysis. Notes: Transmission electron microscopy images of fixed KER-NPs-PTX at two magnifications: scale bar 2 µm ( A ) and scale bar 200 nm ( B ). Morphological analysis showed particles spherical in shape, smooth surface, and an average dry diameter of ~80 nm. Stability of KER-NPs-PTX in physiological conditions ( C ). Fluorescence spectra of KER-NPs-PTX at different PTX loading percentages ( D ). Abbreviations: KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; PDI, polydispersity index; PTX, paclitaxel.

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Anticancer activity of paclitaxel-loaded keratin nanoparticles in two-dimensional and perfused three-dimensional breast cancer models

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S159942

    Figure Lengend Snippet: KER-NPs-PTX analysis. Notes: Transmission electron microscopy images of fixed KER-NPs-PTX at two magnifications: scale bar 2 µm ( A ) and scale bar 200 nm ( B ). Morphological analysis showed particles spherical in shape, smooth surface, and an average dry diameter of ~80 nm. Stability of KER-NPs-PTX in physiological conditions ( C ). Fluorescence spectra of KER-NPs-PTX at different PTX loading percentages ( D ). Abbreviations: KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; PDI, polydispersity index; PTX, paclitaxel.

    Article Snippet: For p3D experiments, 2×106 MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were precultured for 7 and 4 days, respectively, and then treated with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX ([PTX] at the same drug concentration [5 µg/mL] used for 2D cultures) for 48 h. Entire scaffolds then underwent collagenase IV (Worthington Biochemical Corporation, Lakewood, NJ, USA) treatment at 37°C for 40 min, and apoptosis in the cell suspensions was evaluated by APC-Annexin V and PI Apoptosis Detection Kit.

    Techniques: Transmission Assay, Electron Microscopy, Fluorescence

    Profiles and mechanisms of PTX release from KER-NPs in vitro. Notes: Profile of PTX release from KER-NPs ( A ). Correlation coefficient values ( R 2 ) used to determine the best fitting model among zero-order, first-order, and Higuchi modes ( B ). Abbreviations: KER-NPs, keratin nanoparticles; PTX, paclitaxel.

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Anticancer activity of paclitaxel-loaded keratin nanoparticles in two-dimensional and perfused three-dimensional breast cancer models

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S159942

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Profiles and mechanisms of PTX release from KER-NPs in vitro. Notes: Profile of PTX release from KER-NPs ( A ). Correlation coefficient values ( R 2 ) used to determine the best fitting model among zero-order, first-order, and Higuchi modes ( B ). Abbreviations: KER-NPs, keratin nanoparticles; PTX, paclitaxel.

    Article Snippet: For p3D experiments, 2×106 MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were precultured for 7 and 4 days, respectively, and then treated with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX ([PTX] at the same drug concentration [5 µg/mL] used for 2D cultures) for 48 h. Entire scaffolds then underwent collagenase IV (Worthington Biochemical Corporation, Lakewood, NJ, USA) treatment at 37°C for 40 min, and apoptosis in the cell suspensions was evaluated by APC-Annexin V and PI Apoptosis Detection Kit.

    Techniques: In Vitro

    KER-NPs-PTX preparation. Notes: ( A ) KER-NPs-PTX preparation by aggregation method, starting from a solution of pure keratin powder. ( B ) Correlation between PTX loading and KER-NPs-PTX size. Abbreviations: KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; PDI, polydispersity index; PTX, paclitaxel; RT, room temperature.

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Anticancer activity of paclitaxel-loaded keratin nanoparticles in two-dimensional and perfused three-dimensional breast cancer models

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S159942

    Figure Lengend Snippet: KER-NPs-PTX preparation. Notes: ( A ) KER-NPs-PTX preparation by aggregation method, starting from a solution of pure keratin powder. ( B ) Correlation between PTX loading and KER-NPs-PTX size. Abbreviations: KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; PDI, polydispersity index; PTX, paclitaxel; RT, room temperature.

    Article Snippet: For p3D experiments, 2×106 MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were precultured for 7 and 4 days, respectively, and then treated with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX ([PTX] at the same drug concentration [5 µg/mL] used for 2D cultures) for 48 h. Entire scaffolds then underwent collagenase IV (Worthington Biochemical Corporation, Lakewood, NJ, USA) treatment at 37°C for 40 min, and apoptosis in the cell suspensions was evaluated by APC-Annexin V and PI Apoptosis Detection Kit.

    Techniques:

    Immunofluorescence staining of CC3 in MCF-7 (upper panels) and MDA MB 231 (lower panels) scaffold sections. Notes: Images show DAPI (blue) and CC3 (green) staining in MCF-7 ( A ) and MDA MB 231 ( B ) p3D scaffold sections upon treatment with PTX in a free form (b), HSA-NPs-PTX (c), and KER-NPs-PTX (d) (PTX, 5 µg/mL) for 48 h or untreated (a). Scale bar: 100 µm. Abbreviations: CC3, cleaved caspase 3; DAPI, 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole; HSA-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in albumin nanoparticles; KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; p3D, three-dimensional model with perfused bioreactor; PTX, paclitaxel.

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Anticancer activity of paclitaxel-loaded keratin nanoparticles in two-dimensional and perfused three-dimensional breast cancer models

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S159942

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Immunofluorescence staining of CC3 in MCF-7 (upper panels) and MDA MB 231 (lower panels) scaffold sections. Notes: Images show DAPI (blue) and CC3 (green) staining in MCF-7 ( A ) and MDA MB 231 ( B ) p3D scaffold sections upon treatment with PTX in a free form (b), HSA-NPs-PTX (c), and KER-NPs-PTX (d) (PTX, 5 µg/mL) for 48 h or untreated (a). Scale bar: 100 µm. Abbreviations: CC3, cleaved caspase 3; DAPI, 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole; HSA-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in albumin nanoparticles; KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; p3D, three-dimensional model with perfused bioreactor; PTX, paclitaxel.

    Article Snippet: For p3D experiments, 2×106 MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were precultured for 7 and 4 days, respectively, and then treated with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX ([PTX] at the same drug concentration [5 µg/mL] used for 2D cultures) for 48 h. Entire scaffolds then underwent collagenase IV (Worthington Biochemical Corporation, Lakewood, NJ, USA) treatment at 37°C for 40 min, and apoptosis in the cell suspensions was evaluated by APC-Annexin V and PI Apoptosis Detection Kit.

    Techniques: Immunofluorescence, Staining, Multiple Displacement Amplification

    Induction of apoptosis in tumor cells cultured in 2D by PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX in 2D model. Notes: MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were exposed to PTX, HSA-NPs-PTX, and KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL) for 24 and 48 h. Apoptosis assays were carried out by flow cytometry, following APC-Annexin V and PI staining. Representative dot plots of MCF-7 ( A ) and MDA MB 231 ( B ) cell lines after each treatment. Percentage of early apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and negative to PI) and late apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and PI) was evaluated 24 and 48 h after treatment ( C ). Statistical significance versus untreated cells: * P

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Anticancer activity of paclitaxel-loaded keratin nanoparticles in two-dimensional and perfused three-dimensional breast cancer models

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S159942

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Induction of apoptosis in tumor cells cultured in 2D by PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX in 2D model. Notes: MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were exposed to PTX, HSA-NPs-PTX, and KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL) for 24 and 48 h. Apoptosis assays were carried out by flow cytometry, following APC-Annexin V and PI staining. Representative dot plots of MCF-7 ( A ) and MDA MB 231 ( B ) cell lines after each treatment. Percentage of early apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and negative to PI) and late apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and PI) was evaluated 24 and 48 h after treatment ( C ). Statistical significance versus untreated cells: * P

    Article Snippet: For p3D experiments, 2×106 MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were precultured for 7 and 4 days, respectively, and then treated with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX ([PTX] at the same drug concentration [5 µg/mL] used for 2D cultures) for 48 h. Entire scaffolds then underwent collagenase IV (Worthington Biochemical Corporation, Lakewood, NJ, USA) treatment at 37°C for 40 min, and apoptosis in the cell suspensions was evaluated by APC-Annexin V and PI Apoptosis Detection Kit.

    Techniques: Cell Culture, Multiple Displacement Amplification, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Staining

    Antiproliferative activity of PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, and KER-NPs-PTX on MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cell lines in 2D model. Notes: Cell viability was evaluated 72 h after exposure to increasing concentrations of PTX (0.00002, 0.02, and 5 µg/mL) by APH assay. Statistical significance versus untreated cells (100%, represented by a dotted line): ** P

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Anticancer activity of paclitaxel-loaded keratin nanoparticles in two-dimensional and perfused three-dimensional breast cancer models

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S159942

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Antiproliferative activity of PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, and KER-NPs-PTX on MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cell lines in 2D model. Notes: Cell viability was evaluated 72 h after exposure to increasing concentrations of PTX (0.00002, 0.02, and 5 µg/mL) by APH assay. Statistical significance versus untreated cells (100%, represented by a dotted line): ** P

    Article Snippet: For p3D experiments, 2×106 MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were precultured for 7 and 4 days, respectively, and then treated with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX ([PTX] at the same drug concentration [5 µg/mL] used for 2D cultures) for 48 h. Entire scaffolds then underwent collagenase IV (Worthington Biochemical Corporation, Lakewood, NJ, USA) treatment at 37°C for 40 min, and apoptosis in the cell suspensions was evaluated by APC-Annexin V and PI Apoptosis Detection Kit.

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Multiple Displacement Amplification

    Representative H E staining of scaffold sections from p3D MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cultures after treatments. Notes: MCF-7 (upper panels) and MDA MB 231 (lower panels) cells were initially cultured for 7 and 4 days, respectively, and then left untreated ( A ) or treated for 48 h with PTX in a free form ( B ), HSA-NPs-PTX ( C ), and KER-NPs-PTX ( D ) (PTX, 5 µg/mL). Scale bar: 100 µm. Abbreviations: H E, hematoxylin and eosin; HSA-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in albumin nanoparticles; KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; p3D, three-dimensional model with perfused bioreactor; PTX, paclitaxel.

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Anticancer activity of paclitaxel-loaded keratin nanoparticles in two-dimensional and perfused three-dimensional breast cancer models

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S159942

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Representative H E staining of scaffold sections from p3D MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cultures after treatments. Notes: MCF-7 (upper panels) and MDA MB 231 (lower panels) cells were initially cultured for 7 and 4 days, respectively, and then left untreated ( A ) or treated for 48 h with PTX in a free form ( B ), HSA-NPs-PTX ( C ), and KER-NPs-PTX ( D ) (PTX, 5 µg/mL). Scale bar: 100 µm. Abbreviations: H E, hematoxylin and eosin; HSA-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in albumin nanoparticles; KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; p3D, three-dimensional model with perfused bioreactor; PTX, paclitaxel.

    Article Snippet: For p3D experiments, 2×106 MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were precultured for 7 and 4 days, respectively, and then treated with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX ([PTX] at the same drug concentration [5 µg/mL] used for 2D cultures) for 48 h. Entire scaffolds then underwent collagenase IV (Worthington Biochemical Corporation, Lakewood, NJ, USA) treatment at 37°C for 40 min, and apoptosis in the cell suspensions was evaluated by APC-Annexin V and PI Apoptosis Detection Kit.

    Techniques: Staining, Multiple Displacement Amplification, Cell Culture

    BAX and BCL-2 gene expression analyses in MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells cultured in 2D model upon 12 h treatment. Notes: Cells were incubated for 12 h with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL). GAPDH was used as reference gene to normalize data. Effects of each treatment on gene expression levels were compared with those detectable in untreated cells (n=1) as indicated by the dotted line. Statistically significant difference versus untreated cells: * P

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Anticancer activity of paclitaxel-loaded keratin nanoparticles in two-dimensional and perfused three-dimensional breast cancer models

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S159942

    Figure Lengend Snippet: BAX and BCL-2 gene expression analyses in MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells cultured in 2D model upon 12 h treatment. Notes: Cells were incubated for 12 h with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL). GAPDH was used as reference gene to normalize data. Effects of each treatment on gene expression levels were compared with those detectable in untreated cells (n=1) as indicated by the dotted line. Statistically significant difference versus untreated cells: * P

    Article Snippet: For p3D experiments, 2×106 MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were precultured for 7 and 4 days, respectively, and then treated with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX ([PTX] at the same drug concentration [5 µg/mL] used for 2D cultures) for 48 h. Entire scaffolds then underwent collagenase IV (Worthington Biochemical Corporation, Lakewood, NJ, USA) treatment at 37°C for 40 min, and apoptosis in the cell suspensions was evaluated by APC-Annexin V and PI Apoptosis Detection Kit.

    Techniques: Expressing, Multiple Displacement Amplification, Cell Culture, Incubation

    Effects of PTX in a free form or vehiculated by HSA-NPs or by KER-NPs on cell death in p3D cultures. Notes: MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were exposed to PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, and KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL) for 24 and 48 h. Apoptosis assays were carried out by flow cytometry, following APC-Annexin V and PI staining. Representative dot plots of MCF-7 ( A ) and MDA MB 231 ( B ) cell lines after each treatment. Percentages of early apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and negative to PI) and late apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and PI) were evaluated 24 and 48 h after treatment ( C ). Statistical significance versus untreated cells: * P

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Anticancer activity of paclitaxel-loaded keratin nanoparticles in two-dimensional and perfused three-dimensional breast cancer models

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S159942

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of PTX in a free form or vehiculated by HSA-NPs or by KER-NPs on cell death in p3D cultures. Notes: MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were exposed to PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, and KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL) for 24 and 48 h. Apoptosis assays were carried out by flow cytometry, following APC-Annexin V and PI staining. Representative dot plots of MCF-7 ( A ) and MDA MB 231 ( B ) cell lines after each treatment. Percentages of early apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and negative to PI) and late apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and PI) were evaluated 24 and 48 h after treatment ( C ). Statistical significance versus untreated cells: * P

    Article Snippet: For p3D experiments, 2×106 MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were precultured for 7 and 4 days, respectively, and then treated with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX ([PTX] at the same drug concentration [5 µg/mL] used for 2D cultures) for 48 h. Entire scaffolds then underwent collagenase IV (Worthington Biochemical Corporation, Lakewood, NJ, USA) treatment at 37°C for 40 min, and apoptosis in the cell suspensions was evaluated by APC-Annexin V and PI Apoptosis Detection Kit.

    Techniques: Multiple Displacement Amplification, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Staining

    KER-NPs-PTX analysis. Notes: Transmission electron microscopy images of fixed KER-NPs-PTX at two magnifications: scale bar 2 µm ( A ) and scale bar 200 nm ( B ). Morphological analysis showed particles spherical in shape, smooth surface, and an average dry diameter of ~80 nm. Stability of KER-NPs-PTX in physiological conditions ( C ). Fluorescence spectra of KER-NPs-PTX at different PTX loading percentages ( D ). Abbreviations: KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; PDI, polydispersity index; PTX, paclitaxel.

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Anticancer activity of paclitaxel-loaded keratin nanoparticles in two-dimensional and perfused three-dimensional breast cancer models

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S159942

    Figure Lengend Snippet: KER-NPs-PTX analysis. Notes: Transmission electron microscopy images of fixed KER-NPs-PTX at two magnifications: scale bar 2 µm ( A ) and scale bar 200 nm ( B ). Morphological analysis showed particles spherical in shape, smooth surface, and an average dry diameter of ~80 nm. Stability of KER-NPs-PTX in physiological conditions ( C ). Fluorescence spectra of KER-NPs-PTX at different PTX loading percentages ( D ). Abbreviations: KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; PDI, polydispersity index; PTX, paclitaxel.

    Article Snippet: For p3D experiments, 2×106 MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were precultured for 7 and 4 days, respectively, and then treated with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX ([PTX] at the same drug concentration [5 µg/mL] used for 2D cultures) for 48 h. Entire scaffolds then underwent collagenase IV (Worthington Biochemical Corporation, Lakewood, NJ, USA) treatment at 37°C for 40 min, and apoptosis in the cell suspensions was evaluated by APC-Annexin V and PI Apoptosis Detection Kit.

    Techniques: Transmission Assay, Electron Microscopy, Fluorescence

    Profiles and mechanisms of PTX release from KER-NPs in vitro. Notes: Profile of PTX release from KER-NPs ( A ). Correlation coefficient values ( R 2 ) used to determine the best fitting model among zero-order, first-order, and Higuchi modes ( B ). Abbreviations: KER-NPs, keratin nanoparticles; PTX, paclitaxel.

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Anticancer activity of paclitaxel-loaded keratin nanoparticles in two-dimensional and perfused three-dimensional breast cancer models

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S159942

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Profiles and mechanisms of PTX release from KER-NPs in vitro. Notes: Profile of PTX release from KER-NPs ( A ). Correlation coefficient values ( R 2 ) used to determine the best fitting model among zero-order, first-order, and Higuchi modes ( B ). Abbreviations: KER-NPs, keratin nanoparticles; PTX, paclitaxel.

    Article Snippet: For p3D experiments, 2×106 MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were precultured for 7 and 4 days, respectively, and then treated with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX ([PTX] at the same drug concentration [5 µg/mL] used for 2D cultures) for 48 h. Entire scaffolds then underwent collagenase IV (Worthington Biochemical Corporation, Lakewood, NJ, USA) treatment at 37°C for 40 min, and apoptosis in the cell suspensions was evaluated by APC-Annexin V and PI Apoptosis Detection Kit.

    Techniques: In Vitro

    KER-NPs-PTX preparation. Notes: ( A ) KER-NPs-PTX preparation by aggregation method, starting from a solution of pure keratin powder. ( B ) Correlation between PTX loading and KER-NPs-PTX size. Abbreviations: KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; PDI, polydispersity index; PTX, paclitaxel; RT, room temperature.

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Anticancer activity of paclitaxel-loaded keratin nanoparticles in two-dimensional and perfused three-dimensional breast cancer models

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S159942

    Figure Lengend Snippet: KER-NPs-PTX preparation. Notes: ( A ) KER-NPs-PTX preparation by aggregation method, starting from a solution of pure keratin powder. ( B ) Correlation between PTX loading and KER-NPs-PTX size. Abbreviations: KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; PDI, polydispersity index; PTX, paclitaxel; RT, room temperature.

    Article Snippet: For p3D experiments, 2×106 MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were precultured for 7 and 4 days, respectively, and then treated with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX ([PTX] at the same drug concentration [5 µg/mL] used for 2D cultures) for 48 h. Entire scaffolds then underwent collagenase IV (Worthington Biochemical Corporation, Lakewood, NJ, USA) treatment at 37°C for 40 min, and apoptosis in the cell suspensions was evaluated by APC-Annexin V and PI Apoptosis Detection Kit.

    Techniques:

    Immunofluorescence staining of CC3 in MCF-7 (upper panels) and MDA MB 231 (lower panels) scaffold sections. Notes: Images show DAPI (blue) and CC3 (green) staining in MCF-7 ( A ) and MDA MB 231 ( B ) p3D scaffold sections upon treatment with PTX in a free form (b), HSA-NPs-PTX (c), and KER-NPs-PTX (d) (PTX, 5 µg/mL) for 48 h or untreated (a). Scale bar: 100 µm. Abbreviations: CC3, cleaved caspase 3; DAPI, 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole; HSA-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in albumin nanoparticles; KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; p3D, three-dimensional model with perfused bioreactor; PTX, paclitaxel.

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Anticancer activity of paclitaxel-loaded keratin nanoparticles in two-dimensional and perfused three-dimensional breast cancer models

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S159942

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Immunofluorescence staining of CC3 in MCF-7 (upper panels) and MDA MB 231 (lower panels) scaffold sections. Notes: Images show DAPI (blue) and CC3 (green) staining in MCF-7 ( A ) and MDA MB 231 ( B ) p3D scaffold sections upon treatment with PTX in a free form (b), HSA-NPs-PTX (c), and KER-NPs-PTX (d) (PTX, 5 µg/mL) for 48 h or untreated (a). Scale bar: 100 µm. Abbreviations: CC3, cleaved caspase 3; DAPI, 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole; HSA-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in albumin nanoparticles; KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; p3D, three-dimensional model with perfused bioreactor; PTX, paclitaxel.

    Article Snippet: For p3D experiments, 2×106 MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were precultured for 7 and 4 days, respectively, and then treated with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX ([PTX] at the same drug concentration [5 µg/mL] used for 2D cultures) for 48 h. Entire scaffolds then underwent collagenase IV (Worthington Biochemical Corporation, Lakewood, NJ, USA) treatment at 37°C for 40 min, and apoptosis in the cell suspensions was evaluated by APC-Annexin V and PI Apoptosis Detection Kit.

    Techniques: Immunofluorescence, Staining, Multiple Displacement Amplification

    Induction of apoptosis in tumor cells cultured in 2D by PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX in 2D model. Notes: MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were exposed to PTX, HSA-NPs-PTX, and KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL) for 24 and 48 h. Apoptosis assays were carried out by flow cytometry, following APC-Annexin V and PI staining. Representative dot plots of MCF-7 ( A ) and MDA MB 231 ( B ) cell lines after each treatment. Percentage of early apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and negative to PI) and late apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and PI) was evaluated 24 and 48 h after treatment ( C ). Statistical significance versus untreated cells: * P

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Anticancer activity of paclitaxel-loaded keratin nanoparticles in two-dimensional and perfused three-dimensional breast cancer models

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S159942

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Induction of apoptosis in tumor cells cultured in 2D by PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX in 2D model. Notes: MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were exposed to PTX, HSA-NPs-PTX, and KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL) for 24 and 48 h. Apoptosis assays were carried out by flow cytometry, following APC-Annexin V and PI staining. Representative dot plots of MCF-7 ( A ) and MDA MB 231 ( B ) cell lines after each treatment. Percentage of early apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and negative to PI) and late apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and PI) was evaluated 24 and 48 h after treatment ( C ). Statistical significance versus untreated cells: * P

    Article Snippet: For p3D experiments, 2×106 MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were precultured for 7 and 4 days, respectively, and then treated with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX ([PTX] at the same drug concentration [5 µg/mL] used for 2D cultures) for 48 h. Entire scaffolds then underwent collagenase IV (Worthington Biochemical Corporation, Lakewood, NJ, USA) treatment at 37°C for 40 min, and apoptosis in the cell suspensions was evaluated by APC-Annexin V and PI Apoptosis Detection Kit.

    Techniques: Cell Culture, Multiple Displacement Amplification, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Staining

    Antiproliferative activity of PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, and KER-NPs-PTX on MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cell lines in 2D model. Notes: Cell viability was evaluated 72 h after exposure to increasing concentrations of PTX (0.00002, 0.02, and 5 µg/mL) by APH assay. Statistical significance versus untreated cells (100%, represented by a dotted line): ** P

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Anticancer activity of paclitaxel-loaded keratin nanoparticles in two-dimensional and perfused three-dimensional breast cancer models

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S159942

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Antiproliferative activity of PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, and KER-NPs-PTX on MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cell lines in 2D model. Notes: Cell viability was evaluated 72 h after exposure to increasing concentrations of PTX (0.00002, 0.02, and 5 µg/mL) by APH assay. Statistical significance versus untreated cells (100%, represented by a dotted line): ** P

    Article Snippet: For p3D experiments, 2×106 MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were precultured for 7 and 4 days, respectively, and then treated with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX ([PTX] at the same drug concentration [5 µg/mL] used for 2D cultures) for 48 h. Entire scaffolds then underwent collagenase IV (Worthington Biochemical Corporation, Lakewood, NJ, USA) treatment at 37°C for 40 min, and apoptosis in the cell suspensions was evaluated by APC-Annexin V and PI Apoptosis Detection Kit.

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Multiple Displacement Amplification

    BAX and BCL-2 gene expression analyses in MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells in p3D cultures following 24 h treatments. Notes: Cells were incubated for 24 h with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL). GAPDH was used as reference gene to normalize data. The effects of each treatment were compared with gene expression detectable in untreated cells (=1) as indicated by the dotted line. Statistically significant difference versus untreated cells: * P

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Anticancer activity of paclitaxel-loaded keratin nanoparticles in two-dimensional and perfused three-dimensional breast cancer models

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S159942

    Figure Lengend Snippet: BAX and BCL-2 gene expression analyses in MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells in p3D cultures following 24 h treatments. Notes: Cells were incubated for 24 h with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL). GAPDH was used as reference gene to normalize data. The effects of each treatment were compared with gene expression detectable in untreated cells (=1) as indicated by the dotted line. Statistically significant difference versus untreated cells: * P

    Article Snippet: For p3D experiments, 2×106 MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were precultured for 7 and 4 days, respectively, and then treated with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX ([PTX] at the same drug concentration [5 µg/mL] used for 2D cultures) for 48 h. Entire scaffolds then underwent collagenase IV (Worthington Biochemical Corporation, Lakewood, NJ, USA) treatment at 37°C for 40 min, and apoptosis in the cell suspensions was evaluated by APC-Annexin V and PI Apoptosis Detection Kit.

    Techniques: Expressing, Multiple Displacement Amplification, Incubation

    Representative H E staining of scaffold sections from p3D MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cultures after treatments. Notes: MCF-7 (upper panels) and MDA MB 231 (lower panels) cells were initially cultured for 7 and 4 days, respectively, and then left untreated ( A ) or treated for 48 h with PTX in a free form ( B ), HSA-NPs-PTX ( C ), and KER-NPs-PTX ( D ) (PTX, 5 µg/mL). Scale bar: 100 µm. Abbreviations: H E, hematoxylin and eosin; HSA-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in albumin nanoparticles; KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; p3D, three-dimensional model with perfused bioreactor; PTX, paclitaxel.

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Anticancer activity of paclitaxel-loaded keratin nanoparticles in two-dimensional and perfused three-dimensional breast cancer models

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S159942

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Representative H E staining of scaffold sections from p3D MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cultures after treatments. Notes: MCF-7 (upper panels) and MDA MB 231 (lower panels) cells were initially cultured for 7 and 4 days, respectively, and then left untreated ( A ) or treated for 48 h with PTX in a free form ( B ), HSA-NPs-PTX ( C ), and KER-NPs-PTX ( D ) (PTX, 5 µg/mL). Scale bar: 100 µm. Abbreviations: H E, hematoxylin and eosin; HSA-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in albumin nanoparticles; KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; p3D, three-dimensional model with perfused bioreactor; PTX, paclitaxel.

    Article Snippet: For p3D experiments, 2×106 MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were precultured for 7 and 4 days, respectively, and then treated with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX ([PTX] at the same drug concentration [5 µg/mL] used for 2D cultures) for 48 h. Entire scaffolds then underwent collagenase IV (Worthington Biochemical Corporation, Lakewood, NJ, USA) treatment at 37°C for 40 min, and apoptosis in the cell suspensions was evaluated by APC-Annexin V and PI Apoptosis Detection Kit.

    Techniques: Staining, Multiple Displacement Amplification, Cell Culture

    BAX and BCL-2 gene expression analyses in MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells cultured in 2D model upon 12 h treatment. Notes: Cells were incubated for 12 h with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL). GAPDH was used as reference gene to normalize data. Effects of each treatment on gene expression levels were compared with those detectable in untreated cells (n=1) as indicated by the dotted line. Statistically significant difference versus untreated cells: * P

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Anticancer activity of paclitaxel-loaded keratin nanoparticles in two-dimensional and perfused three-dimensional breast cancer models

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S159942

    Figure Lengend Snippet: BAX and BCL-2 gene expression analyses in MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells cultured in 2D model upon 12 h treatment. Notes: Cells were incubated for 12 h with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL). GAPDH was used as reference gene to normalize data. Effects of each treatment on gene expression levels were compared with those detectable in untreated cells (n=1) as indicated by the dotted line. Statistically significant difference versus untreated cells: * P

    Article Snippet: For p3D experiments, 2×106 MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were precultured for 7 and 4 days, respectively, and then treated with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX ([PTX] at the same drug concentration [5 µg/mL] used for 2D cultures) for 48 h. Entire scaffolds then underwent collagenase IV (Worthington Biochemical Corporation, Lakewood, NJ, USA) treatment at 37°C for 40 min, and apoptosis in the cell suspensions was evaluated by APC-Annexin V and PI Apoptosis Detection Kit.

    Techniques: Expressing, Multiple Displacement Amplification, Cell Culture, Incubation

    Effects of PTX in a free form or vehiculated by HSA-NPs or by KER-NPs on cell death in p3D cultures. Notes: MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were exposed to PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, and KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL) for 24 and 48 h. Apoptosis assays were carried out by flow cytometry, following APC-Annexin V and PI staining. Representative dot plots of MCF-7 ( A ) and MDA MB 231 ( B ) cell lines after each treatment. Percentages of early apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and negative to PI) and late apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and PI) were evaluated 24 and 48 h after treatment ( C ). Statistical significance versus untreated cells: * P

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Anticancer activity of paclitaxel-loaded keratin nanoparticles in two-dimensional and perfused three-dimensional breast cancer models

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S159942

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of PTX in a free form or vehiculated by HSA-NPs or by KER-NPs on cell death in p3D cultures. Notes: MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were exposed to PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, and KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL) for 24 and 48 h. Apoptosis assays were carried out by flow cytometry, following APC-Annexin V and PI staining. Representative dot plots of MCF-7 ( A ) and MDA MB 231 ( B ) cell lines after each treatment. Percentages of early apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and negative to PI) and late apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and PI) were evaluated 24 and 48 h after treatment ( C ). Statistical significance versus untreated cells: * P

    Article Snippet: For p3D experiments, 2×106 MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were precultured for 7 and 4 days, respectively, and then treated with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX ([PTX] at the same drug concentration [5 µg/mL] used for 2D cultures) for 48 h. Entire scaffolds then underwent collagenase IV (Worthington Biochemical Corporation, Lakewood, NJ, USA) treatment at 37°C for 40 min, and apoptosis in the cell suspensions was evaluated by APC-Annexin V and PI Apoptosis Detection Kit.

    Techniques: Multiple Displacement Amplification, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Staining

    KER-NPs-PTX analysis. Notes: Transmission electron microscopy images of fixed KER-NPs-PTX at two magnifications: scale bar 2 µm ( A ) and scale bar 200 nm ( B ). Morphological analysis showed particles spherical in shape, smooth surface, and an average dry diameter of ~80 nm. Stability of KER-NPs-PTX in physiological conditions ( C ). Fluorescence spectra of KER-NPs-PTX at different PTX loading percentages ( D ). Abbreviations: KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; PDI, polydispersity index; PTX, paclitaxel.

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Anticancer activity of paclitaxel-loaded keratin nanoparticles in two-dimensional and perfused three-dimensional breast cancer models

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S159942

    Figure Lengend Snippet: KER-NPs-PTX analysis. Notes: Transmission electron microscopy images of fixed KER-NPs-PTX at two magnifications: scale bar 2 µm ( A ) and scale bar 200 nm ( B ). Morphological analysis showed particles spherical in shape, smooth surface, and an average dry diameter of ~80 nm. Stability of KER-NPs-PTX in physiological conditions ( C ). Fluorescence spectra of KER-NPs-PTX at different PTX loading percentages ( D ). Abbreviations: KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; PDI, polydispersity index; PTX, paclitaxel.

    Article Snippet: For p3D experiments, 2×106 MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were precultured for 7 and 4 days, respectively, and then treated with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX ([PTX] at the same drug concentration [5 µg/mL] used for 2D cultures) for 48 h. Entire scaffolds then underwent collagenase IV (Worthington Biochemical Corporation, Lakewood, NJ, USA) treatment at 37°C for 40 min, and apoptosis in the cell suspensions was evaluated by APC-Annexin V and PI Apoptosis Detection Kit.

    Techniques: Transmission Assay, Electron Microscopy, Fluorescence

    Profiles and mechanisms of PTX release from KER-NPs in vitro. Notes: Profile of PTX release from KER-NPs ( A ). Correlation coefficient values ( R 2 ) used to determine the best fitting model among zero-order, first-order, and Higuchi modes ( B ). Abbreviations: KER-NPs, keratin nanoparticles; PTX, paclitaxel.

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Anticancer activity of paclitaxel-loaded keratin nanoparticles in two-dimensional and perfused three-dimensional breast cancer models

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S159942

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Profiles and mechanisms of PTX release from KER-NPs in vitro. Notes: Profile of PTX release from KER-NPs ( A ). Correlation coefficient values ( R 2 ) used to determine the best fitting model among zero-order, first-order, and Higuchi modes ( B ). Abbreviations: KER-NPs, keratin nanoparticles; PTX, paclitaxel.

    Article Snippet: For p3D experiments, 2×106 MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were precultured for 7 and 4 days, respectively, and then treated with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX ([PTX] at the same drug concentration [5 µg/mL] used for 2D cultures) for 48 h. Entire scaffolds then underwent collagenase IV (Worthington Biochemical Corporation, Lakewood, NJ, USA) treatment at 37°C for 40 min, and apoptosis in the cell suspensions was evaluated by APC-Annexin V and PI Apoptosis Detection Kit.

    Techniques: In Vitro

    KER-NPs-PTX preparation. Notes: ( A ) KER-NPs-PTX preparation by aggregation method, starting from a solution of pure keratin powder. ( B ) Correlation between PTX loading and KER-NPs-PTX size. Abbreviations: KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; PDI, polydispersity index; PTX, paclitaxel; RT, room temperature.

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Anticancer activity of paclitaxel-loaded keratin nanoparticles in two-dimensional and perfused three-dimensional breast cancer models

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S159942

    Figure Lengend Snippet: KER-NPs-PTX preparation. Notes: ( A ) KER-NPs-PTX preparation by aggregation method, starting from a solution of pure keratin powder. ( B ) Correlation between PTX loading and KER-NPs-PTX size. Abbreviations: KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; PDI, polydispersity index; PTX, paclitaxel; RT, room temperature.

    Article Snippet: For p3D experiments, 2×106 MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were precultured for 7 and 4 days, respectively, and then treated with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX ([PTX] at the same drug concentration [5 µg/mL] used for 2D cultures) for 48 h. Entire scaffolds then underwent collagenase IV (Worthington Biochemical Corporation, Lakewood, NJ, USA) treatment at 37°C for 40 min, and apoptosis in the cell suspensions was evaluated by APC-Annexin V and PI Apoptosis Detection Kit.

    Techniques:

    Immunofluorescence staining of CC3 in MCF-7 (upper panels) and MDA MB 231 (lower panels) scaffold sections. Notes: Images show DAPI (blue) and CC3 (green) staining in MCF-7 ( A ) and MDA MB 231 ( B ) p3D scaffold sections upon treatment with PTX in a free form (b), HSA-NPs-PTX (c), and KER-NPs-PTX (d) (PTX, 5 µg/mL) for 48 h or untreated (a). Scale bar: 100 µm. Abbreviations: CC3, cleaved caspase 3; DAPI, 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole; HSA-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in albumin nanoparticles; KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; p3D, three-dimensional model with perfused bioreactor; PTX, paclitaxel.

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Anticancer activity of paclitaxel-loaded keratin nanoparticles in two-dimensional and perfused three-dimensional breast cancer models

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S159942

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Immunofluorescence staining of CC3 in MCF-7 (upper panels) and MDA MB 231 (lower panels) scaffold sections. Notes: Images show DAPI (blue) and CC3 (green) staining in MCF-7 ( A ) and MDA MB 231 ( B ) p3D scaffold sections upon treatment with PTX in a free form (b), HSA-NPs-PTX (c), and KER-NPs-PTX (d) (PTX, 5 µg/mL) for 48 h or untreated (a). Scale bar: 100 µm. Abbreviations: CC3, cleaved caspase 3; DAPI, 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole; HSA-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in albumin nanoparticles; KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; p3D, three-dimensional model with perfused bioreactor; PTX, paclitaxel.

    Article Snippet: For p3D experiments, 2×106 MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were precultured for 7 and 4 days, respectively, and then treated with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX ([PTX] at the same drug concentration [5 µg/mL] used for 2D cultures) for 48 h. Entire scaffolds then underwent collagenase IV (Worthington Biochemical Corporation, Lakewood, NJ, USA) treatment at 37°C for 40 min, and apoptosis in the cell suspensions was evaluated by APC-Annexin V and PI Apoptosis Detection Kit.

    Techniques: Immunofluorescence, Staining, Multiple Displacement Amplification

    Induction of apoptosis in tumor cells cultured in 2D by PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX in 2D model. Notes: MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were exposed to PTX, HSA-NPs-PTX, and KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL) for 24 and 48 h. Apoptosis assays were carried out by flow cytometry, following APC-Annexin V and PI staining. Representative dot plots of MCF-7 ( A ) and MDA MB 231 ( B ) cell lines after each treatment. Percentage of early apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and negative to PI) and late apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and PI) was evaluated 24 and 48 h after treatment ( C ). Statistical significance versus untreated cells: * P

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Anticancer activity of paclitaxel-loaded keratin nanoparticles in two-dimensional and perfused three-dimensional breast cancer models

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S159942

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Induction of apoptosis in tumor cells cultured in 2D by PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX in 2D model. Notes: MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were exposed to PTX, HSA-NPs-PTX, and KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL) for 24 and 48 h. Apoptosis assays were carried out by flow cytometry, following APC-Annexin V and PI staining. Representative dot plots of MCF-7 ( A ) and MDA MB 231 ( B ) cell lines after each treatment. Percentage of early apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and negative to PI) and late apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and PI) was evaluated 24 and 48 h after treatment ( C ). Statistical significance versus untreated cells: * P

    Article Snippet: For p3D experiments, 2×106 MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were precultured for 7 and 4 days, respectively, and then treated with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX ([PTX] at the same drug concentration [5 µg/mL] used for 2D cultures) for 48 h. Entire scaffolds then underwent collagenase IV (Worthington Biochemical Corporation, Lakewood, NJ, USA) treatment at 37°C for 40 min, and apoptosis in the cell suspensions was evaluated by APC-Annexin V and PI Apoptosis Detection Kit.

    Techniques: Cell Culture, Multiple Displacement Amplification, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Staining

    Antiproliferative activity of PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, and KER-NPs-PTX on MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cell lines in 2D model. Notes: Cell viability was evaluated 72 h after exposure to increasing concentrations of PTX (0.00002, 0.02, and 5 µg/mL) by APH assay. Statistical significance versus untreated cells (100%, represented by a dotted line): ** P

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Anticancer activity of paclitaxel-loaded keratin nanoparticles in two-dimensional and perfused three-dimensional breast cancer models

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S159942

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Antiproliferative activity of PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, and KER-NPs-PTX on MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cell lines in 2D model. Notes: Cell viability was evaluated 72 h after exposure to increasing concentrations of PTX (0.00002, 0.02, and 5 µg/mL) by APH assay. Statistical significance versus untreated cells (100%, represented by a dotted line): ** P

    Article Snippet: For p3D experiments, 2×106 MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were precultured for 7 and 4 days, respectively, and then treated with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX ([PTX] at the same drug concentration [5 µg/mL] used for 2D cultures) for 48 h. Entire scaffolds then underwent collagenase IV (Worthington Biochemical Corporation, Lakewood, NJ, USA) treatment at 37°C for 40 min, and apoptosis in the cell suspensions was evaluated by APC-Annexin V and PI Apoptosis Detection Kit.

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Multiple Displacement Amplification

    Representative H E staining of scaffold sections from p3D MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cultures after treatments. Notes: MCF-7 (upper panels) and MDA MB 231 (lower panels) cells were initially cultured for 7 and 4 days, respectively, and then left untreated ( A ) or treated for 48 h with PTX in a free form ( B ), HSA-NPs-PTX ( C ), and KER-NPs-PTX ( D ) (PTX, 5 µg/mL). Scale bar: 100 µm. Abbreviations: H E, hematoxylin and eosin; HSA-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in albumin nanoparticles; KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; p3D, three-dimensional model with perfused bioreactor; PTX, paclitaxel.

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Anticancer activity of paclitaxel-loaded keratin nanoparticles in two-dimensional and perfused three-dimensional breast cancer models

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S159942

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Representative H E staining of scaffold sections from p3D MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cultures after treatments. Notes: MCF-7 (upper panels) and MDA MB 231 (lower panels) cells were initially cultured for 7 and 4 days, respectively, and then left untreated ( A ) or treated for 48 h with PTX in a free form ( B ), HSA-NPs-PTX ( C ), and KER-NPs-PTX ( D ) (PTX, 5 µg/mL). Scale bar: 100 µm. Abbreviations: H E, hematoxylin and eosin; HSA-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in albumin nanoparticles; KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; p3D, three-dimensional model with perfused bioreactor; PTX, paclitaxel.

    Article Snippet: For p3D experiments, 2×106 MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were precultured for 7 and 4 days, respectively, and then treated with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX ([PTX] at the same drug concentration [5 µg/mL] used for 2D cultures) for 48 h. Entire scaffolds then underwent collagenase IV (Worthington Biochemical Corporation, Lakewood, NJ, USA) treatment at 37°C for 40 min, and apoptosis in the cell suspensions was evaluated by APC-Annexin V and PI Apoptosis Detection Kit.

    Techniques: Staining, Multiple Displacement Amplification, Cell Culture

    BAX and BCL-2 gene expression analyses in MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells cultured in 2D model upon 12 h treatment. Notes: Cells were incubated for 12 h with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL). GAPDH was used as reference gene to normalize data. Effects of each treatment on gene expression levels were compared with those detectable in untreated cells (n=1) as indicated by the dotted line. Statistically significant difference versus untreated cells: * P

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Anticancer activity of paclitaxel-loaded keratin nanoparticles in two-dimensional and perfused three-dimensional breast cancer models

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S159942

    Figure Lengend Snippet: BAX and BCL-2 gene expression analyses in MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells cultured in 2D model upon 12 h treatment. Notes: Cells were incubated for 12 h with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL). GAPDH was used as reference gene to normalize data. Effects of each treatment on gene expression levels were compared with those detectable in untreated cells (n=1) as indicated by the dotted line. Statistically significant difference versus untreated cells: * P

    Article Snippet: For p3D experiments, 2×106 MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were precultured for 7 and 4 days, respectively, and then treated with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX ([PTX] at the same drug concentration [5 µg/mL] used for 2D cultures) for 48 h. Entire scaffolds then underwent collagenase IV (Worthington Biochemical Corporation, Lakewood, NJ, USA) treatment at 37°C for 40 min, and apoptosis in the cell suspensions was evaluated by APC-Annexin V and PI Apoptosis Detection Kit.

    Techniques: Expressing, Multiple Displacement Amplification, Cell Culture, Incubation

    Effects of PTX in a free form or vehiculated by HSA-NPs or by KER-NPs on cell death in p3D cultures. Notes: MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were exposed to PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, and KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL) for 24 and 48 h. Apoptosis assays were carried out by flow cytometry, following APC-Annexin V and PI staining. Representative dot plots of MCF-7 ( A ) and MDA MB 231 ( B ) cell lines after each treatment. Percentages of early apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and negative to PI) and late apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and PI) were evaluated 24 and 48 h after treatment ( C ). Statistical significance versus untreated cells: * P

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Anticancer activity of paclitaxel-loaded keratin nanoparticles in two-dimensional and perfused three-dimensional breast cancer models

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S159942

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of PTX in a free form or vehiculated by HSA-NPs or by KER-NPs on cell death in p3D cultures. Notes: MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were exposed to PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, and KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL) for 24 and 48 h. Apoptosis assays were carried out by flow cytometry, following APC-Annexin V and PI staining. Representative dot plots of MCF-7 ( A ) and MDA MB 231 ( B ) cell lines after each treatment. Percentages of early apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and negative to PI) and late apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and PI) were evaluated 24 and 48 h after treatment ( C ). Statistical significance versus untreated cells: * P

    Article Snippet: For p3D experiments, 2×106 MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were precultured for 7 and 4 days, respectively, and then treated with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX ([PTX] at the same drug concentration [5 µg/mL] used for 2D cultures) for 48 h. Entire scaffolds then underwent collagenase IV (Worthington Biochemical Corporation, Lakewood, NJ, USA) treatment at 37°C for 40 min, and apoptosis in the cell suspensions was evaluated by APC-Annexin V and PI Apoptosis Detection Kit.

    Techniques: Multiple Displacement Amplification, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Staining

    KER-NPs-PTX analysis. Notes: Transmission electron microscopy images of fixed KER-NPs-PTX at two magnifications: scale bar 2 µm ( A ) and scale bar 200 nm ( B ). Morphological analysis showed particles spherical in shape, smooth surface, and an average dry diameter of ~80 nm. Stability of KER-NPs-PTX in physiological conditions ( C ). Fluorescence spectra of KER-NPs-PTX at different PTX loading percentages ( D ). Abbreviations: KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; PDI, polydispersity index; PTX, paclitaxel.

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Anticancer activity of paclitaxel-loaded keratin nanoparticles in two-dimensional and perfused three-dimensional breast cancer models

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S159942

    Figure Lengend Snippet: KER-NPs-PTX analysis. Notes: Transmission electron microscopy images of fixed KER-NPs-PTX at two magnifications: scale bar 2 µm ( A ) and scale bar 200 nm ( B ). Morphological analysis showed particles spherical in shape, smooth surface, and an average dry diameter of ~80 nm. Stability of KER-NPs-PTX in physiological conditions ( C ). Fluorescence spectra of KER-NPs-PTX at different PTX loading percentages ( D ). Abbreviations: KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; PDI, polydispersity index; PTX, paclitaxel.

    Article Snippet: For p3D experiments, 2×106 MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were precultured for 7 and 4 days, respectively, and then treated with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX ([PTX] at the same drug concentration [5 µg/mL] used for 2D cultures) for 48 h. Entire scaffolds then underwent collagenase IV (Worthington Biochemical Corporation, Lakewood, NJ, USA) treatment at 37°C for 40 min, and apoptosis in the cell suspensions was evaluated by APC-Annexin V and PI Apoptosis Detection Kit.

    Techniques: Transmission Assay, Electron Microscopy, Fluorescence

    Profiles and mechanisms of PTX release from KER-NPs in vitro. Notes: Profile of PTX release from KER-NPs ( A ). Correlation coefficient values ( R 2 ) used to determine the best fitting model among zero-order, first-order, and Higuchi modes ( B ). Abbreviations: KER-NPs, keratin nanoparticles; PTX, paclitaxel.

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Anticancer activity of paclitaxel-loaded keratin nanoparticles in two-dimensional and perfused three-dimensional breast cancer models

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S159942

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Profiles and mechanisms of PTX release from KER-NPs in vitro. Notes: Profile of PTX release from KER-NPs ( A ). Correlation coefficient values ( R 2 ) used to determine the best fitting model among zero-order, first-order, and Higuchi modes ( B ). Abbreviations: KER-NPs, keratin nanoparticles; PTX, paclitaxel.

    Article Snippet: For p3D experiments, 2×106 MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were precultured for 7 and 4 days, respectively, and then treated with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX ([PTX] at the same drug concentration [5 µg/mL] used for 2D cultures) for 48 h. Entire scaffolds then underwent collagenase IV (Worthington Biochemical Corporation, Lakewood, NJ, USA) treatment at 37°C for 40 min, and apoptosis in the cell suspensions was evaluated by APC-Annexin V and PI Apoptosis Detection Kit.

    Techniques: In Vitro

    KER-NPs-PTX preparation. Notes: ( A ) KER-NPs-PTX preparation by aggregation method, starting from a solution of pure keratin powder. ( B ) Correlation between PTX loading and KER-NPs-PTX size. Abbreviations: KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; PDI, polydispersity index; PTX, paclitaxel; RT, room temperature.

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Anticancer activity of paclitaxel-loaded keratin nanoparticles in two-dimensional and perfused three-dimensional breast cancer models

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S159942

    Figure Lengend Snippet: KER-NPs-PTX preparation. Notes: ( A ) KER-NPs-PTX preparation by aggregation method, starting from a solution of pure keratin powder. ( B ) Correlation between PTX loading and KER-NPs-PTX size. Abbreviations: KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; PDI, polydispersity index; PTX, paclitaxel; RT, room temperature.

    Article Snippet: For p3D experiments, 2×106 MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were precultured for 7 and 4 days, respectively, and then treated with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX ([PTX] at the same drug concentration [5 µg/mL] used for 2D cultures) for 48 h. Entire scaffolds then underwent collagenase IV (Worthington Biochemical Corporation, Lakewood, NJ, USA) treatment at 37°C for 40 min, and apoptosis in the cell suspensions was evaluated by APC-Annexin V and PI Apoptosis Detection Kit.

    Techniques:

    Immunofluorescence staining of CC3 in MCF-7 (upper panels) and MDA MB 231 (lower panels) scaffold sections. Notes: Images show DAPI (blue) and CC3 (green) staining in MCF-7 ( A ) and MDA MB 231 ( B ) p3D scaffold sections upon treatment with PTX in a free form (b), HSA-NPs-PTX (c), and KER-NPs-PTX (d) (PTX, 5 µg/mL) for 48 h or untreated (a). Scale bar: 100 µm. Abbreviations: CC3, cleaved caspase 3; DAPI, 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole; HSA-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in albumin nanoparticles; KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; p3D, three-dimensional model with perfused bioreactor; PTX, paclitaxel.

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Anticancer activity of paclitaxel-loaded keratin nanoparticles in two-dimensional and perfused three-dimensional breast cancer models

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S159942

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Immunofluorescence staining of CC3 in MCF-7 (upper panels) and MDA MB 231 (lower panels) scaffold sections. Notes: Images show DAPI (blue) and CC3 (green) staining in MCF-7 ( A ) and MDA MB 231 ( B ) p3D scaffold sections upon treatment with PTX in a free form (b), HSA-NPs-PTX (c), and KER-NPs-PTX (d) (PTX, 5 µg/mL) for 48 h or untreated (a). Scale bar: 100 µm. Abbreviations: CC3, cleaved caspase 3; DAPI, 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole; HSA-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in albumin nanoparticles; KER-NPs-PTX, PTX loaded in keratin nanoparticles; p3D, three-dimensional model with perfused bioreactor; PTX, paclitaxel.

    Article Snippet: For p3D experiments, 2×106 MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were precultured for 7 and 4 days, respectively, and then treated with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX ([PTX] at the same drug concentration [5 µg/mL] used for 2D cultures) for 48 h. Entire scaffolds then underwent collagenase IV (Worthington Biochemical Corporation, Lakewood, NJ, USA) treatment at 37°C for 40 min, and apoptosis in the cell suspensions was evaluated by APC-Annexin V and PI Apoptosis Detection Kit.

    Techniques: Immunofluorescence, Staining, Multiple Displacement Amplification

    Induction of apoptosis in tumor cells cultured in 2D by PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX in 2D model. Notes: MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were exposed to PTX, HSA-NPs-PTX, and KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL) for 24 and 48 h. Apoptosis assays were carried out by flow cytometry, following APC-Annexin V and PI staining. Representative dot plots of MCF-7 ( A ) and MDA MB 231 ( B ) cell lines after each treatment. Percentage of early apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and negative to PI) and late apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and PI) was evaluated 24 and 48 h after treatment ( C ). Statistical significance versus untreated cells: * P

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Anticancer activity of paclitaxel-loaded keratin nanoparticles in two-dimensional and perfused three-dimensional breast cancer models

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S159942

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Induction of apoptosis in tumor cells cultured in 2D by PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX in 2D model. Notes: MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were exposed to PTX, HSA-NPs-PTX, and KER-NPs-PTX (PTX, 5 µg/mL) for 24 and 48 h. Apoptosis assays were carried out by flow cytometry, following APC-Annexin V and PI staining. Representative dot plots of MCF-7 ( A ) and MDA MB 231 ( B ) cell lines after each treatment. Percentage of early apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and negative to PI) and late apoptotic cells (positive to APC-Annexin V and PI) was evaluated 24 and 48 h after treatment ( C ). Statistical significance versus untreated cells: * P

    Article Snippet: For p3D experiments, 2×106 MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 cells were precultured for 7 and 4 days, respectively, and then treated with PTX in a free form, HSA-NPs-PTX, or KER-NPs-PTX ([PTX] at the same drug concentration [5 µg/mL] used for 2D cultures) for 48 h. Entire scaffolds then underwent collagenase IV (Worthington Biochemical Corporation, Lakewood, NJ, USA) treatment at 37°C for 40 min, and apoptosis in the cell suspensions was evaluated by APC-Annexin V and PI Apoptosis Detection Kit.

    Techniques: Cell Culture, Multiple Displacement Amplification, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Staining