muscarinic toxin 3  (Alomone Labs)


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  • 90
    Name:
    Muscarinic Toxin 3
    Description:
    An Antagonist of M1 and M4 Muscarinic Receptors and Adrenoceptors
    Catalog Number:
    M-140
    Price:
    199.0
    Category:
    Toxin
    Source:
    Natural protein isolated from Dendroaspis angusticeps (Eastern green mamba) (Naja angusticeps).
    Applications:
    0
    Purity:
    >99% (HPLC)
    Size:
    50 mcg
    Format:
    Lyophilized powder.
    Formula:
    C319H489N89O97S8
    Molecular Weight:
    7379 Da.
    Molecule Name:
    Muscarinic Toxin 3, MT3
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    Structured Review

    Alomone Labs muscarinic toxin 3
    Muscarinic Toxin 3
    An Antagonist of M1 and M4 Muscarinic Receptors and Adrenoceptors
    https://www.bioz.com/result/muscarinic toxin 3/product/Alomone Labs
    Average 90 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    muscarinic toxin 3 - by Bioz Stars, 2021-09
    90/100 stars

    Images

    1) Product Images from "Presynaptic muscarinic acetylcholine autoreceptors (M1, M2 and M4 subtypes), adenosine receptors (A1 and A2A) and tropomyosin-related kinase B receptor (TrkB) modulate the developmental synapse elimination process at the neuromuscular junction"

    Article Title: Presynaptic muscarinic acetylcholine autoreceptors (M1, M2 and M4 subtypes), adenosine receptors (A1 and A2A) and tropomyosin-related kinase B receptor (TrkB) modulate the developmental synapse elimination process at the neuromuscular junction

    Journal: Molecular Brain

    doi: 10.1186/s13041-016-0248-9

    Changes in polyneuronal innervation of the NMJ after stimulation and inhibition of the mAChR. The figure shows the percentage of singly-, dually- and triply- (or more) innervated NMJs in the untreated YFP control mice (exposed to PBS applications) and after 2 (P7 in a ), 4 (P9, in b ) and in some cases 10 (P15, in c ) applications (one application every day after P5) of the mAChR agonist (ago.) oxotremorine (OXO) and such antagonists (ant.) as atropine (AT), pirenzepine (PIR), methoctramine (MET) and muscarinic toxin 3 (MT3). Fisher’s test: * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Changes in polyneuronal innervation of the NMJ after stimulation and inhibition of the mAChR. The figure shows the percentage of singly-, dually- and triply- (or more) innervated NMJs in the untreated YFP control mice (exposed to PBS applications) and after 2 (P7 in a ), 4 (P9, in b ) and in some cases 10 (P15, in c ) applications (one application every day after P5) of the mAChR agonist (ago.) oxotremorine (OXO) and such antagonists (ant.) as atropine (AT), pirenzepine (PIR), methoctramine (MET) and muscarinic toxin 3 (MT3). Fisher’s test: * p

    Techniques Used: Inhibition, Mouse Assay

    2) Product Images from "Presynaptic Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors and TrkB Receptor Cooperate in the Elimination of Redundant Motor Nerve Terminals during Development"

    Article Title: Presynaptic Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors and TrkB Receptor Cooperate in the Elimination of Redundant Motor Nerve Terminals during Development

    Journal: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience

    doi: 10.3389/fnagi.2017.00024

    The picture in (A) shows representative confocal immunofluorescence images of singly-, dually- and polyinnervated neuromuscular junction area (NMJ) from P9 YFP mice. Scale bar: 10 μm. The histograms in (B) show the percentage of singly-, doubly- and triply- (or more) innervated NMJs in control (phosphate buffered saline, PBS treated) and levator auris longus (LAL) muscles treated with the inhibitors considered. We show newly reproduced data of previous results to facilitate comparison (Nadal et al., 2016 ). (C) shows the percentage of NMJs after the simultaneous inhibition of two receptors clearly involved in axonal elimination (those that affect axon loss rate when they are individually blocked (all except M 4 ). The associations of the M 4 blocker muscarinic toxin 3 (MT3) with the other inhibitors are represented in (D) . An overall representation of the data illustrating the individual role and cooperation of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) and tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) receptors in developmental axonal loss modulation is shown in the diagram in (E) . The green arrows show how effective these receptors are at accelerating axonal elimination (the thicker they are, the greater their effect). The association of the M 1 and TrkB blockers results in the addition of their respective effects (blue bond between these receptors). The M 4 receptor, which does not by itself affect axonal elimination (black arrow), cooperates positively with M 2 (dotted green arrow) and produces some occlusion of the TrkB pathway (red arrow) but does not cooperate with M 1 (dotted black arrow). All NMJs visible in their entirety were scored, with a minimum of 100 synapses per muscle. At least six muscles were studied for each age and condition examined. Fisher’s test was applied to compare percentages. When the corresponding antagonist or combinations of two substances were compared with control PBS, significance symbols are: * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: The picture in (A) shows representative confocal immunofluorescence images of singly-, dually- and polyinnervated neuromuscular junction area (NMJ) from P9 YFP mice. Scale bar: 10 μm. The histograms in (B) show the percentage of singly-, doubly- and triply- (or more) innervated NMJs in control (phosphate buffered saline, PBS treated) and levator auris longus (LAL) muscles treated with the inhibitors considered. We show newly reproduced data of previous results to facilitate comparison (Nadal et al., 2016 ). (C) shows the percentage of NMJs after the simultaneous inhibition of two receptors clearly involved in axonal elimination (those that affect axon loss rate when they are individually blocked (all except M 4 ). The associations of the M 4 blocker muscarinic toxin 3 (MT3) with the other inhibitors are represented in (D) . An overall representation of the data illustrating the individual role and cooperation of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) and tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) receptors in developmental axonal loss modulation is shown in the diagram in (E) . The green arrows show how effective these receptors are at accelerating axonal elimination (the thicker they are, the greater their effect). The association of the M 1 and TrkB blockers results in the addition of their respective effects (blue bond between these receptors). The M 4 receptor, which does not by itself affect axonal elimination (black arrow), cooperates positively with M 2 (dotted green arrow) and produces some occlusion of the TrkB pathway (red arrow) but does not cooperate with M 1 (dotted black arrow). All NMJs visible in their entirety were scored, with a minimum of 100 synapses per muscle. At least six muscles were studied for each age and condition examined. Fisher’s test was applied to compare percentages. When the corresponding antagonist or combinations of two substances were compared with control PBS, significance symbols are: * P

    Techniques Used: Immunofluorescence, Mouse Assay, Inhibition

    Related Articles

    other:

    Article Title: Presynaptic Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors and TrkB Receptor Cooperate in the Elimination of Redundant Motor Nerve Terminals during Development
    Article Snippet: Selective M1 , M2 and M4 mAChR AntagonistsThe stock solutions were pirenzepine (PIR) dihydrochloride (1071, Tocris Bioscience) 10 mM; methoctramine (MET; M105, Sigma—Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) 1 mM; muscarinic toxin 3 (MT3; M-140, Alomone Labs) 50 μM.

    Article Title: Presynaptic muscarinic acetylcholine autoreceptors (M1, M2 and M4 subtypes), adenosine receptors (A1 and A2A) and tropomyosin-related kinase B receptor (TrkB) modulate the developmental synapse elimination process at the neuromuscular junction
    Article Snippet: Selective M1 , M2 and M4 mAChR antagonists The stock solutions were pirenzepine dihydrochloride (PIR; 1071, Tocris Bioscience) 10 mM; methoctramine (MET; M105, Sigma – Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) 1 mM; muscarinic toxin 3 (MT-3; M-140, Alomone Labs) 50 μM.

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    Alomone Labs muscarinic toxin 3
    Changes in polyneuronal innervation of the NMJ after stimulation and inhibition of the mAChR. The figure shows the percentage of singly-, dually- and triply- (or more) innervated NMJs in the untreated YFP control mice (exposed to PBS applications) and after 2 (P7 in a ), 4 (P9, in b ) and in some cases 10 (P15, in c ) applications (one application every day after P5) of the mAChR agonist (ago.) oxotremorine (OXO) and such antagonists (ant.) as atropine (AT), pirenzepine (PIR), methoctramine (MET) and muscarinic <t>toxin</t> 3 (MT3). Fisher’s test: * p
    Muscarinic Toxin 3, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/muscarinic toxin 3/product/Alomone Labs
    Average 90 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    muscarinic toxin 3 - by Bioz Stars, 2021-09
    90/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

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    Changes in polyneuronal innervation of the NMJ after stimulation and inhibition of the mAChR. The figure shows the percentage of singly-, dually- and triply- (or more) innervated NMJs in the untreated YFP control mice (exposed to PBS applications) and after 2 (P7 in a ), 4 (P9, in b ) and in some cases 10 (P15, in c ) applications (one application every day after P5) of the mAChR agonist (ago.) oxotremorine (OXO) and such antagonists (ant.) as atropine (AT), pirenzepine (PIR), methoctramine (MET) and muscarinic <t>toxin</t> 3 (MT3). Fisher’s test: * p
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    Alomone Labs tta a2
    Changes in polyneuronal innervation of the NMJ after stimulation and inhibition of the mAChR. The figure shows the percentage of singly-, dually- and triply- (or more) innervated NMJs in the untreated YFP control mice (exposed to PBS applications) and after 2 (P7 in a ), 4 (P9, in b ) and in some cases 10 (P15, in c ) applications (one application every day after P5) of the mAChR agonist (ago.) oxotremorine (OXO) and such antagonists (ant.) as atropine (AT), pirenzepine (PIR), methoctramine (MET) and muscarinic <t>toxin</t> 3 (MT3). Fisher’s test: * p
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    Image Search Results


    Changes in polyneuronal innervation of the NMJ after stimulation and inhibition of the mAChR. The figure shows the percentage of singly-, dually- and triply- (or more) innervated NMJs in the untreated YFP control mice (exposed to PBS applications) and after 2 (P7 in a ), 4 (P9, in b ) and in some cases 10 (P15, in c ) applications (one application every day after P5) of the mAChR agonist (ago.) oxotremorine (OXO) and such antagonists (ant.) as atropine (AT), pirenzepine (PIR), methoctramine (MET) and muscarinic toxin 3 (MT3). Fisher’s test: * p

    Journal: Molecular Brain

    Article Title: Presynaptic muscarinic acetylcholine autoreceptors (M1, M2 and M4 subtypes), adenosine receptors (A1 and A2A) and tropomyosin-related kinase B receptor (TrkB) modulate the developmental synapse elimination process at the neuromuscular junction

    doi: 10.1186/s13041-016-0248-9

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Changes in polyneuronal innervation of the NMJ after stimulation and inhibition of the mAChR. The figure shows the percentage of singly-, dually- and triply- (or more) innervated NMJs in the untreated YFP control mice (exposed to PBS applications) and after 2 (P7 in a ), 4 (P9, in b ) and in some cases 10 (P15, in c ) applications (one application every day after P5) of the mAChR agonist (ago.) oxotremorine (OXO) and such antagonists (ant.) as atropine (AT), pirenzepine (PIR), methoctramine (MET) and muscarinic toxin 3 (MT3). Fisher’s test: * p

    Article Snippet: Selective M1 , M2 and M4 mAChR antagonists The stock solutions were pirenzepine dihydrochloride (PIR; 1071, Tocris Bioscience) 10 mM; methoctramine (MET; M105, Sigma – Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) 1 mM; muscarinic toxin 3 (MT-3; M-140, Alomone Labs) 50 μM.

    Techniques: Inhibition, Mouse Assay

    The picture in (A) shows representative confocal immunofluorescence images of singly-, dually- and polyinnervated neuromuscular junction area (NMJ) from P9 YFP mice. Scale bar: 10 μm. The histograms in (B) show the percentage of singly-, doubly- and triply- (or more) innervated NMJs in control (phosphate buffered saline, PBS treated) and levator auris longus (LAL) muscles treated with the inhibitors considered. We show newly reproduced data of previous results to facilitate comparison (Nadal et al., 2016 ). (C) shows the percentage of NMJs after the simultaneous inhibition of two receptors clearly involved in axonal elimination (those that affect axon loss rate when they are individually blocked (all except M 4 ). The associations of the M 4 blocker muscarinic toxin 3 (MT3) with the other inhibitors are represented in (D) . An overall representation of the data illustrating the individual role and cooperation of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) and tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) receptors in developmental axonal loss modulation is shown in the diagram in (E) . The green arrows show how effective these receptors are at accelerating axonal elimination (the thicker they are, the greater their effect). The association of the M 1 and TrkB blockers results in the addition of their respective effects (blue bond between these receptors). The M 4 receptor, which does not by itself affect axonal elimination (black arrow), cooperates positively with M 2 (dotted green arrow) and produces some occlusion of the TrkB pathway (red arrow) but does not cooperate with M 1 (dotted black arrow). All NMJs visible in their entirety were scored, with a minimum of 100 synapses per muscle. At least six muscles were studied for each age and condition examined. Fisher’s test was applied to compare percentages. When the corresponding antagonist or combinations of two substances were compared with control PBS, significance symbols are: * P

    Journal: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience

    Article Title: Presynaptic Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors and TrkB Receptor Cooperate in the Elimination of Redundant Motor Nerve Terminals during Development

    doi: 10.3389/fnagi.2017.00024

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The picture in (A) shows representative confocal immunofluorescence images of singly-, dually- and polyinnervated neuromuscular junction area (NMJ) from P9 YFP mice. Scale bar: 10 μm. The histograms in (B) show the percentage of singly-, doubly- and triply- (or more) innervated NMJs in control (phosphate buffered saline, PBS treated) and levator auris longus (LAL) muscles treated with the inhibitors considered. We show newly reproduced data of previous results to facilitate comparison (Nadal et al., 2016 ). (C) shows the percentage of NMJs after the simultaneous inhibition of two receptors clearly involved in axonal elimination (those that affect axon loss rate when they are individually blocked (all except M 4 ). The associations of the M 4 blocker muscarinic toxin 3 (MT3) with the other inhibitors are represented in (D) . An overall representation of the data illustrating the individual role and cooperation of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) and tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) receptors in developmental axonal loss modulation is shown in the diagram in (E) . The green arrows show how effective these receptors are at accelerating axonal elimination (the thicker they are, the greater their effect). The association of the M 1 and TrkB blockers results in the addition of their respective effects (blue bond between these receptors). The M 4 receptor, which does not by itself affect axonal elimination (black arrow), cooperates positively with M 2 (dotted green arrow) and produces some occlusion of the TrkB pathway (red arrow) but does not cooperate with M 1 (dotted black arrow). All NMJs visible in their entirety were scored, with a minimum of 100 synapses per muscle. At least six muscles were studied for each age and condition examined. Fisher’s test was applied to compare percentages. When the corresponding antagonist or combinations of two substances were compared with control PBS, significance symbols are: * P

    Article Snippet: Selective M1 , M2 and M4 mAChR Antagonists The stock solutions were pirenzepine (PIR) dihydrochloride (1071, Tocris Bioscience) 10 mM; methoctramine (MET; M105, Sigma—Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) 1 mM; muscarinic toxin 3 (MT3; M-140, Alomone Labs) 50 μM.

    Techniques: Immunofluorescence, Mouse Assay, Inhibition