rat anti c5ar antibody  (Hycult Biotech)


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    Hycult Biotech rat anti c5ar antibody
    Production of C5a and expression of <t>C5aR</t> in the injured spinal cord. A, C5a protein concentration in injured WT spinal cord is significantly increased compared with both naive (time point 0) and sham levels at 2 h, 6 h, 12 h, 1 d, 4 d, and 7 d after SCI (n = 4 or 5 per time point, two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01. ****p < 0.0001. B, WT C5a levels are also increased in the plasma in response to SCI, exceeding levels observed in sham-operated mice at 30 min, 2 h, 6 h, 12 h, and 1 d after injury (n = 4 or 5 per time point, two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01. ***p < 0.001. C–E, Representative confocal images showing C5aR expression in the injured spinal cord at 1 and 7 d after injury. C, At 1 d after injury, C5aR appeared present at the lesion epicenter on nucleated Iba1+ cells (arrow) as well as numerous smaller circular/ovoid cells that did not express Iba1 (arrowheads). Scale bar, 6.0 μm. D, At 7 d after injury, C5aR is present on cells with amoeboid morphology in WT mice, which appear to be clustered Iba1+ macrophages/microglia (arrow). Scale bar, 10 μm. E, C5aR expression was also observed on more elongated GFAP+ astrocytes (arrows), alongside C5aR+GFAP− cells with macrophage-like morphology (arrowhead). Scale bar, 13 μm. F, Only a very low level of nonspecific background fluorescence was observed following C5aR staining of lesioned C5ar−/− spinal cord tissue. Scale bar, 35 μm. G, Representative Western blots demonstrating C5aR expression by astrocytes in vitro. Left and middle lanes contain WT and C5ar−/− whole mouse brain homogenates, respectively. Right lane contains protein sample from cultured WT astrocytes.
    Rat Anti C5ar Antibody, supplied by Hycult Biotech, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/rat anti c5ar antibody/product/Hycult Biotech
    Average 90 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    rat anti c5ar antibody - by Bioz Stars, 2024-04
    90/100 stars

    Images

    1) Product Images from "The Complement Receptor C5aR Controls Acute Inflammation and Astrogliosis following Spinal Cord Injury"

    Article Title: The Complement Receptor C5aR Controls Acute Inflammation and Astrogliosis following Spinal Cord Injury

    Journal: The Journal of Neuroscience

    doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5218-14.2015

    Production of C5a and expression of C5aR in the injured spinal cord. A, C5a protein concentration in injured WT spinal cord is significantly increased compared with both naive (time point 0) and sham levels at 2 h, 6 h, 12 h, 1 d, 4 d, and 7 d after SCI (n = 4 or 5 per time point, two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01. ****p < 0.0001. B, WT C5a levels are also increased in the plasma in response to SCI, exceeding levels observed in sham-operated mice at 30 min, 2 h, 6 h, 12 h, and 1 d after injury (n = 4 or 5 per time point, two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01. ***p < 0.001. C–E, Representative confocal images showing C5aR expression in the injured spinal cord at 1 and 7 d after injury. C, At 1 d after injury, C5aR appeared present at the lesion epicenter on nucleated Iba1+ cells (arrow) as well as numerous smaller circular/ovoid cells that did not express Iba1 (arrowheads). Scale bar, 6.0 μm. D, At 7 d after injury, C5aR is present on cells with amoeboid morphology in WT mice, which appear to be clustered Iba1+ macrophages/microglia (arrow). Scale bar, 10 μm. E, C5aR expression was also observed on more elongated GFAP+ astrocytes (arrows), alongside C5aR+GFAP− cells with macrophage-like morphology (arrowhead). Scale bar, 13 μm. F, Only a very low level of nonspecific background fluorescence was observed following C5aR staining of lesioned C5ar−/− spinal cord tissue. Scale bar, 35 μm. G, Representative Western blots demonstrating C5aR expression by astrocytes in vitro. Left and middle lanes contain WT and C5ar−/− whole mouse brain homogenates, respectively. Right lane contains protein sample from cultured WT astrocytes.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of C5a and expression of C5aR in the injured spinal cord. A, C5a protein concentration in injured WT spinal cord is significantly increased compared with both naive (time point 0) and sham levels at 2 h, 6 h, 12 h, 1 d, 4 d, and 7 d after SCI (n = 4 or 5 per time point, two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01. ****p < 0.0001. B, WT C5a levels are also increased in the plasma in response to SCI, exceeding levels observed in sham-operated mice at 30 min, 2 h, 6 h, 12 h, and 1 d after injury (n = 4 or 5 per time point, two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01. ***p < 0.001. C–E, Representative confocal images showing C5aR expression in the injured spinal cord at 1 and 7 d after injury. C, At 1 d after injury, C5aR appeared present at the lesion epicenter on nucleated Iba1+ cells (arrow) as well as numerous smaller circular/ovoid cells that did not express Iba1 (arrowheads). Scale bar, 6.0 μm. D, At 7 d after injury, C5aR is present on cells with amoeboid morphology in WT mice, which appear to be clustered Iba1+ macrophages/microglia (arrow). Scale bar, 10 μm. E, C5aR expression was also observed on more elongated GFAP+ astrocytes (arrows), alongside C5aR+GFAP− cells with macrophage-like morphology (arrowhead). Scale bar, 13 μm. F, Only a very low level of nonspecific background fluorescence was observed following C5aR staining of lesioned C5ar−/− spinal cord tissue. Scale bar, 35 μm. G, Representative Western blots demonstrating C5aR expression by astrocytes in vitro. Left and middle lanes contain WT and C5ar−/− whole mouse brain homogenates, respectively. Right lane contains protein sample from cultured WT astrocytes.

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Protein Concentration, Fluorescence, Staining, Western Blot, In Vitro, Cell Culture

    C5ar−/− mice have a dual phenotype after SCI. A, BMS locomotor scoring revealed that C5ar−/− mice have significantly improved hindlimb motor function at 7 d after injury compared with WT mice. This trend reversed with time such that, at 28 and 35 d after SCI, WT mice had regained significantly more motor function than C5ar−/− mice (two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests, n = 8–12). B, Pooled BMS scores for individual mice from various experiments at 7 d after injury (Student's two-sided t test, n = 18–21). C, Graph showing the BMS scores for individual mice at 35 d after injury from longitudinal scores plotted in A (Student's two-sided t test, n = 8–12). D, Postmortem T2*-weighted MRI images showing lesion sites in WT and C5ar−/− mice. Scale bar (top left image): coronal images, 400 μm; sagittal images, 1 mm. E, Quantitative analysis revealed significantly larger lesion core volumes in C5ar−/− mice. Representative reconstructions of lesion cores for each genotype are shown in gray. F, G, A reduction in myelin content was observed in C5ar−/− mice at 35 d after SCI (Student's two-sided t test, n = 8 per group). Scale bar: F (top left image), 200 μm. H, I, Reductions in the proportional area (H) and intensity (I) of GFAP staining were also observed in C5ar−/− mice (Student's two-sided t tests, n = 8 per group). J, K, A more widespread presence of Ly6b.2+ cells (J) and CD3+ T cells (K) was observed in C5ar−/− mice at 35 d after injury (two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests, n = 5 per group), as also confirmed by area under the curve analysis (Student's two-sided t test, n = 5 per group). *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01. ***p < 0.001. ****p < 0.0001.
    Figure Legend Snippet: C5ar−/− mice have a dual phenotype after SCI. A, BMS locomotor scoring revealed that C5ar−/− mice have significantly improved hindlimb motor function at 7 d after injury compared with WT mice. This trend reversed with time such that, at 28 and 35 d after SCI, WT mice had regained significantly more motor function than C5ar−/− mice (two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests, n = 8–12). B, Pooled BMS scores for individual mice from various experiments at 7 d after injury (Student's two-sided t test, n = 18–21). C, Graph showing the BMS scores for individual mice at 35 d after injury from longitudinal scores plotted in A (Student's two-sided t test, n = 8–12). D, Postmortem T2*-weighted MRI images showing lesion sites in WT and C5ar−/− mice. Scale bar (top left image): coronal images, 400 μm; sagittal images, 1 mm. E, Quantitative analysis revealed significantly larger lesion core volumes in C5ar−/− mice. Representative reconstructions of lesion cores for each genotype are shown in gray. F, G, A reduction in myelin content was observed in C5ar−/− mice at 35 d after SCI (Student's two-sided t test, n = 8 per group). Scale bar: F (top left image), 200 μm. H, I, Reductions in the proportional area (H) and intensity (I) of GFAP staining were also observed in C5ar−/− mice (Student's two-sided t tests, n = 8 per group). J, K, A more widespread presence of Ly6b.2+ cells (J) and CD3+ T cells (K) was observed in C5ar−/− mice at 35 d after injury (two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests, n = 5 per group), as also confirmed by area under the curve analysis (Student's two-sided t test, n = 5 per group). *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01. ***p < 0.001. ****p < 0.0001.

    Techniques Used: Staining

    Acute, but not sustained, antagonism of C5aR improves SCI outcomes in Macgreen mice. A, BMS locomotor scores of mice treated with a C5aR antagonist (C5aR-A) for 7 d after SCI have significantly higher BMS scores than vehicle (Veh)-treated mice at 21, 28, and 35 d after injury. *p < 0.05 (two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests, n = 8–10). B, A scatter plot depicting the BMS scores of individual mice at 35 d after SCI. *p = 0.029 (Student's two-tailed t test, n = 8–10). C, D, Data from the ledged tapered beam walk task also indicated that C5aR blockade during the acute period improved long-term recovery, with C5aR-A-treated mice making significantly fewer stepping mistakes (C), and also traversing the beam faster (D) than vehicle-treated SCI controls. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001; ****p < 0.0001 (one-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests, n = 6–10). E, F, (Sub)acute C5aR-A treatment resulted in significantly more myelin being present at the lesion epicenter at 35 d after SCI compared with vehicle-treated mice. **p = 0.0088 (Student's t test, n = 5 per group). Scale bar: E (top left), 200 μm. E, G, The GFP+ infiltrate in the lesion core of Macgreen mice was also significantly reduced following the C5aR-A treatment regimen. **p = 0.0061 (Student's two-sided t test, n = 5 per group). H–J, GFAP immunoreactivity at 35 d after SCI was not significantly different between treatment groups based on analysis of both proportional area (I) and staining intensity (J). Scale bar: H (top left), 200 μm. K, Improved recovery from SCI was not sustained with continued C5aR-A administration. *p < 0.05, C5ar−/− + vehicle versus WT + vehicle (two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests, n = 4 or 5).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Acute, but not sustained, antagonism of C5aR improves SCI outcomes in Macgreen mice. A, BMS locomotor scores of mice treated with a C5aR antagonist (C5aR-A) for 7 d after SCI have significantly higher BMS scores than vehicle (Veh)-treated mice at 21, 28, and 35 d after injury. *p < 0.05 (two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests, n = 8–10). B, A scatter plot depicting the BMS scores of individual mice at 35 d after SCI. *p = 0.029 (Student's two-tailed t test, n = 8–10). C, D, Data from the ledged tapered beam walk task also indicated that C5aR blockade during the acute period improved long-term recovery, with C5aR-A-treated mice making significantly fewer stepping mistakes (C), and also traversing the beam faster (D) than vehicle-treated SCI controls. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001; ****p < 0.0001 (one-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests, n = 6–10). E, F, (Sub)acute C5aR-A treatment resulted in significantly more myelin being present at the lesion epicenter at 35 d after SCI compared with vehicle-treated mice. **p = 0.0088 (Student's t test, n = 5 per group). Scale bar: E (top left), 200 μm. E, G, The GFP+ infiltrate in the lesion core of Macgreen mice was also significantly reduced following the C5aR-A treatment regimen. **p = 0.0061 (Student's two-sided t test, n = 5 per group). H–J, GFAP immunoreactivity at 35 d after SCI was not significantly different between treatment groups based on analysis of both proportional area (I) and staining intensity (J). Scale bar: H (top left), 200 μm. K, Improved recovery from SCI was not sustained with continued C5aR-A administration. *p < 0.05, C5ar−/− + vehicle versus WT + vehicle (two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests, n = 4 or 5).

    Techniques Used: Two Tailed Test, Staining

    Inflammation in the (sub)acute period of SCI is reduced with C5aR elimination. A–F, Levels of MCP-1 (A), TNF (B), CXCL1 (C), IL-6 (D), IL-1β (E), and IL-10 (F) were all significantly increased at 12 h after SCI compared with sham-operated controls, regardless of genotype. C5aR deficiency did, however, result in significant reductions in CXCL1, IL-6, and IL-1β in the injured spinal cord compared with WT mice. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001; ****p < 0.0001 (two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests, n = 4 or 5). G, H, No significant differences in the Ly6b.2+ inflammatory cell infiltrate were observed between WT and C5ar−/− mice at 1 d (G) and 7 d (H) after SCI. Scale bar: G (bottom image), 40 μm. I, A significant reduction in the number of inflammatory monocytes/macrophages was observed in injured C5ar−/− spinal cord at 7 d after SCI. **p < 0.01 (Student's two-sided t test). n = 5 per group.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Inflammation in the (sub)acute period of SCI is reduced with C5aR elimination. A–F, Levels of MCP-1 (A), TNF (B), CXCL1 (C), IL-6 (D), IL-1β (E), and IL-10 (F) were all significantly increased at 12 h after SCI compared with sham-operated controls, regardless of genotype. C5aR deficiency did, however, result in significant reductions in CXCL1, IL-6, and IL-1β in the injured spinal cord compared with WT mice. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001; ****p < 0.0001 (two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests, n = 4 or 5). G, H, No significant differences in the Ly6b.2+ inflammatory cell infiltrate were observed between WT and C5ar−/− mice at 1 d (G) and 7 d (H) after SCI. Scale bar: G (bottom image), 40 μm. I, A significant reduction in the number of inflammatory monocytes/macrophages was observed in injured C5ar−/− spinal cord at 7 d after SCI. **p < 0.01 (Student's two-sided t test). n = 5 per group.

    Techniques Used:

    C5aR deficiency in the peripheral immune compartment does not alter the outcome from SCI. A, Flow cytometry data showing chimerization efficacy. [C5ar−/− → WT] BM chimeras (i.e., WT mice that received a C5ar−/− bone marrow transplant) only express background levels of C5aR on circulating granulocytes, equivalent to the amount of nonspecific staining observed on C5ar−/− cells. ***p < 0.001 (one-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc). n = 3–7. B, BMS locomotor scoring revealed no significant differences in functional recovery as a result of select C5aR deficiency in the peripheral immune compartment compared with [WT → WT] controls (two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests; n = 6 or 7). C, Scatter plot showing main BMS scores for individual mice at 35 d after SCI. D, No difference was observed between the experimental groups in the amount of myelin within the ventrolateral white matter at 35 d after SCI (Student's two-sided t test, p > 0.05; n = 6 or 7). Scale bar: D (top), 200 μm. E–G, Quantification of the inflammatory infiltrate also showed no differences between the experimental groups in the number of Ly6b.2+ cells (E), the proportional area of CD11b+ immunoreactivity (F), and the number of CD3+ lymphocytes (G) present at the lesion epicenter (Student's two-sided t tests, p > 0.05; n = 6 or 7).
    Figure Legend Snippet: C5aR deficiency in the peripheral immune compartment does not alter the outcome from SCI. A, Flow cytometry data showing chimerization efficacy. [C5ar−/− → WT] BM chimeras (i.e., WT mice that received a C5ar−/− bone marrow transplant) only express background levels of C5aR on circulating granulocytes, equivalent to the amount of nonspecific staining observed on C5ar−/− cells. ***p < 0.001 (one-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc). n = 3–7. B, BMS locomotor scoring revealed no significant differences in functional recovery as a result of select C5aR deficiency in the peripheral immune compartment compared with [WT → WT] controls (two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests; n = 6 or 7). C, Scatter plot showing main BMS scores for individual mice at 35 d after SCI. D, No difference was observed between the experimental groups in the amount of myelin within the ventrolateral white matter at 35 d after SCI (Student's two-sided t test, p > 0.05; n = 6 or 7). Scale bar: D (top), 200 μm. E–G, Quantification of the inflammatory infiltrate also showed no differences between the experimental groups in the number of Ly6b.2+ cells (E), the proportional area of CD11b+ immunoreactivity (F), and the number of CD3+ lymphocytes (G) present at the lesion epicenter (Student's two-sided t tests, p > 0.05; n = 6 or 7).

    Techniques Used: Flow Cytometry, Staining, Functional Assay

    Signaling through the C5a-C5aR axis promotes astrocyte proliferation in vivo and in vitro. A, Quantification of BrdU+GFAP+ astrocytes at the lesion site of WT SCI mice that were chronically administered C5aR-A (orange) or vehicle (Veh, blue) solution, and vehicle-treated C5ar−/− mice (red). Note the significantly reduced presence of newly generated astrocytes along the rostral and caudal margins of the lesion in the absence of C5aR signaling (two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests; n = 4 or 5 per group). *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01. B, A significant, negative correlation was observed between the total number of BrdU+GFAP+ cells and lesion volumes (Pearson's correlation, p < 0.0001). C, C5a stimulates the proliferation of WT astrocytes in vitro in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations >10 nm (one-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). *p < 0.05. ***p < 0.001. Graph is representative of three experimental repeats. D, C5ar−/− astrocytes did not proliferate in response to high-dose C5a (50 nm; Student's two-sided t test, p > 0.05). E, Exposure of cultured astrocytes to C5a (50 nm) resulted in a significant increase in the ratio of P-STAT3 to STAT3. Addition of the STAT3 Inhibitor BP-1-102 (10 μm) just before C5a stimulation blocked this increase in STAT3 phosphorylation (one-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). **p < 0.01. F, Stimulation of C5ar−/− astrocytes with 50 nm of C5a did not lead to a significant change in STAT3 phosphorylation (Student's two-sided t test, p > 0.05). G, Addition of BP-1-102 (5 μm) blocked C5a-induced astrocyte proliferation in vitro (one-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). **p < 0.01. ***p < 0.001. Dotted line indicates the initial number of cells plated. D–F, Data are mean ± SEM, with n = 6 biological replicates. ns, Not significant.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Signaling through the C5a-C5aR axis promotes astrocyte proliferation in vivo and in vitro. A, Quantification of BrdU+GFAP+ astrocytes at the lesion site of WT SCI mice that were chronically administered C5aR-A (orange) or vehicle (Veh, blue) solution, and vehicle-treated C5ar−/− mice (red). Note the significantly reduced presence of newly generated astrocytes along the rostral and caudal margins of the lesion in the absence of C5aR signaling (two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests; n = 4 or 5 per group). *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01. B, A significant, negative correlation was observed between the total number of BrdU+GFAP+ cells and lesion volumes (Pearson's correlation, p < 0.0001). C, C5a stimulates the proliferation of WT astrocytes in vitro in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations >10 nm (one-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). *p < 0.05. ***p < 0.001. Graph is representative of three experimental repeats. D, C5ar−/− astrocytes did not proliferate in response to high-dose C5a (50 nm; Student's two-sided t test, p > 0.05). E, Exposure of cultured astrocytes to C5a (50 nm) resulted in a significant increase in the ratio of P-STAT3 to STAT3. Addition of the STAT3 Inhibitor BP-1-102 (10 μm) just before C5a stimulation blocked this increase in STAT3 phosphorylation (one-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). **p < 0.01. F, Stimulation of C5ar−/− astrocytes with 50 nm of C5a did not lead to a significant change in STAT3 phosphorylation (Student's two-sided t test, p > 0.05). G, Addition of BP-1-102 (5 μm) blocked C5a-induced astrocyte proliferation in vitro (one-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). **p < 0.01. ***p < 0.001. Dotted line indicates the initial number of cells plated. D–F, Data are mean ± SEM, with n = 6 biological replicates. ns, Not significant.

    Techniques Used: In Vivo, In Vitro, Generated, Cell Culture

    Diagram showing the proposed dual and time-dependent role of C5aR in SCI. In the (sub)acute period (0–7 d after SCI), activated astrocytes and microglia proliferate and/or migrate to the site of injury. Activation of these cells occurs in part through increased C5a levels as a result of complement activation, which in turn augments their production and release of inflammatory cytokines at the lesion site. Release of CXCL1 is a key signal for neutrophil recruitment to the site of SCI. IL-1β and IL-6 aid in the recruitment of blood monocytes and macrophages, which promote secondary injury if adopting an M1 phenotype. In the postacute to chronic period of SCI (7 d after SCI onwards), C5aR signaling is critically required for STAT3-mediated astrocyte proliferation and glial scar formation, which seals the injury site and prevents the spread of secondary injury. Through its regulation of IL-6 levels, C5aR may also be involved IL-6R-dependent astrocyte proliferation. 1(Anderson et al., 2004, 2005; Nguyen et al., 2008); 2(Lacy et al., 1995; Griffin et al., 2007; Ager et al., 2010); 3(Gasque et al., 1995; Lacy et al., 1995; Woodruff et al., 2008); 4(Acarin et al., 2000; Pineau and Lacroix, 2007; Pineau et al., 2010); 5(Klusman and Schwab, 1997; Romano et al., 1997; Dinarello, 2009); 6(Baggiolini and Clark-Lewis, 1992; Harada et al., 1994; Taub et al., 1996); 7(Gensel et al., 2009; Kigerl et al., 2009; Blomster et al., 2013a); 8(Gensel et al., 2009; Shechter et al., 2009, 2013); 9(Okada et al., 2006); and 10(Bush et al., 1999; Faulkner et al., 2004; Okada et al., 2006; Herrmann et al., 2008; Wanner et al., 2013).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Diagram showing the proposed dual and time-dependent role of C5aR in SCI. In the (sub)acute period (0–7 d after SCI), activated astrocytes and microglia proliferate and/or migrate to the site of injury. Activation of these cells occurs in part through increased C5a levels as a result of complement activation, which in turn augments their production and release of inflammatory cytokines at the lesion site. Release of CXCL1 is a key signal for neutrophil recruitment to the site of SCI. IL-1β and IL-6 aid in the recruitment of blood monocytes and macrophages, which promote secondary injury if adopting an M1 phenotype. In the postacute to chronic period of SCI (7 d after SCI onwards), C5aR signaling is critically required for STAT3-mediated astrocyte proliferation and glial scar formation, which seals the injury site and prevents the spread of secondary injury. Through its regulation of IL-6 levels, C5aR may also be involved IL-6R-dependent astrocyte proliferation. 1(Anderson et al., 2004, 2005; Nguyen et al., 2008); 2(Lacy et al., 1995; Griffin et al., 2007; Ager et al., 2010); 3(Gasque et al., 1995; Lacy et al., 1995; Woodruff et al., 2008); 4(Acarin et al., 2000; Pineau and Lacroix, 2007; Pineau et al., 2010); 5(Klusman and Schwab, 1997; Romano et al., 1997; Dinarello, 2009); 6(Baggiolini and Clark-Lewis, 1992; Harada et al., 1994; Taub et al., 1996); 7(Gensel et al., 2009; Kigerl et al., 2009; Blomster et al., 2013a); 8(Gensel et al., 2009; Shechter et al., 2009, 2013); 9(Okada et al., 2006); and 10(Bush et al., 1999; Faulkner et al., 2004; Okada et al., 2006; Herrmann et al., 2008; Wanner et al., 2013).

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay

    rat anti c5ar antibody  (Hycult Biotech)


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    Structured Review

    Hycult Biotech rat anti c5ar antibody
    Production of C5a and expression of <t>C5aR</t> in the injured spinal cord. A, C5a protein concentration in injured WT spinal cord is significantly increased compared with both naive (time point 0) and sham levels at 2 h, 6 h, 12 h, 1 d, 4 d, and 7 d after SCI (n = 4 or 5 per time point, two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01. ****p < 0.0001. B, WT C5a levels are also increased in the plasma in response to SCI, exceeding levels observed in sham-operated mice at 30 min, 2 h, 6 h, 12 h, and 1 d after injury (n = 4 or 5 per time point, two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01. ***p < 0.001. C–E, Representative confocal images showing C5aR expression in the injured spinal cord at 1 and 7 d after injury. C, At 1 d after injury, C5aR appeared present at the lesion epicenter on nucleated Iba1+ cells (arrow) as well as numerous smaller circular/ovoid cells that did not express Iba1 (arrowheads). Scale bar, 6.0 μm. D, At 7 d after injury, C5aR is present on cells with amoeboid morphology in WT mice, which appear to be clustered Iba1+ macrophages/microglia (arrow). Scale bar, 10 μm. E, C5aR expression was also observed on more elongated GFAP+ astrocytes (arrows), alongside C5aR+GFAP− cells with macrophage-like morphology (arrowhead). Scale bar, 13 μm. F, Only a very low level of nonspecific background fluorescence was observed following C5aR staining of lesioned C5ar−/− spinal cord tissue. Scale bar, 35 μm. G, Representative Western blots demonstrating C5aR expression by astrocytes in vitro. Left and middle lanes contain WT and C5ar−/− whole mouse brain homogenates, respectively. Right lane contains protein sample from cultured WT astrocytes.
    Rat Anti C5ar Antibody, supplied by Hycult Biotech, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/rat anti c5ar antibody/product/Hycult Biotech
    Average 90 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    rat anti c5ar antibody - by Bioz Stars, 2024-04
    90/100 stars

    Images

    1) Product Images from "The Complement Receptor C5aR Controls Acute Inflammation and Astrogliosis following Spinal Cord Injury"

    Article Title: The Complement Receptor C5aR Controls Acute Inflammation and Astrogliosis following Spinal Cord Injury

    Journal: The Journal of Neuroscience

    doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5218-14.2015

    Production of C5a and expression of C5aR in the injured spinal cord. A, C5a protein concentration in injured WT spinal cord is significantly increased compared with both naive (time point 0) and sham levels at 2 h, 6 h, 12 h, 1 d, 4 d, and 7 d after SCI (n = 4 or 5 per time point, two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01. ****p < 0.0001. B, WT C5a levels are also increased in the plasma in response to SCI, exceeding levels observed in sham-operated mice at 30 min, 2 h, 6 h, 12 h, and 1 d after injury (n = 4 or 5 per time point, two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01. ***p < 0.001. C–E, Representative confocal images showing C5aR expression in the injured spinal cord at 1 and 7 d after injury. C, At 1 d after injury, C5aR appeared present at the lesion epicenter on nucleated Iba1+ cells (arrow) as well as numerous smaller circular/ovoid cells that did not express Iba1 (arrowheads). Scale bar, 6.0 μm. D, At 7 d after injury, C5aR is present on cells with amoeboid morphology in WT mice, which appear to be clustered Iba1+ macrophages/microglia (arrow). Scale bar, 10 μm. E, C5aR expression was also observed on more elongated GFAP+ astrocytes (arrows), alongside C5aR+GFAP− cells with macrophage-like morphology (arrowhead). Scale bar, 13 μm. F, Only a very low level of nonspecific background fluorescence was observed following C5aR staining of lesioned C5ar−/− spinal cord tissue. Scale bar, 35 μm. G, Representative Western blots demonstrating C5aR expression by astrocytes in vitro. Left and middle lanes contain WT and C5ar−/− whole mouse brain homogenates, respectively. Right lane contains protein sample from cultured WT astrocytes.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of C5a and expression of C5aR in the injured spinal cord. A, C5a protein concentration in injured WT spinal cord is significantly increased compared with both naive (time point 0) and sham levels at 2 h, 6 h, 12 h, 1 d, 4 d, and 7 d after SCI (n = 4 or 5 per time point, two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01. ****p < 0.0001. B, WT C5a levels are also increased in the plasma in response to SCI, exceeding levels observed in sham-operated mice at 30 min, 2 h, 6 h, 12 h, and 1 d after injury (n = 4 or 5 per time point, two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01. ***p < 0.001. C–E, Representative confocal images showing C5aR expression in the injured spinal cord at 1 and 7 d after injury. C, At 1 d after injury, C5aR appeared present at the lesion epicenter on nucleated Iba1+ cells (arrow) as well as numerous smaller circular/ovoid cells that did not express Iba1 (arrowheads). Scale bar, 6.0 μm. D, At 7 d after injury, C5aR is present on cells with amoeboid morphology in WT mice, which appear to be clustered Iba1+ macrophages/microglia (arrow). Scale bar, 10 μm. E, C5aR expression was also observed on more elongated GFAP+ astrocytes (arrows), alongside C5aR+GFAP− cells with macrophage-like morphology (arrowhead). Scale bar, 13 μm. F, Only a very low level of nonspecific background fluorescence was observed following C5aR staining of lesioned C5ar−/− spinal cord tissue. Scale bar, 35 μm. G, Representative Western blots demonstrating C5aR expression by astrocytes in vitro. Left and middle lanes contain WT and C5ar−/− whole mouse brain homogenates, respectively. Right lane contains protein sample from cultured WT astrocytes.

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Protein Concentration, Fluorescence, Staining, Western Blot, In Vitro, Cell Culture

    C5ar−/− mice have a dual phenotype after SCI. A, BMS locomotor scoring revealed that C5ar−/− mice have significantly improved hindlimb motor function at 7 d after injury compared with WT mice. This trend reversed with time such that, at 28 and 35 d after SCI, WT mice had regained significantly more motor function than C5ar−/− mice (two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests, n = 8–12). B, Pooled BMS scores for individual mice from various experiments at 7 d after injury (Student's two-sided t test, n = 18–21). C, Graph showing the BMS scores for individual mice at 35 d after injury from longitudinal scores plotted in A (Student's two-sided t test, n = 8–12). D, Postmortem T2*-weighted MRI images showing lesion sites in WT and C5ar−/− mice. Scale bar (top left image): coronal images, 400 μm; sagittal images, 1 mm. E, Quantitative analysis revealed significantly larger lesion core volumes in C5ar−/− mice. Representative reconstructions of lesion cores for each genotype are shown in gray. F, G, A reduction in myelin content was observed in C5ar−/− mice at 35 d after SCI (Student's two-sided t test, n = 8 per group). Scale bar: F (top left image), 200 μm. H, I, Reductions in the proportional area (H) and intensity (I) of GFAP staining were also observed in C5ar−/− mice (Student's two-sided t tests, n = 8 per group). J, K, A more widespread presence of Ly6b.2+ cells (J) and CD3+ T cells (K) was observed in C5ar−/− mice at 35 d after injury (two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests, n = 5 per group), as also confirmed by area under the curve analysis (Student's two-sided t test, n = 5 per group). *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01. ***p < 0.001. ****p < 0.0001.
    Figure Legend Snippet: C5ar−/− mice have a dual phenotype after SCI. A, BMS locomotor scoring revealed that C5ar−/− mice have significantly improved hindlimb motor function at 7 d after injury compared with WT mice. This trend reversed with time such that, at 28 and 35 d after SCI, WT mice had regained significantly more motor function than C5ar−/− mice (two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests, n = 8–12). B, Pooled BMS scores for individual mice from various experiments at 7 d after injury (Student's two-sided t test, n = 18–21). C, Graph showing the BMS scores for individual mice at 35 d after injury from longitudinal scores plotted in A (Student's two-sided t test, n = 8–12). D, Postmortem T2*-weighted MRI images showing lesion sites in WT and C5ar−/− mice. Scale bar (top left image): coronal images, 400 μm; sagittal images, 1 mm. E, Quantitative analysis revealed significantly larger lesion core volumes in C5ar−/− mice. Representative reconstructions of lesion cores for each genotype are shown in gray. F, G, A reduction in myelin content was observed in C5ar−/− mice at 35 d after SCI (Student's two-sided t test, n = 8 per group). Scale bar: F (top left image), 200 μm. H, I, Reductions in the proportional area (H) and intensity (I) of GFAP staining were also observed in C5ar−/− mice (Student's two-sided t tests, n = 8 per group). J, K, A more widespread presence of Ly6b.2+ cells (J) and CD3+ T cells (K) was observed in C5ar−/− mice at 35 d after injury (two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests, n = 5 per group), as also confirmed by area under the curve analysis (Student's two-sided t test, n = 5 per group). *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01. ***p < 0.001. ****p < 0.0001.

    Techniques Used: Staining

    Acute, but not sustained, antagonism of C5aR improves SCI outcomes in Macgreen mice. A, BMS locomotor scores of mice treated with a C5aR antagonist (C5aR-A) for 7 d after SCI have significantly higher BMS scores than vehicle (Veh)-treated mice at 21, 28, and 35 d after injury. *p < 0.05 (two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests, n = 8–10). B, A scatter plot depicting the BMS scores of individual mice at 35 d after SCI. *p = 0.029 (Student's two-tailed t test, n = 8–10). C, D, Data from the ledged tapered beam walk task also indicated that C5aR blockade during the acute period improved long-term recovery, with C5aR-A-treated mice making significantly fewer stepping mistakes (C), and also traversing the beam faster (D) than vehicle-treated SCI controls. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001; ****p < 0.0001 (one-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests, n = 6–10). E, F, (Sub)acute C5aR-A treatment resulted in significantly more myelin being present at the lesion epicenter at 35 d after SCI compared with vehicle-treated mice. **p = 0.0088 (Student's t test, n = 5 per group). Scale bar: E (top left), 200 μm. E, G, The GFP+ infiltrate in the lesion core of Macgreen mice was also significantly reduced following the C5aR-A treatment regimen. **p = 0.0061 (Student's two-sided t test, n = 5 per group). H–J, GFAP immunoreactivity at 35 d after SCI was not significantly different between treatment groups based on analysis of both proportional area (I) and staining intensity (J). Scale bar: H (top left), 200 μm. K, Improved recovery from SCI was not sustained with continued C5aR-A administration. *p < 0.05, C5ar−/− + vehicle versus WT + vehicle (two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests, n = 4 or 5).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Acute, but not sustained, antagonism of C5aR improves SCI outcomes in Macgreen mice. A, BMS locomotor scores of mice treated with a C5aR antagonist (C5aR-A) for 7 d after SCI have significantly higher BMS scores than vehicle (Veh)-treated mice at 21, 28, and 35 d after injury. *p < 0.05 (two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests, n = 8–10). B, A scatter plot depicting the BMS scores of individual mice at 35 d after SCI. *p = 0.029 (Student's two-tailed t test, n = 8–10). C, D, Data from the ledged tapered beam walk task also indicated that C5aR blockade during the acute period improved long-term recovery, with C5aR-A-treated mice making significantly fewer stepping mistakes (C), and also traversing the beam faster (D) than vehicle-treated SCI controls. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001; ****p < 0.0001 (one-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests, n = 6–10). E, F, (Sub)acute C5aR-A treatment resulted in significantly more myelin being present at the lesion epicenter at 35 d after SCI compared with vehicle-treated mice. **p = 0.0088 (Student's t test, n = 5 per group). Scale bar: E (top left), 200 μm. E, G, The GFP+ infiltrate in the lesion core of Macgreen mice was also significantly reduced following the C5aR-A treatment regimen. **p = 0.0061 (Student's two-sided t test, n = 5 per group). H–J, GFAP immunoreactivity at 35 d after SCI was not significantly different between treatment groups based on analysis of both proportional area (I) and staining intensity (J). Scale bar: H (top left), 200 μm. K, Improved recovery from SCI was not sustained with continued C5aR-A administration. *p < 0.05, C5ar−/− + vehicle versus WT + vehicle (two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests, n = 4 or 5).

    Techniques Used: Two Tailed Test, Staining

    Inflammation in the (sub)acute period of SCI is reduced with C5aR elimination. A–F, Levels of MCP-1 (A), TNF (B), CXCL1 (C), IL-6 (D), IL-1β (E), and IL-10 (F) were all significantly increased at 12 h after SCI compared with sham-operated controls, regardless of genotype. C5aR deficiency did, however, result in significant reductions in CXCL1, IL-6, and IL-1β in the injured spinal cord compared with WT mice. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001; ****p < 0.0001 (two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests, n = 4 or 5). G, H, No significant differences in the Ly6b.2+ inflammatory cell infiltrate were observed between WT and C5ar−/− mice at 1 d (G) and 7 d (H) after SCI. Scale bar: G (bottom image), 40 μm. I, A significant reduction in the number of inflammatory monocytes/macrophages was observed in injured C5ar−/− spinal cord at 7 d after SCI. **p < 0.01 (Student's two-sided t test). n = 5 per group.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Inflammation in the (sub)acute period of SCI is reduced with C5aR elimination. A–F, Levels of MCP-1 (A), TNF (B), CXCL1 (C), IL-6 (D), IL-1β (E), and IL-10 (F) were all significantly increased at 12 h after SCI compared with sham-operated controls, regardless of genotype. C5aR deficiency did, however, result in significant reductions in CXCL1, IL-6, and IL-1β in the injured spinal cord compared with WT mice. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001; ****p < 0.0001 (two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests, n = 4 or 5). G, H, No significant differences in the Ly6b.2+ inflammatory cell infiltrate were observed between WT and C5ar−/− mice at 1 d (G) and 7 d (H) after SCI. Scale bar: G (bottom image), 40 μm. I, A significant reduction in the number of inflammatory monocytes/macrophages was observed in injured C5ar−/− spinal cord at 7 d after SCI. **p < 0.01 (Student's two-sided t test). n = 5 per group.

    Techniques Used:

    C5aR deficiency in the peripheral immune compartment does not alter the outcome from SCI. A, Flow cytometry data showing chimerization efficacy. [C5ar−/− → WT] BM chimeras (i.e., WT mice that received a C5ar−/− bone marrow transplant) only express background levels of C5aR on circulating granulocytes, equivalent to the amount of nonspecific staining observed on C5ar−/− cells. ***p < 0.001 (one-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc). n = 3–7. B, BMS locomotor scoring revealed no significant differences in functional recovery as a result of select C5aR deficiency in the peripheral immune compartment compared with [WT → WT] controls (two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests; n = 6 or 7). C, Scatter plot showing main BMS scores for individual mice at 35 d after SCI. D, No difference was observed between the experimental groups in the amount of myelin within the ventrolateral white matter at 35 d after SCI (Student's two-sided t test, p > 0.05; n = 6 or 7). Scale bar: D (top), 200 μm. E–G, Quantification of the inflammatory infiltrate also showed no differences between the experimental groups in the number of Ly6b.2+ cells (E), the proportional area of CD11b+ immunoreactivity (F), and the number of CD3+ lymphocytes (G) present at the lesion epicenter (Student's two-sided t tests, p > 0.05; n = 6 or 7).
    Figure Legend Snippet: C5aR deficiency in the peripheral immune compartment does not alter the outcome from SCI. A, Flow cytometry data showing chimerization efficacy. [C5ar−/− → WT] BM chimeras (i.e., WT mice that received a C5ar−/− bone marrow transplant) only express background levels of C5aR on circulating granulocytes, equivalent to the amount of nonspecific staining observed on C5ar−/− cells. ***p < 0.001 (one-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc). n = 3–7. B, BMS locomotor scoring revealed no significant differences in functional recovery as a result of select C5aR deficiency in the peripheral immune compartment compared with [WT → WT] controls (two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests; n = 6 or 7). C, Scatter plot showing main BMS scores for individual mice at 35 d after SCI. D, No difference was observed between the experimental groups in the amount of myelin within the ventrolateral white matter at 35 d after SCI (Student's two-sided t test, p > 0.05; n = 6 or 7). Scale bar: D (top), 200 μm. E–G, Quantification of the inflammatory infiltrate also showed no differences between the experimental groups in the number of Ly6b.2+ cells (E), the proportional area of CD11b+ immunoreactivity (F), and the number of CD3+ lymphocytes (G) present at the lesion epicenter (Student's two-sided t tests, p > 0.05; n = 6 or 7).

    Techniques Used: Flow Cytometry, Staining, Functional Assay

    Signaling through the C5a-C5aR axis promotes astrocyte proliferation in vivo and in vitro. A, Quantification of BrdU+GFAP+ astrocytes at the lesion site of WT SCI mice that were chronically administered C5aR-A (orange) or vehicle (Veh, blue) solution, and vehicle-treated C5ar−/− mice (red). Note the significantly reduced presence of newly generated astrocytes along the rostral and caudal margins of the lesion in the absence of C5aR signaling (two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests; n = 4 or 5 per group). *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01. B, A significant, negative correlation was observed between the total number of BrdU+GFAP+ cells and lesion volumes (Pearson's correlation, p < 0.0001). C, C5a stimulates the proliferation of WT astrocytes in vitro in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations >10 nm (one-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). *p < 0.05. ***p < 0.001. Graph is representative of three experimental repeats. D, C5ar−/− astrocytes did not proliferate in response to high-dose C5a (50 nm; Student's two-sided t test, p > 0.05). E, Exposure of cultured astrocytes to C5a (50 nm) resulted in a significant increase in the ratio of P-STAT3 to STAT3. Addition of the STAT3 Inhibitor BP-1-102 (10 μm) just before C5a stimulation blocked this increase in STAT3 phosphorylation (one-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). **p < 0.01. F, Stimulation of C5ar−/− astrocytes with 50 nm of C5a did not lead to a significant change in STAT3 phosphorylation (Student's two-sided t test, p > 0.05). G, Addition of BP-1-102 (5 μm) blocked C5a-induced astrocyte proliferation in vitro (one-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). **p < 0.01. ***p < 0.001. Dotted line indicates the initial number of cells plated. D–F, Data are mean ± SEM, with n = 6 biological replicates. ns, Not significant.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Signaling through the C5a-C5aR axis promotes astrocyte proliferation in vivo and in vitro. A, Quantification of BrdU+GFAP+ astrocytes at the lesion site of WT SCI mice that were chronically administered C5aR-A (orange) or vehicle (Veh, blue) solution, and vehicle-treated C5ar−/− mice (red). Note the significantly reduced presence of newly generated astrocytes along the rostral and caudal margins of the lesion in the absence of C5aR signaling (two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests; n = 4 or 5 per group). *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01. B, A significant, negative correlation was observed between the total number of BrdU+GFAP+ cells and lesion volumes (Pearson's correlation, p < 0.0001). C, C5a stimulates the proliferation of WT astrocytes in vitro in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations >10 nm (one-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). *p < 0.05. ***p < 0.001. Graph is representative of three experimental repeats. D, C5ar−/− astrocytes did not proliferate in response to high-dose C5a (50 nm; Student's two-sided t test, p > 0.05). E, Exposure of cultured astrocytes to C5a (50 nm) resulted in a significant increase in the ratio of P-STAT3 to STAT3. Addition of the STAT3 Inhibitor BP-1-102 (10 μm) just before C5a stimulation blocked this increase in STAT3 phosphorylation (one-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). **p < 0.01. F, Stimulation of C5ar−/− astrocytes with 50 nm of C5a did not lead to a significant change in STAT3 phosphorylation (Student's two-sided t test, p > 0.05). G, Addition of BP-1-102 (5 μm) blocked C5a-induced astrocyte proliferation in vitro (one-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). **p < 0.01. ***p < 0.001. Dotted line indicates the initial number of cells plated. D–F, Data are mean ± SEM, with n = 6 biological replicates. ns, Not significant.

    Techniques Used: In Vivo, In Vitro, Generated, Cell Culture

    Diagram showing the proposed dual and time-dependent role of C5aR in SCI. In the (sub)acute period (0–7 d after SCI), activated astrocytes and microglia proliferate and/or migrate to the site of injury. Activation of these cells occurs in part through increased C5a levels as a result of complement activation, which in turn augments their production and release of inflammatory cytokines at the lesion site. Release of CXCL1 is a key signal for neutrophil recruitment to the site of SCI. IL-1β and IL-6 aid in the recruitment of blood monocytes and macrophages, which promote secondary injury if adopting an M1 phenotype. In the postacute to chronic period of SCI (7 d after SCI onwards), C5aR signaling is critically required for STAT3-mediated astrocyte proliferation and glial scar formation, which seals the injury site and prevents the spread of secondary injury. Through its regulation of IL-6 levels, C5aR may also be involved IL-6R-dependent astrocyte proliferation. 1(Anderson et al., 2004, 2005; Nguyen et al., 2008); 2(Lacy et al., 1995; Griffin et al., 2007; Ager et al., 2010); 3(Gasque et al., 1995; Lacy et al., 1995; Woodruff et al., 2008); 4(Acarin et al., 2000; Pineau and Lacroix, 2007; Pineau et al., 2010); 5(Klusman and Schwab, 1997; Romano et al., 1997; Dinarello, 2009); 6(Baggiolini and Clark-Lewis, 1992; Harada et al., 1994; Taub et al., 1996); 7(Gensel et al., 2009; Kigerl et al., 2009; Blomster et al., 2013a); 8(Gensel et al., 2009; Shechter et al., 2009, 2013); 9(Okada et al., 2006); and 10(Bush et al., 1999; Faulkner et al., 2004; Okada et al., 2006; Herrmann et al., 2008; Wanner et al., 2013).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Diagram showing the proposed dual and time-dependent role of C5aR in SCI. In the (sub)acute period (0–7 d after SCI), activated astrocytes and microglia proliferate and/or migrate to the site of injury. Activation of these cells occurs in part through increased C5a levels as a result of complement activation, which in turn augments their production and release of inflammatory cytokines at the lesion site. Release of CXCL1 is a key signal for neutrophil recruitment to the site of SCI. IL-1β and IL-6 aid in the recruitment of blood monocytes and macrophages, which promote secondary injury if adopting an M1 phenotype. In the postacute to chronic period of SCI (7 d after SCI onwards), C5aR signaling is critically required for STAT3-mediated astrocyte proliferation and glial scar formation, which seals the injury site and prevents the spread of secondary injury. Through its regulation of IL-6 levels, C5aR may also be involved IL-6R-dependent astrocyte proliferation. 1(Anderson et al., 2004, 2005; Nguyen et al., 2008); 2(Lacy et al., 1995; Griffin et al., 2007; Ager et al., 2010); 3(Gasque et al., 1995; Lacy et al., 1995; Woodruff et al., 2008); 4(Acarin et al., 2000; Pineau and Lacroix, 2007; Pineau et al., 2010); 5(Klusman and Schwab, 1997; Romano et al., 1997; Dinarello, 2009); 6(Baggiolini and Clark-Lewis, 1992; Harada et al., 1994; Taub et al., 1996); 7(Gensel et al., 2009; Kigerl et al., 2009; Blomster et al., 2013a); 8(Gensel et al., 2009; Shechter et al., 2009, 2013); 9(Okada et al., 2006); and 10(Bush et al., 1999; Faulkner et al., 2004; Okada et al., 2006; Herrmann et al., 2008; Wanner et al., 2013).

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay

    rat anti c5ar antibody  (Hycult Biotech)


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    Hycult Biotech rat anti c5ar antibody
    Production of C5a and expression of <t>C5aR</t> in the injured spinal cord. A, C5a protein concentration in injured WT spinal cord is significantly increased compared with both naive (time point 0) and sham levels at 2 h, 6 h, 12 h, 1 d, 4 d, and 7 d after SCI (n = 4 or 5 per time point, two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01. ****p < 0.0001. B, WT C5a levels are also increased in the plasma in response to SCI, exceeding levels observed in sham-operated mice at 30 min, 2 h, 6 h, 12 h, and 1 d after injury (n = 4 or 5 per time point, two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01. ***p < 0.001. C–E, Representative confocal images showing C5aR expression in the injured spinal cord at 1 and 7 d after injury. C, At 1 d after injury, C5aR appeared present at the lesion epicenter on nucleated Iba1+ cells (arrow) as well as numerous smaller circular/ovoid cells that did not express Iba1 (arrowheads). Scale bar, 6.0 μm. D, At 7 d after injury, C5aR is present on cells with amoeboid morphology in WT mice, which appear to be clustered Iba1+ macrophages/microglia (arrow). Scale bar, 10 μm. E, C5aR expression was also observed on more elongated GFAP+ astrocytes (arrows), alongside C5aR+GFAP− cells with macrophage-like morphology (arrowhead). Scale bar, 13 μm. F, Only a very low level of nonspecific background fluorescence was observed following C5aR staining of lesioned C5ar−/− spinal cord tissue. Scale bar, 35 μm. G, Representative Western blots demonstrating C5aR expression by astrocytes in vitro. Left and middle lanes contain WT and C5ar−/− whole mouse brain homogenates, respectively. Right lane contains protein sample from cultured WT astrocytes.
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    1) Product Images from "The Complement Receptor C5aR Controls Acute Inflammation and Astrogliosis following Spinal Cord Injury"

    Article Title: The Complement Receptor C5aR Controls Acute Inflammation and Astrogliosis following Spinal Cord Injury

    Journal: The Journal of Neuroscience

    doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5218-14.2015

    Production of C5a and expression of C5aR in the injured spinal cord. A, C5a protein concentration in injured WT spinal cord is significantly increased compared with both naive (time point 0) and sham levels at 2 h, 6 h, 12 h, 1 d, 4 d, and 7 d after SCI (n = 4 or 5 per time point, two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01. ****p < 0.0001. B, WT C5a levels are also increased in the plasma in response to SCI, exceeding levels observed in sham-operated mice at 30 min, 2 h, 6 h, 12 h, and 1 d after injury (n = 4 or 5 per time point, two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01. ***p < 0.001. C–E, Representative confocal images showing C5aR expression in the injured spinal cord at 1 and 7 d after injury. C, At 1 d after injury, C5aR appeared present at the lesion epicenter on nucleated Iba1+ cells (arrow) as well as numerous smaller circular/ovoid cells that did not express Iba1 (arrowheads). Scale bar, 6.0 μm. D, At 7 d after injury, C5aR is present on cells with amoeboid morphology in WT mice, which appear to be clustered Iba1+ macrophages/microglia (arrow). Scale bar, 10 μm. E, C5aR expression was also observed on more elongated GFAP+ astrocytes (arrows), alongside C5aR+GFAP− cells with macrophage-like morphology (arrowhead). Scale bar, 13 μm. F, Only a very low level of nonspecific background fluorescence was observed following C5aR staining of lesioned C5ar−/− spinal cord tissue. Scale bar, 35 μm. G, Representative Western blots demonstrating C5aR expression by astrocytes in vitro. Left and middle lanes contain WT and C5ar−/− whole mouse brain homogenates, respectively. Right lane contains protein sample from cultured WT astrocytes.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of C5a and expression of C5aR in the injured spinal cord. A, C5a protein concentration in injured WT spinal cord is significantly increased compared with both naive (time point 0) and sham levels at 2 h, 6 h, 12 h, 1 d, 4 d, and 7 d after SCI (n = 4 or 5 per time point, two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01. ****p < 0.0001. B, WT C5a levels are also increased in the plasma in response to SCI, exceeding levels observed in sham-operated mice at 30 min, 2 h, 6 h, 12 h, and 1 d after injury (n = 4 or 5 per time point, two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01. ***p < 0.001. C–E, Representative confocal images showing C5aR expression in the injured spinal cord at 1 and 7 d after injury. C, At 1 d after injury, C5aR appeared present at the lesion epicenter on nucleated Iba1+ cells (arrow) as well as numerous smaller circular/ovoid cells that did not express Iba1 (arrowheads). Scale bar, 6.0 μm. D, At 7 d after injury, C5aR is present on cells with amoeboid morphology in WT mice, which appear to be clustered Iba1+ macrophages/microglia (arrow). Scale bar, 10 μm. E, C5aR expression was also observed on more elongated GFAP+ astrocytes (arrows), alongside C5aR+GFAP− cells with macrophage-like morphology (arrowhead). Scale bar, 13 μm. F, Only a very low level of nonspecific background fluorescence was observed following C5aR staining of lesioned C5ar−/− spinal cord tissue. Scale bar, 35 μm. G, Representative Western blots demonstrating C5aR expression by astrocytes in vitro. Left and middle lanes contain WT and C5ar−/− whole mouse brain homogenates, respectively. Right lane contains protein sample from cultured WT astrocytes.

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Protein Concentration, Fluorescence, Staining, Western Blot, In Vitro, Cell Culture

    C5ar−/− mice have a dual phenotype after SCI. A, BMS locomotor scoring revealed that C5ar−/− mice have significantly improved hindlimb motor function at 7 d after injury compared with WT mice. This trend reversed with time such that, at 28 and 35 d after SCI, WT mice had regained significantly more motor function than C5ar−/− mice (two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests, n = 8–12). B, Pooled BMS scores for individual mice from various experiments at 7 d after injury (Student's two-sided t test, n = 18–21). C, Graph showing the BMS scores for individual mice at 35 d after injury from longitudinal scores plotted in A (Student's two-sided t test, n = 8–12). D, Postmortem T2*-weighted MRI images showing lesion sites in WT and C5ar−/− mice. Scale bar (top left image): coronal images, 400 μm; sagittal images, 1 mm. E, Quantitative analysis revealed significantly larger lesion core volumes in C5ar−/− mice. Representative reconstructions of lesion cores for each genotype are shown in gray. F, G, A reduction in myelin content was observed in C5ar−/− mice at 35 d after SCI (Student's two-sided t test, n = 8 per group). Scale bar: F (top left image), 200 μm. H, I, Reductions in the proportional area (H) and intensity (I) of GFAP staining were also observed in C5ar−/− mice (Student's two-sided t tests, n = 8 per group). J, K, A more widespread presence of Ly6b.2+ cells (J) and CD3+ T cells (K) was observed in C5ar−/− mice at 35 d after injury (two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests, n = 5 per group), as also confirmed by area under the curve analysis (Student's two-sided t test, n = 5 per group). *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01. ***p < 0.001. ****p < 0.0001.
    Figure Legend Snippet: C5ar−/− mice have a dual phenotype after SCI. A, BMS locomotor scoring revealed that C5ar−/− mice have significantly improved hindlimb motor function at 7 d after injury compared with WT mice. This trend reversed with time such that, at 28 and 35 d after SCI, WT mice had regained significantly more motor function than C5ar−/− mice (two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests, n = 8–12). B, Pooled BMS scores for individual mice from various experiments at 7 d after injury (Student's two-sided t test, n = 18–21). C, Graph showing the BMS scores for individual mice at 35 d after injury from longitudinal scores plotted in A (Student's two-sided t test, n = 8–12). D, Postmortem T2*-weighted MRI images showing lesion sites in WT and C5ar−/− mice. Scale bar (top left image): coronal images, 400 μm; sagittal images, 1 mm. E, Quantitative analysis revealed significantly larger lesion core volumes in C5ar−/− mice. Representative reconstructions of lesion cores for each genotype are shown in gray. F, G, A reduction in myelin content was observed in C5ar−/− mice at 35 d after SCI (Student's two-sided t test, n = 8 per group). Scale bar: F (top left image), 200 μm. H, I, Reductions in the proportional area (H) and intensity (I) of GFAP staining were also observed in C5ar−/− mice (Student's two-sided t tests, n = 8 per group). J, K, A more widespread presence of Ly6b.2+ cells (J) and CD3+ T cells (K) was observed in C5ar−/− mice at 35 d after injury (two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests, n = 5 per group), as also confirmed by area under the curve analysis (Student's two-sided t test, n = 5 per group). *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01. ***p < 0.001. ****p < 0.0001.

    Techniques Used: Staining

    Acute, but not sustained, antagonism of C5aR improves SCI outcomes in Macgreen mice. A, BMS locomotor scores of mice treated with a C5aR antagonist (C5aR-A) for 7 d after SCI have significantly higher BMS scores than vehicle (Veh)-treated mice at 21, 28, and 35 d after injury. *p < 0.05 (two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests, n = 8–10). B, A scatter plot depicting the BMS scores of individual mice at 35 d after SCI. *p = 0.029 (Student's two-tailed t test, n = 8–10). C, D, Data from the ledged tapered beam walk task also indicated that C5aR blockade during the acute period improved long-term recovery, with C5aR-A-treated mice making significantly fewer stepping mistakes (C), and also traversing the beam faster (D) than vehicle-treated SCI controls. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001; ****p < 0.0001 (one-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests, n = 6–10). E, F, (Sub)acute C5aR-A treatment resulted in significantly more myelin being present at the lesion epicenter at 35 d after SCI compared with vehicle-treated mice. **p = 0.0088 (Student's t test, n = 5 per group). Scale bar: E (top left), 200 μm. E, G, The GFP+ infiltrate in the lesion core of Macgreen mice was also significantly reduced following the C5aR-A treatment regimen. **p = 0.0061 (Student's two-sided t test, n = 5 per group). H–J, GFAP immunoreactivity at 35 d after SCI was not significantly different between treatment groups based on analysis of both proportional area (I) and staining intensity (J). Scale bar: H (top left), 200 μm. K, Improved recovery from SCI was not sustained with continued C5aR-A administration. *p < 0.05, C5ar−/− + vehicle versus WT + vehicle (two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests, n = 4 or 5).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Acute, but not sustained, antagonism of C5aR improves SCI outcomes in Macgreen mice. A, BMS locomotor scores of mice treated with a C5aR antagonist (C5aR-A) for 7 d after SCI have significantly higher BMS scores than vehicle (Veh)-treated mice at 21, 28, and 35 d after injury. *p < 0.05 (two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests, n = 8–10). B, A scatter plot depicting the BMS scores of individual mice at 35 d after SCI. *p = 0.029 (Student's two-tailed t test, n = 8–10). C, D, Data from the ledged tapered beam walk task also indicated that C5aR blockade during the acute period improved long-term recovery, with C5aR-A-treated mice making significantly fewer stepping mistakes (C), and also traversing the beam faster (D) than vehicle-treated SCI controls. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001; ****p < 0.0001 (one-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests, n = 6–10). E, F, (Sub)acute C5aR-A treatment resulted in significantly more myelin being present at the lesion epicenter at 35 d after SCI compared with vehicle-treated mice. **p = 0.0088 (Student's t test, n = 5 per group). Scale bar: E (top left), 200 μm. E, G, The GFP+ infiltrate in the lesion core of Macgreen mice was also significantly reduced following the C5aR-A treatment regimen. **p = 0.0061 (Student's two-sided t test, n = 5 per group). H–J, GFAP immunoreactivity at 35 d after SCI was not significantly different between treatment groups based on analysis of both proportional area (I) and staining intensity (J). Scale bar: H (top left), 200 μm. K, Improved recovery from SCI was not sustained with continued C5aR-A administration. *p < 0.05, C5ar−/− + vehicle versus WT + vehicle (two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests, n = 4 or 5).

    Techniques Used: Two Tailed Test, Staining

    Inflammation in the (sub)acute period of SCI is reduced with C5aR elimination. A–F, Levels of MCP-1 (A), TNF (B), CXCL1 (C), IL-6 (D), IL-1β (E), and IL-10 (F) were all significantly increased at 12 h after SCI compared with sham-operated controls, regardless of genotype. C5aR deficiency did, however, result in significant reductions in CXCL1, IL-6, and IL-1β in the injured spinal cord compared with WT mice. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001; ****p < 0.0001 (two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests, n = 4 or 5). G, H, No significant differences in the Ly6b.2+ inflammatory cell infiltrate were observed between WT and C5ar−/− mice at 1 d (G) and 7 d (H) after SCI. Scale bar: G (bottom image), 40 μm. I, A significant reduction in the number of inflammatory monocytes/macrophages was observed in injured C5ar−/− spinal cord at 7 d after SCI. **p < 0.01 (Student's two-sided t test). n = 5 per group.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Inflammation in the (sub)acute period of SCI is reduced with C5aR elimination. A–F, Levels of MCP-1 (A), TNF (B), CXCL1 (C), IL-6 (D), IL-1β (E), and IL-10 (F) were all significantly increased at 12 h after SCI compared with sham-operated controls, regardless of genotype. C5aR deficiency did, however, result in significant reductions in CXCL1, IL-6, and IL-1β in the injured spinal cord compared with WT mice. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001; ****p < 0.0001 (two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests, n = 4 or 5). G, H, No significant differences in the Ly6b.2+ inflammatory cell infiltrate were observed between WT and C5ar−/− mice at 1 d (G) and 7 d (H) after SCI. Scale bar: G (bottom image), 40 μm. I, A significant reduction in the number of inflammatory monocytes/macrophages was observed in injured C5ar−/− spinal cord at 7 d after SCI. **p < 0.01 (Student's two-sided t test). n = 5 per group.

    Techniques Used:

    C5aR deficiency in the peripheral immune compartment does not alter the outcome from SCI. A, Flow cytometry data showing chimerization efficacy. [C5ar−/− → WT] BM chimeras (i.e., WT mice that received a C5ar−/− bone marrow transplant) only express background levels of C5aR on circulating granulocytes, equivalent to the amount of nonspecific staining observed on C5ar−/− cells. ***p < 0.001 (one-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc). n = 3–7. B, BMS locomotor scoring revealed no significant differences in functional recovery as a result of select C5aR deficiency in the peripheral immune compartment compared with [WT → WT] controls (two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests; n = 6 or 7). C, Scatter plot showing main BMS scores for individual mice at 35 d after SCI. D, No difference was observed between the experimental groups in the amount of myelin within the ventrolateral white matter at 35 d after SCI (Student's two-sided t test, p > 0.05; n = 6 or 7). Scale bar: D (top), 200 μm. E–G, Quantification of the inflammatory infiltrate also showed no differences between the experimental groups in the number of Ly6b.2+ cells (E), the proportional area of CD11b+ immunoreactivity (F), and the number of CD3+ lymphocytes (G) present at the lesion epicenter (Student's two-sided t tests, p > 0.05; n = 6 or 7).
    Figure Legend Snippet: C5aR deficiency in the peripheral immune compartment does not alter the outcome from SCI. A, Flow cytometry data showing chimerization efficacy. [C5ar−/− → WT] BM chimeras (i.e., WT mice that received a C5ar−/− bone marrow transplant) only express background levels of C5aR on circulating granulocytes, equivalent to the amount of nonspecific staining observed on C5ar−/− cells. ***p < 0.001 (one-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc). n = 3–7. B, BMS locomotor scoring revealed no significant differences in functional recovery as a result of select C5aR deficiency in the peripheral immune compartment compared with [WT → WT] controls (two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests; n = 6 or 7). C, Scatter plot showing main BMS scores for individual mice at 35 d after SCI. D, No difference was observed between the experimental groups in the amount of myelin within the ventrolateral white matter at 35 d after SCI (Student's two-sided t test, p > 0.05; n = 6 or 7). Scale bar: D (top), 200 μm. E–G, Quantification of the inflammatory infiltrate also showed no differences between the experimental groups in the number of Ly6b.2+ cells (E), the proportional area of CD11b+ immunoreactivity (F), and the number of CD3+ lymphocytes (G) present at the lesion epicenter (Student's two-sided t tests, p > 0.05; n = 6 or 7).

    Techniques Used: Flow Cytometry, Staining, Functional Assay

    Signaling through the C5a-C5aR axis promotes astrocyte proliferation in vivo and in vitro. A, Quantification of BrdU+GFAP+ astrocytes at the lesion site of WT SCI mice that were chronically administered C5aR-A (orange) or vehicle (Veh, blue) solution, and vehicle-treated C5ar−/− mice (red). Note the significantly reduced presence of newly generated astrocytes along the rostral and caudal margins of the lesion in the absence of C5aR signaling (two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests; n = 4 or 5 per group). *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01. B, A significant, negative correlation was observed between the total number of BrdU+GFAP+ cells and lesion volumes (Pearson's correlation, p < 0.0001). C, C5a stimulates the proliferation of WT astrocytes in vitro in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations >10 nm (one-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). *p < 0.05. ***p < 0.001. Graph is representative of three experimental repeats. D, C5ar−/− astrocytes did not proliferate in response to high-dose C5a (50 nm; Student's two-sided t test, p > 0.05). E, Exposure of cultured astrocytes to C5a (50 nm) resulted in a significant increase in the ratio of P-STAT3 to STAT3. Addition of the STAT3 Inhibitor BP-1-102 (10 μm) just before C5a stimulation blocked this increase in STAT3 phosphorylation (one-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). **p < 0.01. F, Stimulation of C5ar−/− astrocytes with 50 nm of C5a did not lead to a significant change in STAT3 phosphorylation (Student's two-sided t test, p > 0.05). G, Addition of BP-1-102 (5 μm) blocked C5a-induced astrocyte proliferation in vitro (one-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). **p < 0.01. ***p < 0.001. Dotted line indicates the initial number of cells plated. D–F, Data are mean ± SEM, with n = 6 biological replicates. ns, Not significant.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Signaling through the C5a-C5aR axis promotes astrocyte proliferation in vivo and in vitro. A, Quantification of BrdU+GFAP+ astrocytes at the lesion site of WT SCI mice that were chronically administered C5aR-A (orange) or vehicle (Veh, blue) solution, and vehicle-treated C5ar−/− mice (red). Note the significantly reduced presence of newly generated astrocytes along the rostral and caudal margins of the lesion in the absence of C5aR signaling (two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests; n = 4 or 5 per group). *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01. B, A significant, negative correlation was observed between the total number of BrdU+GFAP+ cells and lesion volumes (Pearson's correlation, p < 0.0001). C, C5a stimulates the proliferation of WT astrocytes in vitro in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations >10 nm (one-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). *p < 0.05. ***p < 0.001. Graph is representative of three experimental repeats. D, C5ar−/− astrocytes did not proliferate in response to high-dose C5a (50 nm; Student's two-sided t test, p > 0.05). E, Exposure of cultured astrocytes to C5a (50 nm) resulted in a significant increase in the ratio of P-STAT3 to STAT3. Addition of the STAT3 Inhibitor BP-1-102 (10 μm) just before C5a stimulation blocked this increase in STAT3 phosphorylation (one-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). **p < 0.01. F, Stimulation of C5ar−/− astrocytes with 50 nm of C5a did not lead to a significant change in STAT3 phosphorylation (Student's two-sided t test, p > 0.05). G, Addition of BP-1-102 (5 μm) blocked C5a-induced astrocyte proliferation in vitro (one-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). **p < 0.01. ***p < 0.001. Dotted line indicates the initial number of cells plated. D–F, Data are mean ± SEM, with n = 6 biological replicates. ns, Not significant.

    Techniques Used: In Vivo, In Vitro, Generated, Cell Culture

    Diagram showing the proposed dual and time-dependent role of C5aR in SCI. In the (sub)acute period (0–7 d after SCI), activated astrocytes and microglia proliferate and/or migrate to the site of injury. Activation of these cells occurs in part through increased C5a levels as a result of complement activation, which in turn augments their production and release of inflammatory cytokines at the lesion site. Release of CXCL1 is a key signal for neutrophil recruitment to the site of SCI. IL-1β and IL-6 aid in the recruitment of blood monocytes and macrophages, which promote secondary injury if adopting an M1 phenotype. In the postacute to chronic period of SCI (7 d after SCI onwards), C5aR signaling is critically required for STAT3-mediated astrocyte proliferation and glial scar formation, which seals the injury site and prevents the spread of secondary injury. Through its regulation of IL-6 levels, C5aR may also be involved IL-6R-dependent astrocyte proliferation. 1(Anderson et al., 2004, 2005; Nguyen et al., 2008); 2(Lacy et al., 1995; Griffin et al., 2007; Ager et al., 2010); 3(Gasque et al., 1995; Lacy et al., 1995; Woodruff et al., 2008); 4(Acarin et al., 2000; Pineau and Lacroix, 2007; Pineau et al., 2010); 5(Klusman and Schwab, 1997; Romano et al., 1997; Dinarello, 2009); 6(Baggiolini and Clark-Lewis, 1992; Harada et al., 1994; Taub et al., 1996); 7(Gensel et al., 2009; Kigerl et al., 2009; Blomster et al., 2013a); 8(Gensel et al., 2009; Shechter et al., 2009, 2013); 9(Okada et al., 2006); and 10(Bush et al., 1999; Faulkner et al., 2004; Okada et al., 2006; Herrmann et al., 2008; Wanner et al., 2013).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Diagram showing the proposed dual and time-dependent role of C5aR in SCI. In the (sub)acute period (0–7 d after SCI), activated astrocytes and microglia proliferate and/or migrate to the site of injury. Activation of these cells occurs in part through increased C5a levels as a result of complement activation, which in turn augments their production and release of inflammatory cytokines at the lesion site. Release of CXCL1 is a key signal for neutrophil recruitment to the site of SCI. IL-1β and IL-6 aid in the recruitment of blood monocytes and macrophages, which promote secondary injury if adopting an M1 phenotype. In the postacute to chronic period of SCI (7 d after SCI onwards), C5aR signaling is critically required for STAT3-mediated astrocyte proliferation and glial scar formation, which seals the injury site and prevents the spread of secondary injury. Through its regulation of IL-6 levels, C5aR may also be involved IL-6R-dependent astrocyte proliferation. 1(Anderson et al., 2004, 2005; Nguyen et al., 2008); 2(Lacy et al., 1995; Griffin et al., 2007; Ager et al., 2010); 3(Gasque et al., 1995; Lacy et al., 1995; Woodruff et al., 2008); 4(Acarin et al., 2000; Pineau and Lacroix, 2007; Pineau et al., 2010); 5(Klusman and Schwab, 1997; Romano et al., 1997; Dinarello, 2009); 6(Baggiolini and Clark-Lewis, 1992; Harada et al., 1994; Taub et al., 1996); 7(Gensel et al., 2009; Kigerl et al., 2009; Blomster et al., 2013a); 8(Gensel et al., 2009; Shechter et al., 2009, 2013); 9(Okada et al., 2006); and 10(Bush et al., 1999; Faulkner et al., 2004; Okada et al., 2006; Herrmann et al., 2008; Wanner et al., 2013).

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay

    rat anti c5ar antibody  (Hycult Biotech)


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    Hycult Biotech rat anti c5ar antibody
    Production of C5a and expression of <t>C5aR</t> in the injured spinal cord. A, C5a protein concentration in injured WT spinal cord is significantly increased compared with both naive (time point 0) and sham levels at 2 h, 6 h, 12 h, 1 d, 4 d, and 7 d after SCI (n = 4 or 5 per time point, two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01. ****p < 0.0001. B, WT C5a levels are also increased in the plasma in response to SCI, exceeding levels observed in sham-operated mice at 30 min, 2 h, 6 h, 12 h, and 1 d after injury (n = 4 or 5 per time point, two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01. ***p < 0.001. C–E, Representative confocal images showing C5aR expression in the injured spinal cord at 1 and 7 d after injury. C, At 1 d after injury, C5aR appeared present at the lesion epicenter on nucleated Iba1+ cells (arrow) as well as numerous smaller circular/ovoid cells that did not express Iba1 (arrowheads). Scale bar, 6.0 μm. D, At 7 d after injury, C5aR is present on cells with amoeboid morphology in WT mice, which appear to be clustered Iba1+ macrophages/microglia (arrow). Scale bar, 10 μm. E, C5aR expression was also observed on more elongated GFAP+ astrocytes (arrows), alongside C5aR+GFAP− cells with macrophage-like morphology (arrowhead). Scale bar, 13 μm. F, Only a very low level of nonspecific background fluorescence was observed following C5aR staining of lesioned C5ar−/− spinal cord tissue. Scale bar, 35 μm. G, Representative Western blots demonstrating C5aR expression by astrocytes in vitro. Left and middle lanes contain WT and C5ar−/− whole mouse brain homogenates, respectively. Right lane contains protein sample from cultured WT astrocytes.
    Rat Anti C5ar Antibody, supplied by Hycult Biotech, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Images

    1) Product Images from "The Complement Receptor C5aR Controls Acute Inflammation and Astrogliosis following Spinal Cord Injury"

    Article Title: The Complement Receptor C5aR Controls Acute Inflammation and Astrogliosis following Spinal Cord Injury

    Journal: The Journal of Neuroscience

    doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5218-14.2015

    Production of C5a and expression of C5aR in the injured spinal cord. A, C5a protein concentration in injured WT spinal cord is significantly increased compared with both naive (time point 0) and sham levels at 2 h, 6 h, 12 h, 1 d, 4 d, and 7 d after SCI (n = 4 or 5 per time point, two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01. ****p < 0.0001. B, WT C5a levels are also increased in the plasma in response to SCI, exceeding levels observed in sham-operated mice at 30 min, 2 h, 6 h, 12 h, and 1 d after injury (n = 4 or 5 per time point, two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01. ***p < 0.001. C–E, Representative confocal images showing C5aR expression in the injured spinal cord at 1 and 7 d after injury. C, At 1 d after injury, C5aR appeared present at the lesion epicenter on nucleated Iba1+ cells (arrow) as well as numerous smaller circular/ovoid cells that did not express Iba1 (arrowheads). Scale bar, 6.0 μm. D, At 7 d after injury, C5aR is present on cells with amoeboid morphology in WT mice, which appear to be clustered Iba1+ macrophages/microglia (arrow). Scale bar, 10 μm. E, C5aR expression was also observed on more elongated GFAP+ astrocytes (arrows), alongside C5aR+GFAP− cells with macrophage-like morphology (arrowhead). Scale bar, 13 μm. F, Only a very low level of nonspecific background fluorescence was observed following C5aR staining of lesioned C5ar−/− spinal cord tissue. Scale bar, 35 μm. G, Representative Western blots demonstrating C5aR expression by astrocytes in vitro. Left and middle lanes contain WT and C5ar−/− whole mouse brain homogenates, respectively. Right lane contains protein sample from cultured WT astrocytes.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of C5a and expression of C5aR in the injured spinal cord. A, C5a protein concentration in injured WT spinal cord is significantly increased compared with both naive (time point 0) and sham levels at 2 h, 6 h, 12 h, 1 d, 4 d, and 7 d after SCI (n = 4 or 5 per time point, two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01. ****p < 0.0001. B, WT C5a levels are also increased in the plasma in response to SCI, exceeding levels observed in sham-operated mice at 30 min, 2 h, 6 h, 12 h, and 1 d after injury (n = 4 or 5 per time point, two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01. ***p < 0.001. C–E, Representative confocal images showing C5aR expression in the injured spinal cord at 1 and 7 d after injury. C, At 1 d after injury, C5aR appeared present at the lesion epicenter on nucleated Iba1+ cells (arrow) as well as numerous smaller circular/ovoid cells that did not express Iba1 (arrowheads). Scale bar, 6.0 μm. D, At 7 d after injury, C5aR is present on cells with amoeboid morphology in WT mice, which appear to be clustered Iba1+ macrophages/microglia (arrow). Scale bar, 10 μm. E, C5aR expression was also observed on more elongated GFAP+ astrocytes (arrows), alongside C5aR+GFAP− cells with macrophage-like morphology (arrowhead). Scale bar, 13 μm. F, Only a very low level of nonspecific background fluorescence was observed following C5aR staining of lesioned C5ar−/− spinal cord tissue. Scale bar, 35 μm. G, Representative Western blots demonstrating C5aR expression by astrocytes in vitro. Left and middle lanes contain WT and C5ar−/− whole mouse brain homogenates, respectively. Right lane contains protein sample from cultured WT astrocytes.

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Protein Concentration, Fluorescence, Staining, Western Blot, In Vitro, Cell Culture

    C5ar−/− mice have a dual phenotype after SCI. A, BMS locomotor scoring revealed that C5ar−/− mice have significantly improved hindlimb motor function at 7 d after injury compared with WT mice. This trend reversed with time such that, at 28 and 35 d after SCI, WT mice had regained significantly more motor function than C5ar−/− mice (two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests, n = 8–12). B, Pooled BMS scores for individual mice from various experiments at 7 d after injury (Student's two-sided t test, n = 18–21). C, Graph showing the BMS scores for individual mice at 35 d after injury from longitudinal scores plotted in A (Student's two-sided t test, n = 8–12). D, Postmortem T2*-weighted MRI images showing lesion sites in WT and C5ar−/− mice. Scale bar (top left image): coronal images, 400 μm; sagittal images, 1 mm. E, Quantitative analysis revealed significantly larger lesion core volumes in C5ar−/− mice. Representative reconstructions of lesion cores for each genotype are shown in gray. F, G, A reduction in myelin content was observed in C5ar−/− mice at 35 d after SCI (Student's two-sided t test, n = 8 per group). Scale bar: F (top left image), 200 μm. H, I, Reductions in the proportional area (H) and intensity (I) of GFAP staining were also observed in C5ar−/− mice (Student's two-sided t tests, n = 8 per group). J, K, A more widespread presence of Ly6b.2+ cells (J) and CD3+ T cells (K) was observed in C5ar−/− mice at 35 d after injury (two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests, n = 5 per group), as also confirmed by area under the curve analysis (Student's two-sided t test, n = 5 per group). *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01. ***p < 0.001. ****p < 0.0001.
    Figure Legend Snippet: C5ar−/− mice have a dual phenotype after SCI. A, BMS locomotor scoring revealed that C5ar−/− mice have significantly improved hindlimb motor function at 7 d after injury compared with WT mice. This trend reversed with time such that, at 28 and 35 d after SCI, WT mice had regained significantly more motor function than C5ar−/− mice (two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests, n = 8–12). B, Pooled BMS scores for individual mice from various experiments at 7 d after injury (Student's two-sided t test, n = 18–21). C, Graph showing the BMS scores for individual mice at 35 d after injury from longitudinal scores plotted in A (Student's two-sided t test, n = 8–12). D, Postmortem T2*-weighted MRI images showing lesion sites in WT and C5ar−/− mice. Scale bar (top left image): coronal images, 400 μm; sagittal images, 1 mm. E, Quantitative analysis revealed significantly larger lesion core volumes in C5ar−/− mice. Representative reconstructions of lesion cores for each genotype are shown in gray. F, G, A reduction in myelin content was observed in C5ar−/− mice at 35 d after SCI (Student's two-sided t test, n = 8 per group). Scale bar: F (top left image), 200 μm. H, I, Reductions in the proportional area (H) and intensity (I) of GFAP staining were also observed in C5ar−/− mice (Student's two-sided t tests, n = 8 per group). J, K, A more widespread presence of Ly6b.2+ cells (J) and CD3+ T cells (K) was observed in C5ar−/− mice at 35 d after injury (two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests, n = 5 per group), as also confirmed by area under the curve analysis (Student's two-sided t test, n = 5 per group). *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01. ***p < 0.001. ****p < 0.0001.

    Techniques Used: Staining

    Acute, but not sustained, antagonism of C5aR improves SCI outcomes in Macgreen mice. A, BMS locomotor scores of mice treated with a C5aR antagonist (C5aR-A) for 7 d after SCI have significantly higher BMS scores than vehicle (Veh)-treated mice at 21, 28, and 35 d after injury. *p < 0.05 (two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests, n = 8–10). B, A scatter plot depicting the BMS scores of individual mice at 35 d after SCI. *p = 0.029 (Student's two-tailed t test, n = 8–10). C, D, Data from the ledged tapered beam walk task also indicated that C5aR blockade during the acute period improved long-term recovery, with C5aR-A-treated mice making significantly fewer stepping mistakes (C), and also traversing the beam faster (D) than vehicle-treated SCI controls. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001; ****p < 0.0001 (one-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests, n = 6–10). E, F, (Sub)acute C5aR-A treatment resulted in significantly more myelin being present at the lesion epicenter at 35 d after SCI compared with vehicle-treated mice. **p = 0.0088 (Student's t test, n = 5 per group). Scale bar: E (top left), 200 μm. E, G, The GFP+ infiltrate in the lesion core of Macgreen mice was also significantly reduced following the C5aR-A treatment regimen. **p = 0.0061 (Student's two-sided t test, n = 5 per group). H–J, GFAP immunoreactivity at 35 d after SCI was not significantly different between treatment groups based on analysis of both proportional area (I) and staining intensity (J). Scale bar: H (top left), 200 μm. K, Improved recovery from SCI was not sustained with continued C5aR-A administration. *p < 0.05, C5ar−/− + vehicle versus WT + vehicle (two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests, n = 4 or 5).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Acute, but not sustained, antagonism of C5aR improves SCI outcomes in Macgreen mice. A, BMS locomotor scores of mice treated with a C5aR antagonist (C5aR-A) for 7 d after SCI have significantly higher BMS scores than vehicle (Veh)-treated mice at 21, 28, and 35 d after injury. *p < 0.05 (two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests, n = 8–10). B, A scatter plot depicting the BMS scores of individual mice at 35 d after SCI. *p = 0.029 (Student's two-tailed t test, n = 8–10). C, D, Data from the ledged tapered beam walk task also indicated that C5aR blockade during the acute period improved long-term recovery, with C5aR-A-treated mice making significantly fewer stepping mistakes (C), and also traversing the beam faster (D) than vehicle-treated SCI controls. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001; ****p < 0.0001 (one-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests, n = 6–10). E, F, (Sub)acute C5aR-A treatment resulted in significantly more myelin being present at the lesion epicenter at 35 d after SCI compared with vehicle-treated mice. **p = 0.0088 (Student's t test, n = 5 per group). Scale bar: E (top left), 200 μm. E, G, The GFP+ infiltrate in the lesion core of Macgreen mice was also significantly reduced following the C5aR-A treatment regimen. **p = 0.0061 (Student's two-sided t test, n = 5 per group). H–J, GFAP immunoreactivity at 35 d after SCI was not significantly different between treatment groups based on analysis of both proportional area (I) and staining intensity (J). Scale bar: H (top left), 200 μm. K, Improved recovery from SCI was not sustained with continued C5aR-A administration. *p < 0.05, C5ar−/− + vehicle versus WT + vehicle (two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests, n = 4 or 5).

    Techniques Used: Two Tailed Test, Staining

    Inflammation in the (sub)acute period of SCI is reduced with C5aR elimination. A–F, Levels of MCP-1 (A), TNF (B), CXCL1 (C), IL-6 (D), IL-1β (E), and IL-10 (F) were all significantly increased at 12 h after SCI compared with sham-operated controls, regardless of genotype. C5aR deficiency did, however, result in significant reductions in CXCL1, IL-6, and IL-1β in the injured spinal cord compared with WT mice. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001; ****p < 0.0001 (two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests, n = 4 or 5). G, H, No significant differences in the Ly6b.2+ inflammatory cell infiltrate were observed between WT and C5ar−/− mice at 1 d (G) and 7 d (H) after SCI. Scale bar: G (bottom image), 40 μm. I, A significant reduction in the number of inflammatory monocytes/macrophages was observed in injured C5ar−/− spinal cord at 7 d after SCI. **p < 0.01 (Student's two-sided t test). n = 5 per group.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Inflammation in the (sub)acute period of SCI is reduced with C5aR elimination. A–F, Levels of MCP-1 (A), TNF (B), CXCL1 (C), IL-6 (D), IL-1β (E), and IL-10 (F) were all significantly increased at 12 h after SCI compared with sham-operated controls, regardless of genotype. C5aR deficiency did, however, result in significant reductions in CXCL1, IL-6, and IL-1β in the injured spinal cord compared with WT mice. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001; ****p < 0.0001 (two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests, n = 4 or 5). G, H, No significant differences in the Ly6b.2+ inflammatory cell infiltrate were observed between WT and C5ar−/− mice at 1 d (G) and 7 d (H) after SCI. Scale bar: G (bottom image), 40 μm. I, A significant reduction in the number of inflammatory monocytes/macrophages was observed in injured C5ar−/− spinal cord at 7 d after SCI. **p < 0.01 (Student's two-sided t test). n = 5 per group.

    Techniques Used:

    C5aR deficiency in the peripheral immune compartment does not alter the outcome from SCI. A, Flow cytometry data showing chimerization efficacy. [C5ar−/− → WT] BM chimeras (i.e., WT mice that received a C5ar−/− bone marrow transplant) only express background levels of C5aR on circulating granulocytes, equivalent to the amount of nonspecific staining observed on C5ar−/− cells. ***p < 0.001 (one-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc). n = 3–7. B, BMS locomotor scoring revealed no significant differences in functional recovery as a result of select C5aR deficiency in the peripheral immune compartment compared with [WT → WT] controls (two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests; n = 6 or 7). C, Scatter plot showing main BMS scores for individual mice at 35 d after SCI. D, No difference was observed between the experimental groups in the amount of myelin within the ventrolateral white matter at 35 d after SCI (Student's two-sided t test, p > 0.05; n = 6 or 7). Scale bar: D (top), 200 μm. E–G, Quantification of the inflammatory infiltrate also showed no differences between the experimental groups in the number of Ly6b.2+ cells (E), the proportional area of CD11b+ immunoreactivity (F), and the number of CD3+ lymphocytes (G) present at the lesion epicenter (Student's two-sided t tests, p > 0.05; n = 6 or 7).
    Figure Legend Snippet: C5aR deficiency in the peripheral immune compartment does not alter the outcome from SCI. A, Flow cytometry data showing chimerization efficacy. [C5ar−/− → WT] BM chimeras (i.e., WT mice that received a C5ar−/− bone marrow transplant) only express background levels of C5aR on circulating granulocytes, equivalent to the amount of nonspecific staining observed on C5ar−/− cells. ***p < 0.001 (one-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc). n = 3–7. B, BMS locomotor scoring revealed no significant differences in functional recovery as a result of select C5aR deficiency in the peripheral immune compartment compared with [WT → WT] controls (two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests; n = 6 or 7). C, Scatter plot showing main BMS scores for individual mice at 35 d after SCI. D, No difference was observed between the experimental groups in the amount of myelin within the ventrolateral white matter at 35 d after SCI (Student's two-sided t test, p > 0.05; n = 6 or 7). Scale bar: D (top), 200 μm. E–G, Quantification of the inflammatory infiltrate also showed no differences between the experimental groups in the number of Ly6b.2+ cells (E), the proportional area of CD11b+ immunoreactivity (F), and the number of CD3+ lymphocytes (G) present at the lesion epicenter (Student's two-sided t tests, p > 0.05; n = 6 or 7).

    Techniques Used: Flow Cytometry, Staining, Functional Assay

    Signaling through the C5a-C5aR axis promotes astrocyte proliferation in vivo and in vitro. A, Quantification of BrdU+GFAP+ astrocytes at the lesion site of WT SCI mice that were chronically administered C5aR-A (orange) or vehicle (Veh, blue) solution, and vehicle-treated C5ar−/− mice (red). Note the significantly reduced presence of newly generated astrocytes along the rostral and caudal margins of the lesion in the absence of C5aR signaling (two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests; n = 4 or 5 per group). *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01. B, A significant, negative correlation was observed between the total number of BrdU+GFAP+ cells and lesion volumes (Pearson's correlation, p < 0.0001). C, C5a stimulates the proliferation of WT astrocytes in vitro in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations >10 nm (one-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). *p < 0.05. ***p < 0.001. Graph is representative of three experimental repeats. D, C5ar−/− astrocytes did not proliferate in response to high-dose C5a (50 nm; Student's two-sided t test, p > 0.05). E, Exposure of cultured astrocytes to C5a (50 nm) resulted in a significant increase in the ratio of P-STAT3 to STAT3. Addition of the STAT3 Inhibitor BP-1-102 (10 μm) just before C5a stimulation blocked this increase in STAT3 phosphorylation (one-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). **p < 0.01. F, Stimulation of C5ar−/− astrocytes with 50 nm of C5a did not lead to a significant change in STAT3 phosphorylation (Student's two-sided t test, p > 0.05). G, Addition of BP-1-102 (5 μm) blocked C5a-induced astrocyte proliferation in vitro (one-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). **p < 0.01. ***p < 0.001. Dotted line indicates the initial number of cells plated. D–F, Data are mean ± SEM, with n = 6 biological replicates. ns, Not significant.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Signaling through the C5a-C5aR axis promotes astrocyte proliferation in vivo and in vitro. A, Quantification of BrdU+GFAP+ astrocytes at the lesion site of WT SCI mice that were chronically administered C5aR-A (orange) or vehicle (Veh, blue) solution, and vehicle-treated C5ar−/− mice (red). Note the significantly reduced presence of newly generated astrocytes along the rostral and caudal margins of the lesion in the absence of C5aR signaling (two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests; n = 4 or 5 per group). *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01. B, A significant, negative correlation was observed between the total number of BrdU+GFAP+ cells and lesion volumes (Pearson's correlation, p < 0.0001). C, C5a stimulates the proliferation of WT astrocytes in vitro in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations >10 nm (one-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). *p < 0.05. ***p < 0.001. Graph is representative of three experimental repeats. D, C5ar−/− astrocytes did not proliferate in response to high-dose C5a (50 nm; Student's two-sided t test, p > 0.05). E, Exposure of cultured astrocytes to C5a (50 nm) resulted in a significant increase in the ratio of P-STAT3 to STAT3. Addition of the STAT3 Inhibitor BP-1-102 (10 μm) just before C5a stimulation blocked this increase in STAT3 phosphorylation (one-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). **p < 0.01. F, Stimulation of C5ar−/− astrocytes with 50 nm of C5a did not lead to a significant change in STAT3 phosphorylation (Student's two-sided t test, p > 0.05). G, Addition of BP-1-102 (5 μm) blocked C5a-induced astrocyte proliferation in vitro (one-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). **p < 0.01. ***p < 0.001. Dotted line indicates the initial number of cells plated. D–F, Data are mean ± SEM, with n = 6 biological replicates. ns, Not significant.

    Techniques Used: In Vivo, In Vitro, Generated, Cell Culture

    Diagram showing the proposed dual and time-dependent role of C5aR in SCI. In the (sub)acute period (0–7 d after SCI), activated astrocytes and microglia proliferate and/or migrate to the site of injury. Activation of these cells occurs in part through increased C5a levels as a result of complement activation, which in turn augments their production and release of inflammatory cytokines at the lesion site. Release of CXCL1 is a key signal for neutrophil recruitment to the site of SCI. IL-1β and IL-6 aid in the recruitment of blood monocytes and macrophages, which promote secondary injury if adopting an M1 phenotype. In the postacute to chronic period of SCI (7 d after SCI onwards), C5aR signaling is critically required for STAT3-mediated astrocyte proliferation and glial scar formation, which seals the injury site and prevents the spread of secondary injury. Through its regulation of IL-6 levels, C5aR may also be involved IL-6R-dependent astrocyte proliferation. 1(Anderson et al., 2004, 2005; Nguyen et al., 2008); 2(Lacy et al., 1995; Griffin et al., 2007; Ager et al., 2010); 3(Gasque et al., 1995; Lacy et al., 1995; Woodruff et al., 2008); 4(Acarin et al., 2000; Pineau and Lacroix, 2007; Pineau et al., 2010); 5(Klusman and Schwab, 1997; Romano et al., 1997; Dinarello, 2009); 6(Baggiolini and Clark-Lewis, 1992; Harada et al., 1994; Taub et al., 1996); 7(Gensel et al., 2009; Kigerl et al., 2009; Blomster et al., 2013a); 8(Gensel et al., 2009; Shechter et al., 2009, 2013); 9(Okada et al., 2006); and 10(Bush et al., 1999; Faulkner et al., 2004; Okada et al., 2006; Herrmann et al., 2008; Wanner et al., 2013).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Diagram showing the proposed dual and time-dependent role of C5aR in SCI. In the (sub)acute period (0–7 d after SCI), activated astrocytes and microglia proliferate and/or migrate to the site of injury. Activation of these cells occurs in part through increased C5a levels as a result of complement activation, which in turn augments their production and release of inflammatory cytokines at the lesion site. Release of CXCL1 is a key signal for neutrophil recruitment to the site of SCI. IL-1β and IL-6 aid in the recruitment of blood monocytes and macrophages, which promote secondary injury if adopting an M1 phenotype. In the postacute to chronic period of SCI (7 d after SCI onwards), C5aR signaling is critically required for STAT3-mediated astrocyte proliferation and glial scar formation, which seals the injury site and prevents the spread of secondary injury. Through its regulation of IL-6 levels, C5aR may also be involved IL-6R-dependent astrocyte proliferation. 1(Anderson et al., 2004, 2005; Nguyen et al., 2008); 2(Lacy et al., 1995; Griffin et al., 2007; Ager et al., 2010); 3(Gasque et al., 1995; Lacy et al., 1995; Woodruff et al., 2008); 4(Acarin et al., 2000; Pineau and Lacroix, 2007; Pineau et al., 2010); 5(Klusman and Schwab, 1997; Romano et al., 1997; Dinarello, 2009); 6(Baggiolini and Clark-Lewis, 1992; Harada et al., 1994; Taub et al., 1996); 7(Gensel et al., 2009; Kigerl et al., 2009; Blomster et al., 2013a); 8(Gensel et al., 2009; Shechter et al., 2009, 2013); 9(Okada et al., 2006); and 10(Bush et al., 1999; Faulkner et al., 2004; Okada et al., 2006; Herrmann et al., 2008; Wanner et al., 2013).

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay

    rat anti c5ar antibody  (Hycult Biotech)


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    Hycult Biotech rat anti c5ar antibody
    Rat Anti C5ar Antibody, supplied by Hycult Biotech, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    rat anti c5ar antibody  (Hycult Biotech)


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    Hycult Biotech rat anti c5ar antibody
    Production of C5a and expression of <t>C5aR</t> in the injured spinal cord. A, C5a protein concentration in injured WT spinal cord is significantly increased compared with both naive (time point 0) and sham levels at 2 h, 6 h, 12 h, 1 d, 4 d, and 7 d after SCI (n = 4 or 5 per time point, two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01. ****p < 0.0001. B, WT C5a levels are also increased in the plasma in response to SCI, exceeding levels observed in sham-operated mice at 30 min, 2 h, 6 h, 12 h, and 1 d after injury (n = 4 or 5 per time point, two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01. ***p < 0.001. C–E, Representative confocal images showing C5aR expression in the injured spinal cord at 1 and 7 d after injury. C, At 1 d after injury, C5aR appeared present at the lesion epicenter on nucleated Iba1+ cells (arrow) as well as numerous smaller circular/ovoid cells that did not express Iba1 (arrowheads). Scale bar, 6.0 μm. D, At 7 d after injury, C5aR is present on cells with amoeboid morphology in WT mice, which appear to be clustered Iba1+ macrophages/microglia (arrow). Scale bar, 10 μm. E, C5aR expression was also observed on more elongated GFAP+ astrocytes (arrows), alongside C5aR+GFAP− cells with macrophage-like morphology (arrowhead). Scale bar, 13 μm. F, Only a very low level of nonspecific background fluorescence was observed following C5aR staining of lesioned C5ar−/− spinal cord tissue. Scale bar, 35 μm. G, Representative Western blots demonstrating C5aR expression by astrocytes in vitro. Left and middle lanes contain WT and C5ar−/− whole mouse brain homogenates, respectively. Right lane contains protein sample from cultured WT astrocytes.
    Rat Anti C5ar Antibody, supplied by Hycult Biotech, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    1) Product Images from "The Complement Receptor C5aR Controls Acute Inflammation and Astrogliosis following Spinal Cord Injury"

    Article Title: The Complement Receptor C5aR Controls Acute Inflammation and Astrogliosis following Spinal Cord Injury

    Journal: The Journal of Neuroscience

    doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5218-14.2015

    Production of C5a and expression of C5aR in the injured spinal cord. A, C5a protein concentration in injured WT spinal cord is significantly increased compared with both naive (time point 0) and sham levels at 2 h, 6 h, 12 h, 1 d, 4 d, and 7 d after SCI (n = 4 or 5 per time point, two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01. ****p < 0.0001. B, WT C5a levels are also increased in the plasma in response to SCI, exceeding levels observed in sham-operated mice at 30 min, 2 h, 6 h, 12 h, and 1 d after injury (n = 4 or 5 per time point, two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01. ***p < 0.001. C–E, Representative confocal images showing C5aR expression in the injured spinal cord at 1 and 7 d after injury. C, At 1 d after injury, C5aR appeared present at the lesion epicenter on nucleated Iba1+ cells (arrow) as well as numerous smaller circular/ovoid cells that did not express Iba1 (arrowheads). Scale bar, 6.0 μm. D, At 7 d after injury, C5aR is present on cells with amoeboid morphology in WT mice, which appear to be clustered Iba1+ macrophages/microglia (arrow). Scale bar, 10 μm. E, C5aR expression was also observed on more elongated GFAP+ astrocytes (arrows), alongside C5aR+GFAP− cells with macrophage-like morphology (arrowhead). Scale bar, 13 μm. F, Only a very low level of nonspecific background fluorescence was observed following C5aR staining of lesioned C5ar−/− spinal cord tissue. Scale bar, 35 μm. G, Representative Western blots demonstrating C5aR expression by astrocytes in vitro. Left and middle lanes contain WT and C5ar−/− whole mouse brain homogenates, respectively. Right lane contains protein sample from cultured WT astrocytes.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of C5a and expression of C5aR in the injured spinal cord. A, C5a protein concentration in injured WT spinal cord is significantly increased compared with both naive (time point 0) and sham levels at 2 h, 6 h, 12 h, 1 d, 4 d, and 7 d after SCI (n = 4 or 5 per time point, two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01. ****p < 0.0001. B, WT C5a levels are also increased in the plasma in response to SCI, exceeding levels observed in sham-operated mice at 30 min, 2 h, 6 h, 12 h, and 1 d after injury (n = 4 or 5 per time point, two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01. ***p < 0.001. C–E, Representative confocal images showing C5aR expression in the injured spinal cord at 1 and 7 d after injury. C, At 1 d after injury, C5aR appeared present at the lesion epicenter on nucleated Iba1+ cells (arrow) as well as numerous smaller circular/ovoid cells that did not express Iba1 (arrowheads). Scale bar, 6.0 μm. D, At 7 d after injury, C5aR is present on cells with amoeboid morphology in WT mice, which appear to be clustered Iba1+ macrophages/microglia (arrow). Scale bar, 10 μm. E, C5aR expression was also observed on more elongated GFAP+ astrocytes (arrows), alongside C5aR+GFAP− cells with macrophage-like morphology (arrowhead). Scale bar, 13 μm. F, Only a very low level of nonspecific background fluorescence was observed following C5aR staining of lesioned C5ar−/− spinal cord tissue. Scale bar, 35 μm. G, Representative Western blots demonstrating C5aR expression by astrocytes in vitro. Left and middle lanes contain WT and C5ar−/− whole mouse brain homogenates, respectively. Right lane contains protein sample from cultured WT astrocytes.

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Protein Concentration, Fluorescence, Staining, Western Blot, In Vitro, Cell Culture

    C5ar−/− mice have a dual phenotype after SCI. A, BMS locomotor scoring revealed that C5ar−/− mice have significantly improved hindlimb motor function at 7 d after injury compared with WT mice. This trend reversed with time such that, at 28 and 35 d after SCI, WT mice had regained significantly more motor function than C5ar−/− mice (two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests, n = 8–12). B, Pooled BMS scores for individual mice from various experiments at 7 d after injury (Student's two-sided t test, n = 18–21). C, Graph showing the BMS scores for individual mice at 35 d after injury from longitudinal scores plotted in A (Student's two-sided t test, n = 8–12). D, Postmortem T2*-weighted MRI images showing lesion sites in WT and C5ar−/− mice. Scale bar (top left image): coronal images, 400 μm; sagittal images, 1 mm. E, Quantitative analysis revealed significantly larger lesion core volumes in C5ar−/− mice. Representative reconstructions of lesion cores for each genotype are shown in gray. F, G, A reduction in myelin content was observed in C5ar−/− mice at 35 d after SCI (Student's two-sided t test, n = 8 per group). Scale bar: F (top left image), 200 μm. H, I, Reductions in the proportional area (H) and intensity (I) of GFAP staining were also observed in C5ar−/− mice (Student's two-sided t tests, n = 8 per group). J, K, A more widespread presence of Ly6b.2+ cells (J) and CD3+ T cells (K) was observed in C5ar−/− mice at 35 d after injury (two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests, n = 5 per group), as also confirmed by area under the curve analysis (Student's two-sided t test, n = 5 per group). *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01. ***p < 0.001. ****p < 0.0001.
    Figure Legend Snippet: C5ar−/− mice have a dual phenotype after SCI. A, BMS locomotor scoring revealed that C5ar−/− mice have significantly improved hindlimb motor function at 7 d after injury compared with WT mice. This trend reversed with time such that, at 28 and 35 d after SCI, WT mice had regained significantly more motor function than C5ar−/− mice (two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests, n = 8–12). B, Pooled BMS scores for individual mice from various experiments at 7 d after injury (Student's two-sided t test, n = 18–21). C, Graph showing the BMS scores for individual mice at 35 d after injury from longitudinal scores plotted in A (Student's two-sided t test, n = 8–12). D, Postmortem T2*-weighted MRI images showing lesion sites in WT and C5ar−/− mice. Scale bar (top left image): coronal images, 400 μm; sagittal images, 1 mm. E, Quantitative analysis revealed significantly larger lesion core volumes in C5ar−/− mice. Representative reconstructions of lesion cores for each genotype are shown in gray. F, G, A reduction in myelin content was observed in C5ar−/− mice at 35 d after SCI (Student's two-sided t test, n = 8 per group). Scale bar: F (top left image), 200 μm. H, I, Reductions in the proportional area (H) and intensity (I) of GFAP staining were also observed in C5ar−/− mice (Student's two-sided t tests, n = 8 per group). J, K, A more widespread presence of Ly6b.2+ cells (J) and CD3+ T cells (K) was observed in C5ar−/− mice at 35 d after injury (two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests, n = 5 per group), as also confirmed by area under the curve analysis (Student's two-sided t test, n = 5 per group). *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01. ***p < 0.001. ****p < 0.0001.

    Techniques Used: Staining

    Acute, but not sustained, antagonism of C5aR improves SCI outcomes in Macgreen mice. A, BMS locomotor scores of mice treated with a C5aR antagonist (C5aR-A) for 7 d after SCI have significantly higher BMS scores than vehicle (Veh)-treated mice at 21, 28, and 35 d after injury. *p < 0.05 (two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests, n = 8–10). B, A scatter plot depicting the BMS scores of individual mice at 35 d after SCI. *p = 0.029 (Student's two-tailed t test, n = 8–10). C, D, Data from the ledged tapered beam walk task also indicated that C5aR blockade during the acute period improved long-term recovery, with C5aR-A-treated mice making significantly fewer stepping mistakes (C), and also traversing the beam faster (D) than vehicle-treated SCI controls. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001; ****p < 0.0001 (one-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests, n = 6–10). E, F, (Sub)acute C5aR-A treatment resulted in significantly more myelin being present at the lesion epicenter at 35 d after SCI compared with vehicle-treated mice. **p = 0.0088 (Student's t test, n = 5 per group). Scale bar: E (top left), 200 μm. E, G, The GFP+ infiltrate in the lesion core of Macgreen mice was also significantly reduced following the C5aR-A treatment regimen. **p = 0.0061 (Student's two-sided t test, n = 5 per group). H–J, GFAP immunoreactivity at 35 d after SCI was not significantly different between treatment groups based on analysis of both proportional area (I) and staining intensity (J). Scale bar: H (top left), 200 μm. K, Improved recovery from SCI was not sustained with continued C5aR-A administration. *p < 0.05, C5ar−/− + vehicle versus WT + vehicle (two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests, n = 4 or 5).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Acute, but not sustained, antagonism of C5aR improves SCI outcomes in Macgreen mice. A, BMS locomotor scores of mice treated with a C5aR antagonist (C5aR-A) for 7 d after SCI have significantly higher BMS scores than vehicle (Veh)-treated mice at 21, 28, and 35 d after injury. *p < 0.05 (two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests, n = 8–10). B, A scatter plot depicting the BMS scores of individual mice at 35 d after SCI. *p = 0.029 (Student's two-tailed t test, n = 8–10). C, D, Data from the ledged tapered beam walk task also indicated that C5aR blockade during the acute period improved long-term recovery, with C5aR-A-treated mice making significantly fewer stepping mistakes (C), and also traversing the beam faster (D) than vehicle-treated SCI controls. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001; ****p < 0.0001 (one-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests, n = 6–10). E, F, (Sub)acute C5aR-A treatment resulted in significantly more myelin being present at the lesion epicenter at 35 d after SCI compared with vehicle-treated mice. **p = 0.0088 (Student's t test, n = 5 per group). Scale bar: E (top left), 200 μm. E, G, The GFP+ infiltrate in the lesion core of Macgreen mice was also significantly reduced following the C5aR-A treatment regimen. **p = 0.0061 (Student's two-sided t test, n = 5 per group). H–J, GFAP immunoreactivity at 35 d after SCI was not significantly different between treatment groups based on analysis of both proportional area (I) and staining intensity (J). Scale bar: H (top left), 200 μm. K, Improved recovery from SCI was not sustained with continued C5aR-A administration. *p < 0.05, C5ar−/− + vehicle versus WT + vehicle (two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests, n = 4 or 5).

    Techniques Used: Two Tailed Test, Staining

    Inflammation in the (sub)acute period of SCI is reduced with C5aR elimination. A–F, Levels of MCP-1 (A), TNF (B), CXCL1 (C), IL-6 (D), IL-1β (E), and IL-10 (F) were all significantly increased at 12 h after SCI compared with sham-operated controls, regardless of genotype. C5aR deficiency did, however, result in significant reductions in CXCL1, IL-6, and IL-1β in the injured spinal cord compared with WT mice. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001; ****p < 0.0001 (two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests, n = 4 or 5). G, H, No significant differences in the Ly6b.2+ inflammatory cell infiltrate were observed between WT and C5ar−/− mice at 1 d (G) and 7 d (H) after SCI. Scale bar: G (bottom image), 40 μm. I, A significant reduction in the number of inflammatory monocytes/macrophages was observed in injured C5ar−/− spinal cord at 7 d after SCI. **p < 0.01 (Student's two-sided t test). n = 5 per group.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Inflammation in the (sub)acute period of SCI is reduced with C5aR elimination. A–F, Levels of MCP-1 (A), TNF (B), CXCL1 (C), IL-6 (D), IL-1β (E), and IL-10 (F) were all significantly increased at 12 h after SCI compared with sham-operated controls, regardless of genotype. C5aR deficiency did, however, result in significant reductions in CXCL1, IL-6, and IL-1β in the injured spinal cord compared with WT mice. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001; ****p < 0.0001 (two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests, n = 4 or 5). G, H, No significant differences in the Ly6b.2+ inflammatory cell infiltrate were observed between WT and C5ar−/− mice at 1 d (G) and 7 d (H) after SCI. Scale bar: G (bottom image), 40 μm. I, A significant reduction in the number of inflammatory monocytes/macrophages was observed in injured C5ar−/− spinal cord at 7 d after SCI. **p < 0.01 (Student's two-sided t test). n = 5 per group.

    Techniques Used:

    C5aR deficiency in the peripheral immune compartment does not alter the outcome from SCI. A, Flow cytometry data showing chimerization efficacy. [C5ar−/− → WT] BM chimeras (i.e., WT mice that received a C5ar−/− bone marrow transplant) only express background levels of C5aR on circulating granulocytes, equivalent to the amount of nonspecific staining observed on C5ar−/− cells. ***p < 0.001 (one-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc). n = 3–7. B, BMS locomotor scoring revealed no significant differences in functional recovery as a result of select C5aR deficiency in the peripheral immune compartment compared with [WT → WT] controls (two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests; n = 6 or 7). C, Scatter plot showing main BMS scores for individual mice at 35 d after SCI. D, No difference was observed between the experimental groups in the amount of myelin within the ventrolateral white matter at 35 d after SCI (Student's two-sided t test, p > 0.05; n = 6 or 7). Scale bar: D (top), 200 μm. E–G, Quantification of the inflammatory infiltrate also showed no differences between the experimental groups in the number of Ly6b.2+ cells (E), the proportional area of CD11b+ immunoreactivity (F), and the number of CD3+ lymphocytes (G) present at the lesion epicenter (Student's two-sided t tests, p > 0.05; n = 6 or 7).
    Figure Legend Snippet: C5aR deficiency in the peripheral immune compartment does not alter the outcome from SCI. A, Flow cytometry data showing chimerization efficacy. [C5ar−/− → WT] BM chimeras (i.e., WT mice that received a C5ar−/− bone marrow transplant) only express background levels of C5aR on circulating granulocytes, equivalent to the amount of nonspecific staining observed on C5ar−/− cells. ***p < 0.001 (one-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc). n = 3–7. B, BMS locomotor scoring revealed no significant differences in functional recovery as a result of select C5aR deficiency in the peripheral immune compartment compared with [WT → WT] controls (two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests; n = 6 or 7). C, Scatter plot showing main BMS scores for individual mice at 35 d after SCI. D, No difference was observed between the experimental groups in the amount of myelin within the ventrolateral white matter at 35 d after SCI (Student's two-sided t test, p > 0.05; n = 6 or 7). Scale bar: D (top), 200 μm. E–G, Quantification of the inflammatory infiltrate also showed no differences between the experimental groups in the number of Ly6b.2+ cells (E), the proportional area of CD11b+ immunoreactivity (F), and the number of CD3+ lymphocytes (G) present at the lesion epicenter (Student's two-sided t tests, p > 0.05; n = 6 or 7).

    Techniques Used: Flow Cytometry, Staining, Functional Assay

    Signaling through the C5a-C5aR axis promotes astrocyte proliferation in vivo and in vitro. A, Quantification of BrdU+GFAP+ astrocytes at the lesion site of WT SCI mice that were chronically administered C5aR-A (orange) or vehicle (Veh, blue) solution, and vehicle-treated C5ar−/− mice (red). Note the significantly reduced presence of newly generated astrocytes along the rostral and caudal margins of the lesion in the absence of C5aR signaling (two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests; n = 4 or 5 per group). *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01. B, A significant, negative correlation was observed between the total number of BrdU+GFAP+ cells and lesion volumes (Pearson's correlation, p < 0.0001). C, C5a stimulates the proliferation of WT astrocytes in vitro in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations >10 nm (one-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). *p < 0.05. ***p < 0.001. Graph is representative of three experimental repeats. D, C5ar−/− astrocytes did not proliferate in response to high-dose C5a (50 nm; Student's two-sided t test, p > 0.05). E, Exposure of cultured astrocytes to C5a (50 nm) resulted in a significant increase in the ratio of P-STAT3 to STAT3. Addition of the STAT3 Inhibitor BP-1-102 (10 μm) just before C5a stimulation blocked this increase in STAT3 phosphorylation (one-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). **p < 0.01. F, Stimulation of C5ar−/− astrocytes with 50 nm of C5a did not lead to a significant change in STAT3 phosphorylation (Student's two-sided t test, p > 0.05). G, Addition of BP-1-102 (5 μm) blocked C5a-induced astrocyte proliferation in vitro (one-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). **p < 0.01. ***p < 0.001. Dotted line indicates the initial number of cells plated. D–F, Data are mean ± SEM, with n = 6 biological replicates. ns, Not significant.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Signaling through the C5a-C5aR axis promotes astrocyte proliferation in vivo and in vitro. A, Quantification of BrdU+GFAP+ astrocytes at the lesion site of WT SCI mice that were chronically administered C5aR-A (orange) or vehicle (Veh, blue) solution, and vehicle-treated C5ar−/− mice (red). Note the significantly reduced presence of newly generated astrocytes along the rostral and caudal margins of the lesion in the absence of C5aR signaling (two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests; n = 4 or 5 per group). *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01. B, A significant, negative correlation was observed between the total number of BrdU+GFAP+ cells and lesion volumes (Pearson's correlation, p < 0.0001). C, C5a stimulates the proliferation of WT astrocytes in vitro in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations >10 nm (one-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). *p < 0.05. ***p < 0.001. Graph is representative of three experimental repeats. D, C5ar−/− astrocytes did not proliferate in response to high-dose C5a (50 nm; Student's two-sided t test, p > 0.05). E, Exposure of cultured astrocytes to C5a (50 nm) resulted in a significant increase in the ratio of P-STAT3 to STAT3. Addition of the STAT3 Inhibitor BP-1-102 (10 μm) just before C5a stimulation blocked this increase in STAT3 phosphorylation (one-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). **p < 0.01. F, Stimulation of C5ar−/− astrocytes with 50 nm of C5a did not lead to a significant change in STAT3 phosphorylation (Student's two-sided t test, p > 0.05). G, Addition of BP-1-102 (5 μm) blocked C5a-induced astrocyte proliferation in vitro (one-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). **p < 0.01. ***p < 0.001. Dotted line indicates the initial number of cells plated. D–F, Data are mean ± SEM, with n = 6 biological replicates. ns, Not significant.

    Techniques Used: In Vivo, In Vitro, Generated, Cell Culture

    Diagram showing the proposed dual and time-dependent role of C5aR in SCI. In the (sub)acute period (0–7 d after SCI), activated astrocytes and microglia proliferate and/or migrate to the site of injury. Activation of these cells occurs in part through increased C5a levels as a result of complement activation, which in turn augments their production and release of inflammatory cytokines at the lesion site. Release of CXCL1 is a key signal for neutrophil recruitment to the site of SCI. IL-1β and IL-6 aid in the recruitment of blood monocytes and macrophages, which promote secondary injury if adopting an M1 phenotype. In the postacute to chronic period of SCI (7 d after SCI onwards), C5aR signaling is critically required for STAT3-mediated astrocyte proliferation and glial scar formation, which seals the injury site and prevents the spread of secondary injury. Through its regulation of IL-6 levels, C5aR may also be involved IL-6R-dependent astrocyte proliferation. 1(Anderson et al., 2004, 2005; Nguyen et al., 2008); 2(Lacy et al., 1995; Griffin et al., 2007; Ager et al., 2010); 3(Gasque et al., 1995; Lacy et al., 1995; Woodruff et al., 2008); 4(Acarin et al., 2000; Pineau and Lacroix, 2007; Pineau et al., 2010); 5(Klusman and Schwab, 1997; Romano et al., 1997; Dinarello, 2009); 6(Baggiolini and Clark-Lewis, 1992; Harada et al., 1994; Taub et al., 1996); 7(Gensel et al., 2009; Kigerl et al., 2009; Blomster et al., 2013a); 8(Gensel et al., 2009; Shechter et al., 2009, 2013); 9(Okada et al., 2006); and 10(Bush et al., 1999; Faulkner et al., 2004; Okada et al., 2006; Herrmann et al., 2008; Wanner et al., 2013).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Diagram showing the proposed dual and time-dependent role of C5aR in SCI. In the (sub)acute period (0–7 d after SCI), activated astrocytes and microglia proliferate and/or migrate to the site of injury. Activation of these cells occurs in part through increased C5a levels as a result of complement activation, which in turn augments their production and release of inflammatory cytokines at the lesion site. Release of CXCL1 is a key signal for neutrophil recruitment to the site of SCI. IL-1β and IL-6 aid in the recruitment of blood monocytes and macrophages, which promote secondary injury if adopting an M1 phenotype. In the postacute to chronic period of SCI (7 d after SCI onwards), C5aR signaling is critically required for STAT3-mediated astrocyte proliferation and glial scar formation, which seals the injury site and prevents the spread of secondary injury. Through its regulation of IL-6 levels, C5aR may also be involved IL-6R-dependent astrocyte proliferation. 1(Anderson et al., 2004, 2005; Nguyen et al., 2008); 2(Lacy et al., 1995; Griffin et al., 2007; Ager et al., 2010); 3(Gasque et al., 1995; Lacy et al., 1995; Woodruff et al., 2008); 4(Acarin et al., 2000; Pineau and Lacroix, 2007; Pineau et al., 2010); 5(Klusman and Schwab, 1997; Romano et al., 1997; Dinarello, 2009); 6(Baggiolini and Clark-Lewis, 1992; Harada et al., 1994; Taub et al., 1996); 7(Gensel et al., 2009; Kigerl et al., 2009; Blomster et al., 2013a); 8(Gensel et al., 2009; Shechter et al., 2009, 2013); 9(Okada et al., 2006); and 10(Bush et al., 1999; Faulkner et al., 2004; Okada et al., 2006; Herrmann et al., 2008; Wanner et al., 2013).

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay

    rat anti c5ar antibody  (Hycult Biotech)


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    Hycult Biotech rat anti c5ar antibody
    Rat Anti C5ar Antibody, supplied by Hycult Biotech, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    mouse c5ar  (Hycult Biotech)


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    Hycult Biotech mouse c5ar
    Impact of pharmacological <t>complement</t> <t>5a</t> <t>receptor</t> <t>(C5aR)</t> targeting on kidney graft survival. Percentage survival rate of mice in each group as a function of post-transplantation time. Group A: 30 min cold ischaemia (CI) in University of Wisconsin (UW) solution (n = 25); group B: 2 h in UW solution without C5aRA (n = 21); group C: 2 h in UW solution with the addition of C5aRA (10−6 M) (n = 21). Pharmacological C5aR targeting improves graft survival rates significantly after 2 h of CI (P = 0·038; log-rank test).
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    1) Product Images from "Pharmacological targeting of C5a receptors during organ preservation improves kidney graft survival"

    Article Title: Pharmacological targeting of C5a receptors during organ preservation improves kidney graft survival

    Journal:

    doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2249.2008.03678.x

    Impact of pharmacological complement 5a receptor (C5aR) targeting on kidney graft survival. Percentage survival rate of mice in each group as a function of post-transplantation time. Group A: 30 min cold ischaemia (CI) in University of Wisconsin (UW) solution (n = 25); group B: 2 h in UW solution without C5aRA (n = 21); group C: 2 h in UW solution with the addition of C5aRA (10−6 M) (n = 21). Pharmacological C5aR targeting improves graft survival rates significantly after 2 h of CI (P = 0·038; log-rank test).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Impact of pharmacological complement 5a receptor (C5aR) targeting on kidney graft survival. Percentage survival rate of mice in each group as a function of post-transplantation time. Group A: 30 min cold ischaemia (CI) in University of Wisconsin (UW) solution (n = 25); group B: 2 h in UW solution without C5aRA (n = 21); group C: 2 h in UW solution with the addition of C5aRA (10−6 M) (n = 21). Pharmacological C5aR targeting improves graft survival rates significantly after 2 h of CI (P = 0·038; log-rank test).

    Techniques Used: Transplantation Assay

    Impact of complement 5a receptor (C5aR) targeting on ischaemia reperfusion injury-induced kidney damage. (a–e) Haematoxylin and eosin staining in transplanted (left panels) and non-transplanted kidneys (right panels). (a) 30 min cold ischaemia (CI), (b) 2 h CI without C5aRA and (c) 2 h CI in the presence of C5aRA. Small arrows depict glomeruli and large arrows indicate regions of haemorrhage. Figures are reduced from an original magnification of 20×. (d) Quantification of tissue damage in transplanted (left panel) and non-transplanted (right panel) kidneys. A tissue damage score was determined on a scale of 0–3 (none, mild, moderate and severe) as outlined in Materials and methods, with a maximum possible score of 9 = severest damage being attainable. (e) Spatial distribution of damage in transplanted (left panel) and non-transplanted kidneys (right panel). (f) Relative kidney damage shown as a composite damage score calculating the product of each individual damage score with its corresponding area of damage. All values were determined 72 h post-transplantation (n = 6–12).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Impact of complement 5a receptor (C5aR) targeting on ischaemia reperfusion injury-induced kidney damage. (a–e) Haematoxylin and eosin staining in transplanted (left panels) and non-transplanted kidneys (right panels). (a) 30 min cold ischaemia (CI), (b) 2 h CI without C5aRA and (c) 2 h CI in the presence of C5aRA. Small arrows depict glomeruli and large arrows indicate regions of haemorrhage. Figures are reduced from an original magnification of 20×. (d) Quantification of tissue damage in transplanted (left panel) and non-transplanted (right panel) kidneys. A tissue damage score was determined on a scale of 0–3 (none, mild, moderate and severe) as outlined in Materials and methods, with a maximum possible score of 9 = severest damage being attainable. (e) Spatial distribution of damage in transplanted (left panel) and non-transplanted kidneys (right panel). (f) Relative kidney damage shown as a composite damage score calculating the product of each individual damage score with its corresponding area of damage. All values were determined 72 h post-transplantation (n = 6–12).

    Techniques Used: Staining, Transplantation Assay

    Impact of complement 5a receptor (C5aR) targeting on ischaemia reperfusion injury-induced tubular apoptosis. (a–c) Transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL)-positive tubular epithelial cells in transplanted (left panels) and non-transplanted kidneys (right panels). (a) 30 min cold ischaemia (CI). (b) 2 h CI without C5aRA. (c) 2 h CI in the presence of C5aRA. TUNEL-positive cells in the transplanted kidneys of groups a–c animals are depicted by arrows (left panels). Figures are reduced from an original magnification of 20×. (c, d) Quantification of apoptosis in tubular epithelial cells of transplanted (c) and non-transplanted (d) kidneys (number of TUNEL-positive cells/100 tubular cells in each of five high-power fields). Groups were compared by one way analysis of variance to determine statistical differences between treatment groups (see Material and methods). All values were determined 72 h post transplantation (n = 6–12).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Impact of complement 5a receptor (C5aR) targeting on ischaemia reperfusion injury-induced tubular apoptosis. (a–c) Transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL)-positive tubular epithelial cells in transplanted (left panels) and non-transplanted kidneys (right panels). (a) 30 min cold ischaemia (CI). (b) 2 h CI without C5aRA. (c) 2 h CI in the presence of C5aRA. TUNEL-positive cells in the transplanted kidneys of groups a–c animals are depicted by arrows (left panels). Figures are reduced from an original magnification of 20×. (c, d) Quantification of apoptosis in tubular epithelial cells of transplanted (c) and non-transplanted (d) kidneys (number of TUNEL-positive cells/100 tubular cells in each of five high-power fields). Groups were compared by one way analysis of variance to determine statistical differences between treatment groups (see Material and methods). All values were determined 72 h post transplantation (n = 6–12).

    Techniques Used: TUNEL Assay, Transplantation Assay

    Impact of complement 5a receptor (C5aR) targeting on ischaemia reperfusion injury-induced C5aR expression and tissue inflammation. (a–c) C5aR expression in transplanted (left panels) and non-transplanted kidneys (right panels). (a) 30 min cold ischaemia (CI). Black arrows indicate C5aR positive macrophages; white arrows indicate C5aR positive tubular epithelial cells. (b) 2 h CI without C5aRA. (c) 2 h CI in the presence of C5aRA. Figures are reduced from an original magnification of 20×. (d) C5aR; (e) tumour necrosis factor-α; and (f) macrophage inflammatory protein-2/CXCL2 mRNA expression levels, quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction in transplanted (left panel) and non-transplanted (right panel) kidneys respectively. The mRNA expression between the indicated treatment groups was compared. All values were determined 72 h post-transplantation (n = 6–12).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Impact of complement 5a receptor (C5aR) targeting on ischaemia reperfusion injury-induced C5aR expression and tissue inflammation. (a–c) C5aR expression in transplanted (left panels) and non-transplanted kidneys (right panels). (a) 30 min cold ischaemia (CI). Black arrows indicate C5aR positive macrophages; white arrows indicate C5aR positive tubular epithelial cells. (b) 2 h CI without C5aRA. (c) 2 h CI in the presence of C5aRA. Figures are reduced from an original magnification of 20×. (d) C5aR; (e) tumour necrosis factor-α; and (f) macrophage inflammatory protein-2/CXCL2 mRNA expression levels, quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction in transplanted (left panel) and non-transplanted (right panel) kidneys respectively. The mRNA expression between the indicated treatment groups was compared. All values were determined 72 h post-transplantation (n = 6–12).

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Transplantation Assay

    Complement 5a receptor (C5aR) expression in cadaveric donor (CAD) and living-related donor (LRD) and its correlation with cold ischaemia time, kidney function and tubular cell apoptosis. (a, b) C5aR expression in glomeruli, tubules and the interstitium of human allografts from LRD (a, upper panels) or CAD (b, lower panels). C5aR staining is depicted by the white arrowheads in each panel. (c) Quantitative evaluation of C5aR expression in grafts from CAD (n = 13) and LRD (n = 12). Groups were compared by analysis of variance to determine statistical differences between treatment groups (see Material and methods). (d) Correlation between cold ischaemia time (CIT) and peak serum creatinine (sCr) levels (r = 0·97, P < 0·001). (e–g) Correlations between C5aR staining intensity (number of C5aR positive tubules/field) and peak sCr levels (r = 0·96, P < 0·001) (e), duration of CIT (r = 0·82, P < 0·001) (f) and the frequency of apoptotic cells in the allograft (r = 0·78, P = 0·001) (g).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Complement 5a receptor (C5aR) expression in cadaveric donor (CAD) and living-related donor (LRD) and its correlation with cold ischaemia time, kidney function and tubular cell apoptosis. (a, b) C5aR expression in glomeruli, tubules and the interstitium of human allografts from LRD (a, upper panels) or CAD (b, lower panels). C5aR staining is depicted by the white arrowheads in each panel. (c) Quantitative evaluation of C5aR expression in grafts from CAD (n = 13) and LRD (n = 12). Groups were compared by analysis of variance to determine statistical differences between treatment groups (see Material and methods). (d) Correlation between cold ischaemia time (CIT) and peak serum creatinine (sCr) levels (r = 0·97, P < 0·001). (e–g) Correlations between C5aR staining intensity (number of C5aR positive tubules/field) and peak sCr levels (r = 0·96, P < 0·001) (e), duration of CIT (r = 0·82, P < 0·001) (f) and the frequency of apoptotic cells in the allograft (r = 0·78, P = 0·001) (g).

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Staining

    mouse c5ar  (Hycult Biotech)


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    Hycult Biotech mouse c5ar
    Impact of pharmacological <t>complement</t> <t>5a</t> <t>receptor</t> <t>(C5aR)</t> targeting on kidney graft survival. Percentage survival rate of mice in each group as a function of post-transplantation time. Group A: 30 min cold ischaemia (CI) in University of Wisconsin (UW) solution (n = 25); group B: 2 h in UW solution without C5aRA (n = 21); group C: 2 h in UW solution with the addition of C5aRA (10−6 M) (n = 21). Pharmacological C5aR targeting improves graft survival rates significantly after 2 h of CI (P = 0·038; log-rank test).
    Mouse C5ar, supplied by Hycult Biotech, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    1) Product Images from "Pharmacological targeting of C5a receptors during organ preservation improves kidney graft survival"

    Article Title: Pharmacological targeting of C5a receptors during organ preservation improves kidney graft survival

    Journal:

    doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2249.2008.03678.x

    Impact of pharmacological complement 5a receptor (C5aR) targeting on kidney graft survival. Percentage survival rate of mice in each group as a function of post-transplantation time. Group A: 30 min cold ischaemia (CI) in University of Wisconsin (UW) solution (n = 25); group B: 2 h in UW solution without C5aRA (n = 21); group C: 2 h in UW solution with the addition of C5aRA (10−6 M) (n = 21). Pharmacological C5aR targeting improves graft survival rates significantly after 2 h of CI (P = 0·038; log-rank test).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Impact of pharmacological complement 5a receptor (C5aR) targeting on kidney graft survival. Percentage survival rate of mice in each group as a function of post-transplantation time. Group A: 30 min cold ischaemia (CI) in University of Wisconsin (UW) solution (n = 25); group B: 2 h in UW solution without C5aRA (n = 21); group C: 2 h in UW solution with the addition of C5aRA (10−6 M) (n = 21). Pharmacological C5aR targeting improves graft survival rates significantly after 2 h of CI (P = 0·038; log-rank test).

    Techniques Used: Transplantation Assay

    Impact of complement 5a receptor (C5aR) targeting on ischaemia reperfusion injury-induced kidney damage. (a–e) Haematoxylin and eosin staining in transplanted (left panels) and non-transplanted kidneys (right panels). (a) 30 min cold ischaemia (CI), (b) 2 h CI without C5aRA and (c) 2 h CI in the presence of C5aRA. Small arrows depict glomeruli and large arrows indicate regions of haemorrhage. Figures are reduced from an original magnification of 20×. (d) Quantification of tissue damage in transplanted (left panel) and non-transplanted (right panel) kidneys. A tissue damage score was determined on a scale of 0–3 (none, mild, moderate and severe) as outlined in Materials and methods, with a maximum possible score of 9 = severest damage being attainable. (e) Spatial distribution of damage in transplanted (left panel) and non-transplanted kidneys (right panel). (f) Relative kidney damage shown as a composite damage score calculating the product of each individual damage score with its corresponding area of damage. All values were determined 72 h post-transplantation (n = 6–12).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Impact of complement 5a receptor (C5aR) targeting on ischaemia reperfusion injury-induced kidney damage. (a–e) Haematoxylin and eosin staining in transplanted (left panels) and non-transplanted kidneys (right panels). (a) 30 min cold ischaemia (CI), (b) 2 h CI without C5aRA and (c) 2 h CI in the presence of C5aRA. Small arrows depict glomeruli and large arrows indicate regions of haemorrhage. Figures are reduced from an original magnification of 20×. (d) Quantification of tissue damage in transplanted (left panel) and non-transplanted (right panel) kidneys. A tissue damage score was determined on a scale of 0–3 (none, mild, moderate and severe) as outlined in Materials and methods, with a maximum possible score of 9 = severest damage being attainable. (e) Spatial distribution of damage in transplanted (left panel) and non-transplanted kidneys (right panel). (f) Relative kidney damage shown as a composite damage score calculating the product of each individual damage score with its corresponding area of damage. All values were determined 72 h post-transplantation (n = 6–12).

    Techniques Used: Staining, Transplantation Assay

    Impact of complement 5a receptor (C5aR) targeting on ischaemia reperfusion injury-induced tubular apoptosis. (a–c) Transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL)-positive tubular epithelial cells in transplanted (left panels) and non-transplanted kidneys (right panels). (a) 30 min cold ischaemia (CI). (b) 2 h CI without C5aRA. (c) 2 h CI in the presence of C5aRA. TUNEL-positive cells in the transplanted kidneys of groups a–c animals are depicted by arrows (left panels). Figures are reduced from an original magnification of 20×. (c, d) Quantification of apoptosis in tubular epithelial cells of transplanted (c) and non-transplanted (d) kidneys (number of TUNEL-positive cells/100 tubular cells in each of five high-power fields). Groups were compared by one way analysis of variance to determine statistical differences between treatment groups (see Material and methods). All values were determined 72 h post transplantation (n = 6–12).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Impact of complement 5a receptor (C5aR) targeting on ischaemia reperfusion injury-induced tubular apoptosis. (a–c) Transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL)-positive tubular epithelial cells in transplanted (left panels) and non-transplanted kidneys (right panels). (a) 30 min cold ischaemia (CI). (b) 2 h CI without C5aRA. (c) 2 h CI in the presence of C5aRA. TUNEL-positive cells in the transplanted kidneys of groups a–c animals are depicted by arrows (left panels). Figures are reduced from an original magnification of 20×. (c, d) Quantification of apoptosis in tubular epithelial cells of transplanted (c) and non-transplanted (d) kidneys (number of TUNEL-positive cells/100 tubular cells in each of five high-power fields). Groups were compared by one way analysis of variance to determine statistical differences between treatment groups (see Material and methods). All values were determined 72 h post transplantation (n = 6–12).

    Techniques Used: TUNEL Assay, Transplantation Assay

    Impact of complement 5a receptor (C5aR) targeting on ischaemia reperfusion injury-induced C5aR expression and tissue inflammation. (a–c) C5aR expression in transplanted (left panels) and non-transplanted kidneys (right panels). (a) 30 min cold ischaemia (CI). Black arrows indicate C5aR positive macrophages; white arrows indicate C5aR positive tubular epithelial cells. (b) 2 h CI without C5aRA. (c) 2 h CI in the presence of C5aRA. Figures are reduced from an original magnification of 20×. (d) C5aR; (e) tumour necrosis factor-α; and (f) macrophage inflammatory protein-2/CXCL2 mRNA expression levels, quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction in transplanted (left panel) and non-transplanted (right panel) kidneys respectively. The mRNA expression between the indicated treatment groups was compared. All values were determined 72 h post-transplantation (n = 6–12).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Impact of complement 5a receptor (C5aR) targeting on ischaemia reperfusion injury-induced C5aR expression and tissue inflammation. (a–c) C5aR expression in transplanted (left panels) and non-transplanted kidneys (right panels). (a) 30 min cold ischaemia (CI). Black arrows indicate C5aR positive macrophages; white arrows indicate C5aR positive tubular epithelial cells. (b) 2 h CI without C5aRA. (c) 2 h CI in the presence of C5aRA. Figures are reduced from an original magnification of 20×. (d) C5aR; (e) tumour necrosis factor-α; and (f) macrophage inflammatory protein-2/CXCL2 mRNA expression levels, quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction in transplanted (left panel) and non-transplanted (right panel) kidneys respectively. The mRNA expression between the indicated treatment groups was compared. All values were determined 72 h post-transplantation (n = 6–12).

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Transplantation Assay

    Complement 5a receptor (C5aR) expression in cadaveric donor (CAD) and living-related donor (LRD) and its correlation with cold ischaemia time, kidney function and tubular cell apoptosis. (a, b) C5aR expression in glomeruli, tubules and the interstitium of human allografts from LRD (a, upper panels) or CAD (b, lower panels). C5aR staining is depicted by the white arrowheads in each panel. (c) Quantitative evaluation of C5aR expression in grafts from CAD (n = 13) and LRD (n = 12). Groups were compared by analysis of variance to determine statistical differences between treatment groups (see Material and methods). (d) Correlation between cold ischaemia time (CIT) and peak serum creatinine (sCr) levels (r = 0·97, P < 0·001). (e–g) Correlations between C5aR staining intensity (number of C5aR positive tubules/field) and peak sCr levels (r = 0·96, P < 0·001) (e), duration of CIT (r = 0·82, P < 0·001) (f) and the frequency of apoptotic cells in the allograft (r = 0·78, P = 0·001) (g).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Complement 5a receptor (C5aR) expression in cadaveric donor (CAD) and living-related donor (LRD) and its correlation with cold ischaemia time, kidney function and tubular cell apoptosis. (a, b) C5aR expression in glomeruli, tubules and the interstitium of human allografts from LRD (a, upper panels) or CAD (b, lower panels). C5aR staining is depicted by the white arrowheads in each panel. (c) Quantitative evaluation of C5aR expression in grafts from CAD (n = 13) and LRD (n = 12). Groups were compared by analysis of variance to determine statistical differences between treatment groups (see Material and methods). (d) Correlation between cold ischaemia time (CIT) and peak serum creatinine (sCr) levels (r = 0·97, P < 0·001). (e–g) Correlations between C5aR staining intensity (number of C5aR positive tubules/field) and peak sCr levels (r = 0·96, P < 0·001) (e), duration of CIT (r = 0·82, P < 0·001) (f) and the frequency of apoptotic cells in the allograft (r = 0·78, P = 0·001) (g).

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Staining

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    Hycult Biotech rat anti c5ar antibody
    Production of C5a and expression of <t>C5aR</t> in the injured spinal cord. A, C5a protein concentration in injured WT spinal cord is significantly increased compared with both naive (time point 0) and sham levels at 2 h, 6 h, 12 h, 1 d, 4 d, and 7 d after SCI (n = 4 or 5 per time point, two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01. ****p < 0.0001. B, WT C5a levels are also increased in the plasma in response to SCI, exceeding levels observed in sham-operated mice at 30 min, 2 h, 6 h, 12 h, and 1 d after injury (n = 4 or 5 per time point, two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01. ***p < 0.001. C–E, Representative confocal images showing C5aR expression in the injured spinal cord at 1 and 7 d after injury. C, At 1 d after injury, C5aR appeared present at the lesion epicenter on nucleated Iba1+ cells (arrow) as well as numerous smaller circular/ovoid cells that did not express Iba1 (arrowheads). Scale bar, 6.0 μm. D, At 7 d after injury, C5aR is present on cells with amoeboid morphology in WT mice, which appear to be clustered Iba1+ macrophages/microglia (arrow). Scale bar, 10 μm. E, C5aR expression was also observed on more elongated GFAP+ astrocytes (arrows), alongside C5aR+GFAP− cells with macrophage-like morphology (arrowhead). Scale bar, 13 μm. F, Only a very low level of nonspecific background fluorescence was observed following C5aR staining of lesioned C5ar−/− spinal cord tissue. Scale bar, 35 μm. G, Representative Western blots demonstrating C5aR expression by astrocytes in vitro. Left and middle lanes contain WT and C5ar−/− whole mouse brain homogenates, respectively. Right lane contains protein sample from cultured WT astrocytes.
    Rat Anti C5ar Antibody, supplied by Hycult Biotech, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Hycult Biotech mouse c5ar
    Impact of pharmacological <t>complement</t> <t>5a</t> <t>receptor</t> <t>(C5aR)</t> targeting on kidney graft survival. Percentage survival rate of mice in each group as a function of post-transplantation time. Group A: 30 min cold ischaemia (CI) in University of Wisconsin (UW) solution (n = 25); group B: 2 h in UW solution without C5aRA (n = 21); group C: 2 h in UW solution with the addition of C5aRA (10−6 M) (n = 21). Pharmacological C5aR targeting improves graft survival rates significantly after 2 h of CI (P = 0·038; log-rank test).
    Mouse C5ar, supplied by Hycult Biotech, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Production of C5a and expression of C5aR in the injured spinal cord. A, C5a protein concentration in injured WT spinal cord is significantly increased compared with both naive (time point 0) and sham levels at 2 h, 6 h, 12 h, 1 d, 4 d, and 7 d after SCI (n = 4 or 5 per time point, two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01. ****p < 0.0001. B, WT C5a levels are also increased in the plasma in response to SCI, exceeding levels observed in sham-operated mice at 30 min, 2 h, 6 h, 12 h, and 1 d after injury (n = 4 or 5 per time point, two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01. ***p < 0.001. C–E, Representative confocal images showing C5aR expression in the injured spinal cord at 1 and 7 d after injury. C, At 1 d after injury, C5aR appeared present at the lesion epicenter on nucleated Iba1+ cells (arrow) as well as numerous smaller circular/ovoid cells that did not express Iba1 (arrowheads). Scale bar, 6.0 μm. D, At 7 d after injury, C5aR is present on cells with amoeboid morphology in WT mice, which appear to be clustered Iba1+ macrophages/microglia (arrow). Scale bar, 10 μm. E, C5aR expression was also observed on more elongated GFAP+ astrocytes (arrows), alongside C5aR+GFAP− cells with macrophage-like morphology (arrowhead). Scale bar, 13 μm. F, Only a very low level of nonspecific background fluorescence was observed following C5aR staining of lesioned C5ar−/− spinal cord tissue. Scale bar, 35 μm. G, Representative Western blots demonstrating C5aR expression by astrocytes in vitro. Left and middle lanes contain WT and C5ar−/− whole mouse brain homogenates, respectively. Right lane contains protein sample from cultured WT astrocytes.

    Journal: The Journal of Neuroscience

    Article Title: The Complement Receptor C5aR Controls Acute Inflammation and Astrogliosis following Spinal Cord Injury

    doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5218-14.2015

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Production of C5a and expression of C5aR in the injured spinal cord. A, C5a protein concentration in injured WT spinal cord is significantly increased compared with both naive (time point 0) and sham levels at 2 h, 6 h, 12 h, 1 d, 4 d, and 7 d after SCI (n = 4 or 5 per time point, two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01. ****p < 0.0001. B, WT C5a levels are also increased in the plasma in response to SCI, exceeding levels observed in sham-operated mice at 30 min, 2 h, 6 h, 12 h, and 1 d after injury (n = 4 or 5 per time point, two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01. ***p < 0.001. C–E, Representative confocal images showing C5aR expression in the injured spinal cord at 1 and 7 d after injury. C, At 1 d after injury, C5aR appeared present at the lesion epicenter on nucleated Iba1+ cells (arrow) as well as numerous smaller circular/ovoid cells that did not express Iba1 (arrowheads). Scale bar, 6.0 μm. D, At 7 d after injury, C5aR is present on cells with amoeboid morphology in WT mice, which appear to be clustered Iba1+ macrophages/microglia (arrow). Scale bar, 10 μm. E, C5aR expression was also observed on more elongated GFAP+ astrocytes (arrows), alongside C5aR+GFAP− cells with macrophage-like morphology (arrowhead). Scale bar, 13 μm. F, Only a very low level of nonspecific background fluorescence was observed following C5aR staining of lesioned C5ar−/− spinal cord tissue. Scale bar, 35 μm. G, Representative Western blots demonstrating C5aR expression by astrocytes in vitro. Left and middle lanes contain WT and C5ar−/− whole mouse brain homogenates, respectively. Right lane contains protein sample from cultured WT astrocytes.

    Article Snippet: Rat anti-C5aR antibody (clone 10/92; 1:1000; Hycult Biotech, #HM1077), in combination with goat anti-rat IgG IRDye-700CW (1:10,000; LI-COR, #926-32219), was used to detect C5aR using similar procedures as detailed above.

    Techniques: Expressing, Protein Concentration, Fluorescence, Staining, Western Blot, In Vitro, Cell Culture

    C5ar−/− mice have a dual phenotype after SCI. A, BMS locomotor scoring revealed that C5ar−/− mice have significantly improved hindlimb motor function at 7 d after injury compared with WT mice. This trend reversed with time such that, at 28 and 35 d after SCI, WT mice had regained significantly more motor function than C5ar−/− mice (two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests, n = 8–12). B, Pooled BMS scores for individual mice from various experiments at 7 d after injury (Student's two-sided t test, n = 18–21). C, Graph showing the BMS scores for individual mice at 35 d after injury from longitudinal scores plotted in A (Student's two-sided t test, n = 8–12). D, Postmortem T2*-weighted MRI images showing lesion sites in WT and C5ar−/− mice. Scale bar (top left image): coronal images, 400 μm; sagittal images, 1 mm. E, Quantitative analysis revealed significantly larger lesion core volumes in C5ar−/− mice. Representative reconstructions of lesion cores for each genotype are shown in gray. F, G, A reduction in myelin content was observed in C5ar−/− mice at 35 d after SCI (Student's two-sided t test, n = 8 per group). Scale bar: F (top left image), 200 μm. H, I, Reductions in the proportional area (H) and intensity (I) of GFAP staining were also observed in C5ar−/− mice (Student's two-sided t tests, n = 8 per group). J, K, A more widespread presence of Ly6b.2+ cells (J) and CD3+ T cells (K) was observed in C5ar−/− mice at 35 d after injury (two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests, n = 5 per group), as also confirmed by area under the curve analysis (Student's two-sided t test, n = 5 per group). *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01. ***p < 0.001. ****p < 0.0001.

    Journal: The Journal of Neuroscience

    Article Title: The Complement Receptor C5aR Controls Acute Inflammation and Astrogliosis following Spinal Cord Injury

    doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5218-14.2015

    Figure Lengend Snippet: C5ar−/− mice have a dual phenotype after SCI. A, BMS locomotor scoring revealed that C5ar−/− mice have significantly improved hindlimb motor function at 7 d after injury compared with WT mice. This trend reversed with time such that, at 28 and 35 d after SCI, WT mice had regained significantly more motor function than C5ar−/− mice (two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests, n = 8–12). B, Pooled BMS scores for individual mice from various experiments at 7 d after injury (Student's two-sided t test, n = 18–21). C, Graph showing the BMS scores for individual mice at 35 d after injury from longitudinal scores plotted in A (Student's two-sided t test, n = 8–12). D, Postmortem T2*-weighted MRI images showing lesion sites in WT and C5ar−/− mice. Scale bar (top left image): coronal images, 400 μm; sagittal images, 1 mm. E, Quantitative analysis revealed significantly larger lesion core volumes in C5ar−/− mice. Representative reconstructions of lesion cores for each genotype are shown in gray. F, G, A reduction in myelin content was observed in C5ar−/− mice at 35 d after SCI (Student's two-sided t test, n = 8 per group). Scale bar: F (top left image), 200 μm. H, I, Reductions in the proportional area (H) and intensity (I) of GFAP staining were also observed in C5ar−/− mice (Student's two-sided t tests, n = 8 per group). J, K, A more widespread presence of Ly6b.2+ cells (J) and CD3+ T cells (K) was observed in C5ar−/− mice at 35 d after injury (two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests, n = 5 per group), as also confirmed by area under the curve analysis (Student's two-sided t test, n = 5 per group). *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01. ***p < 0.001. ****p < 0.0001.

    Article Snippet: Rat anti-C5aR antibody (clone 10/92; 1:1000; Hycult Biotech, #HM1077), in combination with goat anti-rat IgG IRDye-700CW (1:10,000; LI-COR, #926-32219), was used to detect C5aR using similar procedures as detailed above.

    Techniques: Staining

    Acute, but not sustained, antagonism of C5aR improves SCI outcomes in Macgreen mice. A, BMS locomotor scores of mice treated with a C5aR antagonist (C5aR-A) for 7 d after SCI have significantly higher BMS scores than vehicle (Veh)-treated mice at 21, 28, and 35 d after injury. *p < 0.05 (two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests, n = 8–10). B, A scatter plot depicting the BMS scores of individual mice at 35 d after SCI. *p = 0.029 (Student's two-tailed t test, n = 8–10). C, D, Data from the ledged tapered beam walk task also indicated that C5aR blockade during the acute period improved long-term recovery, with C5aR-A-treated mice making significantly fewer stepping mistakes (C), and also traversing the beam faster (D) than vehicle-treated SCI controls. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001; ****p < 0.0001 (one-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests, n = 6–10). E, F, (Sub)acute C5aR-A treatment resulted in significantly more myelin being present at the lesion epicenter at 35 d after SCI compared with vehicle-treated mice. **p = 0.0088 (Student's t test, n = 5 per group). Scale bar: E (top left), 200 μm. E, G, The GFP+ infiltrate in the lesion core of Macgreen mice was also significantly reduced following the C5aR-A treatment regimen. **p = 0.0061 (Student's two-sided t test, n = 5 per group). H–J, GFAP immunoreactivity at 35 d after SCI was not significantly different between treatment groups based on analysis of both proportional area (I) and staining intensity (J). Scale bar: H (top left), 200 μm. K, Improved recovery from SCI was not sustained with continued C5aR-A administration. *p < 0.05, C5ar−/− + vehicle versus WT + vehicle (two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests, n = 4 or 5).

    Journal: The Journal of Neuroscience

    Article Title: The Complement Receptor C5aR Controls Acute Inflammation and Astrogliosis following Spinal Cord Injury

    doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5218-14.2015

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Acute, but not sustained, antagonism of C5aR improves SCI outcomes in Macgreen mice. A, BMS locomotor scores of mice treated with a C5aR antagonist (C5aR-A) for 7 d after SCI have significantly higher BMS scores than vehicle (Veh)-treated mice at 21, 28, and 35 d after injury. *p < 0.05 (two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests, n = 8–10). B, A scatter plot depicting the BMS scores of individual mice at 35 d after SCI. *p = 0.029 (Student's two-tailed t test, n = 8–10). C, D, Data from the ledged tapered beam walk task also indicated that C5aR blockade during the acute period improved long-term recovery, with C5aR-A-treated mice making significantly fewer stepping mistakes (C), and also traversing the beam faster (D) than vehicle-treated SCI controls. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001; ****p < 0.0001 (one-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests, n = 6–10). E, F, (Sub)acute C5aR-A treatment resulted in significantly more myelin being present at the lesion epicenter at 35 d after SCI compared with vehicle-treated mice. **p = 0.0088 (Student's t test, n = 5 per group). Scale bar: E (top left), 200 μm. E, G, The GFP+ infiltrate in the lesion core of Macgreen mice was also significantly reduced following the C5aR-A treatment regimen. **p = 0.0061 (Student's two-sided t test, n = 5 per group). H–J, GFAP immunoreactivity at 35 d after SCI was not significantly different between treatment groups based on analysis of both proportional area (I) and staining intensity (J). Scale bar: H (top left), 200 μm. K, Improved recovery from SCI was not sustained with continued C5aR-A administration. *p < 0.05, C5ar−/− + vehicle versus WT + vehicle (two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests, n = 4 or 5).

    Article Snippet: Rat anti-C5aR antibody (clone 10/92; 1:1000; Hycult Biotech, #HM1077), in combination with goat anti-rat IgG IRDye-700CW (1:10,000; LI-COR, #926-32219), was used to detect C5aR using similar procedures as detailed above.

    Techniques: Two Tailed Test, Staining

    Inflammation in the (sub)acute period of SCI is reduced with C5aR elimination. A–F, Levels of MCP-1 (A), TNF (B), CXCL1 (C), IL-6 (D), IL-1β (E), and IL-10 (F) were all significantly increased at 12 h after SCI compared with sham-operated controls, regardless of genotype. C5aR deficiency did, however, result in significant reductions in CXCL1, IL-6, and IL-1β in the injured spinal cord compared with WT mice. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001; ****p < 0.0001 (two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests, n = 4 or 5). G, H, No significant differences in the Ly6b.2+ inflammatory cell infiltrate were observed between WT and C5ar−/− mice at 1 d (G) and 7 d (H) after SCI. Scale bar: G (bottom image), 40 μm. I, A significant reduction in the number of inflammatory monocytes/macrophages was observed in injured C5ar−/− spinal cord at 7 d after SCI. **p < 0.01 (Student's two-sided t test). n = 5 per group.

    Journal: The Journal of Neuroscience

    Article Title: The Complement Receptor C5aR Controls Acute Inflammation and Astrogliosis following Spinal Cord Injury

    doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5218-14.2015

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Inflammation in the (sub)acute period of SCI is reduced with C5aR elimination. A–F, Levels of MCP-1 (A), TNF (B), CXCL1 (C), IL-6 (D), IL-1β (E), and IL-10 (F) were all significantly increased at 12 h after SCI compared with sham-operated controls, regardless of genotype. C5aR deficiency did, however, result in significant reductions in CXCL1, IL-6, and IL-1β in the injured spinal cord compared with WT mice. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001; ****p < 0.0001 (two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests, n = 4 or 5). G, H, No significant differences in the Ly6b.2+ inflammatory cell infiltrate were observed between WT and C5ar−/− mice at 1 d (G) and 7 d (H) after SCI. Scale bar: G (bottom image), 40 μm. I, A significant reduction in the number of inflammatory monocytes/macrophages was observed in injured C5ar−/− spinal cord at 7 d after SCI. **p < 0.01 (Student's two-sided t test). n = 5 per group.

    Article Snippet: Rat anti-C5aR antibody (clone 10/92; 1:1000; Hycult Biotech, #HM1077), in combination with goat anti-rat IgG IRDye-700CW (1:10,000; LI-COR, #926-32219), was used to detect C5aR using similar procedures as detailed above.

    Techniques:

    C5aR deficiency in the peripheral immune compartment does not alter the outcome from SCI. A, Flow cytometry data showing chimerization efficacy. [C5ar−/− → WT] BM chimeras (i.e., WT mice that received a C5ar−/− bone marrow transplant) only express background levels of C5aR on circulating granulocytes, equivalent to the amount of nonspecific staining observed on C5ar−/− cells. ***p < 0.001 (one-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc). n = 3–7. B, BMS locomotor scoring revealed no significant differences in functional recovery as a result of select C5aR deficiency in the peripheral immune compartment compared with [WT → WT] controls (two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests; n = 6 or 7). C, Scatter plot showing main BMS scores for individual mice at 35 d after SCI. D, No difference was observed between the experimental groups in the amount of myelin within the ventrolateral white matter at 35 d after SCI (Student's two-sided t test, p > 0.05; n = 6 or 7). Scale bar: D (top), 200 μm. E–G, Quantification of the inflammatory infiltrate also showed no differences between the experimental groups in the number of Ly6b.2+ cells (E), the proportional area of CD11b+ immunoreactivity (F), and the number of CD3+ lymphocytes (G) present at the lesion epicenter (Student's two-sided t tests, p > 0.05; n = 6 or 7).

    Journal: The Journal of Neuroscience

    Article Title: The Complement Receptor C5aR Controls Acute Inflammation and Astrogliosis following Spinal Cord Injury

    doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5218-14.2015

    Figure Lengend Snippet: C5aR deficiency in the peripheral immune compartment does not alter the outcome from SCI. A, Flow cytometry data showing chimerization efficacy. [C5ar−/− → WT] BM chimeras (i.e., WT mice that received a C5ar−/− bone marrow transplant) only express background levels of C5aR on circulating granulocytes, equivalent to the amount of nonspecific staining observed on C5ar−/− cells. ***p < 0.001 (one-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc). n = 3–7. B, BMS locomotor scoring revealed no significant differences in functional recovery as a result of select C5aR deficiency in the peripheral immune compartment compared with [WT → WT] controls (two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests; n = 6 or 7). C, Scatter plot showing main BMS scores for individual mice at 35 d after SCI. D, No difference was observed between the experimental groups in the amount of myelin within the ventrolateral white matter at 35 d after SCI (Student's two-sided t test, p > 0.05; n = 6 or 7). Scale bar: D (top), 200 μm. E–G, Quantification of the inflammatory infiltrate also showed no differences between the experimental groups in the number of Ly6b.2+ cells (E), the proportional area of CD11b+ immunoreactivity (F), and the number of CD3+ lymphocytes (G) present at the lesion epicenter (Student's two-sided t tests, p > 0.05; n = 6 or 7).

    Article Snippet: Rat anti-C5aR antibody (clone 10/92; 1:1000; Hycult Biotech, #HM1077), in combination with goat anti-rat IgG IRDye-700CW (1:10,000; LI-COR, #926-32219), was used to detect C5aR using similar procedures as detailed above.

    Techniques: Flow Cytometry, Staining, Functional Assay

    Signaling through the C5a-C5aR axis promotes astrocyte proliferation in vivo and in vitro. A, Quantification of BrdU+GFAP+ astrocytes at the lesion site of WT SCI mice that were chronically administered C5aR-A (orange) or vehicle (Veh, blue) solution, and vehicle-treated C5ar−/− mice (red). Note the significantly reduced presence of newly generated astrocytes along the rostral and caudal margins of the lesion in the absence of C5aR signaling (two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests; n = 4 or 5 per group). *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01. B, A significant, negative correlation was observed between the total number of BrdU+GFAP+ cells and lesion volumes (Pearson's correlation, p < 0.0001). C, C5a stimulates the proliferation of WT astrocytes in vitro in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations >10 nm (one-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). *p < 0.05. ***p < 0.001. Graph is representative of three experimental repeats. D, C5ar−/− astrocytes did not proliferate in response to high-dose C5a (50 nm; Student's two-sided t test, p > 0.05). E, Exposure of cultured astrocytes to C5a (50 nm) resulted in a significant increase in the ratio of P-STAT3 to STAT3. Addition of the STAT3 Inhibitor BP-1-102 (10 μm) just before C5a stimulation blocked this increase in STAT3 phosphorylation (one-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). **p < 0.01. F, Stimulation of C5ar−/− astrocytes with 50 nm of C5a did not lead to a significant change in STAT3 phosphorylation (Student's two-sided t test, p > 0.05). G, Addition of BP-1-102 (5 μm) blocked C5a-induced astrocyte proliferation in vitro (one-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). **p < 0.01. ***p < 0.001. Dotted line indicates the initial number of cells plated. D–F, Data are mean ± SEM, with n = 6 biological replicates. ns, Not significant.

    Journal: The Journal of Neuroscience

    Article Title: The Complement Receptor C5aR Controls Acute Inflammation and Astrogliosis following Spinal Cord Injury

    doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5218-14.2015

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Signaling through the C5a-C5aR axis promotes astrocyte proliferation in vivo and in vitro. A, Quantification of BrdU+GFAP+ astrocytes at the lesion site of WT SCI mice that were chronically administered C5aR-A (orange) or vehicle (Veh, blue) solution, and vehicle-treated C5ar−/− mice (red). Note the significantly reduced presence of newly generated astrocytes along the rostral and caudal margins of the lesion in the absence of C5aR signaling (two-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests; n = 4 or 5 per group). *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01. B, A significant, negative correlation was observed between the total number of BrdU+GFAP+ cells and lesion volumes (Pearson's correlation, p < 0.0001). C, C5a stimulates the proliferation of WT astrocytes in vitro in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations >10 nm (one-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). *p < 0.05. ***p < 0.001. Graph is representative of three experimental repeats. D, C5ar−/− astrocytes did not proliferate in response to high-dose C5a (50 nm; Student's two-sided t test, p > 0.05). E, Exposure of cultured astrocytes to C5a (50 nm) resulted in a significant increase in the ratio of P-STAT3 to STAT3. Addition of the STAT3 Inhibitor BP-1-102 (10 μm) just before C5a stimulation blocked this increase in STAT3 phosphorylation (one-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). **p < 0.01. F, Stimulation of C5ar−/− astrocytes with 50 nm of C5a did not lead to a significant change in STAT3 phosphorylation (Student's two-sided t test, p > 0.05). G, Addition of BP-1-102 (5 μm) blocked C5a-induced astrocyte proliferation in vitro (one-way ANOVA with Newman–Keuls post hoc tests). **p < 0.01. ***p < 0.001. Dotted line indicates the initial number of cells plated. D–F, Data are mean ± SEM, with n = 6 biological replicates. ns, Not significant.

    Article Snippet: Rat anti-C5aR antibody (clone 10/92; 1:1000; Hycult Biotech, #HM1077), in combination with goat anti-rat IgG IRDye-700CW (1:10,000; LI-COR, #926-32219), was used to detect C5aR using similar procedures as detailed above.

    Techniques: In Vivo, In Vitro, Generated, Cell Culture

    Diagram showing the proposed dual and time-dependent role of C5aR in SCI. In the (sub)acute period (0–7 d after SCI), activated astrocytes and microglia proliferate and/or migrate to the site of injury. Activation of these cells occurs in part through increased C5a levels as a result of complement activation, which in turn augments their production and release of inflammatory cytokines at the lesion site. Release of CXCL1 is a key signal for neutrophil recruitment to the site of SCI. IL-1β and IL-6 aid in the recruitment of blood monocytes and macrophages, which promote secondary injury if adopting an M1 phenotype. In the postacute to chronic period of SCI (7 d after SCI onwards), C5aR signaling is critically required for STAT3-mediated astrocyte proliferation and glial scar formation, which seals the injury site and prevents the spread of secondary injury. Through its regulation of IL-6 levels, C5aR may also be involved IL-6R-dependent astrocyte proliferation. 1(Anderson et al., 2004, 2005; Nguyen et al., 2008); 2(Lacy et al., 1995; Griffin et al., 2007; Ager et al., 2010); 3(Gasque et al., 1995; Lacy et al., 1995; Woodruff et al., 2008); 4(Acarin et al., 2000; Pineau and Lacroix, 2007; Pineau et al., 2010); 5(Klusman and Schwab, 1997; Romano et al., 1997; Dinarello, 2009); 6(Baggiolini and Clark-Lewis, 1992; Harada et al., 1994; Taub et al., 1996); 7(Gensel et al., 2009; Kigerl et al., 2009; Blomster et al., 2013a); 8(Gensel et al., 2009; Shechter et al., 2009, 2013); 9(Okada et al., 2006); and 10(Bush et al., 1999; Faulkner et al., 2004; Okada et al., 2006; Herrmann et al., 2008; Wanner et al., 2013).

    Journal: The Journal of Neuroscience

    Article Title: The Complement Receptor C5aR Controls Acute Inflammation and Astrogliosis following Spinal Cord Injury

    doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5218-14.2015

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Diagram showing the proposed dual and time-dependent role of C5aR in SCI. In the (sub)acute period (0–7 d after SCI), activated astrocytes and microglia proliferate and/or migrate to the site of injury. Activation of these cells occurs in part through increased C5a levels as a result of complement activation, which in turn augments their production and release of inflammatory cytokines at the lesion site. Release of CXCL1 is a key signal for neutrophil recruitment to the site of SCI. IL-1β and IL-6 aid in the recruitment of blood monocytes and macrophages, which promote secondary injury if adopting an M1 phenotype. In the postacute to chronic period of SCI (7 d after SCI onwards), C5aR signaling is critically required for STAT3-mediated astrocyte proliferation and glial scar formation, which seals the injury site and prevents the spread of secondary injury. Through its regulation of IL-6 levels, C5aR may also be involved IL-6R-dependent astrocyte proliferation. 1(Anderson et al., 2004, 2005; Nguyen et al., 2008); 2(Lacy et al., 1995; Griffin et al., 2007; Ager et al., 2010); 3(Gasque et al., 1995; Lacy et al., 1995; Woodruff et al., 2008); 4(Acarin et al., 2000; Pineau and Lacroix, 2007; Pineau et al., 2010); 5(Klusman and Schwab, 1997; Romano et al., 1997; Dinarello, 2009); 6(Baggiolini and Clark-Lewis, 1992; Harada et al., 1994; Taub et al., 1996); 7(Gensel et al., 2009; Kigerl et al., 2009; Blomster et al., 2013a); 8(Gensel et al., 2009; Shechter et al., 2009, 2013); 9(Okada et al., 2006); and 10(Bush et al., 1999; Faulkner et al., 2004; Okada et al., 2006; Herrmann et al., 2008; Wanner et al., 2013).

    Article Snippet: Rat anti-C5aR antibody (clone 10/92; 1:1000; Hycult Biotech, #HM1077), in combination with goat anti-rat IgG IRDye-700CW (1:10,000; LI-COR, #926-32219), was used to detect C5aR using similar procedures as detailed above.

    Techniques: Activation Assay

    Impact of pharmacological complement 5a receptor (C5aR) targeting on kidney graft survival. Percentage survival rate of mice in each group as a function of post-transplantation time. Group A: 30 min cold ischaemia (CI) in University of Wisconsin (UW) solution (n = 25); group B: 2 h in UW solution without C5aRA (n = 21); group C: 2 h in UW solution with the addition of C5aRA (10−6 M) (n = 21). Pharmacological C5aR targeting improves graft survival rates significantly after 2 h of CI (P = 0·038; log-rank test).

    Journal:

    Article Title: Pharmacological targeting of C5a receptors during organ preservation improves kidney graft survival

    doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2249.2008.03678.x

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Impact of pharmacological complement 5a receptor (C5aR) targeting on kidney graft survival. Percentage survival rate of mice in each group as a function of post-transplantation time. Group A: 30 min cold ischaemia (CI) in University of Wisconsin (UW) solution (n = 25); group B: 2 h in UW solution without C5aRA (n = 21); group C: 2 h in UW solution with the addition of C5aRA (10−6 M) (n = 21). Pharmacological C5aR targeting improves graft survival rates significantly after 2 h of CI (P = 0·038; log-rank test).

    Article Snippet: Subsequently, sections were incubated with a rat monoclonal antibody (mAb) to mouse C5aR (5 μg/ml; clone 10/92; Hycult Biotechnology, Uden, the Netherlands) overnight at 4°C and then with a biotinylated anti-rat IgG (Vector Laboratories, Burlingame, CA, USA) for 90 min at room temperature.

    Techniques: Transplantation Assay

    Impact of complement 5a receptor (C5aR) targeting on ischaemia reperfusion injury-induced kidney damage. (a–e) Haematoxylin and eosin staining in transplanted (left panels) and non-transplanted kidneys (right panels). (a) 30 min cold ischaemia (CI), (b) 2 h CI without C5aRA and (c) 2 h CI in the presence of C5aRA. Small arrows depict glomeruli and large arrows indicate regions of haemorrhage. Figures are reduced from an original magnification of 20×. (d) Quantification of tissue damage in transplanted (left panel) and non-transplanted (right panel) kidneys. A tissue damage score was determined on a scale of 0–3 (none, mild, moderate and severe) as outlined in Materials and methods, with a maximum possible score of 9 = severest damage being attainable. (e) Spatial distribution of damage in transplanted (left panel) and non-transplanted kidneys (right panel). (f) Relative kidney damage shown as a composite damage score calculating the product of each individual damage score with its corresponding area of damage. All values were determined 72 h post-transplantation (n = 6–12).

    Journal:

    Article Title: Pharmacological targeting of C5a receptors during organ preservation improves kidney graft survival

    doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2249.2008.03678.x

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Impact of complement 5a receptor (C5aR) targeting on ischaemia reperfusion injury-induced kidney damage. (a–e) Haematoxylin and eosin staining in transplanted (left panels) and non-transplanted kidneys (right panels). (a) 30 min cold ischaemia (CI), (b) 2 h CI without C5aRA and (c) 2 h CI in the presence of C5aRA. Small arrows depict glomeruli and large arrows indicate regions of haemorrhage. Figures are reduced from an original magnification of 20×. (d) Quantification of tissue damage in transplanted (left panel) and non-transplanted (right panel) kidneys. A tissue damage score was determined on a scale of 0–3 (none, mild, moderate and severe) as outlined in Materials and methods, with a maximum possible score of 9 = severest damage being attainable. (e) Spatial distribution of damage in transplanted (left panel) and non-transplanted kidneys (right panel). (f) Relative kidney damage shown as a composite damage score calculating the product of each individual damage score with its corresponding area of damage. All values were determined 72 h post-transplantation (n = 6–12).

    Article Snippet: Subsequently, sections were incubated with a rat monoclonal antibody (mAb) to mouse C5aR (5 μg/ml; clone 10/92; Hycult Biotechnology, Uden, the Netherlands) overnight at 4°C and then with a biotinylated anti-rat IgG (Vector Laboratories, Burlingame, CA, USA) for 90 min at room temperature.

    Techniques: Staining, Transplantation Assay

    Impact of complement 5a receptor (C5aR) targeting on ischaemia reperfusion injury-induced tubular apoptosis. (a–c) Transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL)-positive tubular epithelial cells in transplanted (left panels) and non-transplanted kidneys (right panels). (a) 30 min cold ischaemia (CI). (b) 2 h CI without C5aRA. (c) 2 h CI in the presence of C5aRA. TUNEL-positive cells in the transplanted kidneys of groups a–c animals are depicted by arrows (left panels). Figures are reduced from an original magnification of 20×. (c, d) Quantification of apoptosis in tubular epithelial cells of transplanted (c) and non-transplanted (d) kidneys (number of TUNEL-positive cells/100 tubular cells in each of five high-power fields). Groups were compared by one way analysis of variance to determine statistical differences between treatment groups (see Material and methods). All values were determined 72 h post transplantation (n = 6–12).

    Journal:

    Article Title: Pharmacological targeting of C5a receptors during organ preservation improves kidney graft survival

    doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2249.2008.03678.x

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Impact of complement 5a receptor (C5aR) targeting on ischaemia reperfusion injury-induced tubular apoptosis. (a–c) Transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL)-positive tubular epithelial cells in transplanted (left panels) and non-transplanted kidneys (right panels). (a) 30 min cold ischaemia (CI). (b) 2 h CI without C5aRA. (c) 2 h CI in the presence of C5aRA. TUNEL-positive cells in the transplanted kidneys of groups a–c animals are depicted by arrows (left panels). Figures are reduced from an original magnification of 20×. (c, d) Quantification of apoptosis in tubular epithelial cells of transplanted (c) and non-transplanted (d) kidneys (number of TUNEL-positive cells/100 tubular cells in each of five high-power fields). Groups were compared by one way analysis of variance to determine statistical differences between treatment groups (see Material and methods). All values were determined 72 h post transplantation (n = 6–12).

    Article Snippet: Subsequently, sections were incubated with a rat monoclonal antibody (mAb) to mouse C5aR (5 μg/ml; clone 10/92; Hycult Biotechnology, Uden, the Netherlands) overnight at 4°C and then with a biotinylated anti-rat IgG (Vector Laboratories, Burlingame, CA, USA) for 90 min at room temperature.

    Techniques: TUNEL Assay, Transplantation Assay

    Impact of complement 5a receptor (C5aR) targeting on ischaemia reperfusion injury-induced C5aR expression and tissue inflammation. (a–c) C5aR expression in transplanted (left panels) and non-transplanted kidneys (right panels). (a) 30 min cold ischaemia (CI). Black arrows indicate C5aR positive macrophages; white arrows indicate C5aR positive tubular epithelial cells. (b) 2 h CI without C5aRA. (c) 2 h CI in the presence of C5aRA. Figures are reduced from an original magnification of 20×. (d) C5aR; (e) tumour necrosis factor-α; and (f) macrophage inflammatory protein-2/CXCL2 mRNA expression levels, quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction in transplanted (left panel) and non-transplanted (right panel) kidneys respectively. The mRNA expression between the indicated treatment groups was compared. All values were determined 72 h post-transplantation (n = 6–12).

    Journal:

    Article Title: Pharmacological targeting of C5a receptors during organ preservation improves kidney graft survival

    doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2249.2008.03678.x

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Impact of complement 5a receptor (C5aR) targeting on ischaemia reperfusion injury-induced C5aR expression and tissue inflammation. (a–c) C5aR expression in transplanted (left panels) and non-transplanted kidneys (right panels). (a) 30 min cold ischaemia (CI). Black arrows indicate C5aR positive macrophages; white arrows indicate C5aR positive tubular epithelial cells. (b) 2 h CI without C5aRA. (c) 2 h CI in the presence of C5aRA. Figures are reduced from an original magnification of 20×. (d) C5aR; (e) tumour necrosis factor-α; and (f) macrophage inflammatory protein-2/CXCL2 mRNA expression levels, quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction in transplanted (left panel) and non-transplanted (right panel) kidneys respectively. The mRNA expression between the indicated treatment groups was compared. All values were determined 72 h post-transplantation (n = 6–12).

    Article Snippet: Subsequently, sections were incubated with a rat monoclonal antibody (mAb) to mouse C5aR (5 μg/ml; clone 10/92; Hycult Biotechnology, Uden, the Netherlands) overnight at 4°C and then with a biotinylated anti-rat IgG (Vector Laboratories, Burlingame, CA, USA) for 90 min at room temperature.

    Techniques: Expressing, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Transplantation Assay

    Complement 5a receptor (C5aR) expression in cadaveric donor (CAD) and living-related donor (LRD) and its correlation with cold ischaemia time, kidney function and tubular cell apoptosis. (a, b) C5aR expression in glomeruli, tubules and the interstitium of human allografts from LRD (a, upper panels) or CAD (b, lower panels). C5aR staining is depicted by the white arrowheads in each panel. (c) Quantitative evaluation of C5aR expression in grafts from CAD (n = 13) and LRD (n = 12). Groups were compared by analysis of variance to determine statistical differences between treatment groups (see Material and methods). (d) Correlation between cold ischaemia time (CIT) and peak serum creatinine (sCr) levels (r = 0·97, P < 0·001). (e–g) Correlations between C5aR staining intensity (number of C5aR positive tubules/field) and peak sCr levels (r = 0·96, P < 0·001) (e), duration of CIT (r = 0·82, P < 0·001) (f) and the frequency of apoptotic cells in the allograft (r = 0·78, P = 0·001) (g).

    Journal:

    Article Title: Pharmacological targeting of C5a receptors during organ preservation improves kidney graft survival

    doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2249.2008.03678.x

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Complement 5a receptor (C5aR) expression in cadaveric donor (CAD) and living-related donor (LRD) and its correlation with cold ischaemia time, kidney function and tubular cell apoptosis. (a, b) C5aR expression in glomeruli, tubules and the interstitium of human allografts from LRD (a, upper panels) or CAD (b, lower panels). C5aR staining is depicted by the white arrowheads in each panel. (c) Quantitative evaluation of C5aR expression in grafts from CAD (n = 13) and LRD (n = 12). Groups were compared by analysis of variance to determine statistical differences between treatment groups (see Material and methods). (d) Correlation between cold ischaemia time (CIT) and peak serum creatinine (sCr) levels (r = 0·97, P < 0·001). (e–g) Correlations between C5aR staining intensity (number of C5aR positive tubules/field) and peak sCr levels (r = 0·96, P < 0·001) (e), duration of CIT (r = 0·82, P < 0·001) (f) and the frequency of apoptotic cells in the allograft (r = 0·78, P = 0·001) (g).

    Article Snippet: Subsequently, sections were incubated with a rat monoclonal antibody (mAb) to mouse C5aR (5 μg/ml; clone 10/92; Hycult Biotechnology, Uden, the Netherlands) overnight at 4°C and then with a biotinylated anti-rat IgG (Vector Laboratories, Burlingame, CA, USA) for 90 min at room temperature.

    Techniques: Expressing, Staining