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1) Product Images from "Glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid differentially modulate glymphatic clearance of amyloid β through pulsation- and aquaporin-4 dependent mechanisms"
Article Title: Glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid differentially modulate glymphatic clearance of amyloid β through pulsation- and aquaporin-4 dependent mechanisms
Figure Legend Snippet: Hypertension induces brain Aβ deposition and glymphatic clearance impairment. (a–d) In vivo imaging of Aβ deposition in the cerebral cortex. Aβ deposition (FSB, green) was distinct along the vessels. (e) Enlarged VRS were observed. (f) 3D reconstruction of the vasculature in hypertension mice. The warping vessel is magnified on the right panel. (g-j) Ang-II evoked a significant increase in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) with no changes in heart rates (HR) and body weight (k-m). Glymphatic clearance impairment was evident in hypertension models. (n-o) Arterial diameters remained unchanged in hypertension models while vascular pulsatility was severely reduced (n=8-9 vessels per group) (s) . (q) Representative images of GFAP expression and AQP4 polarization in the cortex. No distinctive changes in AQP4 polarization (t) and GFAP expression (u) were observed in the hypertension model. (p, upper panel) Representative images of smooth muscle actin (SMA) and collagen expression in the cortex. No significant changes in SMA expression (r) and greater deposition of collagen (r) in vascular walls were observed in hypertension models. (p, lower panel) Immunology of Aβ 1–40 and Aβ 1–42 in hypertension model mice. Significant deposition of Aβ 1–40, but not Aβ 1–42, in vessels was observed. (p, lower panel) Co-labeling of collagen and Aβ 1–40 in hypertension. Aβ 1–40 co-localized with collagen (n=5-6 mice per group).
Techniques Used: In Vivo Imaging, Mouse Assay, Expressing, Labeling
Figure Legend Snippet: Impairment of glymphatic clearance and deposition of Aβ plaques in APP-PS1 mice. (a) In vivo imaging of Aβ deposition in the cerebral cortex (FSB: green). Aβ deposition was evident in the parenchyma with no distinct CAA. (b) Immunology of Aβ 1–40 and Aβ 1–42 in APP-PS1. Significant numbers of Aβ 1–42-labeled amyloid plaques were observed in the parenchyma, but no marked deposition of Aβ 1–40. (c) Representative images of paravascular CSF tracer clearance at 100 μm below the cortical surface in APP-PS1 indicating severe impairment in penetration of fluorescence tracer (e) while no changes in paravascular movement was observed (d). (h-i) Expression of AQP4 and GFAP in cortex and hippocampus. Compared with WT control mice, APP-PS1 mice displayed significant decrease in AQP4 polarization and exhibited a marked increase in GFAP expression in the cortex (n=6 mice per group). No significant pulsatility changes were observed between APP-PS1 and WT control mice (f) (n=7-8 vessels per group).
Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, In Vivo Imaging, Labeling, Fluorescence, Expressing
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of Glutamate and GABA on tracer penetration into parenchyma are AQP4-dependent. (a) In vivo two-photon imaging of tracer clearance through the glymphatic pathway after intracisternal injection of GABA/glutamate and the respective antagonists in AQP4 -/- mice. (b, c) Quantification of CSF tracer influx into the surrounding parenchyma via 3D reconstruction and paravascular CSF tracer clearance at 100 μm below the cortical surface (d, e) . APV strongly accelerated paravasular movement while no significant changes were observed in mice receiving glutamate and CNQX. GABA and bicuculline did not affect paravascular movement. No significant changes in tracer penetration into the interstitium were observed among the experimental groups, compared with the vehicle group (n=6 mice per group).
Techniques Used: In Vivo, Imaging, Injection, Mouse Assay