apetx2  (Alomone Labs)


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    Name:
    APETx2
    Description:
    A Blocker of ASIC3 Channel
    Catalog Number:
    STA-160
    Price:
    274.0
    Category:
    Toxin
    Source:
    Synthetic peptide
    Applications:
    0
    Purity:
    >98% (HPLC)
    Size:
    0 1 mg
    Format:
    Lyophilized powder.
    Formula:
    C196H280N54O61S6
    Molecular Weight:
    4561 Da.
    Molecule Name:
    APETx2, Toxin APETx2, Pi-actitoxin-Ael2b, Pi-AITX-Ael2b
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    Structured Review

    Alomone Labs apetx2
    APETx2
    A Blocker of ASIC3 Channel
    https://www.bioz.com/result/apetx2/product/Alomone Labs
    Average 93 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    apetx2 - by Bioz Stars, 2021-09
    93/100 stars

    Images

    1) Product Images from "Involvement of Acid-Sensing Ion Channel 1b in the Development of Acid-Induced Chronic Muscle Pain"

    Article Title: Involvement of Acid-Sensing Ion Channel 1b in the Development of Acid-Induced Chronic Muscle Pain

    Journal: Frontiers in Neuroscience

    doi: 10.3389/fnins.2019.01247

    Effect of amiloride, mambalgin-1, APETx2 and PcTx1 on ASIC1b-expressing muscle afferent DRG neurons. (A) Whole-cell patch clamp recording on an ASIC1b-expressing DRG neuron projecting to gastrocnemius muscle labeled by fluorogold. (B) Mambalgin-1 (MB-1) (1 μM) inhibited acid (pH 5.0)-induced currents in 13 of 14 ASIC1b-expressing muscle afferent DRG neurons. (C) APETx2 (1 μM) inhibited acid (pH 5.0)-induced currents in 6 of 13 ASIC1b-expressing muscle afferent DRG neurons. (D) PcTx1 (100 nM) inhibited acid (pH 5.0)-induced currents in 5 of 11 ASIC1b-expressing muscle afferent DRG neurons.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of amiloride, mambalgin-1, APETx2 and PcTx1 on ASIC1b-expressing muscle afferent DRG neurons. (A) Whole-cell patch clamp recording on an ASIC1b-expressing DRG neuron projecting to gastrocnemius muscle labeled by fluorogold. (B) Mambalgin-1 (MB-1) (1 μM) inhibited acid (pH 5.0)-induced currents in 13 of 14 ASIC1b-expressing muscle afferent DRG neurons. (C) APETx2 (1 μM) inhibited acid (pH 5.0)-induced currents in 6 of 13 ASIC1b-expressing muscle afferent DRG neurons. (D) PcTx1 (100 nM) inhibited acid (pH 5.0)-induced currents in 5 of 11 ASIC1b-expressing muscle afferent DRG neurons.

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Patch Clamp, Labeling

    2) Product Images from "Local ASIC3 modulates pain and disease progression in a rat model of osteoarthritis"

    Article Title: Local ASIC3 modulates pain and disease progression in a rat model of osteoarthritis

    Journal: Journal of Biomedical Science

    doi: 10.1186/1423-0127-19-77

    Fast Blue labeling and immunohistochemistry staining for ASIC3 : (a-b) Naïve- model, (c-d) OA-model, (e-f) APETx2 administration to OA-model in early phase. Photos in each row are the same DRG. In ( b ),( d ),( f ), large arrows indicate Fast Blue labeled, ASIC3 immunoreactive (ASIC3-ir) DRG cells, while ASIC3-ir cells that were not labeled by Fast Blue are indicated by small arrowheads. More than 100 FB-labeled neurons were analyzed from 4 rats in each group. The percentage of ASIC3-ir knee joint afferents was 18 ± 3% (mean ± SD) in naïve models, 46 ± 4% in OA-models ( p = 0.003), and 20 ± 5% in the early-phase APETx2 group ( p = 0.006), respectively. Scale bar: 50 μm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Fast Blue labeling and immunohistochemistry staining for ASIC3 : (a-b) Naïve- model, (c-d) OA-model, (e-f) APETx2 administration to OA-model in early phase. Photos in each row are the same DRG. In ( b ),( d ),( f ), large arrows indicate Fast Blue labeled, ASIC3 immunoreactive (ASIC3-ir) DRG cells, while ASIC3-ir cells that were not labeled by Fast Blue are indicated by small arrowheads. More than 100 FB-labeled neurons were analyzed from 4 rats in each group. The percentage of ASIC3-ir knee joint afferents was 18 ± 3% (mean ± SD) in naïve models, 46 ± 4% in OA-models ( p = 0.003), and 20 ± 5% in the early-phase APETx2 group ( p = 0.006), respectively. Scale bar: 50 μm.

    Techniques Used: Labeling, Immunohistochemistry, Staining

    Histological evaluation of knee joint using Modified Mankin Score. a scale of 0–13 (from 0 (worst) to 13 (best)). Intra-articular injection of APETx2 in early phase prevented OA progression, including breakdown of articular surface and hypocellularity. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Histological evaluation of knee joint using Modified Mankin Score. a scale of 0–13 (from 0 (worst) to 13 (best)). Intra-articular injection of APETx2 in early phase prevented OA progression, including breakdown of articular surface and hypocellularity. * p

    Techniques Used: Modification, Injection

    Histology of knee joints with Safranin O staining at Day14. Three different magnifications (×1.25, ×10, ×20) were shown in each group. ( a-c ) Naïve model: Full thickness of cartilage. Rich chondrocytes with proteoglycan (red staining by safranin O) ( d-f ) OA model: Severe damage of cartilage surface with loss of chondrocytes in superficial and middle layer (#), hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone (white arrow) were observed in ( f ) . Increased thickening of subchondral bone subjacent to the area of severe cartilage lesion was also observed in ( d,e ). ( g-i ) APETx2 administration in early phase: Chondrocytes were well observed in superficial and middle layer (black arrow). Although proteoglycan loss, cartilage surface kept smooth and no apparent thinning (*) in ( i ). ( j-l ) APETx2 in late phase: same findings as OA. Apparent chondroprotective effect was not seen (#) and hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone were also observed (white arrow) in ( l ). F: femur, M: meniscus, T: tibia, Scale bar: 1 mm, 100 μm 50 μm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Histology of knee joints with Safranin O staining at Day14. Three different magnifications (×1.25, ×10, ×20) were shown in each group. ( a-c ) Naïve model: Full thickness of cartilage. Rich chondrocytes with proteoglycan (red staining by safranin O) ( d-f ) OA model: Severe damage of cartilage surface with loss of chondrocytes in superficial and middle layer (#), hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone (white arrow) were observed in ( f ) . Increased thickening of subchondral bone subjacent to the area of severe cartilage lesion was also observed in ( d,e ). ( g-i ) APETx2 administration in early phase: Chondrocytes were well observed in superficial and middle layer (black arrow). Although proteoglycan loss, cartilage surface kept smooth and no apparent thinning (*) in ( i ). ( j-l ) APETx2 in late phase: same findings as OA. Apparent chondroprotective effect was not seen (#) and hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone were also observed (white arrow) in ( l ). F: femur, M: meniscus, T: tibia, Scale bar: 1 mm, 100 μm 50 μm.

    Techniques Used: Staining

    The effect of intra-articular injection of APETx2 on behavior tests. ( a )weight distribution, ( b ) paw withdrawal reflex (same manner as Figure 1 ). Weight distribution was changed significantly at Day3 in early APETx2 administration group. Frequency of paw withdrawal reflex i.e. secondary hyperalgesia reduced with APETx2 injection. The inhibitory effects on secondary hyperalgesia in both early- and late-phase groups were observed at Day14. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: The effect of intra-articular injection of APETx2 on behavior tests. ( a )weight distribution, ( b ) paw withdrawal reflex (same manner as Figure 1 ). Weight distribution was changed significantly at Day3 in early APETx2 administration group. Frequency of paw withdrawal reflex i.e. secondary hyperalgesia reduced with APETx2 injection. The inhibitory effects on secondary hyperalgesia in both early- and late-phase groups were observed at Day14. * p

    Techniques Used: Injection

    3) Product Images from "Local ASIC3 modulates pain and disease progression in a rat model of osteoarthritis"

    Article Title: Local ASIC3 modulates pain and disease progression in a rat model of osteoarthritis

    Journal: Journal of Biomedical Science

    doi: 10.1186/1423-0127-19-77

    Fast Blue labeling and immunohistochemistry staining for ASIC3 : (a-b) Naïve- model, (c-d) OA-model, (e-f) APETx2 administration to OA-model in early phase. Photos in each row are the same DRG. In ( b ),( d ),( f ), large arrows indicate Fast Blue labeled, ASIC3 immunoreactive (ASIC3-ir) DRG cells, while ASIC3-ir cells that were not labeled by Fast Blue are indicated by small arrowheads. More than 100 FB-labeled neurons were analyzed from 4 rats in each group. The percentage of ASIC3-ir knee joint afferents was 18 ± 3% (mean ± SD) in naïve models, 46 ± 4% in OA-models ( p = 0.003), and 20 ± 5% in the early-phase APETx2 group ( p = 0.006), respectively. Scale bar: 50 μm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Fast Blue labeling and immunohistochemistry staining for ASIC3 : (a-b) Naïve- model, (c-d) OA-model, (e-f) APETx2 administration to OA-model in early phase. Photos in each row are the same DRG. In ( b ),( d ),( f ), large arrows indicate Fast Blue labeled, ASIC3 immunoreactive (ASIC3-ir) DRG cells, while ASIC3-ir cells that were not labeled by Fast Blue are indicated by small arrowheads. More than 100 FB-labeled neurons were analyzed from 4 rats in each group. The percentage of ASIC3-ir knee joint afferents was 18 ± 3% (mean ± SD) in naïve models, 46 ± 4% in OA-models ( p = 0.003), and 20 ± 5% in the early-phase APETx2 group ( p = 0.006), respectively. Scale bar: 50 μm.

    Techniques Used: Labeling, Immunohistochemistry, Staining

    Histological evaluation of knee joint using Modified Mankin Score. a scale of 0–13 (from 0 (worst) to 13 (best)). Intra-articular injection of APETx2 in early phase prevented OA progression, including breakdown of articular surface and hypocellularity. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Histological evaluation of knee joint using Modified Mankin Score. a scale of 0–13 (from 0 (worst) to 13 (best)). Intra-articular injection of APETx2 in early phase prevented OA progression, including breakdown of articular surface and hypocellularity. * p

    Techniques Used: Modification, Injection

    Histology of knee joints with Safranin O staining at Day14. Three different magnifications (×1.25, ×10, ×20) were shown in each group. ( a-c ) Naïve model: Full thickness of cartilage. Rich chondrocytes with proteoglycan (red staining by safranin O) ( d-f ) OA model: Severe damage of cartilage surface with loss of chondrocytes in superficial and middle layer (#), hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone (white arrow) were observed in ( f ) . Increased thickening of subchondral bone subjacent to the area of severe cartilage lesion was also observed in ( d,e ). ( g-i ) APETx2 administration in early phase: Chondrocytes were well observed in superficial and middle layer (black arrow). Although proteoglycan loss, cartilage surface kept smooth and no apparent thinning (*) in ( i ). ( j-l ) APETx2 in late phase: same findings as OA. Apparent chondroprotective effect was not seen (#) and hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone were also observed (white arrow) in ( l ). F: femur, M: meniscus, T: tibia, Scale bar: 1 mm, 100 μm 50 μm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Histology of knee joints with Safranin O staining at Day14. Three different magnifications (×1.25, ×10, ×20) were shown in each group. ( a-c ) Naïve model: Full thickness of cartilage. Rich chondrocytes with proteoglycan (red staining by safranin O) ( d-f ) OA model: Severe damage of cartilage surface with loss of chondrocytes in superficial and middle layer (#), hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone (white arrow) were observed in ( f ) . Increased thickening of subchondral bone subjacent to the area of severe cartilage lesion was also observed in ( d,e ). ( g-i ) APETx2 administration in early phase: Chondrocytes were well observed in superficial and middle layer (black arrow). Although proteoglycan loss, cartilage surface kept smooth and no apparent thinning (*) in ( i ). ( j-l ) APETx2 in late phase: same findings as OA. Apparent chondroprotective effect was not seen (#) and hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone were also observed (white arrow) in ( l ). F: femur, M: meniscus, T: tibia, Scale bar: 1 mm, 100 μm 50 μm.

    Techniques Used: Staining

    The effect of intra-articular injection of APETx2 on behavior tests. ( a )weight distribution, ( b ) paw withdrawal reflex (same manner as Figure 1 ). Weight distribution was changed significantly at Day3 in early APETx2 administration group. Frequency of paw withdrawal reflex i.e. secondary hyperalgesia reduced with APETx2 injection. The inhibitory effects on secondary hyperalgesia in both early- and late-phase groups were observed at Day14. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: The effect of intra-articular injection of APETx2 on behavior tests. ( a )weight distribution, ( b ) paw withdrawal reflex (same manner as Figure 1 ). Weight distribution was changed significantly at Day3 in early APETx2 administration group. Frequency of paw withdrawal reflex i.e. secondary hyperalgesia reduced with APETx2 injection. The inhibitory effects on secondary hyperalgesia in both early- and late-phase groups were observed at Day14. * p

    Techniques Used: Injection

    4) Product Images from "Histidine Residues Are Responsible for Bidirectional Effects of Zinc on Acid-Sensing Ion Channel 1a/3 Heteromeric Channels"

    Article Title: Histidine Residues Are Responsible for Bidirectional Effects of Zinc on Acid-Sensing Ion Channel 1a/3 Heteromeric Channels

    Journal: Biomolecules

    doi: 10.3390/biom10091264

    Co-overexpression of 1:2, but not 2:1 ratio of ASIC1a and ASIC3 cDNA revealed a profound response to zinc. ( A ) Activation of heteromeric ASIC1a/3 channels by fast perfusion for a drop in pH from 7.4 to 6.5 on CHO cell expressing both ASIC1a and ASIC3 subunits. The perfusion time for low pH value (e.g., 6.5) is 7 s; ( B ) Representative traces show that PcTx1 (10 nM) and APETx2 (100 nM) have no effects on the heteromeric ASIC1a/3 currents using a 1:2 ratio of ASIC1a and ASIC3, n = 5; ( C ) Representative traces show that PcTx1 (10 nM) and APETx2 (100 nM) also have no effects on the heteromeric ASIC1a/3 currents using a 2:1 ratio of ASIC1a and ASIC3, n = 5; ( D ) Co-application and pretreatment with zinc at 50 µM significantly potentiated the currents of heteromeric ASIC1a/3 using a 1:2 ratio of ASIC1a and ASIC3 (the same cell as Figure 2 B), n = 5; ( E ) Co-application and pretreatment with zinc at 50 µM had no effects on the currents of heteromeric ASIC1a/3 using a 2:1 ratio of ASIC1a and ASIC3 (the same cell as Figure 2 C), n = 5. Dashed black line represents pretreatment with zinc in pH 7.4 extracellular solution (2 min duration).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Co-overexpression of 1:2, but not 2:1 ratio of ASIC1a and ASIC3 cDNA revealed a profound response to zinc. ( A ) Activation of heteromeric ASIC1a/3 channels by fast perfusion for a drop in pH from 7.4 to 6.5 on CHO cell expressing both ASIC1a and ASIC3 subunits. The perfusion time for low pH value (e.g., 6.5) is 7 s; ( B ) Representative traces show that PcTx1 (10 nM) and APETx2 (100 nM) have no effects on the heteromeric ASIC1a/3 currents using a 1:2 ratio of ASIC1a and ASIC3, n = 5; ( C ) Representative traces show that PcTx1 (10 nM) and APETx2 (100 nM) also have no effects on the heteromeric ASIC1a/3 currents using a 2:1 ratio of ASIC1a and ASIC3, n = 5; ( D ) Co-application and pretreatment with zinc at 50 µM significantly potentiated the currents of heteromeric ASIC1a/3 using a 1:2 ratio of ASIC1a and ASIC3 (the same cell as Figure 2 B), n = 5; ( E ) Co-application and pretreatment with zinc at 50 µM had no effects on the currents of heteromeric ASIC1a/3 using a 2:1 ratio of ASIC1a and ASIC3 (the same cell as Figure 2 C), n = 5. Dashed black line represents pretreatment with zinc in pH 7.4 extracellular solution (2 min duration).

    Techniques Used: Over Expression, Activation Assay, Expressing

    5) Product Images from "Local ASIC3 modulates pain and disease progression in a rat model of osteoarthritis"

    Article Title: Local ASIC3 modulates pain and disease progression in a rat model of osteoarthritis

    Journal: Journal of Biomedical Science

    doi: 10.1186/1423-0127-19-77

    Fast Blue labeling and immunohistochemistry staining for ASIC3 : (a-b) Naïve- model, (c-d) OA-model, (e-f) APETx2 administration to OA-model in early phase. Photos in each row are the same DRG. In ( b ),( d ),( f ), large arrows indicate Fast Blue labeled, ASIC3 immunoreactive (ASIC3-ir) DRG cells, while ASIC3-ir cells that were not labeled by Fast Blue are indicated by small arrowheads. More than 100 FB-labeled neurons were analyzed from 4 rats in each group. The percentage of ASIC3-ir knee joint afferents was 18 ± 3% (mean ± SD) in naïve models, 46 ± 4% in OA-models ( p = 0.003), and 20 ± 5% in the early-phase APETx2 group ( p = 0.006), respectively. Scale bar: 50 μm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Fast Blue labeling and immunohistochemistry staining for ASIC3 : (a-b) Naïve- model, (c-d) OA-model, (e-f) APETx2 administration to OA-model in early phase. Photos in each row are the same DRG. In ( b ),( d ),( f ), large arrows indicate Fast Blue labeled, ASIC3 immunoreactive (ASIC3-ir) DRG cells, while ASIC3-ir cells that were not labeled by Fast Blue are indicated by small arrowheads. More than 100 FB-labeled neurons were analyzed from 4 rats in each group. The percentage of ASIC3-ir knee joint afferents was 18 ± 3% (mean ± SD) in naïve models, 46 ± 4% in OA-models ( p = 0.003), and 20 ± 5% in the early-phase APETx2 group ( p = 0.006), respectively. Scale bar: 50 μm.

    Techniques Used: Labeling, Immunohistochemistry, Staining

    Histological evaluation of knee joint using Modified Mankin Score. a scale of 0–13 (from 0 (worst) to 13 (best)). Intra-articular injection of APETx2 in early phase prevented OA progression, including breakdown of articular surface and hypocellularity. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Histological evaluation of knee joint using Modified Mankin Score. a scale of 0–13 (from 0 (worst) to 13 (best)). Intra-articular injection of APETx2 in early phase prevented OA progression, including breakdown of articular surface and hypocellularity. * p

    Techniques Used: Modification, Injection

    Histology of knee joints with Safranin O staining at Day14. Three different magnifications (×1.25, ×10, ×20) were shown in each group. ( a-c ) Naïve model: Full thickness of cartilage. Rich chondrocytes with proteoglycan (red staining by safranin O) ( d-f ) OA model: Severe damage of cartilage surface with loss of chondrocytes in superficial and middle layer (#), hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone (white arrow) were observed in ( f ) . Increased thickening of subchondral bone subjacent to the area of severe cartilage lesion was also observed in ( d,e ). ( g-i ) APETx2 administration in early phase: Chondrocytes were well observed in superficial and middle layer (black arrow). Although proteoglycan loss, cartilage surface kept smooth and no apparent thinning (*) in ( i ). ( j-l ) APETx2 in late phase: same findings as OA. Apparent chondroprotective effect was not seen (#) and hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone were also observed (white arrow) in ( l ). F: femur, M: meniscus, T: tibia, Scale bar: 1 mm, 100 μm 50 μm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Histology of knee joints with Safranin O staining at Day14. Three different magnifications (×1.25, ×10, ×20) were shown in each group. ( a-c ) Naïve model: Full thickness of cartilage. Rich chondrocytes with proteoglycan (red staining by safranin O) ( d-f ) OA model: Severe damage of cartilage surface with loss of chondrocytes in superficial and middle layer (#), hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone (white arrow) were observed in ( f ) . Increased thickening of subchondral bone subjacent to the area of severe cartilage lesion was also observed in ( d,e ). ( g-i ) APETx2 administration in early phase: Chondrocytes were well observed in superficial and middle layer (black arrow). Although proteoglycan loss, cartilage surface kept smooth and no apparent thinning (*) in ( i ). ( j-l ) APETx2 in late phase: same findings as OA. Apparent chondroprotective effect was not seen (#) and hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone were also observed (white arrow) in ( l ). F: femur, M: meniscus, T: tibia, Scale bar: 1 mm, 100 μm 50 μm.

    Techniques Used: Staining

    The effect of intra-articular injection of APETx2 on behavior tests. ( a )weight distribution, ( b ) paw withdrawal reflex (same manner as Figure 1 ). Weight distribution was changed significantly at Day3 in early APETx2 administration group. Frequency of paw withdrawal reflex i.e. secondary hyperalgesia reduced with APETx2 injection. The inhibitory effects on secondary hyperalgesia in both early- and late-phase groups were observed at Day14. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: The effect of intra-articular injection of APETx2 on behavior tests. ( a )weight distribution, ( b ) paw withdrawal reflex (same manner as Figure 1 ). Weight distribution was changed significantly at Day3 in early APETx2 administration group. Frequency of paw withdrawal reflex i.e. secondary hyperalgesia reduced with APETx2 injection. The inhibitory effects on secondary hyperalgesia in both early- and late-phase groups were observed at Day14. * p

    Techniques Used: Injection

    6) Product Images from "Local ASIC3 modulates pain and disease progression in a rat model of osteoarthritis"

    Article Title: Local ASIC3 modulates pain and disease progression in a rat model of osteoarthritis

    Journal: Journal of Biomedical Science

    doi: 10.1186/1423-0127-19-77

    Fast Blue labeling and immunohistochemistry staining for ASIC3 : (a-b) Naïve- model, (c-d) OA-model, (e-f) APETx2 administration to OA-model in early phase. Photos in each row are the same DRG. In ( b ),( d ),( f ), large arrows indicate Fast Blue labeled, ASIC3 immunoreactive (ASIC3-ir) DRG cells, while ASIC3-ir cells that were not labeled by Fast Blue are indicated by small arrowheads. More than 100 FB-labeled neurons were analyzed from 4 rats in each group. The percentage of ASIC3-ir knee joint afferents was 18 ± 3% (mean ± SD) in naïve models, 46 ± 4% in OA-models ( p = 0.003), and 20 ± 5% in the early-phase APETx2 group ( p = 0.006), respectively. Scale bar: 50 μm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Fast Blue labeling and immunohistochemistry staining for ASIC3 : (a-b) Naïve- model, (c-d) OA-model, (e-f) APETx2 administration to OA-model in early phase. Photos in each row are the same DRG. In ( b ),( d ),( f ), large arrows indicate Fast Blue labeled, ASIC3 immunoreactive (ASIC3-ir) DRG cells, while ASIC3-ir cells that were not labeled by Fast Blue are indicated by small arrowheads. More than 100 FB-labeled neurons were analyzed from 4 rats in each group. The percentage of ASIC3-ir knee joint afferents was 18 ± 3% (mean ± SD) in naïve models, 46 ± 4% in OA-models ( p = 0.003), and 20 ± 5% in the early-phase APETx2 group ( p = 0.006), respectively. Scale bar: 50 μm.

    Techniques Used: Labeling, Immunohistochemistry, Staining

    Histological evaluation of knee joint using Modified Mankin Score. a scale of 0–13 (from 0 (worst) to 13 (best)). Intra-articular injection of APETx2 in early phase prevented OA progression, including breakdown of articular surface and hypocellularity. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Histological evaluation of knee joint using Modified Mankin Score. a scale of 0–13 (from 0 (worst) to 13 (best)). Intra-articular injection of APETx2 in early phase prevented OA progression, including breakdown of articular surface and hypocellularity. * p

    Techniques Used: Modification, Injection

    Histology of knee joints with Safranin O staining at Day14. Three different magnifications (×1.25, ×10, ×20) were shown in each group. ( a-c ) Naïve model: Full thickness of cartilage. Rich chondrocytes with proteoglycan (red staining by safranin O) ( d-f ) OA model: Severe damage of cartilage surface with loss of chondrocytes in superficial and middle layer (#), hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone (white arrow) were observed in ( f ) . Increased thickening of subchondral bone subjacent to the area of severe cartilage lesion was also observed in ( d,e ). ( g-i ) APETx2 administration in early phase: Chondrocytes were well observed in superficial and middle layer (black arrow). Although proteoglycan loss, cartilage surface kept smooth and no apparent thinning (*) in ( i ). ( j-l ) APETx2 in late phase: same findings as OA. Apparent chondroprotective effect was not seen (#) and hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone were also observed (white arrow) in ( l ). F: femur, M: meniscus, T: tibia, Scale bar: 1 mm, 100 μm 50 μm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Histology of knee joints with Safranin O staining at Day14. Three different magnifications (×1.25, ×10, ×20) were shown in each group. ( a-c ) Naïve model: Full thickness of cartilage. Rich chondrocytes with proteoglycan (red staining by safranin O) ( d-f ) OA model: Severe damage of cartilage surface with loss of chondrocytes in superficial and middle layer (#), hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone (white arrow) were observed in ( f ) . Increased thickening of subchondral bone subjacent to the area of severe cartilage lesion was also observed in ( d,e ). ( g-i ) APETx2 administration in early phase: Chondrocytes were well observed in superficial and middle layer (black arrow). Although proteoglycan loss, cartilage surface kept smooth and no apparent thinning (*) in ( i ). ( j-l ) APETx2 in late phase: same findings as OA. Apparent chondroprotective effect was not seen (#) and hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone were also observed (white arrow) in ( l ). F: femur, M: meniscus, T: tibia, Scale bar: 1 mm, 100 μm 50 μm.

    Techniques Used: Staining

    The effect of intra-articular injection of APETx2 on behavior tests. ( a )weight distribution, ( b ) paw withdrawal reflex (same manner as Figure 1 ). Weight distribution was changed significantly at Day3 in early APETx2 administration group. Frequency of paw withdrawal reflex i.e. secondary hyperalgesia reduced with APETx2 injection. The inhibitory effects on secondary hyperalgesia in both early- and late-phase groups were observed at Day14. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: The effect of intra-articular injection of APETx2 on behavior tests. ( a )weight distribution, ( b ) paw withdrawal reflex (same manner as Figure 1 ). Weight distribution was changed significantly at Day3 in early APETx2 administration group. Frequency of paw withdrawal reflex i.e. secondary hyperalgesia reduced with APETx2 injection. The inhibitory effects on secondary hyperalgesia in both early- and late-phase groups were observed at Day14. * p

    Techniques Used: Injection

    7) Product Images from "Local ASIC3 modulates pain and disease progression in a rat model of osteoarthritis"

    Article Title: Local ASIC3 modulates pain and disease progression in a rat model of osteoarthritis

    Journal: Journal of Biomedical Science

    doi: 10.1186/1423-0127-19-77

    Fast Blue labeling and immunohistochemistry staining for ASIC3 : (a-b) Naïve- model, (c-d) OA-model, (e-f) APETx2 administration to OA-model in early phase. Photos in each row are the same DRG. In ( b ),( d ),( f ), large arrows indicate Fast Blue labeled, ASIC3 immunoreactive (ASIC3-ir) DRG cells, while ASIC3-ir cells that were not labeled by Fast Blue are indicated by small arrowheads. More than 100 FB-labeled neurons were analyzed from 4 rats in each group. The percentage of ASIC3-ir knee joint afferents was 18 ± 3% (mean ± SD) in naïve models, 46 ± 4% in OA-models ( p = 0.003), and 20 ± 5% in the early-phase APETx2 group ( p = 0.006), respectively. Scale bar: 50 μm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Fast Blue labeling and immunohistochemistry staining for ASIC3 : (a-b) Naïve- model, (c-d) OA-model, (e-f) APETx2 administration to OA-model in early phase. Photos in each row are the same DRG. In ( b ),( d ),( f ), large arrows indicate Fast Blue labeled, ASIC3 immunoreactive (ASIC3-ir) DRG cells, while ASIC3-ir cells that were not labeled by Fast Blue are indicated by small arrowheads. More than 100 FB-labeled neurons were analyzed from 4 rats in each group. The percentage of ASIC3-ir knee joint afferents was 18 ± 3% (mean ± SD) in naïve models, 46 ± 4% in OA-models ( p = 0.003), and 20 ± 5% in the early-phase APETx2 group ( p = 0.006), respectively. Scale bar: 50 μm.

    Techniques Used: Labeling, Immunohistochemistry, Staining

    Histological evaluation of knee joint using Modified Mankin Score. a scale of 0–13 (from 0 (worst) to 13 (best)). Intra-articular injection of APETx2 in early phase prevented OA progression, including breakdown of articular surface and hypocellularity. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Histological evaluation of knee joint using Modified Mankin Score. a scale of 0–13 (from 0 (worst) to 13 (best)). Intra-articular injection of APETx2 in early phase prevented OA progression, including breakdown of articular surface and hypocellularity. * p

    Techniques Used: Modification, Injection

    Histology of knee joints with Safranin O staining at Day14. Three different magnifications (×1.25, ×10, ×20) were shown in each group. ( a-c ) Naïve model: Full thickness of cartilage. Rich chondrocytes with proteoglycan (red staining by safranin O) ( d-f ) OA model: Severe damage of cartilage surface with loss of chondrocytes in superficial and middle layer (#), hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone (white arrow) were observed in ( f ) . Increased thickening of subchondral bone subjacent to the area of severe cartilage lesion was also observed in ( d,e ). ( g-i ) APETx2 administration in early phase: Chondrocytes were well observed in superficial and middle layer (black arrow). Although proteoglycan loss, cartilage surface kept smooth and no apparent thinning (*) in ( i ). ( j-l ) APETx2 in late phase: same findings as OA. Apparent chondroprotective effect was not seen (#) and hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone were also observed (white arrow) in ( l ). F: femur, M: meniscus, T: tibia, Scale bar: 1 mm, 100 μm 50 μm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Histology of knee joints with Safranin O staining at Day14. Three different magnifications (×1.25, ×10, ×20) were shown in each group. ( a-c ) Naïve model: Full thickness of cartilage. Rich chondrocytes with proteoglycan (red staining by safranin O) ( d-f ) OA model: Severe damage of cartilage surface with loss of chondrocytes in superficial and middle layer (#), hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone (white arrow) were observed in ( f ) . Increased thickening of subchondral bone subjacent to the area of severe cartilage lesion was also observed in ( d,e ). ( g-i ) APETx2 administration in early phase: Chondrocytes were well observed in superficial and middle layer (black arrow). Although proteoglycan loss, cartilage surface kept smooth and no apparent thinning (*) in ( i ). ( j-l ) APETx2 in late phase: same findings as OA. Apparent chondroprotective effect was not seen (#) and hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone were also observed (white arrow) in ( l ). F: femur, M: meniscus, T: tibia, Scale bar: 1 mm, 100 μm 50 μm.

    Techniques Used: Staining

    The effect of intra-articular injection of APETx2 on behavior tests. ( a )weight distribution, ( b ) paw withdrawal reflex (same manner as Figure 1 ). Weight distribution was changed significantly at Day3 in early APETx2 administration group. Frequency of paw withdrawal reflex i.e. secondary hyperalgesia reduced with APETx2 injection. The inhibitory effects on secondary hyperalgesia in both early- and late-phase groups were observed at Day14. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: The effect of intra-articular injection of APETx2 on behavior tests. ( a )weight distribution, ( b ) paw withdrawal reflex (same manner as Figure 1 ). Weight distribution was changed significantly at Day3 in early APETx2 administration group. Frequency of paw withdrawal reflex i.e. secondary hyperalgesia reduced with APETx2 injection. The inhibitory effects on secondary hyperalgesia in both early- and late-phase groups were observed at Day14. * p

    Techniques Used: Injection

    8) Product Images from "Local ASIC3 modulates pain and disease progression in a rat model of osteoarthritis"

    Article Title: Local ASIC3 modulates pain and disease progression in a rat model of osteoarthritis

    Journal: Journal of Biomedical Science

    doi: 10.1186/1423-0127-19-77

    Fast Blue labeling and immunohistochemistry staining for ASIC3 : (a-b) Naïve- model, (c-d) OA-model, (e-f) APETx2 administration to OA-model in early phase. Photos in each row are the same DRG. In ( b ),( d ),( f ), large arrows indicate Fast Blue labeled, ASIC3 immunoreactive (ASIC3-ir) DRG cells, while ASIC3-ir cells that were not labeled by Fast Blue are indicated by small arrowheads. More than 100 FB-labeled neurons were analyzed from 4 rats in each group. The percentage of ASIC3-ir knee joint afferents was 18 ± 3% (mean ± SD) in naïve models, 46 ± 4% in OA-models ( p = 0.003), and 20 ± 5% in the early-phase APETx2 group ( p = 0.006), respectively. Scale bar: 50 μm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Fast Blue labeling and immunohistochemistry staining for ASIC3 : (a-b) Naïve- model, (c-d) OA-model, (e-f) APETx2 administration to OA-model in early phase. Photos in each row are the same DRG. In ( b ),( d ),( f ), large arrows indicate Fast Blue labeled, ASIC3 immunoreactive (ASIC3-ir) DRG cells, while ASIC3-ir cells that were not labeled by Fast Blue are indicated by small arrowheads. More than 100 FB-labeled neurons were analyzed from 4 rats in each group. The percentage of ASIC3-ir knee joint afferents was 18 ± 3% (mean ± SD) in naïve models, 46 ± 4% in OA-models ( p = 0.003), and 20 ± 5% in the early-phase APETx2 group ( p = 0.006), respectively. Scale bar: 50 μm.

    Techniques Used: Labeling, Immunohistochemistry, Staining

    Histological evaluation of knee joint using Modified Mankin Score. a scale of 0–13 (from 0 (worst) to 13 (best)). Intra-articular injection of APETx2 in early phase prevented OA progression, including breakdown of articular surface and hypocellularity. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Histological evaluation of knee joint using Modified Mankin Score. a scale of 0–13 (from 0 (worst) to 13 (best)). Intra-articular injection of APETx2 in early phase prevented OA progression, including breakdown of articular surface and hypocellularity. * p

    Techniques Used: Modification, Injection

    Histology of knee joints with Safranin O staining at Day14. Three different magnifications (×1.25, ×10, ×20) were shown in each group. ( a-c ) Naïve model: Full thickness of cartilage. Rich chondrocytes with proteoglycan (red staining by safranin O) ( d-f ) OA model: Severe damage of cartilage surface with loss of chondrocytes in superficial and middle layer (#), hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone (white arrow) were observed in ( f ) . Increased thickening of subchondral bone subjacent to the area of severe cartilage lesion was also observed in ( d,e ). ( g-i ) APETx2 administration in early phase: Chondrocytes were well observed in superficial and middle layer (black arrow). Although proteoglycan loss, cartilage surface kept smooth and no apparent thinning (*) in ( i ). ( j-l ) APETx2 in late phase: same findings as OA. Apparent chondroprotective effect was not seen (#) and hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone were also observed (white arrow) in ( l ). F: femur, M: meniscus, T: tibia, Scale bar: 1 mm, 100 μm 50 μm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Histology of knee joints with Safranin O staining at Day14. Three different magnifications (×1.25, ×10, ×20) were shown in each group. ( a-c ) Naïve model: Full thickness of cartilage. Rich chondrocytes with proteoglycan (red staining by safranin O) ( d-f ) OA model: Severe damage of cartilage surface with loss of chondrocytes in superficial and middle layer (#), hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone (white arrow) were observed in ( f ) . Increased thickening of subchondral bone subjacent to the area of severe cartilage lesion was also observed in ( d,e ). ( g-i ) APETx2 administration in early phase: Chondrocytes were well observed in superficial and middle layer (black arrow). Although proteoglycan loss, cartilage surface kept smooth and no apparent thinning (*) in ( i ). ( j-l ) APETx2 in late phase: same findings as OA. Apparent chondroprotective effect was not seen (#) and hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone were also observed (white arrow) in ( l ). F: femur, M: meniscus, T: tibia, Scale bar: 1 mm, 100 μm 50 μm.

    Techniques Used: Staining

    The effect of intra-articular injection of APETx2 on behavior tests. ( a )weight distribution, ( b ) paw withdrawal reflex (same manner as Figure 1 ). Weight distribution was changed significantly at Day3 in early APETx2 administration group. Frequency of paw withdrawal reflex i.e. secondary hyperalgesia reduced with APETx2 injection. The inhibitory effects on secondary hyperalgesia in both early- and late-phase groups were observed at Day14. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: The effect of intra-articular injection of APETx2 on behavior tests. ( a )weight distribution, ( b ) paw withdrawal reflex (same manner as Figure 1 ). Weight distribution was changed significantly at Day3 in early APETx2 administration group. Frequency of paw withdrawal reflex i.e. secondary hyperalgesia reduced with APETx2 injection. The inhibitory effects on secondary hyperalgesia in both early- and late-phase groups were observed at Day14. * p

    Techniques Used: Injection

    9) Product Images from "Local ASIC3 modulates pain and disease progression in a rat model of osteoarthritis"

    Article Title: Local ASIC3 modulates pain and disease progression in a rat model of osteoarthritis

    Journal: Journal of Biomedical Science

    doi: 10.1186/1423-0127-19-77

    Fast Blue labeling and immunohistochemistry staining for ASIC3 : (a-b) Naïve- model, (c-d) OA-model, (e-f) APETx2 administration to OA-model in early phase. Photos in each row are the same DRG. In ( b ),( d ),( f ), large arrows indicate Fast Blue labeled, ASIC3 immunoreactive (ASIC3-ir) DRG cells, while ASIC3-ir cells that were not labeled by Fast Blue are indicated by small arrowheads. More than 100 FB-labeled neurons were analyzed from 4 rats in each group. The percentage of ASIC3-ir knee joint afferents was 18 ± 3% (mean ± SD) in naïve models, 46 ± 4% in OA-models ( p = 0.003), and 20 ± 5% in the early-phase APETx2 group ( p = 0.006), respectively. Scale bar: 50 μm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Fast Blue labeling and immunohistochemistry staining for ASIC3 : (a-b) Naïve- model, (c-d) OA-model, (e-f) APETx2 administration to OA-model in early phase. Photos in each row are the same DRG. In ( b ),( d ),( f ), large arrows indicate Fast Blue labeled, ASIC3 immunoreactive (ASIC3-ir) DRG cells, while ASIC3-ir cells that were not labeled by Fast Blue are indicated by small arrowheads. More than 100 FB-labeled neurons were analyzed from 4 rats in each group. The percentage of ASIC3-ir knee joint afferents was 18 ± 3% (mean ± SD) in naïve models, 46 ± 4% in OA-models ( p = 0.003), and 20 ± 5% in the early-phase APETx2 group ( p = 0.006), respectively. Scale bar: 50 μm.

    Techniques Used: Labeling, Immunohistochemistry, Staining

    Histological evaluation of knee joint using Modified Mankin Score. a scale of 0–13 (from 0 (worst) to 13 (best)). Intra-articular injection of APETx2 in early phase prevented OA progression, including breakdown of articular surface and hypocellularity. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Histological evaluation of knee joint using Modified Mankin Score. a scale of 0–13 (from 0 (worst) to 13 (best)). Intra-articular injection of APETx2 in early phase prevented OA progression, including breakdown of articular surface and hypocellularity. * p

    Techniques Used: Modification, Injection

    Histology of knee joints with Safranin O staining at Day14. Three different magnifications (×1.25, ×10, ×20) were shown in each group. ( a-c ) Naïve model: Full thickness of cartilage. Rich chondrocytes with proteoglycan (red staining by safranin O) ( d-f ) OA model: Severe damage of cartilage surface with loss of chondrocytes in superficial and middle layer (#), hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone (white arrow) were observed in ( f ) . Increased thickening of subchondral bone subjacent to the area of severe cartilage lesion was also observed in ( d,e ). ( g-i ) APETx2 administration in early phase: Chondrocytes were well observed in superficial and middle layer (black arrow). Although proteoglycan loss, cartilage surface kept smooth and no apparent thinning (*) in ( i ). ( j-l ) APETx2 in late phase: same findings as OA. Apparent chondroprotective effect was not seen (#) and hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone were also observed (white arrow) in ( l ). F: femur, M: meniscus, T: tibia, Scale bar: 1 mm, 100 μm 50 μm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Histology of knee joints with Safranin O staining at Day14. Three different magnifications (×1.25, ×10, ×20) were shown in each group. ( a-c ) Naïve model: Full thickness of cartilage. Rich chondrocytes with proteoglycan (red staining by safranin O) ( d-f ) OA model: Severe damage of cartilage surface with loss of chondrocytes in superficial and middle layer (#), hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone (white arrow) were observed in ( f ) . Increased thickening of subchondral bone subjacent to the area of severe cartilage lesion was also observed in ( d,e ). ( g-i ) APETx2 administration in early phase: Chondrocytes were well observed in superficial and middle layer (black arrow). Although proteoglycan loss, cartilage surface kept smooth and no apparent thinning (*) in ( i ). ( j-l ) APETx2 in late phase: same findings as OA. Apparent chondroprotective effect was not seen (#) and hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone were also observed (white arrow) in ( l ). F: femur, M: meniscus, T: tibia, Scale bar: 1 mm, 100 μm 50 μm.

    Techniques Used: Staining

    The effect of intra-articular injection of APETx2 on behavior tests. ( a )weight distribution, ( b ) paw withdrawal reflex (same manner as Figure 1 ). Weight distribution was changed significantly at Day3 in early APETx2 administration group. Frequency of paw withdrawal reflex i.e. secondary hyperalgesia reduced with APETx2 injection. The inhibitory effects on secondary hyperalgesia in both early- and late-phase groups were observed at Day14. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: The effect of intra-articular injection of APETx2 on behavior tests. ( a )weight distribution, ( b ) paw withdrawal reflex (same manner as Figure 1 ). Weight distribution was changed significantly at Day3 in early APETx2 administration group. Frequency of paw withdrawal reflex i.e. secondary hyperalgesia reduced with APETx2 injection. The inhibitory effects on secondary hyperalgesia in both early- and late-phase groups were observed at Day14. * p

    Techniques Used: Injection

    10) Product Images from "Local ASIC3 modulates pain and disease progression in a rat model of osteoarthritis"

    Article Title: Local ASIC3 modulates pain and disease progression in a rat model of osteoarthritis

    Journal: Journal of Biomedical Science

    doi: 10.1186/1423-0127-19-77

    Fast Blue labeling and immunohistochemistry staining for ASIC3 : (a-b) Naïve- model, (c-d) OA-model, (e-f) APETx2 administration to OA-model in early phase. Photos in each row are the same DRG. In ( b ),( d ),( f ), large arrows indicate Fast Blue labeled, ASIC3 immunoreactive (ASIC3-ir) DRG cells, while ASIC3-ir cells that were not labeled by Fast Blue are indicated by small arrowheads. More than 100 FB-labeled neurons were analyzed from 4 rats in each group. The percentage of ASIC3-ir knee joint afferents was 18 ± 3% (mean ± SD) in naïve models, 46 ± 4% in OA-models ( p = 0.003), and 20 ± 5% in the early-phase APETx2 group ( p = 0.006), respectively. Scale bar: 50 μm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Fast Blue labeling and immunohistochemistry staining for ASIC3 : (a-b) Naïve- model, (c-d) OA-model, (e-f) APETx2 administration to OA-model in early phase. Photos in each row are the same DRG. In ( b ),( d ),( f ), large arrows indicate Fast Blue labeled, ASIC3 immunoreactive (ASIC3-ir) DRG cells, while ASIC3-ir cells that were not labeled by Fast Blue are indicated by small arrowheads. More than 100 FB-labeled neurons were analyzed from 4 rats in each group. The percentage of ASIC3-ir knee joint afferents was 18 ± 3% (mean ± SD) in naïve models, 46 ± 4% in OA-models ( p = 0.003), and 20 ± 5% in the early-phase APETx2 group ( p = 0.006), respectively. Scale bar: 50 μm.

    Techniques Used: Labeling, Immunohistochemistry, Staining

    Histological evaluation of knee joint using Modified Mankin Score. a scale of 0–13 (from 0 (worst) to 13 (best)). Intra-articular injection of APETx2 in early phase prevented OA progression, including breakdown of articular surface and hypocellularity. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Histological evaluation of knee joint using Modified Mankin Score. a scale of 0–13 (from 0 (worst) to 13 (best)). Intra-articular injection of APETx2 in early phase prevented OA progression, including breakdown of articular surface and hypocellularity. * p

    Techniques Used: Modification, Injection

    Histology of knee joints with Safranin O staining at Day14. Three different magnifications (×1.25, ×10, ×20) were shown in each group. ( a-c ) Naïve model: Full thickness of cartilage. Rich chondrocytes with proteoglycan (red staining by safranin O) ( d-f ) OA model: Severe damage of cartilage surface with loss of chondrocytes in superficial and middle layer (#), hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone (white arrow) were observed in ( f ) . Increased thickening of subchondral bone subjacent to the area of severe cartilage lesion was also observed in ( d,e ). ( g-i ) APETx2 administration in early phase: Chondrocytes were well observed in superficial and middle layer (black arrow). Although proteoglycan loss, cartilage surface kept smooth and no apparent thinning (*) in ( i ). ( j-l ) APETx2 in late phase: same findings as OA. Apparent chondroprotective effect was not seen (#) and hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone were also observed (white arrow) in ( l ). F: femur, M: meniscus, T: tibia, Scale bar: 1 mm, 100 μm 50 μm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Histology of knee joints with Safranin O staining at Day14. Three different magnifications (×1.25, ×10, ×20) were shown in each group. ( a-c ) Naïve model: Full thickness of cartilage. Rich chondrocytes with proteoglycan (red staining by safranin O) ( d-f ) OA model: Severe damage of cartilage surface with loss of chondrocytes in superficial and middle layer (#), hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone (white arrow) were observed in ( f ) . Increased thickening of subchondral bone subjacent to the area of severe cartilage lesion was also observed in ( d,e ). ( g-i ) APETx2 administration in early phase: Chondrocytes were well observed in superficial and middle layer (black arrow). Although proteoglycan loss, cartilage surface kept smooth and no apparent thinning (*) in ( i ). ( j-l ) APETx2 in late phase: same findings as OA. Apparent chondroprotective effect was not seen (#) and hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone were also observed (white arrow) in ( l ). F: femur, M: meniscus, T: tibia, Scale bar: 1 mm, 100 μm 50 μm.

    Techniques Used: Staining

    The effect of intra-articular injection of APETx2 on behavior tests. ( a )weight distribution, ( b ) paw withdrawal reflex (same manner as Figure 1 ). Weight distribution was changed significantly at Day3 in early APETx2 administration group. Frequency of paw withdrawal reflex i.e. secondary hyperalgesia reduced with APETx2 injection. The inhibitory effects on secondary hyperalgesia in both early- and late-phase groups were observed at Day14. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: The effect of intra-articular injection of APETx2 on behavior tests. ( a )weight distribution, ( b ) paw withdrawal reflex (same manner as Figure 1 ). Weight distribution was changed significantly at Day3 in early APETx2 administration group. Frequency of paw withdrawal reflex i.e. secondary hyperalgesia reduced with APETx2 injection. The inhibitory effects on secondary hyperalgesia in both early- and late-phase groups were observed at Day14. * p

    Techniques Used: Injection

    11) Product Images from "Local ASIC3 modulates pain and disease progression in a rat model of osteoarthritis"

    Article Title: Local ASIC3 modulates pain and disease progression in a rat model of osteoarthritis

    Journal: Journal of Biomedical Science

    doi: 10.1186/1423-0127-19-77

    Fast Blue labeling and immunohistochemistry staining for ASIC3 : (a-b) Naïve- model, (c-d) OA-model, (e-f) APETx2 administration to OA-model in early phase. Photos in each row are the same DRG. In ( b ),( d ),( f ), large arrows indicate Fast Blue labeled, ASIC3 immunoreactive (ASIC3-ir) DRG cells, while ASIC3-ir cells that were not labeled by Fast Blue are indicated by small arrowheads. More than 100 FB-labeled neurons were analyzed from 4 rats in each group. The percentage of ASIC3-ir knee joint afferents was 18 ± 3% (mean ± SD) in naïve models, 46 ± 4% in OA-models ( p = 0.003), and 20 ± 5% in the early-phase APETx2 group ( p = 0.006), respectively. Scale bar: 50 μm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Fast Blue labeling and immunohistochemistry staining for ASIC3 : (a-b) Naïve- model, (c-d) OA-model, (e-f) APETx2 administration to OA-model in early phase. Photos in each row are the same DRG. In ( b ),( d ),( f ), large arrows indicate Fast Blue labeled, ASIC3 immunoreactive (ASIC3-ir) DRG cells, while ASIC3-ir cells that were not labeled by Fast Blue are indicated by small arrowheads. More than 100 FB-labeled neurons were analyzed from 4 rats in each group. The percentage of ASIC3-ir knee joint afferents was 18 ± 3% (mean ± SD) in naïve models, 46 ± 4% in OA-models ( p = 0.003), and 20 ± 5% in the early-phase APETx2 group ( p = 0.006), respectively. Scale bar: 50 μm.

    Techniques Used: Labeling, Immunohistochemistry, Staining

    Histological evaluation of knee joint using Modified Mankin Score. a scale of 0–13 (from 0 (worst) to 13 (best)). Intra-articular injection of APETx2 in early phase prevented OA progression, including breakdown of articular surface and hypocellularity. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Histological evaluation of knee joint using Modified Mankin Score. a scale of 0–13 (from 0 (worst) to 13 (best)). Intra-articular injection of APETx2 in early phase prevented OA progression, including breakdown of articular surface and hypocellularity. * p

    Techniques Used: Modification, Injection

    Histology of knee joints with Safranin O staining at Day14. Three different magnifications (×1.25, ×10, ×20) were shown in each group. ( a-c ) Naïve model: Full thickness of cartilage. Rich chondrocytes with proteoglycan (red staining by safranin O) ( d-f ) OA model: Severe damage of cartilage surface with loss of chondrocytes in superficial and middle layer (#), hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone (white arrow) were observed in ( f ) . Increased thickening of subchondral bone subjacent to the area of severe cartilage lesion was also observed in ( d,e ). ( g-i ) APETx2 administration in early phase: Chondrocytes were well observed in superficial and middle layer (black arrow). Although proteoglycan loss, cartilage surface kept smooth and no apparent thinning (*) in ( i ). ( j-l ) APETx2 in late phase: same findings as OA. Apparent chondroprotective effect was not seen (#) and hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone were also observed (white arrow) in ( l ). F: femur, M: meniscus, T: tibia, Scale bar: 1 mm, 100 μm 50 μm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Histology of knee joints with Safranin O staining at Day14. Three different magnifications (×1.25, ×10, ×20) were shown in each group. ( a-c ) Naïve model: Full thickness of cartilage. Rich chondrocytes with proteoglycan (red staining by safranin O) ( d-f ) OA model: Severe damage of cartilage surface with loss of chondrocytes in superficial and middle layer (#), hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone (white arrow) were observed in ( f ) . Increased thickening of subchondral bone subjacent to the area of severe cartilage lesion was also observed in ( d,e ). ( g-i ) APETx2 administration in early phase: Chondrocytes were well observed in superficial and middle layer (black arrow). Although proteoglycan loss, cartilage surface kept smooth and no apparent thinning (*) in ( i ). ( j-l ) APETx2 in late phase: same findings as OA. Apparent chondroprotective effect was not seen (#) and hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone were also observed (white arrow) in ( l ). F: femur, M: meniscus, T: tibia, Scale bar: 1 mm, 100 μm 50 μm.

    Techniques Used: Staining

    The effect of intra-articular injection of APETx2 on behavior tests. ( a )weight distribution, ( b ) paw withdrawal reflex (same manner as Figure 1 ). Weight distribution was changed significantly at Day3 in early APETx2 administration group. Frequency of paw withdrawal reflex i.e. secondary hyperalgesia reduced with APETx2 injection. The inhibitory effects on secondary hyperalgesia in both early- and late-phase groups were observed at Day14. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: The effect of intra-articular injection of APETx2 on behavior tests. ( a )weight distribution, ( b ) paw withdrawal reflex (same manner as Figure 1 ). Weight distribution was changed significantly at Day3 in early APETx2 administration group. Frequency of paw withdrawal reflex i.e. secondary hyperalgesia reduced with APETx2 injection. The inhibitory effects on secondary hyperalgesia in both early- and late-phase groups were observed at Day14. * p

    Techniques Used: Injection

    12) Product Images from "Local ASIC3 modulates pain and disease progression in a rat model of osteoarthritis"

    Article Title: Local ASIC3 modulates pain and disease progression in a rat model of osteoarthritis

    Journal: Journal of Biomedical Science

    doi: 10.1186/1423-0127-19-77

    Fast Blue labeling and immunohistochemistry staining for ASIC3 : (a-b) Naïve- model, (c-d) OA-model, (e-f) APETx2 administration to OA-model in early phase. Photos in each row are the same DRG. In ( b ),( d ),( f ), large arrows indicate Fast Blue labeled, ASIC3 immunoreactive (ASIC3-ir) DRG cells, while ASIC3-ir cells that were not labeled by Fast Blue are indicated by small arrowheads. More than 100 FB-labeled neurons were analyzed from 4 rats in each group. The percentage of ASIC3-ir knee joint afferents was 18 ± 3% (mean ± SD) in naïve models, 46 ± 4% in OA-models ( p = 0.003), and 20 ± 5% in the early-phase APETx2 group ( p = 0.006), respectively. Scale bar: 50 μm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Fast Blue labeling and immunohistochemistry staining for ASIC3 : (a-b) Naïve- model, (c-d) OA-model, (e-f) APETx2 administration to OA-model in early phase. Photos in each row are the same DRG. In ( b ),( d ),( f ), large arrows indicate Fast Blue labeled, ASIC3 immunoreactive (ASIC3-ir) DRG cells, while ASIC3-ir cells that were not labeled by Fast Blue are indicated by small arrowheads. More than 100 FB-labeled neurons were analyzed from 4 rats in each group. The percentage of ASIC3-ir knee joint afferents was 18 ± 3% (mean ± SD) in naïve models, 46 ± 4% in OA-models ( p = 0.003), and 20 ± 5% in the early-phase APETx2 group ( p = 0.006), respectively. Scale bar: 50 μm.

    Techniques Used: Labeling, Immunohistochemistry, Staining

    Histological evaluation of knee joint using Modified Mankin Score. a scale of 0–13 (from 0 (worst) to 13 (best)). Intra-articular injection of APETx2 in early phase prevented OA progression, including breakdown of articular surface and hypocellularity. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Histological evaluation of knee joint using Modified Mankin Score. a scale of 0–13 (from 0 (worst) to 13 (best)). Intra-articular injection of APETx2 in early phase prevented OA progression, including breakdown of articular surface and hypocellularity. * p

    Techniques Used: Modification, Injection

    Histology of knee joints with Safranin O staining at Day14. Three different magnifications (×1.25, ×10, ×20) were shown in each group. ( a-c ) Naïve model: Full thickness of cartilage. Rich chondrocytes with proteoglycan (red staining by safranin O) ( d-f ) OA model: Severe damage of cartilage surface with loss of chondrocytes in superficial and middle layer (#), hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone (white arrow) were observed in ( f ) . Increased thickening of subchondral bone subjacent to the area of severe cartilage lesion was also observed in ( d,e ). ( g-i ) APETx2 administration in early phase: Chondrocytes were well observed in superficial and middle layer (black arrow). Although proteoglycan loss, cartilage surface kept smooth and no apparent thinning (*) in ( i ). ( j-l ) APETx2 in late phase: same findings as OA. Apparent chondroprotective effect was not seen (#) and hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone were also observed (white arrow) in ( l ). F: femur, M: meniscus, T: tibia, Scale bar: 1 mm, 100 μm 50 μm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Histology of knee joints with Safranin O staining at Day14. Three different magnifications (×1.25, ×10, ×20) were shown in each group. ( a-c ) Naïve model: Full thickness of cartilage. Rich chondrocytes with proteoglycan (red staining by safranin O) ( d-f ) OA model: Severe damage of cartilage surface with loss of chondrocytes in superficial and middle layer (#), hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone (white arrow) were observed in ( f ) . Increased thickening of subchondral bone subjacent to the area of severe cartilage lesion was also observed in ( d,e ). ( g-i ) APETx2 administration in early phase: Chondrocytes were well observed in superficial and middle layer (black arrow). Although proteoglycan loss, cartilage surface kept smooth and no apparent thinning (*) in ( i ). ( j-l ) APETx2 in late phase: same findings as OA. Apparent chondroprotective effect was not seen (#) and hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone were also observed (white arrow) in ( l ). F: femur, M: meniscus, T: tibia, Scale bar: 1 mm, 100 μm 50 μm.

    Techniques Used: Staining

    The effect of intra-articular injection of APETx2 on behavior tests. ( a )weight distribution, ( b ) paw withdrawal reflex (same manner as Figure 1 ). Weight distribution was changed significantly at Day3 in early APETx2 administration group. Frequency of paw withdrawal reflex i.e. secondary hyperalgesia reduced with APETx2 injection. The inhibitory effects on secondary hyperalgesia in both early- and late-phase groups were observed at Day14. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: The effect of intra-articular injection of APETx2 on behavior tests. ( a )weight distribution, ( b ) paw withdrawal reflex (same manner as Figure 1 ). Weight distribution was changed significantly at Day3 in early APETx2 administration group. Frequency of paw withdrawal reflex i.e. secondary hyperalgesia reduced with APETx2 injection. The inhibitory effects on secondary hyperalgesia in both early- and late-phase groups were observed at Day14. * p

    Techniques Used: Injection

    13) Product Images from "Involvement of Acid-Sensing Ion Channel 1b in the Development of Acid-Induced Chronic Muscle Pain"

    Article Title: Involvement of Acid-Sensing Ion Channel 1b in the Development of Acid-Induced Chronic Muscle Pain

    Journal: Frontiers in Neuroscience

    doi: 10.3389/fnins.2019.01247

    Effect of amiloride, mambalgin-1, APETx2 and PcTx1 on ASIC1b-expressing muscle afferent DRG neurons. (A) Whole-cell patch clamp recording on an ASIC1b-expressing DRG neuron projecting to gastrocnemius muscle labeled by fluorogold. (B) Mambalgin-1 (MB-1) (1 μM) inhibited acid (pH 5.0)-induced currents in 13 of 14 ASIC1b-expressing muscle afferent DRG neurons. (C) APETx2 (1 μM) inhibited acid (pH 5.0)-induced currents in 6 of 13 ASIC1b-expressing muscle afferent DRG neurons. (D) PcTx1 (100 nM) inhibited acid (pH 5.0)-induced currents in 5 of 11 ASIC1b-expressing muscle afferent DRG neurons.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of amiloride, mambalgin-1, APETx2 and PcTx1 on ASIC1b-expressing muscle afferent DRG neurons. (A) Whole-cell patch clamp recording on an ASIC1b-expressing DRG neuron projecting to gastrocnemius muscle labeled by fluorogold. (B) Mambalgin-1 (MB-1) (1 μM) inhibited acid (pH 5.0)-induced currents in 13 of 14 ASIC1b-expressing muscle afferent DRG neurons. (C) APETx2 (1 μM) inhibited acid (pH 5.0)-induced currents in 6 of 13 ASIC1b-expressing muscle afferent DRG neurons. (D) PcTx1 (100 nM) inhibited acid (pH 5.0)-induced currents in 5 of 11 ASIC1b-expressing muscle afferent DRG neurons.

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Patch Clamp, Labeling

    14) Product Images from "Local ASIC3 modulates pain and disease progression in a rat model of osteoarthritis"

    Article Title: Local ASIC3 modulates pain and disease progression in a rat model of osteoarthritis

    Journal: Journal of Biomedical Science

    doi: 10.1186/1423-0127-19-77

    Fast Blue labeling and immunohistochemistry staining for ASIC3 : (a-b) Naïve- model, (c-d) OA-model, (e-f) APETx2 administration to OA-model in early phase. Photos in each row are the same DRG. In ( b ),( d ),( f ), large arrows indicate Fast Blue labeled, ASIC3 immunoreactive (ASIC3-ir) DRG cells, while ASIC3-ir cells that were not labeled by Fast Blue are indicated by small arrowheads. More than 100 FB-labeled neurons were analyzed from 4 rats in each group. The percentage of ASIC3-ir knee joint afferents was 18 ± 3% (mean ± SD) in naïve models, 46 ± 4% in OA-models ( p = 0.003), and 20 ± 5% in the early-phase APETx2 group ( p = 0.006), respectively. Scale bar: 50 μm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Fast Blue labeling and immunohistochemistry staining for ASIC3 : (a-b) Naïve- model, (c-d) OA-model, (e-f) APETx2 administration to OA-model in early phase. Photos in each row are the same DRG. In ( b ),( d ),( f ), large arrows indicate Fast Blue labeled, ASIC3 immunoreactive (ASIC3-ir) DRG cells, while ASIC3-ir cells that were not labeled by Fast Blue are indicated by small arrowheads. More than 100 FB-labeled neurons were analyzed from 4 rats in each group. The percentage of ASIC3-ir knee joint afferents was 18 ± 3% (mean ± SD) in naïve models, 46 ± 4% in OA-models ( p = 0.003), and 20 ± 5% in the early-phase APETx2 group ( p = 0.006), respectively. Scale bar: 50 μm.

    Techniques Used: Labeling, Immunohistochemistry, Staining

    Histological evaluation of knee joint using Modified Mankin Score. a scale of 0–13 (from 0 (worst) to 13 (best)). Intra-articular injection of APETx2 in early phase prevented OA progression, including breakdown of articular surface and hypocellularity. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Histological evaluation of knee joint using Modified Mankin Score. a scale of 0–13 (from 0 (worst) to 13 (best)). Intra-articular injection of APETx2 in early phase prevented OA progression, including breakdown of articular surface and hypocellularity. * p

    Techniques Used: Modification, Injection

    Histology of knee joints with Safranin O staining at Day14. Three different magnifications (×1.25, ×10, ×20) were shown in each group. ( a-c ) Naïve model: Full thickness of cartilage. Rich chondrocytes with proteoglycan (red staining by safranin O) ( d-f ) OA model: Severe damage of cartilage surface with loss of chondrocytes in superficial and middle layer (#), hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone (white arrow) were observed in ( f ) . Increased thickening of subchondral bone subjacent to the area of severe cartilage lesion was also observed in ( d,e ). ( g-i ) APETx2 administration in early phase: Chondrocytes were well observed in superficial and middle layer (black arrow). Although proteoglycan loss, cartilage surface kept smooth and no apparent thinning (*) in ( i ). ( j-l ) APETx2 in late phase: same findings as OA. Apparent chondroprotective effect was not seen (#) and hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone were also observed (white arrow) in ( l ). F: femur, M: meniscus, T: tibia, Scale bar: 1 mm, 100 μm 50 μm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Histology of knee joints with Safranin O staining at Day14. Three different magnifications (×1.25, ×10, ×20) were shown in each group. ( a-c ) Naïve model: Full thickness of cartilage. Rich chondrocytes with proteoglycan (red staining by safranin O) ( d-f ) OA model: Severe damage of cartilage surface with loss of chondrocytes in superficial and middle layer (#), hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone (white arrow) were observed in ( f ) . Increased thickening of subchondral bone subjacent to the area of severe cartilage lesion was also observed in ( d,e ). ( g-i ) APETx2 administration in early phase: Chondrocytes were well observed in superficial and middle layer (black arrow). Although proteoglycan loss, cartilage surface kept smooth and no apparent thinning (*) in ( i ). ( j-l ) APETx2 in late phase: same findings as OA. Apparent chondroprotective effect was not seen (#) and hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone were also observed (white arrow) in ( l ). F: femur, M: meniscus, T: tibia, Scale bar: 1 mm, 100 μm 50 μm.

    Techniques Used: Staining

    The effect of intra-articular injection of APETx2 on behavior tests. ( a )weight distribution, ( b ) paw withdrawal reflex (same manner as Figure 1 ). Weight distribution was changed significantly at Day3 in early APETx2 administration group. Frequency of paw withdrawal reflex i.e. secondary hyperalgesia reduced with APETx2 injection. The inhibitory effects on secondary hyperalgesia in both early- and late-phase groups were observed at Day14. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: The effect of intra-articular injection of APETx2 on behavior tests. ( a )weight distribution, ( b ) paw withdrawal reflex (same manner as Figure 1 ). Weight distribution was changed significantly at Day3 in early APETx2 administration group. Frequency of paw withdrawal reflex i.e. secondary hyperalgesia reduced with APETx2 injection. The inhibitory effects on secondary hyperalgesia in both early- and late-phase groups were observed at Day14. * p

    Techniques Used: Injection

    15) Product Images from "Local ASIC3 modulates pain and disease progression in a rat model of osteoarthritis"

    Article Title: Local ASIC3 modulates pain and disease progression in a rat model of osteoarthritis

    Journal: Journal of Biomedical Science

    doi: 10.1186/1423-0127-19-77

    Fast Blue labeling and immunohistochemistry staining for ASIC3 : (a-b) Naïve- model, (c-d) OA-model, (e-f) APETx2 administration to OA-model in early phase. Photos in each row are the same DRG. In ( b ),( d ),( f ), large arrows indicate Fast Blue labeled, ASIC3 immunoreactive (ASIC3-ir) DRG cells, while ASIC3-ir cells that were not labeled by Fast Blue are indicated by small arrowheads. More than 100 FB-labeled neurons were analyzed from 4 rats in each group. The percentage of ASIC3-ir knee joint afferents was 18 ± 3% (mean ± SD) in naïve models, 46 ± 4% in OA-models ( p = 0.003), and 20 ± 5% in the early-phase APETx2 group ( p = 0.006), respectively. Scale bar: 50 μm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Fast Blue labeling and immunohistochemistry staining for ASIC3 : (a-b) Naïve- model, (c-d) OA-model, (e-f) APETx2 administration to OA-model in early phase. Photos in each row are the same DRG. In ( b ),( d ),( f ), large arrows indicate Fast Blue labeled, ASIC3 immunoreactive (ASIC3-ir) DRG cells, while ASIC3-ir cells that were not labeled by Fast Blue are indicated by small arrowheads. More than 100 FB-labeled neurons were analyzed from 4 rats in each group. The percentage of ASIC3-ir knee joint afferents was 18 ± 3% (mean ± SD) in naïve models, 46 ± 4% in OA-models ( p = 0.003), and 20 ± 5% in the early-phase APETx2 group ( p = 0.006), respectively. Scale bar: 50 μm.

    Techniques Used: Labeling, Immunohistochemistry, Staining

    Histological evaluation of knee joint using Modified Mankin Score. a scale of 0–13 (from 0 (worst) to 13 (best)). Intra-articular injection of APETx2 in early phase prevented OA progression, including breakdown of articular surface and hypocellularity. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Histological evaluation of knee joint using Modified Mankin Score. a scale of 0–13 (from 0 (worst) to 13 (best)). Intra-articular injection of APETx2 in early phase prevented OA progression, including breakdown of articular surface and hypocellularity. * p

    Techniques Used: Modification, Injection

    Histology of knee joints with Safranin O staining at Day14. Three different magnifications (×1.25, ×10, ×20) were shown in each group. ( a-c ) Naïve model: Full thickness of cartilage. Rich chondrocytes with proteoglycan (red staining by safranin O) ( d-f ) OA model: Severe damage of cartilage surface with loss of chondrocytes in superficial and middle layer (#), hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone (white arrow) were observed in ( f ) . Increased thickening of subchondral bone subjacent to the area of severe cartilage lesion was also observed in ( d,e ). ( g-i ) APETx2 administration in early phase: Chondrocytes were well observed in superficial and middle layer (black arrow). Although proteoglycan loss, cartilage surface kept smooth and no apparent thinning (*) in ( i ). ( j-l ) APETx2 in late phase: same findings as OA. Apparent chondroprotective effect was not seen (#) and hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone were also observed (white arrow) in ( l ). F: femur, M: meniscus, T: tibia, Scale bar: 1 mm, 100 μm 50 μm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Histology of knee joints with Safranin O staining at Day14. Three different magnifications (×1.25, ×10, ×20) were shown in each group. ( a-c ) Naïve model: Full thickness of cartilage. Rich chondrocytes with proteoglycan (red staining by safranin O) ( d-f ) OA model: Severe damage of cartilage surface with loss of chondrocytes in superficial and middle layer (#), hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone (white arrow) were observed in ( f ) . Increased thickening of subchondral bone subjacent to the area of severe cartilage lesion was also observed in ( d,e ). ( g-i ) APETx2 administration in early phase: Chondrocytes were well observed in superficial and middle layer (black arrow). Although proteoglycan loss, cartilage surface kept smooth and no apparent thinning (*) in ( i ). ( j-l ) APETx2 in late phase: same findings as OA. Apparent chondroprotective effect was not seen (#) and hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone were also observed (white arrow) in ( l ). F: femur, M: meniscus, T: tibia, Scale bar: 1 mm, 100 μm 50 μm.

    Techniques Used: Staining

    The effect of intra-articular injection of APETx2 on behavior tests. ( a )weight distribution, ( b ) paw withdrawal reflex (same manner as Figure 1 ). Weight distribution was changed significantly at Day3 in early APETx2 administration group. Frequency of paw withdrawal reflex i.e. secondary hyperalgesia reduced with APETx2 injection. The inhibitory effects on secondary hyperalgesia in both early- and late-phase groups were observed at Day14. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: The effect of intra-articular injection of APETx2 on behavior tests. ( a )weight distribution, ( b ) paw withdrawal reflex (same manner as Figure 1 ). Weight distribution was changed significantly at Day3 in early APETx2 administration group. Frequency of paw withdrawal reflex i.e. secondary hyperalgesia reduced with APETx2 injection. The inhibitory effects on secondary hyperalgesia in both early- and late-phase groups were observed at Day14. * p

    Techniques Used: Injection

    16) Product Images from "Local ASIC3 modulates pain and disease progression in a rat model of osteoarthritis"

    Article Title: Local ASIC3 modulates pain and disease progression in a rat model of osteoarthritis

    Journal: Journal of Biomedical Science

    doi: 10.1186/1423-0127-19-77

    Fast Blue labeling and immunohistochemistry staining for ASIC3 : (a-b) Naïve- model, (c-d) OA-model, (e-f) APETx2 administration to OA-model in early phase. Photos in each row are the same DRG. In ( b ),( d ),( f ), large arrows indicate Fast Blue labeled, ASIC3 immunoreactive (ASIC3-ir) DRG cells, while ASIC3-ir cells that were not labeled by Fast Blue are indicated by small arrowheads. More than 100 FB-labeled neurons were analyzed from 4 rats in each group. The percentage of ASIC3-ir knee joint afferents was 18 ± 3% (mean ± SD) in naïve models, 46 ± 4% in OA-models ( p = 0.003), and 20 ± 5% in the early-phase APETx2 group ( p = 0.006), respectively. Scale bar: 50 μm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Fast Blue labeling and immunohistochemistry staining for ASIC3 : (a-b) Naïve- model, (c-d) OA-model, (e-f) APETx2 administration to OA-model in early phase. Photos in each row are the same DRG. In ( b ),( d ),( f ), large arrows indicate Fast Blue labeled, ASIC3 immunoreactive (ASIC3-ir) DRG cells, while ASIC3-ir cells that were not labeled by Fast Blue are indicated by small arrowheads. More than 100 FB-labeled neurons were analyzed from 4 rats in each group. The percentage of ASIC3-ir knee joint afferents was 18 ± 3% (mean ± SD) in naïve models, 46 ± 4% in OA-models ( p = 0.003), and 20 ± 5% in the early-phase APETx2 group ( p = 0.006), respectively. Scale bar: 50 μm.

    Techniques Used: Labeling, Immunohistochemistry, Staining

    Histological evaluation of knee joint using Modified Mankin Score. a scale of 0–13 (from 0 (worst) to 13 (best)). Intra-articular injection of APETx2 in early phase prevented OA progression, including breakdown of articular surface and hypocellularity. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Histological evaluation of knee joint using Modified Mankin Score. a scale of 0–13 (from 0 (worst) to 13 (best)). Intra-articular injection of APETx2 in early phase prevented OA progression, including breakdown of articular surface and hypocellularity. * p

    Techniques Used: Modification, Injection

    Histology of knee joints with Safranin O staining at Day14. Three different magnifications (×1.25, ×10, ×20) were shown in each group. ( a-c ) Naïve model: Full thickness of cartilage. Rich chondrocytes with proteoglycan (red staining by safranin O) ( d-f ) OA model: Severe damage of cartilage surface with loss of chondrocytes in superficial and middle layer (#), hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone (white arrow) were observed in ( f ) . Increased thickening of subchondral bone subjacent to the area of severe cartilage lesion was also observed in ( d,e ). ( g-i ) APETx2 administration in early phase: Chondrocytes were well observed in superficial and middle layer (black arrow). Although proteoglycan loss, cartilage surface kept smooth and no apparent thinning (*) in ( i ). ( j-l ) APETx2 in late phase: same findings as OA. Apparent chondroprotective effect was not seen (#) and hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone were also observed (white arrow) in ( l ). F: femur, M: meniscus, T: tibia, Scale bar: 1 mm, 100 μm 50 μm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Histology of knee joints with Safranin O staining at Day14. Three different magnifications (×1.25, ×10, ×20) were shown in each group. ( a-c ) Naïve model: Full thickness of cartilage. Rich chondrocytes with proteoglycan (red staining by safranin O) ( d-f ) OA model: Severe damage of cartilage surface with loss of chondrocytes in superficial and middle layer (#), hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone (white arrow) were observed in ( f ) . Increased thickening of subchondral bone subjacent to the area of severe cartilage lesion was also observed in ( d,e ). ( g-i ) APETx2 administration in early phase: Chondrocytes were well observed in superficial and middle layer (black arrow). Although proteoglycan loss, cartilage surface kept smooth and no apparent thinning (*) in ( i ). ( j-l ) APETx2 in late phase: same findings as OA. Apparent chondroprotective effect was not seen (#) and hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone were also observed (white arrow) in ( l ). F: femur, M: meniscus, T: tibia, Scale bar: 1 mm, 100 μm 50 μm.

    Techniques Used: Staining

    The effect of intra-articular injection of APETx2 on behavior tests. ( a )weight distribution, ( b ) paw withdrawal reflex (same manner as Figure 1 ). Weight distribution was changed significantly at Day3 in early APETx2 administration group. Frequency of paw withdrawal reflex i.e. secondary hyperalgesia reduced with APETx2 injection. The inhibitory effects on secondary hyperalgesia in both early- and late-phase groups were observed at Day14. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: The effect of intra-articular injection of APETx2 on behavior tests. ( a )weight distribution, ( b ) paw withdrawal reflex (same manner as Figure 1 ). Weight distribution was changed significantly at Day3 in early APETx2 administration group. Frequency of paw withdrawal reflex i.e. secondary hyperalgesia reduced with APETx2 injection. The inhibitory effects on secondary hyperalgesia in both early- and late-phase groups were observed at Day14. * p

    Techniques Used: Injection

    17) Product Images from "Local ASIC3 modulates pain and disease progression in a rat model of osteoarthritis"

    Article Title: Local ASIC3 modulates pain and disease progression in a rat model of osteoarthritis

    Journal: Journal of Biomedical Science

    doi: 10.1186/1423-0127-19-77

    Fast Blue labeling and immunohistochemistry staining for ASIC3 : (a-b) Naïve- model, (c-d) OA-model, (e-f) APETx2 administration to OA-model in early phase. Photos in each row are the same DRG. In ( b ),( d ),( f ), large arrows indicate Fast Blue labeled, ASIC3 immunoreactive (ASIC3-ir) DRG cells, while ASIC3-ir cells that were not labeled by Fast Blue are indicated by small arrowheads. More than 100 FB-labeled neurons were analyzed from 4 rats in each group. The percentage of ASIC3-ir knee joint afferents was 18 ± 3% (mean ± SD) in naïve models, 46 ± 4% in OA-models ( p = 0.003), and 20 ± 5% in the early-phase APETx2 group ( p = 0.006), respectively. Scale bar: 50 μm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Fast Blue labeling and immunohistochemistry staining for ASIC3 : (a-b) Naïve- model, (c-d) OA-model, (e-f) APETx2 administration to OA-model in early phase. Photos in each row are the same DRG. In ( b ),( d ),( f ), large arrows indicate Fast Blue labeled, ASIC3 immunoreactive (ASIC3-ir) DRG cells, while ASIC3-ir cells that were not labeled by Fast Blue are indicated by small arrowheads. More than 100 FB-labeled neurons were analyzed from 4 rats in each group. The percentage of ASIC3-ir knee joint afferents was 18 ± 3% (mean ± SD) in naïve models, 46 ± 4% in OA-models ( p = 0.003), and 20 ± 5% in the early-phase APETx2 group ( p = 0.006), respectively. Scale bar: 50 μm.

    Techniques Used: Labeling, Immunohistochemistry, Staining

    Histological evaluation of knee joint using Modified Mankin Score. a scale of 0–13 (from 0 (worst) to 13 (best)). Intra-articular injection of APETx2 in early phase prevented OA progression, including breakdown of articular surface and hypocellularity. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Histological evaluation of knee joint using Modified Mankin Score. a scale of 0–13 (from 0 (worst) to 13 (best)). Intra-articular injection of APETx2 in early phase prevented OA progression, including breakdown of articular surface and hypocellularity. * p

    Techniques Used: Modification, Injection

    Histology of knee joints with Safranin O staining at Day14. Three different magnifications (×1.25, ×10, ×20) were shown in each group. ( a-c ) Naïve model: Full thickness of cartilage. Rich chondrocytes with proteoglycan (red staining by safranin O) ( d-f ) OA model: Severe damage of cartilage surface with loss of chondrocytes in superficial and middle layer (#), hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone (white arrow) were observed in ( f ) . Increased thickening of subchondral bone subjacent to the area of severe cartilage lesion was also observed in ( d,e ). ( g-i ) APETx2 administration in early phase: Chondrocytes were well observed in superficial and middle layer (black arrow). Although proteoglycan loss, cartilage surface kept smooth and no apparent thinning (*) in ( i ). ( j-l ) APETx2 in late phase: same findings as OA. Apparent chondroprotective effect was not seen (#) and hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone were also observed (white arrow) in ( l ). F: femur, M: meniscus, T: tibia, Scale bar: 1 mm, 100 μm 50 μm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Histology of knee joints with Safranin O staining at Day14. Three different magnifications (×1.25, ×10, ×20) were shown in each group. ( a-c ) Naïve model: Full thickness of cartilage. Rich chondrocytes with proteoglycan (red staining by safranin O) ( d-f ) OA model: Severe damage of cartilage surface with loss of chondrocytes in superficial and middle layer (#), hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone (white arrow) were observed in ( f ) . Increased thickening of subchondral bone subjacent to the area of severe cartilage lesion was also observed in ( d,e ). ( g-i ) APETx2 administration in early phase: Chondrocytes were well observed in superficial and middle layer (black arrow). Although proteoglycan loss, cartilage surface kept smooth and no apparent thinning (*) in ( i ). ( j-l ) APETx2 in late phase: same findings as OA. Apparent chondroprotective effect was not seen (#) and hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone were also observed (white arrow) in ( l ). F: femur, M: meniscus, T: tibia, Scale bar: 1 mm, 100 μm 50 μm.

    Techniques Used: Staining

    The effect of intra-articular injection of APETx2 on behavior tests. ( a )weight distribution, ( b ) paw withdrawal reflex (same manner as Figure 1 ). Weight distribution was changed significantly at Day3 in early APETx2 administration group. Frequency of paw withdrawal reflex i.e. secondary hyperalgesia reduced with APETx2 injection. The inhibitory effects on secondary hyperalgesia in both early- and late-phase groups were observed at Day14. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: The effect of intra-articular injection of APETx2 on behavior tests. ( a )weight distribution, ( b ) paw withdrawal reflex (same manner as Figure 1 ). Weight distribution was changed significantly at Day3 in early APETx2 administration group. Frequency of paw withdrawal reflex i.e. secondary hyperalgesia reduced with APETx2 injection. The inhibitory effects on secondary hyperalgesia in both early- and late-phase groups were observed at Day14. * p

    Techniques Used: Injection

    18) Product Images from "Local ASIC3 modulates pain and disease progression in a rat model of osteoarthritis"

    Article Title: Local ASIC3 modulates pain and disease progression in a rat model of osteoarthritis

    Journal: Journal of Biomedical Science

    doi: 10.1186/1423-0127-19-77

    Fast Blue labeling and immunohistochemistry staining for ASIC3 : (a-b) Naïve- model, (c-d) OA-model, (e-f) APETx2 administration to OA-model in early phase. Photos in each row are the same DRG. In ( b ),( d ),( f ), large arrows indicate Fast Blue labeled, ASIC3 immunoreactive (ASIC3-ir) DRG cells, while ASIC3-ir cells that were not labeled by Fast Blue are indicated by small arrowheads. More than 100 FB-labeled neurons were analyzed from 4 rats in each group. The percentage of ASIC3-ir knee joint afferents was 18 ± 3% (mean ± SD) in naïve models, 46 ± 4% in OA-models ( p = 0.003), and 20 ± 5% in the early-phase APETx2 group ( p = 0.006), respectively. Scale bar: 50 μm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Fast Blue labeling and immunohistochemistry staining for ASIC3 : (a-b) Naïve- model, (c-d) OA-model, (e-f) APETx2 administration to OA-model in early phase. Photos in each row are the same DRG. In ( b ),( d ),( f ), large arrows indicate Fast Blue labeled, ASIC3 immunoreactive (ASIC3-ir) DRG cells, while ASIC3-ir cells that were not labeled by Fast Blue are indicated by small arrowheads. More than 100 FB-labeled neurons were analyzed from 4 rats in each group. The percentage of ASIC3-ir knee joint afferents was 18 ± 3% (mean ± SD) in naïve models, 46 ± 4% in OA-models ( p = 0.003), and 20 ± 5% in the early-phase APETx2 group ( p = 0.006), respectively. Scale bar: 50 μm.

    Techniques Used: Labeling, Immunohistochemistry, Staining

    Histological evaluation of knee joint using Modified Mankin Score. a scale of 0–13 (from 0 (worst) to 13 (best)). Intra-articular injection of APETx2 in early phase prevented OA progression, including breakdown of articular surface and hypocellularity. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Histological evaluation of knee joint using Modified Mankin Score. a scale of 0–13 (from 0 (worst) to 13 (best)). Intra-articular injection of APETx2 in early phase prevented OA progression, including breakdown of articular surface and hypocellularity. * p

    Techniques Used: Modification, Injection

    Histology of knee joints with Safranin O staining at Day14. Three different magnifications (×1.25, ×10, ×20) were shown in each group. ( a-c ) Naïve model: Full thickness of cartilage. Rich chondrocytes with proteoglycan (red staining by safranin O) ( d-f ) OA model: Severe damage of cartilage surface with loss of chondrocytes in superficial and middle layer (#), hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone (white arrow) were observed in ( f ) . Increased thickening of subchondral bone subjacent to the area of severe cartilage lesion was also observed in ( d,e ). ( g-i ) APETx2 administration in early phase: Chondrocytes were well observed in superficial and middle layer (black arrow). Although proteoglycan loss, cartilage surface kept smooth and no apparent thinning (*) in ( i ). ( j-l ) APETx2 in late phase: same findings as OA. Apparent chondroprotective effect was not seen (#) and hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone were also observed (white arrow) in ( l ). F: femur, M: meniscus, T: tibia, Scale bar: 1 mm, 100 μm 50 μm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Histology of knee joints with Safranin O staining at Day14. Three different magnifications (×1.25, ×10, ×20) were shown in each group. ( a-c ) Naïve model: Full thickness of cartilage. Rich chondrocytes with proteoglycan (red staining by safranin O) ( d-f ) OA model: Severe damage of cartilage surface with loss of chondrocytes in superficial and middle layer (#), hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone (white arrow) were observed in ( f ) . Increased thickening of subchondral bone subjacent to the area of severe cartilage lesion was also observed in ( d,e ). ( g-i ) APETx2 administration in early phase: Chondrocytes were well observed in superficial and middle layer (black arrow). Although proteoglycan loss, cartilage surface kept smooth and no apparent thinning (*) in ( i ). ( j-l ) APETx2 in late phase: same findings as OA. Apparent chondroprotective effect was not seen (#) and hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone were also observed (white arrow) in ( l ). F: femur, M: meniscus, T: tibia, Scale bar: 1 mm, 100 μm 50 μm.

    Techniques Used: Staining

    The effect of intra-articular injection of APETx2 on behavior tests. ( a )weight distribution, ( b ) paw withdrawal reflex (same manner as Figure 1 ). Weight distribution was changed significantly at Day3 in early APETx2 administration group. Frequency of paw withdrawal reflex i.e. secondary hyperalgesia reduced with APETx2 injection. The inhibitory effects on secondary hyperalgesia in both early- and late-phase groups were observed at Day14. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: The effect of intra-articular injection of APETx2 on behavior tests. ( a )weight distribution, ( b ) paw withdrawal reflex (same manner as Figure 1 ). Weight distribution was changed significantly at Day3 in early APETx2 administration group. Frequency of paw withdrawal reflex i.e. secondary hyperalgesia reduced with APETx2 injection. The inhibitory effects on secondary hyperalgesia in both early- and late-phase groups were observed at Day14. * p

    Techniques Used: Injection

    19) Product Images from "Local ASIC3 modulates pain and disease progression in a rat model of osteoarthritis"

    Article Title: Local ASIC3 modulates pain and disease progression in a rat model of osteoarthritis

    Journal: Journal of Biomedical Science

    doi: 10.1186/1423-0127-19-77

    Fast Blue labeling and immunohistochemistry staining for ASIC3 : (a-b) Naïve- model, (c-d) OA-model, (e-f) APETx2 administration to OA-model in early phase. Photos in each row are the same DRG. In ( b ),( d ),( f ), large arrows indicate Fast Blue labeled, ASIC3 immunoreactive (ASIC3-ir) DRG cells, while ASIC3-ir cells that were not labeled by Fast Blue are indicated by small arrowheads. More than 100 FB-labeled neurons were analyzed from 4 rats in each group. The percentage of ASIC3-ir knee joint afferents was 18 ± 3% (mean ± SD) in naïve models, 46 ± 4% in OA-models ( p = 0.003), and 20 ± 5% in the early-phase APETx2 group ( p = 0.006), respectively. Scale bar: 50 μm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Fast Blue labeling and immunohistochemistry staining for ASIC3 : (a-b) Naïve- model, (c-d) OA-model, (e-f) APETx2 administration to OA-model in early phase. Photos in each row are the same DRG. In ( b ),( d ),( f ), large arrows indicate Fast Blue labeled, ASIC3 immunoreactive (ASIC3-ir) DRG cells, while ASIC3-ir cells that were not labeled by Fast Blue are indicated by small arrowheads. More than 100 FB-labeled neurons were analyzed from 4 rats in each group. The percentage of ASIC3-ir knee joint afferents was 18 ± 3% (mean ± SD) in naïve models, 46 ± 4% in OA-models ( p = 0.003), and 20 ± 5% in the early-phase APETx2 group ( p = 0.006), respectively. Scale bar: 50 μm.

    Techniques Used: Labeling, Immunohistochemistry, Staining

    Histological evaluation of knee joint using Modified Mankin Score. a scale of 0–13 (from 0 (worst) to 13 (best)). Intra-articular injection of APETx2 in early phase prevented OA progression, including breakdown of articular surface and hypocellularity. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Histological evaluation of knee joint using Modified Mankin Score. a scale of 0–13 (from 0 (worst) to 13 (best)). Intra-articular injection of APETx2 in early phase prevented OA progression, including breakdown of articular surface and hypocellularity. * p

    Techniques Used: Modification, Injection

    Histology of knee joints with Safranin O staining at Day14. Three different magnifications (×1.25, ×10, ×20) were shown in each group. ( a-c ) Naïve model: Full thickness of cartilage. Rich chondrocytes with proteoglycan (red staining by safranin O) ( d-f ) OA model: Severe damage of cartilage surface with loss of chondrocytes in superficial and middle layer (#), hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone (white arrow) were observed in ( f ) . Increased thickening of subchondral bone subjacent to the area of severe cartilage lesion was also observed in ( d,e ). ( g-i ) APETx2 administration in early phase: Chondrocytes were well observed in superficial and middle layer (black arrow). Although proteoglycan loss, cartilage surface kept smooth and no apparent thinning (*) in ( i ). ( j-l ) APETx2 in late phase: same findings as OA. Apparent chondroprotective effect was not seen (#) and hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone were also observed (white arrow) in ( l ). F: femur, M: meniscus, T: tibia, Scale bar: 1 mm, 100 μm 50 μm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Histology of knee joints with Safranin O staining at Day14. Three different magnifications (×1.25, ×10, ×20) were shown in each group. ( a-c ) Naïve model: Full thickness of cartilage. Rich chondrocytes with proteoglycan (red staining by safranin O) ( d-f ) OA model: Severe damage of cartilage surface with loss of chondrocytes in superficial and middle layer (#), hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone (white arrow) were observed in ( f ) . Increased thickening of subchondral bone subjacent to the area of severe cartilage lesion was also observed in ( d,e ). ( g-i ) APETx2 administration in early phase: Chondrocytes were well observed in superficial and middle layer (black arrow). Although proteoglycan loss, cartilage surface kept smooth and no apparent thinning (*) in ( i ). ( j-l ) APETx2 in late phase: same findings as OA. Apparent chondroprotective effect was not seen (#) and hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone were also observed (white arrow) in ( l ). F: femur, M: meniscus, T: tibia, Scale bar: 1 mm, 100 μm 50 μm.

    Techniques Used: Staining

    The effect of intra-articular injection of APETx2 on behavior tests. ( a )weight distribution, ( b ) paw withdrawal reflex (same manner as Figure 1 ). Weight distribution was changed significantly at Day3 in early APETx2 administration group. Frequency of paw withdrawal reflex i.e. secondary hyperalgesia reduced with APETx2 injection. The inhibitory effects on secondary hyperalgesia in both early- and late-phase groups were observed at Day14. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: The effect of intra-articular injection of APETx2 on behavior tests. ( a )weight distribution, ( b ) paw withdrawal reflex (same manner as Figure 1 ). Weight distribution was changed significantly at Day3 in early APETx2 administration group. Frequency of paw withdrawal reflex i.e. secondary hyperalgesia reduced with APETx2 injection. The inhibitory effects on secondary hyperalgesia in both early- and late-phase groups were observed at Day14. * p

    Techniques Used: Injection

    Related Articles

    Concentration Assay:

    Article Title: Dural stimulation in rats causes BDNF-dependent priming to subthreshold stimuli including a migraine trigger
    Article Snippet: .. APETx2 (Alomone Labs) was diluted in SIF solution at pH 6.8 to a final concentration of 20 μM/mL. ..

    other:

    Article Title: Involvement of Acid-Sensing Ion Channel 1b in the Development of Acid-Induced Chronic Muscle Pain
    Article Snippet: Mambalgin-1, APETx2, and psalmotoxin 1 (PcTx1) were purchased from Alomone Labs and prepared by autoclaved water in stock solutions of 200 μM, 1 mM, and 200 μM respectively.

    Article Title: Local ASIC3 modulates pain and disease progression in a rat model of osteoarthritis
    Article Snippet: APETx2 is a novel, promising drug for OA by relieving pain and inhibiting disease progression.

    Article Title: Dural stimulation in rats causes BDNF-dependent priming to subthreshold stimuli including a migraine trigger
    Article Snippet: In the presence of APETx2, pH 6.8 did not produce significant facial allodynia indicating that ASICs still detect the decrease in pH even after sensitization with IL-6.

    Blocking Assay:

    Article Title: ASIC2a overexpression enhances the protective effect of PcTx1 and APETx2 against acidosis-induced articular chondrocyte apoptosis and cytotoxicity.
    Article Snippet: .. Acid hydrarthrosis is another important pathological character in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and acid-sensing ion channel 1a (ASIC1a) plays a destructive role in acidosis-induced articular chondrocyte cytotoxicity.. Recently, ASIC2a has been reported to possess neuroprotective effect on acidosis-induced injury of neuronal cells. ..

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    Alomone Labs apetx2
    Effect of amiloride, mambalgin-1, <t>APETx2</t> and PcTx1 on ASIC1b-expressing muscle afferent DRG neurons. (A) Whole-cell patch clamp recording on an ASIC1b-expressing DRG neuron projecting to gastrocnemius muscle labeled by fluorogold. (B) Mambalgin-1 (MB-1) (1 μM) inhibited acid (pH 5.0)-induced currents in 13 of 14 ASIC1b-expressing muscle afferent DRG neurons. (C) APETx2 (1 μM) inhibited acid (pH 5.0)-induced currents in 6 of 13 ASIC1b-expressing muscle afferent DRG neurons. (D) PcTx1 (100 nM) inhibited acid (pH 5.0)-induced currents in 5 of 11 ASIC1b-expressing muscle afferent DRG neurons.
    Apetx2, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Effect of amiloride, mambalgin-1, APETx2 and PcTx1 on ASIC1b-expressing muscle afferent DRG neurons. (A) Whole-cell patch clamp recording on an ASIC1b-expressing DRG neuron projecting to gastrocnemius muscle labeled by fluorogold. (B) Mambalgin-1 (MB-1) (1 μM) inhibited acid (pH 5.0)-induced currents in 13 of 14 ASIC1b-expressing muscle afferent DRG neurons. (C) APETx2 (1 μM) inhibited acid (pH 5.0)-induced currents in 6 of 13 ASIC1b-expressing muscle afferent DRG neurons. (D) PcTx1 (100 nM) inhibited acid (pH 5.0)-induced currents in 5 of 11 ASIC1b-expressing muscle afferent DRG neurons.

    Journal: Frontiers in Neuroscience

    Article Title: Involvement of Acid-Sensing Ion Channel 1b in the Development of Acid-Induced Chronic Muscle Pain

    doi: 10.3389/fnins.2019.01247

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of amiloride, mambalgin-1, APETx2 and PcTx1 on ASIC1b-expressing muscle afferent DRG neurons. (A) Whole-cell patch clamp recording on an ASIC1b-expressing DRG neuron projecting to gastrocnemius muscle labeled by fluorogold. (B) Mambalgin-1 (MB-1) (1 μM) inhibited acid (pH 5.0)-induced currents in 13 of 14 ASIC1b-expressing muscle afferent DRG neurons. (C) APETx2 (1 μM) inhibited acid (pH 5.0)-induced currents in 6 of 13 ASIC1b-expressing muscle afferent DRG neurons. (D) PcTx1 (100 nM) inhibited acid (pH 5.0)-induced currents in 5 of 11 ASIC1b-expressing muscle afferent DRG neurons.

    Article Snippet: Mambalgin-1, APETx2, and psalmotoxin 1 (PcTx1) were purchased from Alomone Labs and prepared by autoclaved water in stock solutions of 200 μM, 1 mM, and 200 μM respectively.

    Techniques: Expressing, Patch Clamp, Labeling

    Fast Blue labeling and immunohistochemistry staining for ASIC3 : (a-b) Naïve- model, (c-d) OA-model, (e-f) APETx2 administration to OA-model in early phase. Photos in each row are the same DRG. In ( b ),( d ),( f ), large arrows indicate Fast Blue labeled, ASIC3 immunoreactive (ASIC3-ir) DRG cells, while ASIC3-ir cells that were not labeled by Fast Blue are indicated by small arrowheads. More than 100 FB-labeled neurons were analyzed from 4 rats in each group. The percentage of ASIC3-ir knee joint afferents was 18 ± 3% (mean ± SD) in naïve models, 46 ± 4% in OA-models ( p = 0.003), and 20 ± 5% in the early-phase APETx2 group ( p = 0.006), respectively. Scale bar: 50 μm.

    Journal: Journal of Biomedical Science

    Article Title: Local ASIC3 modulates pain and disease progression in a rat model of osteoarthritis

    doi: 10.1186/1423-0127-19-77

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Fast Blue labeling and immunohistochemistry staining for ASIC3 : (a-b) Naïve- model, (c-d) OA-model, (e-f) APETx2 administration to OA-model in early phase. Photos in each row are the same DRG. In ( b ),( d ),( f ), large arrows indicate Fast Blue labeled, ASIC3 immunoreactive (ASIC3-ir) DRG cells, while ASIC3-ir cells that were not labeled by Fast Blue are indicated by small arrowheads. More than 100 FB-labeled neurons were analyzed from 4 rats in each group. The percentage of ASIC3-ir knee joint afferents was 18 ± 3% (mean ± SD) in naïve models, 46 ± 4% in OA-models ( p = 0.003), and 20 ± 5% in the early-phase APETx2 group ( p = 0.006), respectively. Scale bar: 50 μm.

    Article Snippet: In this study, APETx2 was effective only in the early phase because it worked against initial inflammation before the severe cartilage damage.

    Techniques: Labeling, Immunohistochemistry, Staining

    Histological evaluation of knee joint using Modified Mankin Score. a scale of 0–13 (from 0 (worst) to 13 (best)). Intra-articular injection of APETx2 in early phase prevented OA progression, including breakdown of articular surface and hypocellularity. * p

    Journal: Journal of Biomedical Science

    Article Title: Local ASIC3 modulates pain and disease progression in a rat model of osteoarthritis

    doi: 10.1186/1423-0127-19-77

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Histological evaluation of knee joint using Modified Mankin Score. a scale of 0–13 (from 0 (worst) to 13 (best)). Intra-articular injection of APETx2 in early phase prevented OA progression, including breakdown of articular surface and hypocellularity. * p

    Article Snippet: In this study, APETx2 was effective only in the early phase because it worked against initial inflammation before the severe cartilage damage.

    Techniques: Modification, Injection

    Histology of knee joints with Safranin O staining at Day14. Three different magnifications (×1.25, ×10, ×20) were shown in each group. ( a-c ) Naïve model: Full thickness of cartilage. Rich chondrocytes with proteoglycan (red staining by safranin O) ( d-f ) OA model: Severe damage of cartilage surface with loss of chondrocytes in superficial and middle layer (#), hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone (white arrow) were observed in ( f ) . Increased thickening of subchondral bone subjacent to the area of severe cartilage lesion was also observed in ( d,e ). ( g-i ) APETx2 administration in early phase: Chondrocytes were well observed in superficial and middle layer (black arrow). Although proteoglycan loss, cartilage surface kept smooth and no apparent thinning (*) in ( i ). ( j-l ) APETx2 in late phase: same findings as OA. Apparent chondroprotective effect was not seen (#) and hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone were also observed (white arrow) in ( l ). F: femur, M: meniscus, T: tibia, Scale bar: 1 mm, 100 μm 50 μm.

    Journal: Journal of Biomedical Science

    Article Title: Local ASIC3 modulates pain and disease progression in a rat model of osteoarthritis

    doi: 10.1186/1423-0127-19-77

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Histology of knee joints with Safranin O staining at Day14. Three different magnifications (×1.25, ×10, ×20) were shown in each group. ( a-c ) Naïve model: Full thickness of cartilage. Rich chondrocytes with proteoglycan (red staining by safranin O) ( d-f ) OA model: Severe damage of cartilage surface with loss of chondrocytes in superficial and middle layer (#), hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone (white arrow) were observed in ( f ) . Increased thickening of subchondral bone subjacent to the area of severe cartilage lesion was also observed in ( d,e ). ( g-i ) APETx2 administration in early phase: Chondrocytes were well observed in superficial and middle layer (black arrow). Although proteoglycan loss, cartilage surface kept smooth and no apparent thinning (*) in ( i ). ( j-l ) APETx2 in late phase: same findings as OA. Apparent chondroprotective effect was not seen (#) and hypertrophied chondrocytes in deep zone were also observed (white arrow) in ( l ). F: femur, M: meniscus, T: tibia, Scale bar: 1 mm, 100 μm 50 μm.

    Article Snippet: In this study, APETx2 was effective only in the early phase because it worked against initial inflammation before the severe cartilage damage.

    Techniques: Staining

    The effect of intra-articular injection of APETx2 on behavior tests. ( a )weight distribution, ( b ) paw withdrawal reflex (same manner as Figure 1 ). Weight distribution was changed significantly at Day3 in early APETx2 administration group. Frequency of paw withdrawal reflex i.e. secondary hyperalgesia reduced with APETx2 injection. The inhibitory effects on secondary hyperalgesia in both early- and late-phase groups were observed at Day14. * p

    Journal: Journal of Biomedical Science

    Article Title: Local ASIC3 modulates pain and disease progression in a rat model of osteoarthritis

    doi: 10.1186/1423-0127-19-77

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The effect of intra-articular injection of APETx2 on behavior tests. ( a )weight distribution, ( b ) paw withdrawal reflex (same manner as Figure 1 ). Weight distribution was changed significantly at Day3 in early APETx2 administration group. Frequency of paw withdrawal reflex i.e. secondary hyperalgesia reduced with APETx2 injection. The inhibitory effects on secondary hyperalgesia in both early- and late-phase groups were observed at Day14. * p

    Article Snippet: In this study, APETx2 was effective only in the early phase because it worked against initial inflammation before the severe cartilage damage.

    Techniques: Injection