aqp4  (Alomone Labs)


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    Alomone Labs aqp4
    Characterization of WT- and 3Tg-iAstro lines. a Phase contrast images of four WT-iAstro and four 3Tg-iAstro lines at passage 15. Bar, 100 μm. b Immunofluorescence images of WT-iAstro#2 and 3Tg-iAstro#2, stained with <t>anti-AQP4,</t> anti-GS, anti-Aldh1l1 and anti-GFAP antibodies. Bar, 50 μm. The images shown in ( a , b ) are representative of n = 3 independent experiments. c Quantification of GFAP-positive cells in WT-iAstro#2 and 3Tg-iAstro#2 lines. Data expressed as mean ± SD % of 15 fields of GFAP-positive cells evaluating a total of 359 WT- and 514 3Tg-iAstro cells. In ( b , c ), other characterized independently generated iAstro lines show similar results in immunostaining of astroglial markers and in quantification of GFAP-positive cells (data not shown)
    Aqp4, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 5 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/aqp4/product/Alomone Labs
    Average 94 stars, based on 5 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    aqp4 - by Bioz Stars, 2022-08
    94/100 stars

    Images

    1) Product Images from "Gene expression, proteome and calcium signaling alterations in immortalized hippocampal astrocytes from an Alzheimer’s disease mouse model"

    Article Title: Gene expression, proteome and calcium signaling alterations in immortalized hippocampal astrocytes from an Alzheimer’s disease mouse model

    Journal: Cell Death & Disease

    doi: 10.1038/s41419-018-1264-8

    Characterization of WT- and 3Tg-iAstro lines. a Phase contrast images of four WT-iAstro and four 3Tg-iAstro lines at passage 15. Bar, 100 μm. b Immunofluorescence images of WT-iAstro#2 and 3Tg-iAstro#2, stained with anti-AQP4, anti-GS, anti-Aldh1l1 and anti-GFAP antibodies. Bar, 50 μm. The images shown in ( a , b ) are representative of n = 3 independent experiments. c Quantification of GFAP-positive cells in WT-iAstro#2 and 3Tg-iAstro#2 lines. Data expressed as mean ± SD % of 15 fields of GFAP-positive cells evaluating a total of 359 WT- and 514 3Tg-iAstro cells. In ( b , c ), other characterized independently generated iAstro lines show similar results in immunostaining of astroglial markers and in quantification of GFAP-positive cells (data not shown)
    Figure Legend Snippet: Characterization of WT- and 3Tg-iAstro lines. a Phase contrast images of four WT-iAstro and four 3Tg-iAstro lines at passage 15. Bar, 100 μm. b Immunofluorescence images of WT-iAstro#2 and 3Tg-iAstro#2, stained with anti-AQP4, anti-GS, anti-Aldh1l1 and anti-GFAP antibodies. Bar, 50 μm. The images shown in ( a , b ) are representative of n = 3 independent experiments. c Quantification of GFAP-positive cells in WT-iAstro#2 and 3Tg-iAstro#2 lines. Data expressed as mean ± SD % of 15 fields of GFAP-positive cells evaluating a total of 359 WT- and 514 3Tg-iAstro cells. In ( b , c ), other characterized independently generated iAstro lines show similar results in immunostaining of astroglial markers and in quantification of GFAP-positive cells (data not shown)

    Techniques Used: Immunofluorescence, Staining, Generated, Immunostaining

    Western blot analysis and quantification of astroglial marker proteins Aqp4, GS, Aldh1l1 and GFAP. Western blot analysis ( a ) was performed from four independently generated iAstro lines for each genotype (WT-iAstro#2, #3, #5 and #6, and 3Tg-iAstro#2, #3, #4 and #6). Each point represents mean ± SEM of 3 independent experiments. Actin was used as loading control. ANOVA followed by Tukey’s post-hoc test was used for statistical analysis. For Aqp4 ( b ) and GS ( c ) there were no significant differences. For Aldh1l1 ( d ) and GFAP ( e ) the differences were significant for iAstro lines vs primary astrocytes: ** p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Western blot analysis and quantification of astroglial marker proteins Aqp4, GS, Aldh1l1 and GFAP. Western blot analysis ( a ) was performed from four independently generated iAstro lines for each genotype (WT-iAstro#2, #3, #5 and #6, and 3Tg-iAstro#2, #3, #4 and #6). Each point represents mean ± SEM of 3 independent experiments. Actin was used as loading control. ANOVA followed by Tukey’s post-hoc test was used for statistical analysis. For Aqp4 ( b ) and GS ( c ) there were no significant differences. For Aldh1l1 ( d ) and GFAP ( e ) the differences were significant for iAstro lines vs primary astrocytes: ** p

    Techniques Used: Western Blot, Marker, Generated

    2) Product Images from "Functional Implication of Dp71 in Osmoregulation and Vascular Permeability of the Retina"

    Article Title: Functional Implication of Dp71 in Osmoregulation and Vascular Permeability of the Retina

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0007329

    Experimental retinal detachment (RD) changed the expression and immunolocalization of GFAP, Kir4.1, AQP4, Dp71, Utrophin and β-dystroglycan. The slices were derived from control and detached retina of C57BL/6 mice 24 h after surgery. A,G: Retinal sections were probed with antibodies against GFAP (green) and for nuclei (Dapi, blue). Note the upregulation of GFAP after RD. B,H: Sections were also stained with antibodies against Kir4.1 (green). RD induced a mislocation of Kir4.1 along Müller cells (filled arrowhead) while the staining at the ILM (open arrowhead) and around blood vessels (arrow) remain unchanged. C,I: AQP4 staining (green) at the ILM (open arrowhead), around blood vessels (arrow) and at the OPL (filled arrowhead) was reduced in detached retina. D,J: Retinal sections were probed with a pan specific antibody against all forms of dystrophins (green). Dystrophin-Dp71 staining is localized at the ILM (open arrowhead) and around blood vessels (arrow), as previously reported [14] ( Fig. S2 ). RD induced a reduction of Dp71 staining. E,K: 24 h after surgery Immunoreactivity for Utrophin (green) at the ILM (open arrowhead) was upregulated after RD. In control retina utrophin was localized at the ILM, around blood vessels and in the OPL. F,L: Sections were stained with antibodies against β-dystroglycan (β-DG). In control retina, β-DG is localized at the ILM (open arrowhead), around blood vessels (arrow) and at the OPL (filled arrowhead). RD induced a reduction of the staining in the ILM while the staining at the OPL (filled arrowhead) and around blood vessels (arrow) remain unchanged. ONL, outer nuclear layer; OPL, outer plexiform layer; INL, inner nuclear layer; IPL, inner plexiform layer; GCL, ganglion cell layer; ILM, inner limiting membrane. Scale bar = 30 µm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Experimental retinal detachment (RD) changed the expression and immunolocalization of GFAP, Kir4.1, AQP4, Dp71, Utrophin and β-dystroglycan. The slices were derived from control and detached retina of C57BL/6 mice 24 h after surgery. A,G: Retinal sections were probed with antibodies against GFAP (green) and for nuclei (Dapi, blue). Note the upregulation of GFAP after RD. B,H: Sections were also stained with antibodies against Kir4.1 (green). RD induced a mislocation of Kir4.1 along Müller cells (filled arrowhead) while the staining at the ILM (open arrowhead) and around blood vessels (arrow) remain unchanged. C,I: AQP4 staining (green) at the ILM (open arrowhead), around blood vessels (arrow) and at the OPL (filled arrowhead) was reduced in detached retina. D,J: Retinal sections were probed with a pan specific antibody against all forms of dystrophins (green). Dystrophin-Dp71 staining is localized at the ILM (open arrowhead) and around blood vessels (arrow), as previously reported [14] ( Fig. S2 ). RD induced a reduction of Dp71 staining. E,K: 24 h after surgery Immunoreactivity for Utrophin (green) at the ILM (open arrowhead) was upregulated after RD. In control retina utrophin was localized at the ILM, around blood vessels and in the OPL. F,L: Sections were stained with antibodies against β-dystroglycan (β-DG). In control retina, β-DG is localized at the ILM (open arrowhead), around blood vessels (arrow) and at the OPL (filled arrowhead). RD induced a reduction of the staining in the ILM while the staining at the OPL (filled arrowhead) and around blood vessels (arrow) remain unchanged. ONL, outer nuclear layer; OPL, outer plexiform layer; INL, inner nuclear layer; IPL, inner plexiform layer; GCL, ganglion cell layer; ILM, inner limiting membrane. Scale bar = 30 µm.

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Derivative Assay, Mouse Assay, Staining

    Relative retinal expression level of GFAP, Kir4.1, AQP4, Utrophin and β-dystroglycan after retinal detachment. A: 24 h after surgery, proteins of control and detached retina from C57BL/6 mice were extracted and Western blotting was performed. Representative photograph of immunoblots reacted with anti-GFAP, anti-Kir4.1, anti-AQP4, anti utrophins, anti β-dystroglycan (β-DG) and β-Actin antibodies. Numbers on the left refer to the relative electrophoretic mobility of prestained molecular mass standards in kiloDaltons. B: The relative protein level is expressed in arbitrary units. Each value represents the ratio of the specific band stain intensity normalized to β-Actin expression (TotalLab TL120, Nonlinear Inc, Durham NC, USA). In detached retina, GFAP expression level was significantly upregulated while AQP4 expression was downregulated. There was no significant difference in Kir4.1, utrophin and β-DG protein expression level after retinal detachment. All experiments were repeated at least three times, and the bars represent means + SE for triplicate data points; n = 4. *p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Relative retinal expression level of GFAP, Kir4.1, AQP4, Utrophin and β-dystroglycan after retinal detachment. A: 24 h after surgery, proteins of control and detached retina from C57BL/6 mice were extracted and Western blotting was performed. Representative photograph of immunoblots reacted with anti-GFAP, anti-Kir4.1, anti-AQP4, anti utrophins, anti β-dystroglycan (β-DG) and β-Actin antibodies. Numbers on the left refer to the relative electrophoretic mobility of prestained molecular mass standards in kiloDaltons. B: The relative protein level is expressed in arbitrary units. Each value represents the ratio of the specific band stain intensity normalized to β-Actin expression (TotalLab TL120, Nonlinear Inc, Durham NC, USA). In detached retina, GFAP expression level was significantly upregulated while AQP4 expression was downregulated. There was no significant difference in Kir4.1, utrophin and β-DG protein expression level after retinal detachment. All experiments were repeated at least three times, and the bars represent means + SE for triplicate data points; n = 4. *p

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Mouse Assay, Western Blot, Staining

    3) Product Images from "Anti-VEGF therapy prevents Müller intracellular edema by decreasing VEGF-A in diabetic retinopathy"

    Article Title: Anti-VEGF therapy prevents Müller intracellular edema by decreasing VEGF-A in diabetic retinopathy

    Journal: Eye and Vision

    doi: 10.1186/s40662-021-00237-3

    Changes in mRNA and protein levels of Kir4.1 and AQP4 in glyoxal-treated rMC-1 cells with or without ranibizumab. The ( a ) mRNA and ( b ) protein level of Kir4.1 in glyoxal-treated rMC-1 cells with or without ranibizumab. c Immunofluorescence of Kir4.1 in rMC-1 cells. The ( d ) mRNA and ( e ) protein level of AQP4 in glyoxal-treated rMC-1 cells with or without ranibizumab. f Immunofluorescence of AQP4 in rMC-1 cells. Data are expressed as mean ± SE (n = 8 in [a, d], n = 4 in [b, e], * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Changes in mRNA and protein levels of Kir4.1 and AQP4 in glyoxal-treated rMC-1 cells with or without ranibizumab. The ( a ) mRNA and ( b ) protein level of Kir4.1 in glyoxal-treated rMC-1 cells with or without ranibizumab. c Immunofluorescence of Kir4.1 in rMC-1 cells. The ( d ) mRNA and ( e ) protein level of AQP4 in glyoxal-treated rMC-1 cells with or without ranibizumab. f Immunofluorescence of AQP4 in rMC-1 cells. Data are expressed as mean ± SE (n = 8 in [a, d], n = 4 in [b, e], * P

    Techniques Used: Immunofluorescence

    Protein changes of ( a ) Kir4.1, ( b ) AQP4, ( c ) GS, and ( d ) GFAP in diabetic rat retinas treated with or without ranibizumab. e Co-immunostaining of Kir4.1 and GFAP in 12-week diabetic rat retinas (Kir4.1, green; GFAP, red; DAPI, blue), scale bar: 20 μm. Data are expressed as mean ± SE (n = 7, * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Protein changes of ( a ) Kir4.1, ( b ) AQP4, ( c ) GS, and ( d ) GFAP in diabetic rat retinas treated with or without ranibizumab. e Co-immunostaining of Kir4.1 and GFAP in 12-week diabetic rat retinas (Kir4.1, green; GFAP, red; DAPI, blue), scale bar: 20 μm. Data are expressed as mean ± SE (n = 7, * P

    Techniques Used: Immunostaining

    4) Product Images from "Gene expression, proteome and calcium signaling alterations in immortalized hippocampal astrocytes from an Alzheimer’s disease mouse model"

    Article Title: Gene expression, proteome and calcium signaling alterations in immortalized hippocampal astrocytes from an Alzheimer’s disease mouse model

    Journal: Cell Death & Disease

    doi: 10.1038/s41419-018-1264-8

    Characterization of WT- and 3Tg-iAstro lines. a Phase contrast images of four WT-iAstro and four 3Tg-iAstro lines at passage 15. Bar, 100 μm. b Immunofluorescence images of WT-iAstro#2 and 3Tg-iAstro#2, stained with anti-AQP4, anti-GS, anti-Aldh1l1 and anti-GFAP antibodies. Bar, 50 μm. The images shown in ( a , b ) are representative of n = 3 independent experiments. c Quantification of GFAP-positive cells in WT-iAstro#2 and 3Tg-iAstro#2 lines. Data expressed as mean ± SD % of 15 fields of GFAP-positive cells evaluating a total of 359 WT- and 514 3Tg-iAstro cells. In ( b , c ), other characterized independently generated iAstro lines show similar results in immunostaining of astroglial markers and in quantification of GFAP-positive cells (data not shown)
    Figure Legend Snippet: Characterization of WT- and 3Tg-iAstro lines. a Phase contrast images of four WT-iAstro and four 3Tg-iAstro lines at passage 15. Bar, 100 μm. b Immunofluorescence images of WT-iAstro#2 and 3Tg-iAstro#2, stained with anti-AQP4, anti-GS, anti-Aldh1l1 and anti-GFAP antibodies. Bar, 50 μm. The images shown in ( a , b ) are representative of n = 3 independent experiments. c Quantification of GFAP-positive cells in WT-iAstro#2 and 3Tg-iAstro#2 lines. Data expressed as mean ± SD % of 15 fields of GFAP-positive cells evaluating a total of 359 WT- and 514 3Tg-iAstro cells. In ( b , c ), other characterized independently generated iAstro lines show similar results in immunostaining of astroglial markers and in quantification of GFAP-positive cells (data not shown)

    Techniques Used: Immunofluorescence, Staining, Generated, Immunostaining

    Western blot analysis and quantification of astroglial marker proteins Aqp4, GS, Aldh1l1 and GFAP. Western blot analysis ( a ) was performed from four independently generated iAstro lines for each genotype (WT-iAstro#2, #3, #5 and #6, and 3Tg-iAstro#2, #3, #4 and #6). Each point represents mean ± SEM of 3 independent experiments. Actin was used as loading control. ANOVA followed by Tukey’s post-hoc test was used for statistical analysis. For Aqp4 ( b ) and GS ( c ) there were no significant differences. For Aldh1l1 ( d ) and GFAP ( e ) the differences were significant for iAstro lines vs primary astrocytes: ** p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Western blot analysis and quantification of astroglial marker proteins Aqp4, GS, Aldh1l1 and GFAP. Western blot analysis ( a ) was performed from four independently generated iAstro lines for each genotype (WT-iAstro#2, #3, #5 and #6, and 3Tg-iAstro#2, #3, #4 and #6). Each point represents mean ± SEM of 3 independent experiments. Actin was used as loading control. ANOVA followed by Tukey’s post-hoc test was used for statistical analysis. For Aqp4 ( b ) and GS ( c ) there were no significant differences. For Aldh1l1 ( d ) and GFAP ( e ) the differences were significant for iAstro lines vs primary astrocytes: ** p

    Techniques Used: Western Blot, Marker, Generated

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    Alomone Labs aqp4
    Characterization of WT- and 3Tg-iAstro lines. a Phase contrast images of four WT-iAstro and four 3Tg-iAstro lines at passage 15. Bar, 100 μm. b Immunofluorescence images of WT-iAstro#2 and 3Tg-iAstro#2, stained with <t>anti-AQP4,</t> anti-GS, anti-Aldh1l1 and anti-GFAP antibodies. Bar, 50 μm. The images shown in ( a , b ) are representative of n = 3 independent experiments. c Quantification of GFAP-positive cells in WT-iAstro#2 and 3Tg-iAstro#2 lines. Data expressed as mean ± SD % of 15 fields of GFAP-positive cells evaluating a total of 359 WT- and 514 3Tg-iAstro cells. In ( b , c ), other characterized independently generated iAstro lines show similar results in immunostaining of astroglial markers and in quantification of GFAP-positive cells (data not shown)
    Aqp4, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/aqp4/product/Alomone Labs
    Average 94 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    aqp4 - by Bioz Stars, 2022-08
    94/100 stars
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    Characterization of WT- and 3Tg-iAstro lines. a Phase contrast images of four WT-iAstro and four 3Tg-iAstro lines at passage 15. Bar, 100 μm. b Immunofluorescence images of WT-iAstro#2 and 3Tg-iAstro#2, stained with anti-AQP4, anti-GS, anti-Aldh1l1 and anti-GFAP antibodies. Bar, 50 μm. The images shown in ( a , b ) are representative of n = 3 independent experiments. c Quantification of GFAP-positive cells in WT-iAstro#2 and 3Tg-iAstro#2 lines. Data expressed as mean ± SD % of 15 fields of GFAP-positive cells evaluating a total of 359 WT- and 514 3Tg-iAstro cells. In ( b , c ), other characterized independently generated iAstro lines show similar results in immunostaining of astroglial markers and in quantification of GFAP-positive cells (data not shown)

    Journal: Cell Death & Disease

    Article Title: Gene expression, proteome and calcium signaling alterations in immortalized hippocampal astrocytes from an Alzheimer’s disease mouse model

    doi: 10.1038/s41419-018-1264-8

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Characterization of WT- and 3Tg-iAstro lines. a Phase contrast images of four WT-iAstro and four 3Tg-iAstro lines at passage 15. Bar, 100 μm. b Immunofluorescence images of WT-iAstro#2 and 3Tg-iAstro#2, stained with anti-AQP4, anti-GS, anti-Aldh1l1 and anti-GFAP antibodies. Bar, 50 μm. The images shown in ( a , b ) are representative of n = 3 independent experiments. c Quantification of GFAP-positive cells in WT-iAstro#2 and 3Tg-iAstro#2 lines. Data expressed as mean ± SD % of 15 fields of GFAP-positive cells evaluating a total of 359 WT- and 514 3Tg-iAstro cells. In ( b , c ), other characterized independently generated iAstro lines show similar results in immunostaining of astroglial markers and in quantification of GFAP-positive cells (data not shown)

    Article Snippet: The following primary antibodies were used: AQP4 (Alomone Labs, Cat. No. 249-323), Aldh1l1 (Abcam, Cat. No. Ab190298), GS (Abcam, Cat. No. Ab73593), GFAP (Chemicon International, Cat. No. CBL411) and GLT-1 (Alomone labs, Cat. No. AGC-022).

    Techniques: Immunofluorescence, Staining, Generated, Immunostaining

    Western blot analysis and quantification of astroglial marker proteins Aqp4, GS, Aldh1l1 and GFAP. Western blot analysis ( a ) was performed from four independently generated iAstro lines for each genotype (WT-iAstro#2, #3, #5 and #6, and 3Tg-iAstro#2, #3, #4 and #6). Each point represents mean ± SEM of 3 independent experiments. Actin was used as loading control. ANOVA followed by Tukey’s post-hoc test was used for statistical analysis. For Aqp4 ( b ) and GS ( c ) there were no significant differences. For Aldh1l1 ( d ) and GFAP ( e ) the differences were significant for iAstro lines vs primary astrocytes: ** p

    Journal: Cell Death & Disease

    Article Title: Gene expression, proteome and calcium signaling alterations in immortalized hippocampal astrocytes from an Alzheimer’s disease mouse model

    doi: 10.1038/s41419-018-1264-8

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Western blot analysis and quantification of astroglial marker proteins Aqp4, GS, Aldh1l1 and GFAP. Western blot analysis ( a ) was performed from four independently generated iAstro lines for each genotype (WT-iAstro#2, #3, #5 and #6, and 3Tg-iAstro#2, #3, #4 and #6). Each point represents mean ± SEM of 3 independent experiments. Actin was used as loading control. ANOVA followed by Tukey’s post-hoc test was used for statistical analysis. For Aqp4 ( b ) and GS ( c ) there were no significant differences. For Aldh1l1 ( d ) and GFAP ( e ) the differences were significant for iAstro lines vs primary astrocytes: ** p

    Article Snippet: The following primary antibodies were used: AQP4 (Alomone Labs, Cat. No. 249-323), Aldh1l1 (Abcam, Cat. No. Ab190298), GS (Abcam, Cat. No. Ab73593), GFAP (Chemicon International, Cat. No. CBL411) and GLT-1 (Alomone labs, Cat. No. AGC-022).

    Techniques: Western Blot, Marker, Generated

    Increased renal abundance of AQP2 but not AQP4 in TRPC3 -/- mice. (A) Representative Western blot from whole kidney lysates of WT and TRPC3 -/- mice at the baseline and after 24h water deprivation probed with anti-AQP2 and anti β-actin antibodies. AQP2 appears as a duplet of the upper glycosylated near 37 kDa and lower non-glycosylated near 29 kDa bands. Each kidney was from separate animal. ( B ) Summary graph comparing total renal AQP2 expression (both glycosylated and non-glycosylated forms) in WT and TRPC3 -/- mice from Western blots similar to that shown in (A) Intensities of AQP2-reporting bands were normalized to the intensities of the respective actin bands. *—significant increase versus respective WT values. (C) Western blot from whole kidney lysates of WT and TRPC3 -/- mice at the baseline and after 24h water deprivation (indicated by a line) probed with anti-AQP4 antibodies. The Ponceau red staining of the same nitrocellulose membrane demonstrating equal protein loading is shown below. (D) Summary graph comparing total renal AQP4 expression for WT and TRPC3 -/- mice under tested conditions. The intensity values were normalized to the total signal of the respective lines in Ponceau red staining.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: TRPC3 determines osmosensitive [Ca2+]i signaling in the collecting duct and contributes to urinary concentration

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0226381

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Increased renal abundance of AQP2 but not AQP4 in TRPC3 -/- mice. (A) Representative Western blot from whole kidney lysates of WT and TRPC3 -/- mice at the baseline and after 24h water deprivation probed with anti-AQP2 and anti β-actin antibodies. AQP2 appears as a duplet of the upper glycosylated near 37 kDa and lower non-glycosylated near 29 kDa bands. Each kidney was from separate animal. ( B ) Summary graph comparing total renal AQP2 expression (both glycosylated and non-glycosylated forms) in WT and TRPC3 -/- mice from Western blots similar to that shown in (A) Intensities of AQP2-reporting bands were normalized to the intensities of the respective actin bands. *—significant increase versus respective WT values. (C) Western blot from whole kidney lysates of WT and TRPC3 -/- mice at the baseline and after 24h water deprivation (indicated by a line) probed with anti-AQP4 antibodies. The Ponceau red staining of the same nitrocellulose membrane demonstrating equal protein loading is shown below. (D) Summary graph comparing total renal AQP4 expression for WT and TRPC3 -/- mice under tested conditions. The intensity values were normalized to the total signal of the respective lines in Ponceau red staining.

    Article Snippet: The primary antibodies were anti-AQP2 (1:1500, Alomone Labs, Israel; Cat. # AQP2-002), anti-AQP4 (1:1000, Alomone Labs, Israel; Cat. # AQP-004) and anti-β-actin (1:5000, Abcam, UK; Cat. # ab8227).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Western Blot, Expressing, Staining

    Alteration of GFAP and AQP4 in the cortex of EAE mice. A , Alterations of astrocytic proteins in the cortex at different stages of rrEAE. B , Summary of the alterations of intensities. C , Summary of increased GFAP + cells. (B, C) One-Way ANOVA followed by Fisher’s test. *, significant difference from Control for each antibody, p

    Journal: Acta Neuropathologica Communications

    Article Title: Astrocytes differentially respond to inflammatory autoimmune insults and imbalances of neural activity

    doi: 10.1186/2051-5960-1-70

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Alteration of GFAP and AQP4 in the cortex of EAE mice. A , Alterations of astrocytic proteins in the cortex at different stages of rrEAE. B , Summary of the alterations of intensities. C , Summary of increased GFAP + cells. (B, C) One-Way ANOVA followed by Fisher’s test. *, significant difference from Control for each antibody, p

    Article Snippet: The following antibodies were used in our study: rabbit polyclonal anti-Kv1.4, anti-AQP4 (Alomone Labs, Jerusalem, Israel), and anti-PKCγ (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Dallas, TX); goat polyclonal anti-GFAP (AbCAM, Cambridge, MA, USA); chicken polyclonal anti-Vimentin (Millipore, Temecula, CA); and Dylight 488-, Dylight 649-, Cy3-, and Cy5-conjugated secondary antibodies (Jackson Immuno Research Laboratories, West Grove, PA, USA).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay

    Altered astrocytes in the hippocampus and cortex in Kv3.1 KO mice. The confocal image stacks of hippocampus (A-C) and cortex (D-F) were costained for GFAP (green) and AQP4 (red) from WT (A,D) , AnkG KO (B,E) and Kv3.1 KO (C,F) mice. The collapsed 2D image is on the top and 3 cross sections are at the bottom. The crossbars are centered on astrocyte endfeet with colocalizing AQP4 and GFAP. Scale bars, 100 μm.

    Journal: Acta Neuropathologica Communications

    Article Title: Astrocytes differentially respond to inflammatory autoimmune insults and imbalances of neural activity

    doi: 10.1186/2051-5960-1-70

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Altered astrocytes in the hippocampus and cortex in Kv3.1 KO mice. The confocal image stacks of hippocampus (A-C) and cortex (D-F) were costained for GFAP (green) and AQP4 (red) from WT (A,D) , AnkG KO (B,E) and Kv3.1 KO (C,F) mice. The collapsed 2D image is on the top and 3 cross sections are at the bottom. The crossbars are centered on astrocyte endfeet with colocalizing AQP4 and GFAP. Scale bars, 100 μm.

    Article Snippet: The following antibodies were used in our study: rabbit polyclonal anti-Kv1.4, anti-AQP4 (Alomone Labs, Jerusalem, Israel), and anti-PKCγ (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Dallas, TX); goat polyclonal anti-GFAP (AbCAM, Cambridge, MA, USA); chicken polyclonal anti-Vimentin (Millipore, Temecula, CA); and Dylight 488-, Dylight 649-, Cy3-, and Cy5-conjugated secondary antibodies (Jackson Immuno Research Laboratories, West Grove, PA, USA).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay

    Differentially altered expression of astrocytic proteins in the cerebellum of EAE mice. A , The confocal image stack of cerebellar molecular layer that was stained for GFAP (green), AQP4 (red) and Vim (blue) from a control mouse. Collapsed 2D image is on the left and 3 cross sections of 3D are on the right. B , The images at the peak stage of an rrEAE mouse. C , The images at the remitting stage of an rrEAE mouse. D , The images at the relapsing stage of an rrEAE mouse. E , The confocal images of cerebellar WM from a Thy1-YFP transgenic mouse. YFP (green), AQP4 (red) and GFAP (blue). In (A-E) , the crossbars are centered on astrocytic endfeet with colocalizing AQP4 and GFAP. F , The confocal images at the peak stage of chEAE. The crossbars show the lesion edge with upregulated AQP4 and GFAP. G , Structural diagram of cerebellar cortex. H , Summary of changes of protein levels during rrEAE in cerebellar molecular layer. One-Way ANOVA followed by Fisher’s test. *, significant difference from Control for each antibody, p

    Journal: Acta Neuropathologica Communications

    Article Title: Astrocytes differentially respond to inflammatory autoimmune insults and imbalances of neural activity

    doi: 10.1186/2051-5960-1-70

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Differentially altered expression of astrocytic proteins in the cerebellum of EAE mice. A , The confocal image stack of cerebellar molecular layer that was stained for GFAP (green), AQP4 (red) and Vim (blue) from a control mouse. Collapsed 2D image is on the left and 3 cross sections of 3D are on the right. B , The images at the peak stage of an rrEAE mouse. C , The images at the remitting stage of an rrEAE mouse. D , The images at the relapsing stage of an rrEAE mouse. E , The confocal images of cerebellar WM from a Thy1-YFP transgenic mouse. YFP (green), AQP4 (red) and GFAP (blue). In (A-E) , the crossbars are centered on astrocytic endfeet with colocalizing AQP4 and GFAP. F , The confocal images at the peak stage of chEAE. The crossbars show the lesion edge with upregulated AQP4 and GFAP. G , Structural diagram of cerebellar cortex. H , Summary of changes of protein levels during rrEAE in cerebellar molecular layer. One-Way ANOVA followed by Fisher’s test. *, significant difference from Control for each antibody, p

    Article Snippet: The following antibodies were used in our study: rabbit polyclonal anti-Kv1.4, anti-AQP4 (Alomone Labs, Jerusalem, Israel), and anti-PKCγ (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Dallas, TX); goat polyclonal anti-GFAP (AbCAM, Cambridge, MA, USA); chicken polyclonal anti-Vimentin (Millipore, Temecula, CA); and Dylight 488-, Dylight 649-, Cy3-, and Cy5-conjugated secondary antibodies (Jackson Immuno Research Laboratories, West Grove, PA, USA).

    Techniques: Expressing, Mouse Assay, Staining, Transgenic Assay

    Activation of astrocytes in the hippocampus of EAE mice. A , Increased GFAP but not AQP4 staining in the hippocampus of EAE mice. B , Increased Vim staining in the hippocampus during EAE progression. C , Enlarged images of individual astrocytes in the hippocampus clearly show the increase of Vim staining. High magnification confocal image stacks were obtained from control (D) and EAE (E) Thy1-YFP transgenic mice. Images contain YFP (green), GFAP (blue) and AQP4 (red). The collapsed 2D image is on the left, and 3 cross sections are on the right. The crossbars reveal astrocytic endfeet with colocalizing AQP4 and GFAP. F , Summary of the levels of astrocytic proteins at different stages during EAE progression. One-Way ANOVA followed by Fisher’s test, *, significant difference from Control for each antibody, p

    Journal: Acta Neuropathologica Communications

    Article Title: Astrocytes differentially respond to inflammatory autoimmune insults and imbalances of neural activity

    doi: 10.1186/2051-5960-1-70

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Activation of astrocytes in the hippocampus of EAE mice. A , Increased GFAP but not AQP4 staining in the hippocampus of EAE mice. B , Increased Vim staining in the hippocampus during EAE progression. C , Enlarged images of individual astrocytes in the hippocampus clearly show the increase of Vim staining. High magnification confocal image stacks were obtained from control (D) and EAE (E) Thy1-YFP transgenic mice. Images contain YFP (green), GFAP (blue) and AQP4 (red). The collapsed 2D image is on the left, and 3 cross sections are on the right. The crossbars reveal astrocytic endfeet with colocalizing AQP4 and GFAP. F , Summary of the levels of astrocytic proteins at different stages during EAE progression. One-Way ANOVA followed by Fisher’s test, *, significant difference from Control for each antibody, p

    Article Snippet: The following antibodies were used in our study: rabbit polyclonal anti-Kv1.4, anti-AQP4 (Alomone Labs, Jerusalem, Israel), and anti-PKCγ (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Dallas, TX); goat polyclonal anti-GFAP (AbCAM, Cambridge, MA, USA); chicken polyclonal anti-Vimentin (Millipore, Temecula, CA); and Dylight 488-, Dylight 649-, Cy3-, and Cy5-conjugated secondary antibodies (Jackson Immuno Research Laboratories, West Grove, PA, USA).

    Techniques: Activation Assay, Mouse Assay, Staining, Transgenic Assay

    Upregulation of GFAP and AQP4 in the cerebellum in AnkG and Kv3.1 KO mice. A , High magnification image stacks of cerebellar molecular layer stained with anti-PKCγ (green) and anti-GFAP (red) antibodies. The collapsed 2D image is on the left, and 3 cross sections are on the right. B , Confocal image stacks from the AnkG KO mice. C , Confocal image stacks from the Kv3.1 KO mice. In (A,C) , the crossbars reveal radially oriented GFAP + Bergmann glial processes in (A) WT and (C) Kv3.1 KO mice. In (B) , the crossbars are centered on highly upregulated GFAP + astrocyte processes in the absence of Purkinje neurons in an AnkG KO mouse. D , A single confocal image of the granule cell layer in a WT mouse. E , An image from the AnkG KO mice. F , An image from the Kv3.1 KO mice. G , Normalized fluorescence intensity in the molecular layer. H , Normalized fluorescence intensity in the granule cell layer. (G, H) One-Way ANOVA followed by Fisher’s test. *, significant difference from Wildtype for each antibody, p

    Journal: Acta Neuropathologica Communications

    Article Title: Astrocytes differentially respond to inflammatory autoimmune insults and imbalances of neural activity

    doi: 10.1186/2051-5960-1-70

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Upregulation of GFAP and AQP4 in the cerebellum in AnkG and Kv3.1 KO mice. A , High magnification image stacks of cerebellar molecular layer stained with anti-PKCγ (green) and anti-GFAP (red) antibodies. The collapsed 2D image is on the left, and 3 cross sections are on the right. B , Confocal image stacks from the AnkG KO mice. C , Confocal image stacks from the Kv3.1 KO mice. In (A,C) , the crossbars reveal radially oriented GFAP + Bergmann glial processes in (A) WT and (C) Kv3.1 KO mice. In (B) , the crossbars are centered on highly upregulated GFAP + astrocyte processes in the absence of Purkinje neurons in an AnkG KO mouse. D , A single confocal image of the granule cell layer in a WT mouse. E , An image from the AnkG KO mice. F , An image from the Kv3.1 KO mice. G , Normalized fluorescence intensity in the molecular layer. H , Normalized fluorescence intensity in the granule cell layer. (G, H) One-Way ANOVA followed by Fisher’s test. *, significant difference from Wildtype for each antibody, p

    Article Snippet: The following antibodies were used in our study: rabbit polyclonal anti-Kv1.4, anti-AQP4 (Alomone Labs, Jerusalem, Israel), and anti-PKCγ (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Dallas, TX); goat polyclonal anti-GFAP (AbCAM, Cambridge, MA, USA); chicken polyclonal anti-Vimentin (Millipore, Temecula, CA); and Dylight 488-, Dylight 649-, Cy3-, and Cy5-conjugated secondary antibodies (Jackson Immuno Research Laboratories, West Grove, PA, USA).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Staining, Fluorescence

    Activation of astrocytes in spinal cord white matter. A , Clinical scores (top) and body weight (bottom) of mice with chEAE. B , White matter (WM) and gray matter (GM) in spinal cord longitudinal section was stained with FMG (green) and nuclear dye (blue). Box 1 shows both GM and WM and box 2 shows only WM. Spinal cord sections, control (C) and EAE peak (D) , were co-stained for GFAP (green, top), AQP4 (red), Hoechst (blue), and FMG (green, bottom). Co-staining of Kv1.4 (green, top), Vim (red), Hoechst (blue) and FMG (green, bottom) were also performed on control (E) and EAE (F) spinal cord sections. High magnification confocal image stacks were obtained from control (G) and EAE (H) Thy1-YFP transgenic mice. Images contain YFP (green), GFAP (blue) and AQP4 (red). The collapsed 2D image is on the left, and 3 cross sections are on the right. In (G) , the crossbars are centered on a putative node of Ranvier. In (H) , the crossbars are centered on the AQP4+/GFAP + lesion edge. Scale bars, 500 μm in C-F , 50 μm in G , H .

    Journal: Acta Neuropathologica Communications

    Article Title: Astrocytes differentially respond to inflammatory autoimmune insults and imbalances of neural activity

    doi: 10.1186/2051-5960-1-70

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Activation of astrocytes in spinal cord white matter. A , Clinical scores (top) and body weight (bottom) of mice with chEAE. B , White matter (WM) and gray matter (GM) in spinal cord longitudinal section was stained with FMG (green) and nuclear dye (blue). Box 1 shows both GM and WM and box 2 shows only WM. Spinal cord sections, control (C) and EAE peak (D) , were co-stained for GFAP (green, top), AQP4 (red), Hoechst (blue), and FMG (green, bottom). Co-staining of Kv1.4 (green, top), Vim (red), Hoechst (blue) and FMG (green, bottom) were also performed on control (E) and EAE (F) spinal cord sections. High magnification confocal image stacks were obtained from control (G) and EAE (H) Thy1-YFP transgenic mice. Images contain YFP (green), GFAP (blue) and AQP4 (red). The collapsed 2D image is on the left, and 3 cross sections are on the right. In (G) , the crossbars are centered on a putative node of Ranvier. In (H) , the crossbars are centered on the AQP4+/GFAP + lesion edge. Scale bars, 500 μm in C-F , 50 μm in G , H .

    Article Snippet: The following antibodies were used in our study: rabbit polyclonal anti-Kv1.4, anti-AQP4 (Alomone Labs, Jerusalem, Israel), and anti-PKCγ (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Dallas, TX); goat polyclonal anti-GFAP (AbCAM, Cambridge, MA, USA); chicken polyclonal anti-Vimentin (Millipore, Temecula, CA); and Dylight 488-, Dylight 649-, Cy3-, and Cy5-conjugated secondary antibodies (Jackson Immuno Research Laboratories, West Grove, PA, USA).

    Techniques: Activation Assay, Mouse Assay, Staining, Transgenic Assay

    The expression of AQP4 was increased in the cortex and hippocampus of 3-month-old TK-1 mice. (A) Representative photomicrographs of AQP4 expression in the cortex and hippocampus of 3-month-old TK-1 and TK-2 mice and their age-matched controls. Scale bar, 200 μm. (B,C) Fluorescence intensity was quantified by using image-analysis software in the cortex and hippocampus. ( n = 3 mice per group, 3 brain slices for each mouse). (D) Protein bands of AQP4 in the cortex and hippocampus, GAPDH severed as the loading control. (E) Quantification of the level of AQP4 in the cortex of 3-month-old TK-1 ( n = 7 mice) and TK-2 mice ( n = 4 mice) and their age-matched controls ( n = 4 mice per group). (F) Quantification of the level of AQP4 in the hippocampus of 3-month-old TK-1 ( n = 7 mice) and TK-2 mice ( n = 4 mice) and their age-matched controls ( n = 4 mice per group). Data represent mean ± SEM, * P

    Journal: Frontiers in Neuroscience

    Article Title: Enhanced Expression of Markers for Astrocytes in the Brain of a Line of GFAP-TK Transgenic Mice

    doi: 10.3389/fnins.2017.00212

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The expression of AQP4 was increased in the cortex and hippocampus of 3-month-old TK-1 mice. (A) Representative photomicrographs of AQP4 expression in the cortex and hippocampus of 3-month-old TK-1 and TK-2 mice and their age-matched controls. Scale bar, 200 μm. (B,C) Fluorescence intensity was quantified by using image-analysis software in the cortex and hippocampus. ( n = 3 mice per group, 3 brain slices for each mouse). (D) Protein bands of AQP4 in the cortex and hippocampus, GAPDH severed as the loading control. (E) Quantification of the level of AQP4 in the cortex of 3-month-old TK-1 ( n = 7 mice) and TK-2 mice ( n = 4 mice) and their age-matched controls ( n = 4 mice per group). (F) Quantification of the level of AQP4 in the hippocampus of 3-month-old TK-1 ( n = 7 mice) and TK-2 mice ( n = 4 mice) and their age-matched controls ( n = 4 mice per group). Data represent mean ± SEM, * P

    Article Snippet: We thank Alomone Labs for providing the AQP4 antibody.

    Techniques: Expressing, Mouse Assay, Fluorescence, Software