ns3623  (Alomone Labs)


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    Structured Review

    Alomone Labs ns3623
    PV RBCs show increased Gárdos channel activity. ( A ) CCCP method analysis of PV and CT RBC membrane potential changes upon 100 µM NS309 addition. At the end of the experiment, cells were lysed with 3M NaCl 1% Triton X lysis solution to obtain the zero membrane potential (pHi = pHo) for absolute calculation of membrane potential. CT (mean—black line; SD—grey) and PV (mean—red line; SD—pink) RBCs. Data are displayed as mean with 95% confidence interval; CT ( n = 6) and PV ( n = 8). ( B ) Cell volume assay on Gárdos activity; 0.05% RBCs suspension was prepared in PBS with a final concertation of 0.2% BSA, 1 mM CaCl 2 , and 100 µM NS309. RBC size was measured using CASY before and 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 min after 100 μM NS309 addition. Mean with SD, n = 6, Mann–Whitney test. ( C – E ) Patch-clamp analysis. Upon cell catch external solution was added to the wells followed by 10 µM <t>NS3623,</t> 10 µM NS309, 5 µM TRAM-34, and 30 µM GdCl 3 . Currents were measured at room temperature applying −100 to +80 mV ramp voltage protocol for 300 ms, at a holding potential of −30 mV. The cell response was measured in pA at +80 mV. Statistical analysis of the currents at +80 mV in NS309 and TRAM-34 responding cells in ( C ) CT and PV RBCs ( n = 17; n = 48, respectively), ( D ) BaF3 EpoR JAK2 WT ( n = 20) and BaF3 EpoR JAK2 V617F ( n = 48), and ( E ) HEL ( n = 61) and HEL cells treated with 0.3 µM ruxolitinib for 24 h ( n = 63). Cell was considered responsive if it displayed at least a 20% current change. The left panel represents the cell current upon the addition of NS3623 (baseline), NS309, and TRAM-34. The central panel displays NS309-induced current increase, while the right panels represent TRAM-34-induced current decrease. The data are presented as median and box plots (25–75%) with whiskers (10–90%). Mann–Whitney test or Wilcoxon test, * p
    Ns3623, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/ns3623/product/Alomone Labs
    Average 93 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    ns3623 - by Bioz Stars, 2022-11
    93/100 stars

    Images

    1) Product Images from "Altered Ca2+ Homeostasis in Red Blood Cells of Polycythemia Vera Patients Following Disturbed Organelle Sorting during Terminal Erythropoiesis"

    Article Title: Altered Ca2+ Homeostasis in Red Blood Cells of Polycythemia Vera Patients Following Disturbed Organelle Sorting during Terminal Erythropoiesis

    Journal: Cells

    doi: 10.3390/cells11010049

    PV RBCs show increased Gárdos channel activity. ( A ) CCCP method analysis of PV and CT RBC membrane potential changes upon 100 µM NS309 addition. At the end of the experiment, cells were lysed with 3M NaCl 1% Triton X lysis solution to obtain the zero membrane potential (pHi = pHo) for absolute calculation of membrane potential. CT (mean—black line; SD—grey) and PV (mean—red line; SD—pink) RBCs. Data are displayed as mean with 95% confidence interval; CT ( n = 6) and PV ( n = 8). ( B ) Cell volume assay on Gárdos activity; 0.05% RBCs suspension was prepared in PBS with a final concertation of 0.2% BSA, 1 mM CaCl 2 , and 100 µM NS309. RBC size was measured using CASY before and 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 min after 100 μM NS309 addition. Mean with SD, n = 6, Mann–Whitney test. ( C – E ) Patch-clamp analysis. Upon cell catch external solution was added to the wells followed by 10 µM NS3623, 10 µM NS309, 5 µM TRAM-34, and 30 µM GdCl 3 . Currents were measured at room temperature applying −100 to +80 mV ramp voltage protocol for 300 ms, at a holding potential of −30 mV. The cell response was measured in pA at +80 mV. Statistical analysis of the currents at +80 mV in NS309 and TRAM-34 responding cells in ( C ) CT and PV RBCs ( n = 17; n = 48, respectively), ( D ) BaF3 EpoR JAK2 WT ( n = 20) and BaF3 EpoR JAK2 V617F ( n = 48), and ( E ) HEL ( n = 61) and HEL cells treated with 0.3 µM ruxolitinib for 24 h ( n = 63). Cell was considered responsive if it displayed at least a 20% current change. The left panel represents the cell current upon the addition of NS3623 (baseline), NS309, and TRAM-34. The central panel displays NS309-induced current increase, while the right panels represent TRAM-34-induced current decrease. The data are presented as median and box plots (25–75%) with whiskers (10–90%). Mann–Whitney test or Wilcoxon test, * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: PV RBCs show increased Gárdos channel activity. ( A ) CCCP method analysis of PV and CT RBC membrane potential changes upon 100 µM NS309 addition. At the end of the experiment, cells were lysed with 3M NaCl 1% Triton X lysis solution to obtain the zero membrane potential (pHi = pHo) for absolute calculation of membrane potential. CT (mean—black line; SD—grey) and PV (mean—red line; SD—pink) RBCs. Data are displayed as mean with 95% confidence interval; CT ( n = 6) and PV ( n = 8). ( B ) Cell volume assay on Gárdos activity; 0.05% RBCs suspension was prepared in PBS with a final concertation of 0.2% BSA, 1 mM CaCl 2 , and 100 µM NS309. RBC size was measured using CASY before and 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 min after 100 μM NS309 addition. Mean with SD, n = 6, Mann–Whitney test. ( C – E ) Patch-clamp analysis. Upon cell catch external solution was added to the wells followed by 10 µM NS3623, 10 µM NS309, 5 µM TRAM-34, and 30 µM GdCl 3 . Currents were measured at room temperature applying −100 to +80 mV ramp voltage protocol for 300 ms, at a holding potential of −30 mV. The cell response was measured in pA at +80 mV. Statistical analysis of the currents at +80 mV in NS309 and TRAM-34 responding cells in ( C ) CT and PV RBCs ( n = 17; n = 48, respectively), ( D ) BaF3 EpoR JAK2 WT ( n = 20) and BaF3 EpoR JAK2 V617F ( n = 48), and ( E ) HEL ( n = 61) and HEL cells treated with 0.3 µM ruxolitinib for 24 h ( n = 63). Cell was considered responsive if it displayed at least a 20% current change. The left panel represents the cell current upon the addition of NS3623 (baseline), NS309, and TRAM-34. The central panel displays NS309-induced current increase, while the right panels represent TRAM-34-induced current decrease. The data are presented as median and box plots (25–75%) with whiskers (10–90%). Mann–Whitney test or Wilcoxon test, * p

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Lysis, MANN-WHITNEY, Patch Clamp

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    Alomone Labs ns3623
    PV RBCs show increased Gárdos channel activity. ( A ) CCCP method analysis of PV and CT RBC membrane potential changes upon 100 µM NS309 addition. At the end of the experiment, cells were lysed with 3M NaCl 1% Triton X lysis solution to obtain the zero membrane potential (pHi = pHo) for absolute calculation of membrane potential. CT (mean—black line; SD—grey) and PV (mean—red line; SD—pink) RBCs. Data are displayed as mean with 95% confidence interval; CT ( n = 6) and PV ( n = 8). ( B ) Cell volume assay on Gárdos activity; 0.05% RBCs suspension was prepared in PBS with a final concertation of 0.2% BSA, 1 mM CaCl 2 , and 100 µM NS309. RBC size was measured using CASY before and 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 min after 100 μM NS309 addition. Mean with SD, n = 6, Mann–Whitney test. ( C – E ) Patch-clamp analysis. Upon cell catch external solution was added to the wells followed by 10 µM <t>NS3623,</t> 10 µM NS309, 5 µM TRAM-34, and 30 µM GdCl 3 . Currents were measured at room temperature applying −100 to +80 mV ramp voltage protocol for 300 ms, at a holding potential of −30 mV. The cell response was measured in pA at +80 mV. Statistical analysis of the currents at +80 mV in NS309 and TRAM-34 responding cells in ( C ) CT and PV RBCs ( n = 17; n = 48, respectively), ( D ) BaF3 EpoR JAK2 WT ( n = 20) and BaF3 EpoR JAK2 V617F ( n = 48), and ( E ) HEL ( n = 61) and HEL cells treated with 0.3 µM ruxolitinib for 24 h ( n = 63). Cell was considered responsive if it displayed at least a 20% current change. The left panel represents the cell current upon the addition of NS3623 (baseline), NS309, and TRAM-34. The central panel displays NS309-induced current increase, while the right panels represent TRAM-34-induced current decrease. The data are presented as median and box plots (25–75%) with whiskers (10–90%). Mann–Whitney test or Wilcoxon test, * p
    Ns3623, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/ns3623/product/Alomone Labs
    Average 93 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    ns3623 - by Bioz Stars, 2022-11
    93/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    93
    Alomone Labs presence of ranolazine
    Expression of mitochondrial catalase does not attenuate F1759A-induced Na + current. ( A ) The transgene system permitting expression of FLAG-F1759A-Na V 1.5 when reverse tetracycline-controlled transactivator (rtTA) and doxycycline are present (Tet-ON). Top: rtTA-driven expression by the cardiac-specific α–myosin heavy chain (α-MHC) promoter. The 3 noncoding exons that make up the 5′-UTR of the α-MHC gene are depicted as boxes and the introns as lines. Bottom: cDNA for FLAG-F1759A-Na V 1.5 ligated behind 7 tandem tetO sequences. ( B , C , and G ) Exemplary whole-cell Na + current (I Na ) traces of atrial cardiomyocytes isolated from control nontransgenic, F1759A-Na V 1.5, and F1759A-mCAT mice. Persistent I Na was evaluated with a 190 ms depolarization from a holding potential of –110 mV to –30 mV in the absence (black) and presence (green) of <t>ranolazine;</t> 5 mM Na + in the intracellular solution, and 100 mM Na + in the extracellular solution. Inset: Peak I Na and fraction of lidocaine-resistant current, whole-cell current traces were recorded with 5 mM Na + in extracellular and intracellular solutions, in the absence (black) and presence (blue) of 3 mM lidocaine. ( D ) Intracellular Na + concentration ([Na + ] i ) in nontransgenic (NTG) and F1759A-Na V 1.5 in quiescent (0 Hz ) and field-stimulated (1 Hz ) atrial cardiomyocytes. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA, P = 0.016, Tukey’s multiple-comparison test: * P
    Presence Of Ranolazine, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    Alomone Labs am404
    Effects of intracerebral <t>AM404</t> on haloperidol-induced VCMs in rodents. ( A ) Rats ( n = 5–7 per group) were treated daily with oral haloperidol (1 mg/kg/d) for 21 days and received AM404 (0, 10, or 50 nmol) via intracerebroventricular injection at 23 hours after the last administration of haloperidol. The number of VCMs was measured for 3 minutes starting 30 minutes after the administration of AM404. After the experiment, the injection sites were confirmed by injecting Evans blue through the same cannula. A representative image of consecutive coronal sections is shown (43 mm wide in actual size). Individual data are shown with the mean ± SEM. Statistical significance was tested using 1-way ANOVA with post hoc Tukey’s test. * P
    Am404, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/am404/product/Alomone Labs
    Average 93 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    am404 - by Bioz Stars, 2022-11
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    Image Search Results


    PV RBCs show increased Gárdos channel activity. ( A ) CCCP method analysis of PV and CT RBC membrane potential changes upon 100 µM NS309 addition. At the end of the experiment, cells were lysed with 3M NaCl 1% Triton X lysis solution to obtain the zero membrane potential (pHi = pHo) for absolute calculation of membrane potential. CT (mean—black line; SD—grey) and PV (mean—red line; SD—pink) RBCs. Data are displayed as mean with 95% confidence interval; CT ( n = 6) and PV ( n = 8). ( B ) Cell volume assay on Gárdos activity; 0.05% RBCs suspension was prepared in PBS with a final concertation of 0.2% BSA, 1 mM CaCl 2 , and 100 µM NS309. RBC size was measured using CASY before and 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 min after 100 μM NS309 addition. Mean with SD, n = 6, Mann–Whitney test. ( C – E ) Patch-clamp analysis. Upon cell catch external solution was added to the wells followed by 10 µM NS3623, 10 µM NS309, 5 µM TRAM-34, and 30 µM GdCl 3 . Currents were measured at room temperature applying −100 to +80 mV ramp voltage protocol for 300 ms, at a holding potential of −30 mV. The cell response was measured in pA at +80 mV. Statistical analysis of the currents at +80 mV in NS309 and TRAM-34 responding cells in ( C ) CT and PV RBCs ( n = 17; n = 48, respectively), ( D ) BaF3 EpoR JAK2 WT ( n = 20) and BaF3 EpoR JAK2 V617F ( n = 48), and ( E ) HEL ( n = 61) and HEL cells treated with 0.3 µM ruxolitinib for 24 h ( n = 63). Cell was considered responsive if it displayed at least a 20% current change. The left panel represents the cell current upon the addition of NS3623 (baseline), NS309, and TRAM-34. The central panel displays NS309-induced current increase, while the right panels represent TRAM-34-induced current decrease. The data are presented as median and box plots (25–75%) with whiskers (10–90%). Mann–Whitney test or Wilcoxon test, * p

    Journal: Cells

    Article Title: Altered Ca2+ Homeostasis in Red Blood Cells of Polycythemia Vera Patients Following Disturbed Organelle Sorting during Terminal Erythropoiesis

    doi: 10.3390/cells11010049

    Figure Lengend Snippet: PV RBCs show increased Gárdos channel activity. ( A ) CCCP method analysis of PV and CT RBC membrane potential changes upon 100 µM NS309 addition. At the end of the experiment, cells were lysed with 3M NaCl 1% Triton X lysis solution to obtain the zero membrane potential (pHi = pHo) for absolute calculation of membrane potential. CT (mean—black line; SD—grey) and PV (mean—red line; SD—pink) RBCs. Data are displayed as mean with 95% confidence interval; CT ( n = 6) and PV ( n = 8). ( B ) Cell volume assay on Gárdos activity; 0.05% RBCs suspension was prepared in PBS with a final concertation of 0.2% BSA, 1 mM CaCl 2 , and 100 µM NS309. RBC size was measured using CASY before and 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 min after 100 μM NS309 addition. Mean with SD, n = 6, Mann–Whitney test. ( C – E ) Patch-clamp analysis. Upon cell catch external solution was added to the wells followed by 10 µM NS3623, 10 µM NS309, 5 µM TRAM-34, and 30 µM GdCl 3 . Currents were measured at room temperature applying −100 to +80 mV ramp voltage protocol for 300 ms, at a holding potential of −30 mV. The cell response was measured in pA at +80 mV. Statistical analysis of the currents at +80 mV in NS309 and TRAM-34 responding cells in ( C ) CT and PV RBCs ( n = 17; n = 48, respectively), ( D ) BaF3 EpoR JAK2 WT ( n = 20) and BaF3 EpoR JAK2 V617F ( n = 48), and ( E ) HEL ( n = 61) and HEL cells treated with 0.3 µM ruxolitinib for 24 h ( n = 63). Cell was considered responsive if it displayed at least a 20% current change. The left panel represents the cell current upon the addition of NS3623 (baseline), NS309, and TRAM-34. The central panel displays NS309-induced current increase, while the right panels represent TRAM-34-induced current decrease. The data are presented as median and box plots (25–75%) with whiskers (10–90%). Mann–Whitney test or Wilcoxon test, * p

    Article Snippet: Briefly, after three washes with PBS and upon cell catch, external recording solution was added to the wells followed by 10 µM NS3623 (a powerful chloride channel inhibitor [ ]), 10 µM NS309 (Alomone labs, Jerusalem, Israel), 5 µM TRAM-34 (a specific Gárdos channel inhibitor, Tocris, Bristol, UK), and 30 µM GdCl3 (a generic non selective cation channel inhibitor, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA).

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Lysis, MANN-WHITNEY, Patch Clamp

    Expression of mitochondrial catalase does not attenuate F1759A-induced Na + current. ( A ) The transgene system permitting expression of FLAG-F1759A-Na V 1.5 when reverse tetracycline-controlled transactivator (rtTA) and doxycycline are present (Tet-ON). Top: rtTA-driven expression by the cardiac-specific α–myosin heavy chain (α-MHC) promoter. The 3 noncoding exons that make up the 5′-UTR of the α-MHC gene are depicted as boxes and the introns as lines. Bottom: cDNA for FLAG-F1759A-Na V 1.5 ligated behind 7 tandem tetO sequences. ( B , C , and G ) Exemplary whole-cell Na + current (I Na ) traces of atrial cardiomyocytes isolated from control nontransgenic, F1759A-Na V 1.5, and F1759A-mCAT mice. Persistent I Na was evaluated with a 190 ms depolarization from a holding potential of –110 mV to –30 mV in the absence (black) and presence (green) of ranolazine; 5 mM Na + in the intracellular solution, and 100 mM Na + in the extracellular solution. Inset: Peak I Na and fraction of lidocaine-resistant current, whole-cell current traces were recorded with 5 mM Na + in extracellular and intracellular solutions, in the absence (black) and presence (blue) of 3 mM lidocaine. ( D ) Intracellular Na + concentration ([Na + ] i ) in nontransgenic (NTG) and F1759A-Na V 1.5 in quiescent (0 Hz ) and field-stimulated (1 Hz ) atrial cardiomyocytes. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA, P = 0.016, Tukey’s multiple-comparison test: * P

    Journal: JCI Insight

    Article Title: Attenuating persistent sodium current–induced atrial myopathy and fibrillation by preventing mitochondrial oxidative stress

    doi: 10.1172/jci.insight.147371

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Expression of mitochondrial catalase does not attenuate F1759A-induced Na + current. ( A ) The transgene system permitting expression of FLAG-F1759A-Na V 1.5 when reverse tetracycline-controlled transactivator (rtTA) and doxycycline are present (Tet-ON). Top: rtTA-driven expression by the cardiac-specific α–myosin heavy chain (α-MHC) promoter. The 3 noncoding exons that make up the 5′-UTR of the α-MHC gene are depicted as boxes and the introns as lines. Bottom: cDNA for FLAG-F1759A-Na V 1.5 ligated behind 7 tandem tetO sequences. ( B , C , and G ) Exemplary whole-cell Na + current (I Na ) traces of atrial cardiomyocytes isolated from control nontransgenic, F1759A-Na V 1.5, and F1759A-mCAT mice. Persistent I Na was evaluated with a 190 ms depolarization from a holding potential of –110 mV to –30 mV in the absence (black) and presence (green) of ranolazine; 5 mM Na + in the intracellular solution, and 100 mM Na + in the extracellular solution. Inset: Peak I Na and fraction of lidocaine-resistant current, whole-cell current traces were recorded with 5 mM Na + in extracellular and intracellular solutions, in the absence (black) and presence (blue) of 3 mM lidocaine. ( D ) Intracellular Na + concentration ([Na + ] i ) in nontransgenic (NTG) and F1759A-Na V 1.5 in quiescent (0 Hz ) and field-stimulated (1 Hz ) atrial cardiomyocytes. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA, P = 0.016, Tukey’s multiple-comparison test: * P

    Article Snippet: Persistent current was evaluated by 190 ms depolarization from –100 mV to –30 mV in the absence and presence of ranolazine (Alomone).

    Techniques: Expressing, Isolation, Mouse Assay, Concentration Assay

    Effects of intracerebral AM404 on haloperidol-induced VCMs in rodents. ( A ) Rats ( n = 5–7 per group) were treated daily with oral haloperidol (1 mg/kg/d) for 21 days and received AM404 (0, 10, or 50 nmol) via intracerebroventricular injection at 23 hours after the last administration of haloperidol. The number of VCMs was measured for 3 minutes starting 30 minutes after the administration of AM404. After the experiment, the injection sites were confirmed by injecting Evans blue through the same cannula. A representative image of consecutive coronal sections is shown (43 mm wide in actual size). Individual data are shown with the mean ± SEM. Statistical significance was tested using 1-way ANOVA with post hoc Tukey’s test. * P

    Journal: JCI Insight

    Article Title: Striatal TRPV1 activation by acetaminophen ameliorates dopamine D2 receptor antagonist–induced orofacial dyskinesia

    doi: 10.1172/jci.insight.145632

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of intracerebral AM404 on haloperidol-induced VCMs in rodents. ( A ) Rats ( n = 5–7 per group) were treated daily with oral haloperidol (1 mg/kg/d) for 21 days and received AM404 (0, 10, or 50 nmol) via intracerebroventricular injection at 23 hours after the last administration of haloperidol. The number of VCMs was measured for 3 minutes starting 30 minutes after the administration of AM404. After the experiment, the injection sites were confirmed by injecting Evans blue through the same cannula. A representative image of consecutive coronal sections is shown (43 mm wide in actual size). Individual data are shown with the mean ± SEM. Statistical significance was tested using 1-way ANOVA with post hoc Tukey’s test. * P

    Article Snippet: Haloperidol was purchased from Tokyo Chemical Industry; acetaminophen and capsaicin from Nacalai Tesque; AM404 from Alomone Labs; methamphetamine from Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma; CNO from Cayman Chemical; DL-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (DL-APV) from MilliporeSigma; dinitroquinoxaline-2,3(1H,4H)-dione (DNQX) from Tocris Bioscience (Bio-Techne); bicuculline from Enzo Life Science; and pentobarbital from Kyoritsu Seiyaku.

    Techniques: Injection

    Effects of the dorsal striatal injection of AM404 and capsaicin on haloperidol-induced VCMs in WT and TRPV1-KO mice. WT and TRPV1-KO mice were treated daily with orally administrated haloperidol (2 mg/kg/d) for 21 days. On day 22, after VCMs were counted for 5 minutes as an initial baseline, half of the mice received vehicle (group 1), and the rest received AM404 (1 pmol/side) or capsaicin (10 ng/side) (group 2) through a preimplanted cannula in the dorsal striatum. Five minutes later, the number of VCMs was counted for another 5 minutes to determine the effect of the injected drug. The daily haloperidol treatment was continued for 4 more days; on day 26, the second set of VCM measurements was performed in a crossover design, with AM404 or capsaicin injection in group 1 and vehicle injection in group 2. ( A and B ) Effects of the dorsal striatal injection of AM404 on haloperidol-induced VCMs ( n = 9 per group). ( C and D ) Effects of the dorsal striatal injection of capsaicin on haloperidol-induced VCMs ( n = 7 per group). Changes in the number of VCMs are represented for individual mice on days 22 and 26 as percentages of the baseline VCM count. Open and filled circles indicate the results from groups 1 and 2, respectively. Statistical significance was tested using repeated measures 2-way ANOVA with post hoc multiple comparisons; * P

    Journal: JCI Insight

    Article Title: Striatal TRPV1 activation by acetaminophen ameliorates dopamine D2 receptor antagonist–induced orofacial dyskinesia

    doi: 10.1172/jci.insight.145632

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of the dorsal striatal injection of AM404 and capsaicin on haloperidol-induced VCMs in WT and TRPV1-KO mice. WT and TRPV1-KO mice were treated daily with orally administrated haloperidol (2 mg/kg/d) for 21 days. On day 22, after VCMs were counted for 5 minutes as an initial baseline, half of the mice received vehicle (group 1), and the rest received AM404 (1 pmol/side) or capsaicin (10 ng/side) (group 2) through a preimplanted cannula in the dorsal striatum. Five minutes later, the number of VCMs was counted for another 5 minutes to determine the effect of the injected drug. The daily haloperidol treatment was continued for 4 more days; on day 26, the second set of VCM measurements was performed in a crossover design, with AM404 or capsaicin injection in group 1 and vehicle injection in group 2. ( A and B ) Effects of the dorsal striatal injection of AM404 on haloperidol-induced VCMs ( n = 9 per group). ( C and D ) Effects of the dorsal striatal injection of capsaicin on haloperidol-induced VCMs ( n = 7 per group). Changes in the number of VCMs are represented for individual mice on days 22 and 26 as percentages of the baseline VCM count. Open and filled circles indicate the results from groups 1 and 2, respectively. Statistical significance was tested using repeated measures 2-way ANOVA with post hoc multiple comparisons; * P

    Article Snippet: Haloperidol was purchased from Tokyo Chemical Industry; acetaminophen and capsaicin from Nacalai Tesque; AM404 from Alomone Labs; methamphetamine from Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma; CNO from Cayman Chemical; DL-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (DL-APV) from MilliporeSigma; dinitroquinoxaline-2,3(1H,4H)-dione (DNQX) from Tocris Bioscience (Bio-Techne); bicuculline from Enzo Life Science; and pentobarbital from Kyoritsu Seiyaku.

    Techniques: Injection, Mouse Assay